Σάββατο, 25 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

EM-Based High Speed Wireless Sensor Networks for Underwater Surveillance and Target Tracking

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are considered as tangible, low cost solution for underwater surveillance and exploration. Existing acoustic wave-based UWSN systems fail to meet the growing demand for fast data rates required in military operations, oil/gas exploration, and oceanographic data collection. Electromagnetic (EM) wave-based communication systems, on the other hand, have great potential for providing high speed data rates in such scenarios. This paper will discuss the challenges faced in the utilization of EM waves for the design of tactical underwater surveillance systems and evaluate several EM wave-based three-dimensional (3D) UWSN architectures differing in topologies and/or operation principles on the performance of localization and target tracking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first of its kind in the field of underwater communications where underwater surveillance techniques for EM wave-based high speed UWSNs have been investigated. Thus, this will be a major step towards achieving future high speed UWSNs.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lczWQZ
via IFTTT

Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot. 16S rDNA sequencing was performed to accurately identify the suspected bacterium, due to the superiority of this method to accurately identify clinically isolated bacteria. B. megaterium was identified as the causative agent and the organism was subsequently treated as a Biosafety Level 2 pathogen.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mj3gKq
via IFTTT

Myocardial Infarction after Endoscopic Removal of Foreign Body

The development of cardiac complications during or after endoscopic procedures is rare. However, mortality from myocardial ischemia, particularly in the elderly population, is elevated. We illustrate the rare case of a 79-year-old man with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) after endoscopic removal of a foreign body. This case report summarizes a rare complication of a low-risk procedure and highlights the importance of considering this potential adverse event, particularly in patients with significant cardiovascular risk factors, to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lcwHJ0
via IFTTT

Axial propeller flaps: a proposal for update of the “Tokyo consensus on propeller flaps”

With this communication, we would like to propose an update to the classification of propeller flaps, since after its publication, new flaps have been described that need to be included.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lXkZ9U
via IFTTT

Permanent Implants for Lip Augmentation: results from a retrospective study and presentation of tips and tricks

The request for lip augmentation is increasing due to expanding media exposure and consumer needs. Temporary effects can be obtained with several techniques but a recent procedure, consisting of lip prosthesis implantation, offering a permanent result, is emerging. Accordingly, the implant of solid lip prosthesis represents an innovation in the field of aesthetic medicine and surgery.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lIowWR
via IFTTT

Conversion from weight to volume of mastectomy specimen: Convenient equations

Accurate restoration of the volume lost during breast removal is the key to achieving beautiful, symmetric breasts. This study aimed to devise a simpler and more accurate method of measuring breast tissue volume by studying the relationship between weight and volume of excised tissue according to density. Mammograms of 276 women who were advised to undergo breast reconstruction surgery were divided into 4 different groups according to tissue densities. The correlation between weight and volume was studied for each group.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lXsGfW
via IFTTT

Should we consider the hemi-tip as a proper aesthetic subunit in nasal reconstruction?

Defects involving several aesthetic subunits (ASU) or lying at the junction of an ASU are challenging and require a complex reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to describe the hemi-tip as a new ASU.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lIynfa
via IFTTT

Eponychial flap refinement for the treatment of “hook-nail” deformity

“Hook-nail” deformity mainly occurs after a fingertip injury. Loss of bony support under the nail bed leads to curving of the matrix in a volar direction resulting in aesthetic and functional impairment.1 Surgical procedures proposed have a significant failure rate.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lXq9T4
via IFTTT

The use of practice guidelines in the management of pediatric cases of Acute Otitis Media in Amman, Jordan

The widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance has led many healthcare institutions to adopt more conservative antibiotic prescription practice guidelines for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Little is known about the awareness and use of such guidelines by physicians in Jordan. Our aim was to pilot an anonymous survey instrument that would assess AOM treatment trends as well as awareness of and adherence to practice guidelines in Amman. By qualitatively assessing the management of AOM we could illuminate possible disparities in treatment trends, evaluate variability in practice guideline adherence, and help focus efforts of future educational programs that pertain to pediatric AOM management.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mqSxdG
via IFTTT

Respiratory depression

Respiratory depression: another term for hypoventilation, meaning that ventilation of the lungs is inadequate to perform needed gas exchange. Sometimes a respiratory rate of fewer than 12 breaths per minute is used as a definition of respiratory depression. Hypoventilation leads to an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia) and respiratory acidosis (a decrease in blood pH). Respiratory depression can result from a number of different disease processes. It can also be a side effect of medications, such as opioid pain medications and sedatives.



MedTerms (TM) is the Medical Dictionary of MedicineNet.com.
We Bring Doctors' Knowledge To You

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2myguiA
via IFTTT

BMJ Open Ophthalmology

BMJ Open Ophthalmology, published by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, last updated on 2017-02-25, available at http://bmjophth.bmj.com

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxZycb
via IFTTT

Expression of VISTA correlated with immunosuppression and synergized with CD8 to predict survival in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

Abstract

V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA), a novel immune checkpoint regulatory molecule, suppresses T cell mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study was to profile the immunological expression, clinical significance and correlation of VISTA in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Human tissue microarrays, containing 165 primary OSCCs, 48 oral epithelial dysplasias and 43 normal oral mucosae, were applied to investigate the expression levels of VISTA, CD8, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), PI3Kα p110, IL13Rα2, phospho-STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers (CD11b and CD33) by immunohistochemistry and digital pathology analysis. The results demonstrated that the protein level of VISTA was significantly higher in human OSCC specimens, and that VISTA expression in primary OSCCs was correlated with lymph node status. VISTA expression did not serve as an independent predictor for poor prognosis, while patient subgroup with VISTA high and CD8 low expression (22/165) had significantly poorer overall survival compared with other subgroups based on the multivariate and Cox hazard analyses among the primary OSCC patients in the present cohort. Additionally, the expression of VISTA was significantly correlated with PD-L1, CTLA-4, IL13Rα2, PI3K, p-STAT3, CD11b and CD33 according to Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Taken together, the results indicated that the VISTA high and CD8 low group, as an immunosuppressive subgroup, might be associated with a poor prognosis in primary OSCC. These findings indicated that VISTA might be a potential immunotherapeutic target in OSCC treatment.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxLqzw
via IFTTT

Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins

Abstract

Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown—U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein–protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2my9ySA
via IFTTT

The research in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank relies on informed donations of tumour tissue. Would you sign up… https://t.co/ldrc3gKG8u

The research in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank relies on informed donations of tumour tissue. Would you sign up… https://t.co/ldrc3gKG8u

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/835163559608868864
via IFTTT

Cancer patients could be significantly disadvantaged by Brexit, say experts https://t.co/cuMh3bmfUf

Cancer patients could be significantly disadvantaged by Brexit, say experts https://t.co/cuMh3bmfUf

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/835144671848443905
via IFTTT

Again for the afternoon crowd: read out latest editorial on post #Brexit #cancer care here https://t.co/POWBgr4S0j https://t.co/k7Tpd5UYWC

Again for the afternoon crowd: read out latest editorial on post #Brexit #cancer care here https://t.co/POWBgr4S0j https://t.co/k7Tpd5UYWC

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/835126708370038784
via IFTTT

Our latest editorial on the potential impact of #Brexit on cancer care is available now. Read more here… https://t.co/WRj32rmHTv

Our latest editorial on the potential impact of #Brexit on cancer care is available now. Read more here… https://t.co/WRj32rmHTv

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/835066785489641472
via IFTTT

RT @mb_Oncology : Bishal Gyawali: New edition of my blogs @ecancer Last Month in Oncology are out. Please take a look.… https://t.co/8b2Yqev…

