Τρίτη, 14 Μαΐου 2019

Maternal and Child Health

Associations Between Maternity Care Practices and 2-Month Breastfeeding Duration Vary by Race, Ethnicity, and Acculturation

Abstract

Objectives This study examines the associations between specific maternity care practices and breastfeeding duration for Spanish-speaking Hispanic, English-speaking Hispanic, non-Hispanic Native American, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012–2014 New Mexico Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. We used survey language as a proxy measure of acculturation and categorized women as Spanish-speaking Hispanic, English-speaking Hispanic, non-Hispanic Native American, and non-Hispanic White. We conducted bivariate analyses to compare rates of breastfeeding at 2 months and experiences of maternity care practices and logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of these practices on breastfeeding duration for each group. Results Hispanic women were less likely than non-Hispanic women to breastfeed for at least 2 months (67.9% vs. 76.6%; p = 0.000); however, this varied significantly by acculturation level: 78.1% of Spanish-speaking Hispanic women compared to 66.1% of English-speaking Hispanic women breastfed for at least 2 months (p = 0.000). The effects of specific maternity care practices on duration varied across groups. Among non-Hispanic White, Native American, and English-speaking Hispanic women, breastfeeding while at the hospital had the strongest effect (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.67–2.61; AOR 2.71, 95% CI 2.08–3.52; and AOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.76–2.25, respectively). Among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women, being encouraged to breastfeed on demand had the strongest effect (AOR 5.179, 95% CI 3.86–6.94). Conclusions for Practice The effects of maternity care practices on breastfeeding duration vary by race, ethnicity, and acculturation level. Health care systems must acknowledge the diversity of their patient populations when seeking to develop and implement breastfeeding-friendly practices.



Intimate Partner Violence Screening in the Prenatal Period: Variation by State, Insurance, and Patient Characteristics

Abstract

Objective To measure the proportion of women screened for IPV during prenatal care; to assess the predictors of prenatal IPV screening. Methods We use the CDC's 2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, representative of births in 24 states and New York City (N = 28,581). We calculated descriptive and logistic regressions, weighted to deal with state-clustered observations. Results 49.2% of women in our sample reported being screened for IPV while pregnant. There were higher screening rates among women of color, and those who had not completed high school, never been married, received WIC benefits, initiated prenatal care in the first trimester, and were publicly insured. State screening rates varied (29.9–62.9%). Among states, mandated perinatal depression screening or training was positively associated with IPV screening. 3.6% of women in our sample reported prenatal IPV but were not screened during pregnancy. Conclusions for Practice Current efforts have not led to universal screening. We need to better understand when and why providers do not screen pregnant patients for IPV.



Male Partner Involvement in the Utilization of Hospital Delivery Services by Pregnant Women Living with HIV in Sub Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Abstract

Objective The level of male partner involvement in hospital delivery by pregnant women living with HIV in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the approaches that are used in improving male partner involvement and their impact on the utilization of hospital delivery services by pregnant women living with HIV in SSA. Methods Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science and Current Controlled Trials were searched. Only studies carried out in SSA that reported an approach used in involving male partners and the impact on the uptake of hospital delivery services irrespective of the language and date of publication were included. Odds ratios were extracted or calculated from studies and combined in a meta-analysis using the statistical package Stata version 11.0. A forest plot was used to show the impact of various male involvement approaches. A funnel plot was used to report publication bias. Results From an initial 2316 non-duplicate articles, 08 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled OR was 1.56 (95% CI 1.45–1.68). After stratification, the odds ratios were: 1.51 (95% CI 1.38–1.65), 1.58 (95% CI 1.38–1.80), 3.47 (95% CI 2.16–5.58) for complex community interventions without community health workers (CHWs), complex community interventions with community health workers, and verbal encouragement respectively. The overall I-square was 91.0% but after stratification into the three different approaches, the I-squared within the complex community intervention without CHWs group was 0.0%. Conclusions for Practice Complex community interventions and verbal encouragement increase the utilization of hospital delivery services by pregnant women living with HIV in SSA. The overall heterogeneity was high but very low for studies that used complex community interventions without CHWs. More well conducted studies (including randomized controlled trials) are needed in future to add to the quality of evidence.



