Τετάρτη, 26 Δεκεμβρίου 2018

Metaplastic carcinoma of breast

: A series of nine cases from a regional cancer center in Northeast Indiap. 69
Srigopal Mohanty, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi, Daffilyne Lyngdoh Nongrum, Laishram Jaichand Singh, Vimal Sekar, Deep Sikha Das
Background: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is a rare histological subtype of breast carcinoma containing glandular and nonglandular components with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal differentiations. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to report clinical, radiological and pathological profiles, treatment and outcome of patients diagnosed with MCB from a tertiary care institute along with literature review. Materials and Methods:Diagnosed cases of MCB were obtained from the record over a period of January 2010 to December 2017, and data were recorded in a structured pro forma. Results: A total of 9 (0.9%) cases of MCB were identified out of 1031 breast cancer patients with the median age of presentation of 53 years. The palpable lump was the most common presentation (77.78%). The mean tumor size was 4.9 cm in greatest dimension. Sonographically, most of the lesions were solid (44.44%) followed by cystic (33.33%). Mammographically, microcalcifications were absent in eight cases. Histologically, 55.56% of cases were purely epithelial subtype (3: pure squamous and 2: adenosquamous) and 4 (44.44%) cases were mixed epithelial and mesenchymal subtypes (3: carcinosarcoma and 1: invasive lobular carcinoma with sarcomatous component and osseous metaplasia). All the cases were having triple-negative receptor status. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) was performed in all cases and 33.33% of cases had axillary node positive. About 77.88% and 88.89% of cases received adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy, respectively. At median follow-up of 27 months, local recurrence and distant metastases were seen in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. At present, 33.33%, 22.22%, and 44.45% of patients were died, alive, and lost for follow-up, respectively. Conclusion: MCB is a rare histologic subtype of breast cancer with larger tumor size at presentation and MRM is the preferred surgical procedure over breast conservation surgery. Long-term and regular follow-up is necessary to know the outcome.


Anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves

p. 586
Nhuan Do Thi, Eun-Sun Hwang
Objective: To determine the anti-cancer effect of aronia leaf extract on SK-Hep1 cells using migration, metallo metrix proteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) and MT-1 MMP expression and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf extract. Methods: The effect of aronia leaf extract on cancer prevention was investigated. SK-Hep1 human liver cancer cell line was treated with aronia leaf extract at various concentractions. MTT assay was used to measure cancer cell growth inhibition, and wound migration assay was used for metastasis determination. The expression of MMP-2/-9 was measured at the protein level using zymography and the expression of MMP-2/-9 and MT-1 MMP was examined at the gene level by RT-PCR. Raw 264.7 macrophage cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides to induce inflammation, and then the inhibition of inflammation was evaluated by treatment of aronia leaf extract. Expressions of interleukin-6, tumor factor-α, and nitric oxide (NO) were also determined. Results: SK-Hep1 cell growth was inhibited in proportion to the concentration of aronia leaf extract. In migration assay, aronia leaf extract showed 61.3%-96.3% wound size inhibtion after treating 50-200 μg/mL of aronia leaf extract for 24 h. At the protein level, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased as the concentration of aronia leaf extract treated with SK-Hep1 cells increased. In addition, the same pattern as in the protein was also observed in the mRNA levels. The expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein were inhibited by 92.2% and 53.8%, respectively after treatment with 200 μg/mL aronia leaf extract. In addition, Raw 264.7 cells treated with aronia leaf extract did not affect cell survival. There was dose dependent inhibition of interleukine-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide after treating aronia leaf extract in lipopolysaccharides-treated Raw 264.7 cell. Conclusions: The results show that aronia leaf has anticancer and and antimetastatic properties in SK-Hep1 and Raw 264.7 cells.

Effects of phototherapy on outer hair cell function in infants with hyperbilirubinemia

 p. 52
Vikas Mysore Dwarakanath, Pavana Mohan, Sapthami Patel
Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia in newborns has been hypothesized to cause damage to inner ear, thus leading to sensorineural hearing loss. Phototherapy is treatment protocol in most of the hospitals for newborns with high bilirubin levels. The present study aimed to determine the effects of phototherapy on outer hair cell (OHC) function of cochlea. Methods: Twenty-two neonates with hyperbilirubinemia undergoing phototherapy and 22 neonates without any high-risk registers were included in the study. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was administered before and after phototherapy. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) evaluation was done during the postphototherapy recording. Results: Results showed that DP amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio improved significantly after phototherapy. ABR evaluation revealed; 19 neonates had significantly prolonged wave V latency compared to normal, whereas no peaks were identified among three neonates. Most of the infantile hyperbilirubinemia are found to be harmless until and unless treatment is not initiated at the earliest, but still it is found that short-term increase in bilirubin level can induce temporary changes in OAEs and ABR measures. ABR needs to be repeated over a period of time for these three neonates to rule out auditory dyssynchrony (AD). Conclusion: The results indicate that phototherapy has temporary effects on OHC function and can improve as the bilirubin levels reduce. Follow-up testing over a period of time helps in discriminating the sensory pathology and AD.