RT @mb_Oncology : Bishal Gyawali: New edition of my blogs @ecancer Last Month in Oncology are out. Please take a look.… https://t.co/8b2Yqev…

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/835050665965670400
via IFTTT

We met with Dr Kurian in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank, who discussed research made possible with biopsies… https://t.co/J97yZYBqXF

We met with Dr Kurian in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank, who discussed research made possible with biopsies… https://t.co/J97yZYBqXF

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834805010282184705
via IFTTT

We met with Dr Kurian in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank, who discussed the research made possible with biopsies… https://t.co/CZhB1ygRPI

We met with Dr Kurian in @NorthBristolNHS brain tumour bank, who discussed the research made possible with biopsies… https://t.co/CZhB1ygRPI

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834804686976905217
via IFTTT

Latest @HopkinsMedicine research in @CellReports points to a protein pathway shielding #breastcancer from chemo… https://t.co/WLFBpWsndG

Latest @HopkinsMedicine research in @CellReports points to a protein pathway shielding #breastcancer from chemo… https://t.co/WLFBpWsndG

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834764875238891521
via IFTTT

.@ProfMcVie teaching a classroom full of future frontline healthcare workers for health kiosks in rural areas of In… https://t.co/YVk87ZAtb0

.@ProfMcVie teaching a classroom full of future frontline healthcare workers for health kiosks in rural areas of In… https://t.co/YVk87ZAtb0

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834739699520413696
via IFTTT

How important is psychological intervention for gynaecological cancer patients admitted for surgery? https://t.co/wnR9TPyrLL

How important is psychological intervention for gynaecological cancer patients admitted for surgery? https://t.co/wnR9TPyrLL

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834739402589011970
via IFTTT

Biosimilar of rituximab gets marketing approval in EU for NHL, CLL, potentially saving thousands of patients / €… https://t.co/qqlozzdLNA

Biosimilar of rituximab gets marketing approval in EU for NHL, CLL, potentially saving thousands of patients / €… https://t.co/qqlozzdLNA

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834727678993453057
via IFTTT

Explore the roles of inflammatory mediators in antitumour or protumour activity within the tumour microenvironment… https://t.co/hwMfsOPBHo

Explore the roles of inflammatory mediators in antitumour or protumour activity within the tumour microenvironment… https://t.co/hwMfsOPBHo

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834719381825449984
via IFTTT

Hypofractionationated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Quick, cheap, tolerable and effective. Why wait? Would you?https://t.co/jwX9jiwXW1

Hypofractionationated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Quick, cheap, tolerable and effective. Why wait? Would you? https://t.co/jwX9jiwXW1

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834446446267080704
via IFTTT

"Of all lifestyle factors, physical activity has the most robust effect on breast cancer outcomes" @Sunnybrook https://t.co/7iZ3HNP31Z

"Of all lifestyle factors, physical activity has the most robust effect on breast cancer outcomes" @Sunnybrook https://t.co/7iZ3HNP31Z

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834438044505735170
via IFTTT

Mens cancer deaths falling faster than womens across Europe https://t.co/ThEHmN4nrg https://t.co/FfSt4CAQIw

Mens cancer deaths falling faster than womens across Europe https://t.co/ThEHmN4nrg https://t.co/FfSt4CAQIw

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834375622705168384
via IFTTT

RT @UNESCO : Find out how multilingual education can foster global citizenship around the world: https://t.co/3PquOQmDYE #MotherLanguageDay…

RT @UNESCO : Find out how multilingual education can foster global citizenship around the world: https://t.co/3PquOQmDYE #MotherLanguageDay…

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834075214199791618
via IFTTT

ICYMI at #GU17 , antibiotics dampen immunotherapy effect in advanced RCC @ASCO https://t.co/CXkxsR6Dno

ICYMI at #GU17 , antibiotics dampen immunotherapy effect in advanced RCC @ASCO https://t.co/CXkxsR6Dno

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834073265257709569
via IFTTT

Pressure from #NHScuts is mounting on UK cancer workforce, according to latest @macmillancancer report… https://t.co/CQBQwRdWWG

Pressure from #NHScuts is mounting on UK cancer workforce, according to latest @macmillancancer report… https://t.co/CQBQwRdWWG

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834042472447741953
via IFTTT

Reviewed, refined #education accessible today! Register free on our website to improve your #patient care:… https://t.co/XOyjX2biAr

Reviewed, refined #education accessible today! Register free on our website to improve your #patient care:… https://t.co/XOyjX2biAr

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/834026973190045697
via IFTTT

Significant financial and linguistic inequalities still exist for researchers worldwide in publishing their work https://t.co/lP5m7clDjr

Significant financial and linguistic inequalities still exist for researchers worldwide in publishing their work https://t.co/lP5m7clDjr

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/833715318639955969
via IFTTT

A Case of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Hypothesis of a Transient Direct Communication between a Penetrating Antral Gastric Ulcer and Mesenteric Varices

Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiological sign that usually signifies an acute intra-abdominal process, most commonly bowel ischemia and sepsis. Few reports described an association with underlying gastric pathologies. We report a 60-year-old patient who presented with melena and chills and was discovered to have a gastric ulcer that appeared to have penetrated into a mesenteric varix. This, in turn, likely caused development of HPVG associated with fungemia. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and bowel rest was sufficient to resolve symptoms and the HPVG.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxGf2A
via IFTTT

Melanomas and Dysplastic Nevi Differ in Epidermal CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Count

Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7.00/mm2 for invasive melanomas, 2.94 for in situ melanomas, and 13.35 for dysplastic nevi. The differences between dysplastic nevi and melanoma in situ as well as between dysplastic nevi and invasive melanoma were significant. There was no correlation in number of positively stained cells between epidermis and dermis. We did not observe any intraepidermal DC-LAMP+ cells neither in melanoma in situ nor in invasive melanoma as well as any intraepidermal DC-SIGN+ cells in dysplastic nevi. Conclusion. It was shown that the number of dendritic cells differs between dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, and invasive melanomas. This could eventually suggest their participation in the development of melanoma.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2miPMyp
via IFTTT

IFN-τ Displays Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Staphylococcus aureus Endometritis via Inhibiting the Activation of the NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Mice

The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of IFN-τ on endometritis using a mouse model of S. aureus-induced endometritis and to elucidate the mechanism of action underlying these effects. In the present study, the effect of IFN-τ on S. aureus growth was monitored by turbidimeter at 600 nm. IFN-τ did not affect S. aureus growth. The histopathological changes indicated that IFN-τ had a protective effect on uterus tissues with S. aureus infection. The ELISA and qPCR results showed the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was decreased with IFN-τ treatment. In contrast, the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. We further studied the signaling pathway associated with these observations, and the qPCR results showed that the expression of TLR2 was repressed by IFN-τ. Furthermore, the western blotting results showed the phosphorylation of IκB, NF-κB p65, and MAPKs (p38, JNK, and ERK) was inhibited by IFN-τ treatment. The results suggested that IFN-τ may be a potential drug for the treatment of uterine infection due to S. aureus or other infectious inflammatory diseases.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxKKdm
via IFTTT

Tumor Size Is a Critical Factor in Adjuvant Chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 Gastric Cancer Patients after D2 Gastrectomy