The South Carolina Multigenerational Linked Birth Dataset: Developing Social Mobility Measures Across Generations to Understand Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Adverse Birth Outcomes in the US South

Abstract

Objectives To describe the creation of a multigenerational linked dataset with social mobility measures for South Carolina (SC), as an example for states in the South and other areas of the country. Methods Using unique identifiers, we linked birth certificates along the maternal line using SC birth certificate data from 1989 to 2014, and compared the subset of records for which linking was possible with two comparison groups on sociodemographic and birth outcome measures. We created four multi-generational social mobility measures using maternal education, paternal education, presence of paternal information, and a summary score incorporating the prior three measures plus payment source for births after 2004. We compared social mobility measures by race/ethnicity. Results Of the 1,366,288 singleton birth certificates in SC from 1989 to 2014, we linked 103,194, resulting in 61,229 unique three-generation units. Mothers and fathers were younger and had lower education, and low birth weight was more common, in the multigenerational linked dataset than in the two comparison groups. Based on the social mobility summary score, only 6.3% of White families were always disadvantaged, compared to 30.4% of Black families and 13.2% of Hispanic families. Moreover, 32.8% of White families were upwardly mobile and 39.1% of Black families were upwardly mobile, but only 29.9% of Hispanic families were upwardly mobile. Conclusions for Practice When states are able to link individuals, birth certificate data may be an excellent source for examining population-level relationships between social mobility and adverse birth outcomes. Due to its location in the Deep South, the multigenerational SC dataset may be particularly useful for understanding racial/ethnic difference in social mobility and birth outcomes.



How Does the Healthfulness of the US Food Supply Compare to International Guidelines for Marketing to Children and Adolescents?

Abstract

Objectives Food marketing to children is pervasive and linked to increased preference and intake of unhealthy foods. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the only multi-country nutrient criteria, and Chile recently released the world's most comprehensive regulation to identify foods that should not be marketed to children. Our objective was to examine the proportion of US packaged food and beverage products eligible for marketing to children under the WHO Europe Nutrient Profile Model (NPM) and the 2019 Chilean regulation. Methods Data for this study are from Label Insight's 2017 Open Access branded food database. Each product was assigned to one of 13 food categories, and nutritional content compared to both the NPM and Chilean criteria. The proportion of US products meeting criteria for marketing to children using both schemes was examined overall and by category. Agreement between the two criteria was examined using Cohen's Kappa. Results Of 17,740 US products, 21% were eligible to be marketed to children using the WHO criteria and 26% using the Chilean criteria. 'Egg and egg products' and 'Seafood' had the highest proportion of products eligible for marketing to children under both schemes. 'Confectionery' and 'Snack foods' had the lowest proportion eligible. Conclusions for practice The WHO NPM and Chilean criteria both restrict less healthy items from being marketed to children. Regulatory agencies in the US developing policies should consider the implementation of nutrient criteria to restrict the marketing of less healthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents.



Homelessness in Childhood and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

Abstract

Objectives Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has provided a valuable framework for understanding associations between childhood maltreatment and family dysfunction and later poor health outcomes. However, increasing research suggests the number and types of childhood adversities measured warrants further examination. This study examines ACE exposure among adults who experienced homelessness in childhood, another type of childhood adversity. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study used the 2016 South Carolina (SC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and additional ACE modules to examine ACE exposure among SC adults and childhood homelessness. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable. Bivariate analysis compared types and number of ACEs by childhood homeless status. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. Results Data from 7490 respondents were weighted for analyses. Among the 215 respondents who reported homelessness in childhood, 68.1% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast, only 16.3% of respondents who reported no homelessness in childhood reported experiencing four or more ACEs. The percent of respondents was significantly higher for each of 11 ACEs among those who reported childhood homelessness, compared to those who did not. Conclusions for Practice Adults who reported homelessness in childhood also reported significantly greater exposure to higher numbers and types of ACEs than adults reporting no childhood homelessness. Study findings can be important in informing additional indicators important to the assessment of ACEs and to program developers or organizations that provide housing assistance to at-risk families and children.



Engaging Intergenerational Hispanics/Latinos to Examine Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity Using the PRECEDE–PROCEED Model

Abstract

Introduction Hispanics/Latinos are disproportionately affected by obesity in the U.S. Multiple factors place Hispanic/Latino children at risk for overweight, warranting guidance of a socio-ecologic approach to examine causes of obesity. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the factors that influence Hispanic/Latino childhood obesity through an intergenerational lens including children, parents/caregivers, and grandparents. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted with Hispanics/Latinos (N = 68 adults, N = 22 youth), using a semi-structured moderator's guide. Audio-recordings were transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Findings were categorized within the PRECEDE–PROCEED planning model. Results Adult participants were middle-aged (M = 37.8 ± 9.8 years) and youth were between the ages of 10–17 (M = 14.0 ± 1.8 years). Six themes emerged: eating habits, cultural perceptions of weight, acculturation, childhood obesity perceptions, economic issues, and generational differences. The major parental influence was lack of time to provide healthy meals due to socio-economic factors: long work hours and availability of nearby fast food options. Youth shared that childhood obesity is due to sedentary behaviors, permissive parenting and lack of parental modeling (the latter two factors often exacerbated by extended work schedules). Discussion Discordant perceptions about unhealthy eating habits emerged. Adults expressed a lack of nutritional knowledge and skills to prepare healthy meals; while adolescents emphasized permissive parenting styles and lack of discipline lead to unhealthy lifestyles in Hispanic families. Findings emphasize involving parents/caregivers and youth to understand discordant perceptions that can inform the development of prevention programs.