Long-term exposure to traffic noise

Effect of long-term exposure to traffic noise on acceptable noise level measures in traffic police officers p. 47
PG Vipin Ghosh, D Nagashreeya, V Hemavathi
Introduction: The acceptable noise level (ANL) measure is a subjective way of identifying how much of noise a person is able to put up with while listening to speech. Individuals with low ANL were observed to be satisfied hearing users than the individuals with high ANL. However, the reason for large individual variations of the measure is still not well understood. Exposure to noise may be one such factor that would affect the ANL which was never explored. Among the individuals who are exposed to noise, majority are exposed to occupational noise. Traffic police is such a working population who is exposed continuously to traffic noise during their duty hours. Hence, the present study was planned to investigate ANL measures in traffic police officers that might further provide insight toward the heterogeneity of the measure. Methods: A total of 38 participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 19 traffic police officers with minimum of 5 years of job experience and Group 2 consisted of normal hearing individuals without any noise exposure. All the participants underwent routine audiological evaluations followed by ANL testing. Results: The mean ANL obtained in both the groups was statistically compared. The results revealed that the traffic police officers yielded better ANLs than participants in Group 2. Conclusion: This ability of traffic police officers to put up with more noise while listening to speech may be attributed to their long-standing experience in listening to wanted signals in noise.

“Slime” dermatitis, a fad‐associated chronic hand dermatitis - Kondratuk - - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library

"Slime" is the colloquial name for a non‐Newtonian viscoelastic putty‐like substance that is currently a popular plaything among pre‐teens and adolescents. Several ingredients in homemade slime recipes may cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. We report two children who developed slime‐associated chronic hand dermatitis, more prominently on their dominant hand. We review the potential for irritant and allergic contact dermatoses as the causes of dermatitis associated with homemade slime.

The impact of pediatric atopic dermatitis on families: A review - Yang - - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an extremely common childhood disease, with considerable impact on the quality of life of affected children and their families. While pruritus is the hallmark symptom of this disease, AD has been well‐documented to impact patients beyond physical symptoms, resulting in behavior problems, mood disorders, and sleep disturbance.

This literature review outlines how atopic dermatitis impacts the quality of life of families of children affected by AD.

A total of 3436 articles were identified via an online search of the MEDLINE health literature database and were screened for relevance to quality of life impacts on families with children affected by AD.

Caring for children affected by AD can be an extremely time‐consuming task that can impair personal relationships, decrease psychosocial functioning, and cause sleep loss among family members of affected patients. Additionally, AD may result in work absence or decreased work productivity for caregivers. Special diets, irritant and allergen avoidance strategies, and alternative therapies are commonly used by patients to manage their disease and require large amounts of family involvement.

Atopic dermatitis can greatly decrease quality of life of families of affected children in various domains, including sleep, finances, and relationships. Early intervention and psychotherapy may be needed in some patients to address these quality of life impairments.

Successful treatment of hemorrhagic bullous Henoch‐Schonlein purpura with intravenous immunoglobulins - Mauro - - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library

Henoch‐Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis in childhood. There is no consensus about the management for isolated cutaneous manifestations in HSP. We describe a case of HSP presenting with severe skin lesions that did not respond to standard therapy with corticosteroids. The 11‐year‐old child was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, which induced rapid and persistent resolution of symptomatology.

Biology of human melanocyte development, Piebaldism, and Waardenburg syndrome - Saleem - - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library

Melanocyte development is orchestrated by a complex interconnecting regulatory network of genes and synergistic interactions. Piebaldism and Waardenburg syndrome are neurocristopathies that arise from mutations in genes involved in this complex network. Our understanding of melanocyte development, Piebaldism, and Waardenburg syndrome has improved dramatically over the past decade. The diagnosis and classification of Waardenburg syndrome, first proposed in 1992 and based on phenotype, have expanded over the past three decades to include genotype. This review focuses on the current understanding of human melanocyte development and the evaluation and management of Piebaldism and Waardenburg syndrome. Management is often challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Focal facial dermal dysplasia type 4.Bilateral preauricular scarlike defects surrounded by a hair collar, resembling membranous aplasia cutis congenita.

We present a rare case of focal facial dermal dysplasia type 4 (FFDD4) in an otherwise healthy boy infant, presenting as bilateral preauricular scarlike defects surrounded by a hair collar, resembling membranous aplasia cutis congenita. The presence of a hair collar supports the hypothesis that FFDD is caused by abnormal closure at facial embryonic fusion lines, but unlike midline scalp defects is not associated with neurological compromise. Other types of FFDD occur at different sites and can be associated with cranial dysgraphism. Awareness of this rare condition by dermatologists is imperative to enable prompt recognition and minimize diagnostic delay.

Bullous pemphigoid in adolescence - Patsatsi - - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease affecting the elderly but is quite rare in childhood. The majority of pediatric cases have been reported during early childhood. Adolescence is divided into three phases: early (10‐13 years), middle (14‐17), and late (18‐21). This review aimed to identify BP cases in adolescence and demonstrate their clinical features and course. Our literature search was performed in Medline with the terms "bullous pemphigoid in childhood and adolescence," "childhood bullous pemphigoid," "juvenile bullous pemphigoid," and "autoimmune blistering and autoimmune bullous diseases in childhood." The data extraction for late adolescence was limited by the fact that this age group is included in adult BP registries. We identified nine cases in early adolescence. Mucosa were affected in 5 of 9 cases. Treatment consisted of systemic prednisone (8/9), in combination with dapsone (2/9), azathioprine (2/9), or erythromycin/nicotinamide (1/9). Relapses were reported in 3 of 9 cases. We identified five cases occuring in middle adolescence. Mucosa were not affected. Treatment consisted of systemic prednisone (5/5), in combination with dapsone (3/5), azathioprine (2/5), doxycycline/nicotinamide (1/5), or mycophenolate mofetil (1/5). Relapses were reported in two of five cases. No case of BP in the late adolescence was included in the results, as only one case met the search criteria, and overlapped with pemphigus vulgaris. With only 14 cases found in our review, BP in adolescence appears even rarer than in earlier childhood. Despite its low prevalence, BP should be included in the differential diagnosis of autoimmune blistering diseases in adolescents.

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