Aim. To investigate whether tumor size is a reasonable indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Method. We performed a retrospective study of 269 patients with a histological diagnosis of T3-4aN0M0 stage gastric cancer who underwent D2 radical surgery at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2006 and December 2010. The follow-up lasted until June of 2015. Chi-square tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables and prognoses. Result. For this group of patients, univariate analyses revealed that tumor size (), pathological T stage (), and tumor location () were significant prognostic factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not exhibit prognostic benefits. For patients with tumors larger than 5 cm, univariate analysis revealed that tumor location (), Borrmann type (), postoperative chemotherapy (), and pathological T stage () were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and pathological T stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Our results imply that tumor size should be a critical factor in the decision to utilize adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Additional randomized controlled trials are required before this conclusion can be considered definitive.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2miD42v
via IFTTT

Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient’s clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxJvLr
via IFTTT

Mode of Delivery in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women: A Case Control Study

Objective. To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women () were compared with a control group of low risk women () in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v. 23.0 (IBM Corp.). p values

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2miNhMD
via IFTTT

A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift

Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mxVb0z
via IFTTT

Definitive radiotherapy for local recurrence of NSCLC after surgery

The optimal management and prognosis of locally recurrent NSCLC after surgery is not well described. This is the largest reported series of such patients treated with definitive radiation. We found generally favorable survival with this approach (median 23 months), and patients treated with higher radiation doses and intensity-modulated radiation did particularly well.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lbW1im
via IFTTT

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review

Second-line treatment options are limited for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Standard therapy includes cytotoxic agents, docetaxel and pemetrexed, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), erlotinib and gefitinib. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new class of treatment that have shown durable overall radiological response rates and have been well tolerated. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors compared with other chemotherapies in patients with advanced NSCLC.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2kYcnQv
via IFTTT

Methodological considerations and impact of school-based interventions on objectively measured physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Summary

Objective

The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are (i) to determine the impact of school-based interventions on objectively measured physical activity among adolescents and (ii) to examine accelerometer methods and decision rule reporting in previous interventions.

Methods

A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials targeting adolescents (age: ≥10 years), conducted in the school setting, and reporting objectively measured physical activity. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the pooled effects of previous interventions on total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Potential moderators of intervention effects were also explored.

Results

Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, and twelve were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effects were small and non-significant for both total physical activity (standardized mean difference = 0.02 [95% confidence interval = −0.13 to 0.18]) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (standardized mean difference = 0.24 [95% confidence interval = −0.08 to 0.56]). Sample age and accelerometer compliance were significant moderators for total physical activity, with a younger sample and higher compliance associated with larger effects.

Conclusion

Previous school-based physical activity interventions targeting adolescents have been largely unsuccessful, particularly for older adolescents. There is a need for more high-quality research using objective monitoring in this population. Future interventions should comply with best-practice recommendations regarding physical activity monitoring protocols.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lm3L24
via IFTTT

Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review

Summary

Obesity is the result of energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. Classical treatments against obesity do not provide a satisfactory long-term outcome for the majority of patients. After the demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults, great effort is being devoted to develop therapies based on the adipose tissue itself, through the conversion of fat-accumulating white adipose tissue into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue. Anti-obesity treatments that exploit endogenous, pharmacological and nutritional factors to drive such conversion are especially in demand. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about the various molecules that can be applied in promoting white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and energy expenditure and the cellular mechanisms involved.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lWmHZ6
via IFTTT

A meta-analysis of overall effects of weight loss interventions delivered via mobile phones and effect size differences according to delivery mode, personal contact, and intervention intensity and duration

Summary

Weight loss interventions are delivered through various mediums including, increasingly, mobile phones. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses whether interventions delivered via mobile phones reduce body weight and which intervention characteristics are associated with efficacy. The study included randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of weight loss interventions delivered via mobile phones. A meta-analysis to test intervention efficacy was performed, and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether interventions' delivery mode(s), inclusion of personal contact, duration and interaction frequency improve efficacy. Pooled body weight reduction (d = −0.23; 95% confidence interval = −0.38, −0.08) was significant. Interventions delivered via other modes in addition to the mobile phone were associated with weight reduction. Personal contact and more frequent interactions in interventions were also associated with greater weight reduction. In conclusion, the current body of evidence shows that interventions delivered via mobile phones produce a modest reduction in body weight when combined with other delivery modes. Delivering interventions with frequent and personal interactions may in particular benefit weight loss results.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lm3KLy
via IFTTT

What characteristics of nutrition and physical activity interventions are key to effectively reducing weight gain in obese or overweight pregnant women? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Summary

Lifestyle interventions targeting gestational weight gain (GWG) report varying degrees of success. To better understand factors influencing efficacy, we reviewed randomized trials specifically among obese and overweight pregnant women.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 32 studies with a pooled population of 5,869 overweight or obese pregnant women. Random effects models were fit to compute the weighted mean difference (WMD) in GWG between groups across studies. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare intervention efficacy in overweight vs. obese pregnant women, and interventions delivered by prenatal care providers (PCPs) vs. non-PCPs during pregnancy. Moderator analyses ensured.

Results

Nine (28%) of 32 studies reported significant reductions in GWG in response to intervention. Of these, six (66%) of nine were delivered by PCPs. Overall, the WMD in GWG was −1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.55, −0.86) kg. However, interventions delivered by PCPs yielded a significantly greater reduction in GWG compared to interventions delivered by non-PCPs (WMD = 3.88 kg; 95% CI: −7.01, −0.75 vs. -0.80 kg; 95% CI: −1.32, −0.28; p for difference = 0.005).

Conclusion

When PCPs counsel nutrition and physical activity, obese and overweight pregnant women have greater success meeting GWG targets and may be more motivated to modify their behaviour than with other modes of intervention deliveries.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lWtIZO
via IFTTT

The accuracy of self-reported pregnancy-related weight: a systematic review

Summary

Self-reported maternal weight is error-prone, and the context of pregnancy may impact error distributions. This systematic review summarizes error in self-reported weight across pregnancy and assesses implications for bias in associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar through November 2015 for peer-reviewed articles reporting accuracy of self-reported, pregnancy-related weight at four time points: prepregnancy, delivery, over gestation and postpartum. Included studies compared maternal self-report to anthropometric measurement or medical report of weights. Sixty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We extracted data on magnitude of error and misclassification. We assessed impact of reporting error on bias in associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. Women underreported prepregnancy (PPW: −2.94 to −0.29 kg) and delivery weight (DW: −1.28 to 0.07 kg), and over-reported gestational weight gain (GWG: 0.33 to 3 kg). Magnitude of error was small, ranged widely, and varied by prepregnancy weight class and race/ethnicity. Misclassification was moderate (PPW: 0–48.3%; DW: 39.0–49.0%; GWG: 16.7–59.1%), and overestimated some estimates of population prevalence. However, reporting error did not largely bias associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. Although measured weight is preferable, self-report is a cost-effective and practical measurement approach. Future researchers should develop bias correction techniques for self-reported pregnancy-related weight.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lmbLjK
via IFTTT

Early post-operative psychosocial and weight predictors of later outcome in bariatric surgery: a systematic literature review

Summary

This is the first systematic review to synthesize the evidence concerning early post-operative variables predictive of later weight and psychosocial outcomes in bariatric surgery. Eight electronic databases for empirical studies were searched (1954 to 2016). Most of the 39 included studies reported solely on weight outcomes; eating and psychosocial outcomes were less common. A better early weight loss trajectory was the most consistent predictor of more successful medium-term weight outcome (≤24 months); however, its relationship to longer term weight loss maintenance is less certain. Early eating adaptation may be associated with later weight loss, but further research is needed. Evidence is lacking for associations between early adherence or early psychosocial variables and later outcome. In particular, the relationship between early post-operative depression and later weight remains unclear. Little research has considered early prediction of later eating or psychosocial outcomes. Consideration of mediating or moderating relationships is lacking. The body of evidence is limited, and synthesis is hampered by heterogeneity in the type and time at which predictors and outcomes are measured and quality of statistical reporting. Further research on prospective prediction of bariatric surgery outcome is needed to guide early post-operative intervention for those at greatest risk of poor outcomes.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lWmHby
via IFTTT

Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research

Summary

Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lmbkGn
via IFTTT

Are loss of control while eating and overeating valid constructs? A critical review of the literature

Summary

Background

Binge eating is a marker of weight gain and obesity, and a hallmark feature of eating disorders. Yet its component constructs – overeating and loss of control (LOC) while eating – are poorly understood and difficult to measure.