Leveraging Public Health Research to Inform State Legislative Policy that Promotes Health for Children and Families

Abstract

Purpose Engagement in policy is an essential public health service, with state legislatures serving as important arenas for activity on issues affecting children and families. However, a gap in communication often exists between policymakers and public health researchers who have the research knowledge to inform policy issues. We describe one tool for researchers to better leverage public health research to inform state legislative policymaking on issues of relevance to children and families. Description The Oregon Family Impact Seminar (OFIS), adapted from the Policy Institute for Family Impact Seminars, applies a systematic process to bring a synthesis of research findings on public health issues to state legislators using a six-step process: (1) identify candidate topics, (2) recruit legislative champions, (3) select the topic, (4) identify and prepare speakers, (5) host the presentations, and (6) develop and disseminate a research brief as a follow-up contact. Assessment Use of this model in Oregon has produced policy impact; for example, the 2015 presentation, "Two-Generation Approaches to Reduce Poverty," prompted ongoing dialogue culminating in a new statute to increase Earned Income Tax Credit for parents with young children. This approach also has strengthened relationships among researchers and legislators, which serves to streamline the OFIS process. Conclusion This model is an effective vehicle for leveraging public health research findings to inform state-level policy. This model also serves to connect researchers with opportunities to engage with policymakers to address significant public health problems, particularly those addressing social, economic, and environmental determinants of health for children and families.



Using Infant Mortality Data to Improve Maternal and Child Health Programs: An Application of Statistical Process Control Techniques for Rare Events

Abstract

Introduction The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the United States remains higher than most developed countries. To understand this public health issue and support state public health departments in displaying and analyzing data in ways that support learning, states participating in the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network to Reduce Infant Mortality (IM CoIIN) created statistical process control (SPC) charts for rare events. Methods State vital records data on live births and infant deaths was used to create U, T and G charts for Kansas and Alaska, two states participating in the IM CoIIN who sought methods to more effectively analyze IMR for subsets of their populations with infrequent number of deaths. The IMR and the number of days and number of births between infant deaths was charted for Kansas Non-Hispanic black population and six Alaska regions for the time periods 2013–2016 and 2011–2016, respectively. Established empirical patterns indicated points of special cause variation. Results The T and G charts for Kansas and G charts for Alaska depict points outside the upper control limit. These points indicate special cause variation and an increased number of days and/or births between deaths at these time periods. Discussion T and G charts offer value in examining rare events, and indicate special causes not detectable by U charts or other more traditional analytic methods. When small numbers make traditional analysis challenging, SPC has potential in the MCH field to better understand potential drivers of improvements in rare outcomes, inform decision making and take interventions to scale.



An Evaluation of Healthcare Use and Child Morbidity 4 Years After User Fee Removal in Rural Burkina Faso

Abstract

Objectives Increasing financial access to healthcare is proposed to being essential for improving child health outcomes, but the available evidence on the relationship between increased access and health remains scarce. Four years after its launch, we evaluated the contextual effect of user fee removal intervention on the probability of an illness occurring and the likelihood of using health services among children under 5. We also explored the potential effect on the inequality in healthcare access. Methods We used a comparative cross-sectional design based upon household survey data collected years after the intervention onset in one intervention and one comparison district. Propensity scores weighting was used to achieve balance on covariates between the two districts, which was followed by logistic multilevel modelling to estimate average marginal effects (AME). ResultsWe estimated that there was not a significant difference in the reduced probability of an illness occurring in the intervention district compared to the non-intervention district [AME 4.4; 95% CI  1.0–9.8)]. However, the probability of using health services was 17.2% (95% CI 15.0–26.6) higher among children living in the intervention district relative to the comparison district, which rose to 20.7% (95% CI 9.9–31.5) for severe illness episodes. We detected no significant differences in the probability of health services use according to socio-economic status [χ2 (5) = 12.90, p = 0.61]. Conclusions for Practice In our study, we found that user fee removal led to a significant increase in the use of health services in the longer term, but it is not adequate by itself to reduce the risk of illness occurrence and socioeconomic inequities in the use of health services.



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