Objective

The objective of this study is to critically review the human literature concerning the validity of LOC and overeating across the age and weight spectrum.

Data sources

English-language articles addressing the face, convergent, discriminant and predictive validity of LOC and overeating were included.

Results

Loss of control and overeating appear to have adequate face validity. Emerging evidence supports the convergent and predictive validity of the LOC construct, given its unique cross-sectional and prospective associations with numerous anthropometric, psychosocial and eating behaviour-related factors. Overeating may be best conceptualized as a marker of excess weight status.

Limitations

Binge eating constructs, particularly in the context of subjectively large episodes, are challenging to measure reliably. Few studies addressed overeating in the absence of LOC, thereby limiting conclusions about the validity of the overeating construct independent of LOC. Additional studies addressing the discriminant validity of both constructs are warranted.

Discussion

Suggestions for future weight-related research and for appropriately defining binge eating in the eating disorders diagnostic scheme are presented.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lWCZ3V
via IFTTT

J. Intell., Vol. 5, Pages 8: What Can We Learn from “Not Much More than g”?

A series of papers showing that measures of general cognitive ability predicted performance on the job and in training and that measures of specific cognitive abilities rarely made an incremental contribution to prediction led to a premature decline in research on the roles of specific abilities in the workplace. Lessons learned from this research include the importance of choosing the right general cognitive measures and variables, the relative roles of prediction vs. understanding and the need for a wide range of criteria when evaluating the contribution of specific skills such as complex problem solving. In particular, research published since the “not much more than g” era suggests that distinguishing between fluid and crystallized intelligence is important for understanding the development and the contribution of complex problem solving.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lkgVg9
via IFTTT

Acute corneal hydrops during pregnancy with spontaneous resolution after corneal cross-linking for keratoconus: a case report

Keratoconus may progress to acute corneal hydrops even after cross-linking. In some cases, keratoconus progresses during pregnancy. In this report, we present a case of a patient with increased anterior stroma...

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lW6z9X
via IFTTT

CO 2 Exchange in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Central Tibetan Plateau

Abstract

Alpine wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau holds the highest organic carbon density of plateau ecosystems and is among the most sensitive areas to climate change. Understanding CO2 exchange and its environmental forces in this specific ecosystem can benefit constraints of carbon budgets from site to global scale under future climate change. Here we investigated CO2 flux measurements from 2009 to 2013 in a wide-distributed alpine wetland, Kobresia littledalei-Blysmus sinocompressus swamp meadow, by eddy covariance (EC) on the central Tibetan Plateau. Results showed diurnal variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was affected by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and this alpine swamp meadow had a high maximum ecosystem photosynthesis rate (Amax) with 32.96 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Nighttime ecosystem respiration (Re) rates were well associated with temperature, and average annual temperature sensitivity of Re (Q10) was 3.2. Both temperature and relative humidity (RH) played key roles in regulations of seasonal NEE, and their interactive effect was only significant in GS, especially when soil temperature at 10 cm was above 6.3 °C. Our results suggested this alpine swamp meadow was a stable CO2 sink with an annual accumulation of −161.85 ± 28.02 g C m−2. However, response of annual Re was more sensitive than GPP to change of temperature and length of growing season (LOG), which implied that future climate warming likely to weaken the CO2 sink of this alpine swamp meadow.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2l9rIZL
via IFTTT

The new issue is now available.The Hokuriku Crop Science

Vol.44

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/29wC3vq
via IFTTT

Proteome and secretome analysis reveals differential post-transcriptional regulation of Toll-like receptor responses [Research]

The innate immune system is the organism's first line of defense against pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are responsible for sensing the presence of pathogen-associated molecules. The prototypic PRRs, the membrane-bound receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an innate immune response through signaling pathways that depend on the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF. Deciphering the differences in the complex signaling events that lead to pathogen recognition and initiation of the correct response remains challenging. Here we report the discovery of temporal changes in the protein signaling components involved in innate immunity. Using an integrated strategy combining unbiased proteomics, transcriptomics and macrophage stimulations with three different PAMPs, we identified differences in signaling between individual TLRs and revealed specifics of pathway regulation at the protein level.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lVJVP6
via IFTTT

VCPA, a novel synthetic derivative of α-tocopheryl succinate, sensitizes human gastric cancer to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction

Publication date: 1 May 2017
Source:Cancer Letters, Volume 393
Author(s): Han Wu, Shaoping Liu, Jun Gong, Jiuyang Liu, Qian Zhang, Xiaohua Leng, Nian Zhang, Yan Li
Gastric carcinoma is a common malignant disease worldwide and has a dismal prognosis. Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, has limited use because of its side effects and the development of tumor-cell resistance. Combinations of doxorubicin and non-cross-resistant agents have been required for adjuvant chemotherapy of gastric cancer. Here, we report that VCPA, a novel synthetic derivative of α-Tocopheryl Succinate, induced apoptosis via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When used in combination with doxorubicin, lower doses of VCPA sensitized human gastric cancer cells to DOX-induced apoptosis. The DOX/VCPA combination treatment caused an imbalance in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax and induced a lethal mitochondrial dysfunction. MAPKs were also activated in response to the DOX/VCPA treatment but played a protective role in DOX-induced cell death. In vivo studies further confirmed the sensitizing effect of VCPA. Combining DOX with VCPA markedly inhibited tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model of human gastric cancer. Taken together, our study revealed that VCPA, through increased ROS production, could synergize with DOX and circumvent DOX resistance in human gastric cancer cells.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mwZ2uY
via IFTTT

Ear, nose and thorat disorders in pediatric patients at a rural hospital in Senegal

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: May 2017
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 96
Author(s): Hady Tall, Fatoumata Yarie Bah, Timi Nasser, Aly Sambou, Bay Karim Diallo
IntroductionThe main health problems encountered in pediatric population in Senegal are low birth weigth malnutrition and infection. However, there is a lack of data on pediatric ENT diseases from west african population. This is no published data on any research work on pattern ENT pediatric done in Senegal. This study aimed at determining the pattern of common pediatric ENT diseases.Patients and methodsThis was a retrospective descriptive study involving review of medical record of patients aged 0–16 years who presented ENT diseases from April 2011 to May 2013 (2 years).Resultswithin the study period a total of 1329 children were seen. We found 696 children male and 633 female, sex ratio (M/F) is 1.1. Mean age of patients seen was 06 years. Nasal disorders (54,6%) were found to be the commonest group of ENT, followed by ear disorders (22,8%) thorat (22,7%). Hypertrophic adenoid (27,9%) allergic rhinitis (22,9%) and pharyngitis (17,7%) are the most common ENT problems in our pediatric population.ConclusionThe main health problems encountered in pediatric population in Senegal are low birth weigth malnutrition and infection. This study indicated hypertrophic adenoid (27,9%) allergic rhinitis (22,9%) and pharyngitis (17,7%) are the most common ENT problems in our pediatric population. However, this study can provide basic data for heath plan and future local research work.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mpcUYO
via IFTTT

Endothelial Notch1 Activity Facilitates Metastasis

Publication date: Available online 23 February 2017
Source:Cancer Cell
Author(s): Elfriede Wieland, Juan Rodriguez-Vita, Sven S. Liebler, Carolin Mogler, Iris Moll, Stefanie E. Herberich, Elisa Espinet, Esther Herpel, Amitai Menuchin, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Christoffer Gebhardt, Hermann Brenner, Andreas Trumpp, Christian W. Siebel, Markus Hecker, Jochen Utikal, David Sprinzak, Andreas Fischer
Endothelial cells (ECs) provide angiocrine factors orchestrating tumor progression. Here, we show that activated Notch1 receptors (N1ICD) are frequently observed in ECs of human carcinomas and melanoma, and in ECs of the pre-metastatic niche in mice. EC N1ICD expression in melanoma correlated with shorter progression-free survival. Sustained N1ICD activity induced EC senescence, expression of chemokines and the adhesion molecule VCAM1. This promoted neutrophil infiltration, tumor cell (TC) adhesion to the endothelium, intravasation, lung colonization, and postsurgical metastasis. Thus, sustained vascular Notch signaling facilitates metastasis by generating a senescent, pro-inflammatory endothelium. Consequently, treatment with Notch1 or VCAM1-blocking antibodies prevented Notch-driven metastasis, and genetic ablation of EC Notch signaling inhibited peritoneal neutrophil infiltration in an ovarian carcinoma mouse model.

Graphical abstract

image

Teaser

Wieland, Rodriguez-Vita et al. reveal that activated Notch1 signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) in tumors and in the pre-metastatic niche induces VCAM1 expression, leading to increased neutrophil infiltration and metastasis. Inhibition of Notch1 or VCAM1 reduces metastasis driven by EC Notch1 in mouse models.


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lVhlNK
via IFTTT

Impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness in diabetics: relationship with prognosis

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness. A retrospective study was performed involving 197 patients from January, 2011 to September, 2015. All patients were administrated prednisolone (Pharmaprednisolone tab®, 5 mg/T; KoreaPharma) p.o under the following regimen: 60 mg/day for 4 days, 40 mg/day for 2 days, 30 mg/day for 1 day, 20 mg/day for 1 day, and 10 mg/day for 2 days. During treatment, pure tone audiometry and blood glucose level were investigated for each patient and the results were statistically analyzed. Mean hearing improvement was 19.2 dB for the non-diabetes group and 24.8 dB for the diabetes group. The greater improvement for diabetics was not statistically significant (p = 0.146). Hearing improvement was 25.1 dB for subjects with mean blood glucose <200 mg/dl and 24.6 dB for subjects with mean blood glucose >200 mg/dl; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.267). Mean blood glucose level was 200.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement >20 dB and 181.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement <20 dB; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.286). Control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness does not have a direct effect on prognosis.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2muG5ZG
via IFTTT

Inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty in dry central perforated chronic otitis media



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mgO1ll
via IFTTT

Minimally invasive medial maxillectomy and the position of nasolacrimal duct: the CT study

Abstract

Several minimally invasive modifications of endoscopic medial maxillectomy have been proposed recently, with the least traumatic techniques utilizing the lacrimal recess as a route to enter the sinus. The aim of the study was to analyze the anatomy of medial maxillary wall in the region of nasolacrimal canal and, thus, to determine the capability of performing minimally invasive approach to the maxillary sinus leading through the lacrimal recess. The course of nasolacrimal canal and the distance between the anterior maxillary wall and the nasolacrimal canal (the width of lacrimal recess) were evaluated in 125 randomly selected computed tomography (CT) head examinations. The proportion of cases with unfavorable anatomical conditions (lacrimal recess too narrow to accept a 4 mm optic) to perform minimally invasive middle maxillectomy was assessed. The width of lacrimal recess, measured at the level of the inferior turbinate attachment, varied between 0 and 15.2 mm and was related to slanted course of nasolacrimal canal. The more perpendicular the axis of the canal to the nasal flor, the narrower the lacrimal recess. In about 16% of cases, lacrimal recess width was less than 4 mm and in 14.4% it was missing. The endoscopic approach to maxillary sinus leading through lacrimal recess is possible in about 70% of patients. In the remaining group of patients when the lacrimal recess is too narrow, this type of approach may be difficult to perform without damaging the piriform aperture rim or bony framework of nasolacrimal duct, or it may be impracticable when lacrimal recess is missing.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2muPZdT
via IFTTT

Clinical benefits of polyurethane nasal packing in endoscopic sinus surgery

Abstract

The benefits of nasal packing after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are still debated in the literature. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy, and the clinical effects of a totally degradable nasal dressing used after ESS. Thirty patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Every patient underwent ESS and a polyurethane nasal dressing was used in one nasal fossa and the contralateral fossa was left unpacked. The extent of mucosal edema, crust formation, bleeding tendency, presence of synechiae, amount of nasal discharge, and the patency of the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) was evaluated during nasal endoscopy on the first, fourth, and twelfth postoperative weeks. All clinical findings were statistically analyzed. Endoscopy showed a significant improvement in the patency of the OMC on the side with resorbable material at 4 weeks after surgery. Follow-up at week 12 showed that in addition to the OMC patency scores, synechia formation and nasal discharge were also significantly improved in the packed fossa. Polyurethane packing is an effective alternative for nasal packing following functional endoscopic sinus surgery.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mgHAPk
via IFTTT

The status of the middle turbinate and the risk of sinusitis after endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy

Abstract

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the occurrence of postoperative middle turbinate lateralization and the relationship between this lateralization and the risk of iatrogenic sinusitis after endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy procedure. Patients who undergone endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy and came under the surveillance of our otorhinolaryngology department between the January of 2010 and the December of 2015 were retrospectively scanned. Among them, the patients who were evaluated with paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) postoperatively were included in the study. The amount of middle turbinate lateralization in each patient was evaluated by comparing their routine preoperative CT image with the postoperative CT image. The air-fluid levels or soft tissue opacifications in the sinuses or obstruction of the ostiomeatal complex were accepted as the evidence of sinusitis on the images. The patients were asked questions regarding their symptoms of sinusitis on a phone interview for the statistical evaluation of their preoperative and postoperative Visual Analog Scale scores of complaints of sinusitis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative measurements was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001, 95% CI). The middle turbinate position was lateralized in 31 patients (81.6%), medialized in four patients (10.5%), and remained unchanged in three patients (7.9%). Overall, the sinus opacification and mucosal thickening rates did not change significantly which suggested the operation did not pose patients at increased risk of sinusitis. Mean VAS scores of complaints of sinusitis did not change significantly except for sensation of facial pressure, which showed a minor but statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001). This study revealed the lateralization of the middle turbinate after transnasal sphenoidotomy. However, it seemed that this lateralization did not create a predisposing factor for the development of acute and chronic sinusitis.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2muK2gR
via IFTTT

Long-term results of a modified expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty for sleep-disordered breathing

Abstract

Our aim was to evaluate the long-term objective and subjective results of a modified expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty (ESP) technique in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Single center prospective study of 35 patients underwent an ESP as a primary surgical treatment between June 2012 and September 2015 at the hospital AZ Sint-Jan Bruges-Ostend. Patients were divided into non-OSAS and OSAS (AHI >5). Primary outcome parameters were the Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS, reduction and score less then 10) and the Visual Analogue Score of snoring (VAS, assessed by partner) evaluated at 3 months and 1 year. In addition, the OSAS group underwent a polysomnography after 6 months to calculate the Apneu-Hypopneu Index (AHI) change. Secondary outcome parameters were possible complications and morbidity rate. The overall Epworth Sleepiness Scale showed a steady total reduction of, respectively, 42 and 48% at the two timepoints. All patients had a post-operative score of less than ten points. The Visual Analogue Score improved in 92% of the patients; of these, the snoring was reduced in 86% and disappeared in 6%. In the OSAS group, we noticed a reduction in AHI of more than 50 in 53% of the patients. A considerable reduction was found in the severe OSAS group, where we found a mean pre-operative average AHI of 41.3/h that was reduced 6 months after the operation to 17.4/h. There were no severe complications or increased morbidity rate observed. This first long-term study shows that the modified ESP seems to be a safe and promising technique in palatal surgery for patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Surgical effectiveness is sustained after 1 year, both in OSAS as in snoring pathology. The technique seems as approachable for the basic ENT surgeon as the uvulopalatopharynoplasty.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mgKYte
via IFTTT

Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds recorded with a smartphone according to obstruction site in OSAS patients

Abstract

Snoring is a sign of increased upper airway resistance and is the most common symptom suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds is a non-invasive diagnostic technique and may provide a screening test that can determine the location of obstruction sites. We recorded snoring sounds according to obstruction level, measured by DISE, using a smartphone and focused on the analysis of formant frequencies. The study group comprised 32 male patients (mean age 42.9 years). The spectrogram pattern, intensity (dB), fundamental frequencies (F 0), and formant frequencies (F 1, F 2, and F 3) of the snoring sounds were analyzed for each subject. On spectrographic analysis, retropalatal level obstruction tended to produce sharp and regular peaks, while retrolingual level obstruction tended to show peaks with a gradual onset and decay. On formant frequency analysis, F 1 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 488.1 ± 125.8 vs. 634.7 ± 196.6 Hz) and F 2 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 1267.3 ± 306.6 vs. 1723.7 ± 550.0 Hz) of retrolingual level obstructions showed significantly higher values than retropalatal level obstruction (p < 0.05). This suggests that the upper airway is more severely obstructed with retrolingual level obstruction and that there is a greater change in tongue position. Acoustic analysis of snoring is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can be easily applied at a relatively low cost. The analysis of formant frequencies will be a useful screening test for the prediction of occlusion sites. Moreover, smartphone can be effective for recording snoring sounds.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2muAPWb
via IFTTT

The comparison of the quality of life and intranasal edema between the patients with or without nasal packing after septoplasty

Abstract

Septoplasty is one of the most common operations performed in otolaryngology and anterior nasal packing is done routinely to prevent postoperative bleeding, septal hematoma or nasal synechia. Currently, transseptal sutures have gained a broader application area, not only for preventing the complications such as septal hematoma and bleeding but also closing any accidental tears of septal mucosa and providing additional support for the cartilage pieces retained in septoplasty. We evaluated the quality of life of the patients in early postoperative period (in the first postoperative week), intranasal edema with endoscopic examination and the intranasal changes with acoustic rhinometry. We performed a prospective and randomized study with patients undergoing septoplasty without inferior turbinectomy. As packing material, there were two groups: in group A, gauze in a glove finger and in group B, Doyle splint were used, and in the additional group C, only transseptal suture with 4/0 vicryl among the cartilaginous septum was performed. The patients were invited to control examinations on the postoperative 2nd, 4th and 7th days to evaluate the scores from 1 to 5 on the questionnaire for the pain, nasal fullness, sneezing, epiphora, difficulty in swallowing and sleep disturbances. The patients were also administered an endoscopic nasal examination for the purpose of detecting the intranasal edema, and acoustic rhinometry was performed during the control examinations to detect the intranasal changes. Total occluding packing was found to cause much more frequent and higher scores of epiphora, sneezing, difficulty in swallowing, but mainly, the pain compared to in silicone packing with airway and transseptal suture only. Although the silicone packing with airway was found to be much more comfortable, it also led to sneezing and epiphora. The patients without nasal packing had more comfortable period especially in the early postoperative days (the first 4 days). However, 1 week after surgery, groups with and without nasal packing were found to be equalized on behalf of the objective and subjective parameters. As any complication was not observed due to not using nasal packing, it is thought that nasal packing usage following septoplasty is not a necessity.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lEA1jR
via IFTTT

Validation study of WatchPat 200 for diagnosis of OSA in an Asian cohort

Abstract

To validate a wrist-worn portable device (WatchPat 200) to diagnose OSA in an Asian cohort. To evaluate its cost-effectiveness. Twenty patients with suspected OSA were recruited and had simultaneous polysomnography (PSG) and WatchPAT assessments concurrently within the hospital’s sleep laboratory. The study population consisted of 18 male and 2 female patients, whose mean age was 39 (±16) years, mean BMI was 27.2 (±5.5) kg/m2, mean Epworth Sleepiness score was 8.55 (±4.8). The correlation between the AHI was assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and agreement was tested via the Bland Altman plot. Sensitivities and specificities were then applied to the various AHI groups. Spearman’s coefficient was 0.94, which suggested that a very strong correlation between the AHI recorded by the WatchPat and the PSG. Bland–Altman plot showed good agreement with the AHI mean difference of about 4.23 with a slight tendency to overscore the AHI at the mild range of OSA and underscore the range at the severe end of OSA. The WatchPat showed 100% sensitivity when compared to PSG for mild OSA and is thus a good screening test for the undiagnosed general population. Furthermore, it also showed 100% specificity when compared to PSG for severe OSA suggesting that it is a good diagnostic test for people with a high suspicion of OSA. This facilitates a timelier diagnosis and a more economical approach with potential cost savings of up to $900 per patient.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mmN7k4
via IFTTT

Astronomy Writer Confronts Mysteries of Inner Space

Science Journalist Michael Lemonick answers questions about his new book The Perpetual Now: A Story of Amnesia, Memory, and Love.  

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
feed?d=yIl2AUoC8zA feed?d=qj6IDK7rITs feed?i=2ifFapGptc4:wZgNj85lbok:gIN9vFwOq feed?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 feed?d=ZC7T4KBF6Nw feed?d=I9og5sOYxJI feed?d=xQlvkV3S7Ew


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGI3qO
via IFTTT

Interplay between SIRT1 and hepatitis B virus X protein in the activation of viral transcription

Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Jian-Jun Deng, Ka-Yiu Edwin Kong, Wei-Wei Gao, Hei-Man Vincent Tang, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Yun Cheng, Jie Zhou, Chi-Ping Chan, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Man-Fung Yuen, Dong-Yan Jin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome is organized into a minichromosome known as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), which serves as the template for all viral transcripts. SIRT1 is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase which activates HBV transcription by promoting the activity of cellular transcription factors and coactivators. How SIRT1 and viral transactivator X protein (HBx) might affect each other remains to be clarified. In this study we show synergy and mutual dependence between SIRT1 and HBx in the activation of HBV transcription. All human sirtuins SIRT1 through SIRT7 activated HBV gene expression. The steady-state levels of SIRT1 protein were elevated in HBV-infected liver tissues and HBV-replicating hepatoma cells. SIRT1 interacted with HBx and potentiated HBx transcriptional activity on precore promoter and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) likely through a deacetylase-independent mechanism, leading to more robust production of cccDNA, pregenomic RNA and surface antigen. SIRT1 and HBx proteins were more abundant when both were expressed. SIRT1 promoted the recruitment of HBx as well as cellular transcriptional factors and coactivators such as PGC-1α and FXRα to cccDNA. Depletion of SIRT1 suppressed HBx recruitment. On the other hand, SIRT1 recruitment to cccDNA was compromised when HBx was deficient. Whereas pharmaceutical agonists of SIRT1 such as resveratrol activated HBV transcription, small-molecule inhibitors of SIRT1 including sirtinol and Ex527 exhibited anti-HBV activity. Taken together, our findings revealed not only the interplay between SIRT1 and HBx in the activation of HBV transcription but also new strategies and compounds for developing antivirals against HBV.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2laMat9
via IFTTT

Kinetics of nucleotide entry into RNA polymerase active site provides mechanism for efficiency and fidelity

Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Beibei Wang, Rachel E. Sexton, Michael Feig
During transcription, RNA polymerase II elongates RNA by adding nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) complementary to a DNA template. Structural studies have suggested that NTPs enter and exit the active site via the narrow secondary pore but details have remained unclear. A kinetic model is presented that integrates molecular dynamics simulations with experimental data. Previous simulations of trigger loop dynamics and the dynamics of matched and mismatched NTPs in and near the active site were combined with new simulations describing NTP exit from the active site via the secondary pore. Markov state analysis was applied to identify major states and estimate kinetic rates for transitions between those states. The kinetic model predicts elongation and misincorporation rates in close agreement with experiment and provides mechanistic hypotheses for how NTP entry and exit via the secondary pore is feasible and a key feature for achieving high elongation and low misincorporation rates during RNA elongation.

Graphical abstract

image


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2kWnf18
via IFTTT

A compilation of Web-based research tools for miRNA analysis

<span class="paragraphSection">Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally in sequence-specific manner, there has been a release of number of tools useful for both basic and advanced applications. This is because of the significance of miRNAs in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Numerous bioinformatics tools that have been developed for miRNA analysis have their utility for detection, expression, function, target prediction and many other related features. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of web-based tools for the miRNA analysis that does not require prior knowledge of any computing languages.</span>

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mhH7fy
via IFTTT

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 230: Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients of Concussion: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Long-term morbidities can develop after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Some studies have suggested that the risk of stroke is higher after TBI, but the association between concussion and stroke remains unclear. Using a national cohort, the authors analyzed the incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in patients with previous concussion. A representative cohort of approximately one million people was followed up for four years. Patients with new-onset concussion were identified (n = 13,652) as the concussion group. Subsequently, the incidence rates of later stroke events in the concussion group were compared to a sex-, age- and propensity score–matched comparison group (n = 13,652). The overall incidence rate of stroke in the concussion group was higher than that of the comparison group (9.63 versus 6.52 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001). Significantly higher stroke risk was observed in the concussion group than in the comparison group (crude hazard ratio 1.48, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.65, p < 0.001). In the concussion group, the cumulative incidence rates of both ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were higher than those of the comparison group (8.9% vs. 5.8% and 2.7% vs. 1.6%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Concussion is an independent risk factor for both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Prevention and monitoring strategies of stroke are therefore suggested for patients who have experienced concussion.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lUqTs5
via IFTTT

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 231: Financial Stress and Smoking within a Large Sample of Socially Disadvantaged Australians

Financial stress is associated with fewer quit attempts and higher relapse rates. This study aimed to compare financial stress among smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers in a highly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample. The study also aimed to determine whether specific indicators of financial stress differ according to smoking status. Adult clients seeking welfare assistance from two Social and Community Service Organisation sites in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey between March 2012 and December 2013. Responses to a financial stress scale, smoking status and demographics were collected. Linear and logistic regression modelling was used to examine associations between smoking status and financial stress. A total of 1463 participants completed the survey. Current smokers had significantly higher total financial stress scores than ex-smokers and non-smokers respectively. Current smokers also had higher odds of severe financial stress indicators, such as going without meals (Odds Ratio = 2.2 and 2.0), than both non-smokers and ex-smokers. Even among a highly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample with high levels of financial stress, smoking status further exacerbates experiences of deprivation. Given the relationship between financial stress, socioeconomic disadvantage and difficulty quitting, it is important to provide enhanced cessation support to smokers experiencing financial stress.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mvjZpV
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 497: De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Pathogenic Fungus Myrothecium roridum and Identification of Genes Associated with Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthesis

Myrothecium roridum is a plant pathogenic fungus that infects different crops and decreases the yield of economical crops, including soybean, cotton, corn, pepper, and tomato. Until now, the pathogenic mechanism of M. roridum has remained unclear. Different types of trichothecene mycotoxins were isolated from M. roridum, and trichothecene was considered as a plant pathogenic factor of M. roridum. In this study, the transcriptome of M. roridum in different incubation durations was sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000. A total of 35,485 transcripts and 25,996 unigenes for M. roridum were obtained from 8.0 Gb clean reads. The protein–protein network of the M. roridum transcriptome indicated that the mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathway also played an important role in the pathogenicity of M. roridum. The genes related to trichothecene biosynthesis were annotated. The expression levels of these genes were also predicted and validated through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tri5 gene encoding trichodiene synthase was cloned and expressed, and the purified trichodiene synthase was able to catalyze farnesyl pyrophosphate into different kinds of sesquiterpenoids.Tri4 and Tri11 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their corresponding enzymatic properties were characterized. The phylogenetic tree of trichodiene synthase showed a great discrepancy between the trichodiene synthase from M. roridum and other species. Our study on the genes related to trichothecene biosynthesis establishes a foundation for the M. roridum hazard prevention, thus improving the yields of economical crops.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lFVRlg
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 503: The Impacts of Cellular Senescence in Elderly Pneumonia and in Age-Related Lung Diseases That Increase the Risk of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These properties are beneficial if the sequence of senescence–clearance–regeneration is transient in manner. However, persisting senescent cell accumulation and excessive SASP might induce sustained low-grade inflammation and disruption of normal tissue microenvironments in aged tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are known to be age-related and increase the risk of pneumonia. In addition to their structural collapses, COPD and IPF might increase the vulnerability to pathogen insults through SASP. Here, we discuss the current advances in understanding of the impacts of cellular senescence in elderly pneumonia and in these chronic lung disorders that heighten the risk of respiratory infections.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mhue59
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 502: From Lysosomal Storage Diseases to NKT Cell Activation and Back

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d) molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These cells have important functions in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity and were altered in a variety of LSDs’ mouse models. In some cases, the observed decrease was attributed to defects in either lipid antigen availability, trafficking, processing, or loading in CD1d. Here, we review the current knowledge about NKT cells in the context of LSDs, including the alterations detected, the proposed mechanisms to explain these defects, and the relevance of these findings for disease pathology. Furthermore, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on NKT cells is also discussed.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mhqm40
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 499: Gene Expression in Osteolysis: Review on the Identification of Altered Molecular Pathways in Preclinical and Clinical Studies

Aseptic loosening (AL) due to osteolysis is the primary cause of joint prosthesis failure. Currently, a second surgery is still the only available treatment for AL, with its associated drawbacks. The present review aims at identifying genes whose expression is altered in osteolysis, and that could be the target of new pharmacological treatments, with the goal of replacing surgery. This review also aims at identifying the molecular pathways altered by different wear particles. We reviewed preclinical and clinical studies from 2010 to 2016, analyzing gene expression of tissues or cells affected by osteolysis. A total of 32 in vitro, 16 in vivo and six clinical studies were included. These studies revealed that genes belonging to both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis pathways are mainly involved in osteolysis. More precisely, an increase in genes encoding for the following factors were observed: Interleukins 6 and 1β (IL16 and β), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1), Cathepsin K (CATK) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Titanium (Ti) and Polyethylene (PE) were the most studied particles, showing that Ti up-regulated inflammation and osteoclastogenesis related genes, while PE up-regulated primarily osteoclastogenesis related genes.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lG5XnG
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 498: The Acute Inflammatory Response to Absorbed Collagen Sponge Is Not Enhanced by BMP-2

Absorbed collagen sponge (ACS)/bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) are widely used in clinical practise for bone regeneration. However, the application of this product was found to be associated with a significant pro-inflammatory response, particularly in the early phase after implantation. This study aimed to clarify if the pro-inflammatory activities, associated with BMP-2 added to ACS, were related to the physical state of the carrier itself, i.e., a wet or a highly dehydrated state of the ACS, to the local degree of vascularisation and/or to local biomechanical factors. ACS (0.8 cm diameter)/BMP-2 were implanted subcutaneously in the back of 12 eight-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. Two days after surgery, the implanted materials were retrieved and analysed histologically and histomorphometrically. The acute inflammatory response following implantation of ACS was dependent of neither the presence or absence of BMP-2 nor the degree of vascularization in the surrounding tissue nor the hydration state (wet versus dry) of the ACS material at the time of implantation. Differential micro biomechanical factors operating at the implantation site appeared to have an influence on the thickness of inflammation. We conclude that the degree of the early inflammatory response of the ACS/BMP-2 may be associated with the physical and chemical properties of the carrier material itself.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lG5SiB
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 504: The Diverse Roles of Microglia in the Neurodegenerative Aspects of Central Nervous System (CNS) Autoimmunity

Autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) involve inflammatory components and result in neurodegenerative processes. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, are the first responders after insults to the CNS and comprise a major link between the inflammation and neurodegeneration. Here, we will focus on the roles of microglia in two autoimmune diseases: the prevalent condition of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the much rarer Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE). Although there is an abundance of evidence that microglia actively contribute to neuronal damage in pathological states such as MS and RE, there is also evidence of important reparative functions. As current research supports a more complex and diverse array of functions and phenotypes that microglia can assume, it is an especially interesting time to examine what is known about both the damaging and restorative roles that microglia can play in the inflammatory CNS setting. We will also discuss the pharmacological approaches to modulating microglia towards a more neuroprotective state.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lai6Og
via IFTTT

Discordant frequencies of tissue-resident and circulating CD180-negative B cells in chronic rhinosinusitis

Background

The unconventional toll-like receptor (TLR) CD180 is implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases; however, its role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has yet to be investigated. Here we study the expression of CD180, its homologue TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 1 (MD1) on mucosal and systemic immune cell populations in relation to serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels.

Methods

A total of 70 patients were recruited to the study. Mucosal and peripheral blood samples were prospectively collected from CRS patients and non-CRS controls without evidence of sinus disease. The expression of TLR4, MD1, and CD180 was investigated using qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Serum IgG levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results

CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients had significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CD180 and MD1 compared to controls (5.54-fold and 2.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.01). B cells lacking CD180 were lower in CRSwNP tissue compared to CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and controls (21.07 ± 6.41 vs 41.61 ± 7.82 vs 40.06 ± 8.06; p < 0.01) but higher in blood (39.18 ± 8.3 vs 17.95 ± 7.82 and 12.49 ± 4.92; p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion

Changes in mucosal and peripheral CD180-expressing B cells were identified in CRSwNP patients compared to CRSsNP and controls. This suggests a role for these cells in the dysregulated immune response in these patients.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mhtZqU
via IFTTT

Single nucleotide polymorphisms related to cystic fibrosis in chronic rhinositus—a pilot study

Background

The clinical association between cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is well known. Studies have identified several non-CF transmembrane conductance regulator single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease severity in CF patients. We hypothesized that prevalence of these SNPs would be different between CRS patients and age/gender-matched non-CRS controls.

Methods

This is a targeted SNP study of 1231 CRS patients identified through a large university hospital database who were compared with 8796 age- and gender-matched controls without a history of rhinitis, sinusitis, allergies, or asthma. Prevalence of 5 relevant SNPs was compared between groups, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Stratification by race and gender was performed among groups when statistically appropriate.

Results

CRS patients exhibited a statistically significant (p = 0.036) lower prevalence of rs12883884 (associated with an ion transporter) compared with controls. This association was lost when patients were stratified by race. CRS patients manifested a greater prevalence of rs1403543 (chromosome 23) in both Caucasian and African American subgroups (p = 0.036 and p = 0.026, respectively). Statistical significance disappeared among Caucasians when stratified by gender, but persisted among African American women (p = 0.047). rs12188164 and rs12793173 were both more prevalent in African Americans with CRS than controls (p = 0.042 and p = 0.020, respectively). A trend was also observed for decreased prevalence of rs12883884 in CRS patients compared with controls in the African American subgroup (p = 0.086).

Conclusion

The identified SNPs were differentially prevalent in CRS compared with control groups, with some variability as a function of race and gender. Further research is required to confirm these findings and elucidate clinical significance.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2mvmiJM
via IFTTT

Combining talimogene laherparepvec with immunotherapies in melanoma and other solid tumors

Abstract

Talimogene laherparepvec is a first-in-class intralesional oncolytic immunotherapy. In a recent Phase III trial (OPTiM), talimogene laherparepvec significantly improved durable response rate compared with subcutaneous granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Overall response rate was also higher in the talimogene laherparepvec arm, and the greatest efficacy was demonstrated in patients with earlier-stage (IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a) melanoma. Talimogene laherparepvec was well tolerated, with the majority (89%) of adverse events being grade 1 or 2. Preclinical studies have shown that talimogene laherparepvec exerts antitumor activity by selectively replicating within and destroying cancer cells, and through the release of tumor-associated antigens and expression of GM-CSF, which facilitates a wider antitumor immune response. It is hypothesized that combining talimogene laherparepvec with a systemic immunotherapy may, by bringing together complementary mechanisms of action, further enhance the efficacy of both agents. Indeed, talimogene laherparepvec is currently being assessed in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, including ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, in trials for melanoma and other solid tumors. Early results in melanoma indicate that the combination of talimogene laherparepvec with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab has greater efficacy than either therapy alone, without additional safety concerns above those expected for each monotherapy. In this review, we discuss the latest results from trials assessing talimogene laherparepvec in combination with other immunotherapies, provide an overview of ongoing and upcoming combination trials, and suggest future directions for talimogene laherparepvec in combination therapy for solid tumors.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lafJuS
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 494: Distinct Antigen Delivery Systems Induce Dendritic Cells’ Divergent Transcriptional Response: New Insights from a Comparative and Reproducible Computational Analysis

Vaccination is the most successful and cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases. However, many vaccine antigens have poor in vivo immunogenic potential and need adjuvants to enhance immune response. The application of systems biology to immunity and vaccinology has yielded crucial insights about how vaccines and adjuvants work. We have previously characterized two safe and powerful delivery systems derived from non-pathogenic prokaryotic organisms: E2 and fd filamentous bacteriophage systems. They elicit an in vivo immune response inducing CD8+ T-cell responses, even in absence of adjuvants or stimuli for dendritic cells’ maturation. Nonetheless, a systematic and comparative analysis of the complex gene expression network underlying such activation is missing. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of ex vivo isolated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to these antigen delivery systems. Significant differences emerged, especially for genes involved in innate immunity, co-stimulation, and cytokine production. Results indicate that E2 drives polarization toward the Th2 phenotype, mainly mediated by Irf4, Ccl17, and Ccr4 over-expression. Conversely, fd-scαDEC-205 triggers Th1 T cells’ polarization through the induction of Il12b, Il12rb, Il6, and other molecules involved in its signal transduction. The data analysis was performed using RNASeqGUI, hence, addressing the increasing need of transparency and reproducibility of computational analysis.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lTWY3a
via IFTTT

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις