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Κυριακή, 30 Απριλίου 2017

Serial analysis of circulating cells may predict lung cancer response to crizotinib

Among patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fueled by ALK gene alterations who were being treated with crizotinib , a decrease in the number of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) harbouring increased copies of the ALK gene over the first two...

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New imaging method may predict immunotherapy response early

A noninvasive PET imaging method that measures granzyme B, a protein released by immune cells to kill cancer cells, was able to distinguish mouse and human tumours that responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors from those that did not respond early in the...

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Decreasing Black-White Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Stage at Presentation in the United States

Background: There are long-standing black–white disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and outcomes in the United States. Incidence and stage at diagnosis reflect the impact of national efforts directed at colorectal cancer prevention and control. We aimed to evaluate trends in black–white disparities in both indicators over four decades to inform the future direction of prevention and control efforts.

Methods: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, & End Results (SEER) data to identify whites and blacks with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer from January 1, 1975 through December 31, 2012. We calculated the age-adjusted incidence and the proportion of cases presenting in late stage by race and year. We then calculated the annual percentage change (APC) and average APC for each indicator by race, examined changes in indicators over time, and calculated the incidence disparity for each year.

Results: There were 440,144 colorectal cancer cases from 1975 to 2012. The overall incidence decreased by 1.35% and 0.46% per year for whites and blacks, respectively. Although the disparity in incidence declined from 2004 to 2012 (APC = –3.88%; P = 0.01), incidence remained higher in blacks in 2012. Late-stage disease declined by 0.27% and 0.45% per year in whites and blacks, respectively. The proportion of late-stage cases became statistically similar in whites and blacks in 2010 (56.60% vs. 56.96%; P = 0.17).

Conclusions: Black–white disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and stage at presentation have decreased over time.

Impact: Our findings reflect the positive impact of efforts to improve colorectal cancer disparities and emphasize the need for interventions to further reduce the incidence gap. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 762–8. ©2016 AACR.



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Years of Life and Productivity Loss from Potentially Avoidable Colorectal Cancer Deaths in U.S. Counties with Lower Educational Attainment (2008-2012)

Background: Educational attainment (EA) is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Colorectal cancer screening can save lives if precancerous polyps or early cancers are found and successfully treated. This study aims to estimate the potential productivity loss (PPL) and associated avoidable colorectal cancer–related deaths among screen-eligible adults residing in lower EA counties in the United States.

Methods: Mortality and population data were used to examine colorectal cancer deaths (2008–2012) among adults aged 50 to 74 years in lower EA counties, and to estimate the expected number of deaths using the mortality experience from high EA counties. Excess deaths (observed–expected) were used to estimate potential years life lost, and the human capital method was used to estimate PPL in 2012 U.S. dollars.

Results: County-level colorectal cancer death rates were inversely associated with county-level EA. Of the 100,857 colorectal cancer deaths in lower EA counties, we estimated that more than 21,000 (1 in 5) was potentially avoidable and resulted in nearly $2 billion annual productivity loss.

Conclusions: County-level EA disparities contribute to a large number of potentially avoidable colorectal cancer–related deaths. Increased prevention and improved screening potentially could decrease deaths and help reduce the associated economic burden in lower EA communities. Increased screening could further reduce deaths in all EA groups.

Impact: These results estimate the large economic impact of potentially avoidable colorectal cancer–related deaths in economically disadvantaged communities, as measured by lower EA. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 736–42. ©2016 AACR.



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Excess Weight as a Risk Factor Common to Many Cancer Sites: Words of Caution when Interpreting Meta-analytic Evidence



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Changes in the Glycosylation of Kininogen and the Development of a Kininogen-Based Algorithm for the Early Detection of HCC

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the greatest increase in mortality among all solids tumors in the United States related to low rates of early tumor detection. Development of noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of HCC may reduce HCC-related mortality.

Methods: We have developed an algorithm that combines routinely observed clinical values into a single equation that in a study of >3,000 patients from 5 independent sites improved detection of HCC as compared with the currently used biomarker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), by 4% to 20%. However, this algorithm had limited benefit in those with AFP <20 ng/mL. To that end, we have developed a secondary algorithm that incorporates a marker, fucosylated kininogen, to improve the detection of HCC, especially in those with AFP <20 ng/mL and early-stage disease.

Results: The ability to detect early-stage AFP-negative (AFP <20 ng/mL) HCC increased from 0% (AFP alone) to 89% (for the new algorithm). Glycan analysis revealed that kininogen has several glycan modifications that have been associated with HCC, but often not with specific proteins, including increased levels of core and outer-arm fucosylation and increased branching.

Conclusions: An algorithm combining fucosylated kininogen, AFP, and clinical characteristics is highly accurate for early HCC detection.

Impact: Our biomarker algorithm could significantly improve early HCC detection and curative treatment eligibility in patients with cirrhosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 795–803. ©2017 AACR.



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Approach for Classification and Severity Grading of Long-term and Late-Onset Health Events among Childhood Cancer Survivors in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort

Characterization of toxicity associated with cancer and its treatment is essential to quantify risk, inform optimization of therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed patients, and guide health surveillance recommendations for long-term survivors. The NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provides a common rubric for grading severity of adverse outcomes in cancer patients that is widely used in clinical trials. The CTCAE has also been used to assess late cancer treatment-related morbidity but is not fully representative of the spectrum of events experienced by pediatric and aging adult survivors of childhood cancer. Also, CTCAE characterization does not routinely integrate detailed patient-reported and medical outcomes data available from clinically assessed cohorts. To address these deficiencies, we standardized the severity grading of long-term and late-onset health events applicable to childhood cancer survivors across their lifespan by modifying the existing CTCAE v4.03 criteria and aligning grading rubrics from other sources for chronic conditions not included or optimally addressed in the CTCAE v4.03. This article describes the methods of late toxicity assessment used in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a clinically assessed cohort in which data from multiple diagnostic modalities and patient-reported outcomes are ascertained. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 666–74. ©2016 AACR.



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Initiation, Progression, and Sustained Waterpipe Use: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study of U.S. Young Adults

Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is increasing in popularity despite evidence of harm and potential for dependence. Intervention development has been hampered by a lack of longitudinal, nationally representative data on usage patterns and factors independently associated with WTS initiation. Therefore, we aimed to characterize key transitions between WTS states in a nationally representative group of young adults, with particular attention to factors independently associated with initiation.

Methods: Participants were randomly selected from a national probability-based panel representing 97% of the United States. A total of 1,785 adults ages 18 to 30 at baseline completed two Web-based surveys 18 months apart in 2013 and 2014. Assessments included knowledge of waterpipe tobacco smoke composition, positive and negative attitudes toward WTS, normative beliefs, intention to use waterpipe, and WTS behavior. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between predictive factors and subsequent WTS initiation.

Results: In fully adjusted models, overall knowledge about toxicants associated with WTS was not associated with subsequent WTS initiation. Similarly, negative attitudes and normative beliefs were not associated with WTS uptake. However, baseline positive attitudes were strongly and significantly associated with WTS initiation [adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–2.3]. Similarly, baseline intention to use WTS was strongly associated with subsequent initiation (AOR = 7.0; 95% CI, 3.5–13.7).

Conclusions: Prevention efforts may be most successful if they target individuals with clear intentions to use WTS and challenge positive attitudes surrounding WTS.

Impact: Surveillance of WTS trajectories will help inform health care and policy surrounding this emerging risk behavior among U.S. young adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 748–55. ©2017 AACR.



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Metabolomic Characterization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis for Biomarker Discovery

Background: Metabolomics plays an important role in providing insight into the etiology and mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is accomplished by a comprehensive analysis of patterns involved in metabolic alterations in human specimens. This study compares the levels of plasma metabolites in HCC cases versus cirrhotic patients and evaluates the ability of candidate metabolites in distinguishing the two groups. Also, it investigates the combined use of metabolites and clinical covariates for detection of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Methods: Untargeted analysis of metabolites in plasma from 128 subjects (63 HCC cases and 65 cirrhotic controls) was conducted using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This was followed by targeted evaluation of selected metabolites. LASSO regression was used to select a set of metabolites and clinical covariates that are associated with HCC. The performance of candidate biomarkers in distinguishing HCC from cirrhosis was evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation based on area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve.

Results: We identified 11 metabolites and three clinical covariates that differentiated HCC cases from cirrhotic controls. Combining these features in a panel for disease classification using support vector machines (SVM) yielded better area under the ROC curve compared with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the combination of metabolites and clinical covariates as an effective approach for early detection of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Impact: Further investigation of these findings may improve understanding of HCC pathophysiology and possible implication of the metabolites in HCC prevention and diagnosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 675–83. ©2016 AACR.



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Weight Fluctuation and Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative

Background: Weight cycling, defined by an intentional weight loss and subsequent regain, commonly occurs in overweight and obese women and is associated with some negative health outcomes. We examined the role of various weight-change patterns during early to mid-adulthood and associated risk of highly prevalent, obesity-related cancers (breast, endometrial, and colorectal) in postmenopausal women.

Methods: A total of 80,943 postmenopausal women (age, 63.4 ± 7.4 years) in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were categorized by self-reported weight change (weight stable; weight gain; lost weight; weight cycled [1–3, 4–6, 7–10, >10 times]) during early to mid-adulthood (18–50 years). Three site-specific associations were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models [age, race/ethnicity, income, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, hormone therapy, diet, and body mass index (BMI)].

Results: A total of 7,464 (breast = 5,564; endometrial = 788; and colorectal = 1,290) incident cancer cases were identified between September 1994 and August 2014. Compared with weight stability, weight gain was significantly associated with risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR), 1.11; 1.03–1.20] after adjustment for BMI. Similarly, weight cycling was significantly associated with risk of endometrial cancer (HR = 1.23; 1.01–1.49). Weight cycling "4 to 6 times" was most consistently associated with cancer risk, showing a 38% increased risk for endometrial cancer [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–1.76] compared with weight stable women.

Conclusions: Weight gain and weight cycling were positively associated with risk of breast and endometrial cancer, respectively.

Impact: These data suggest weight cycling and weight gain increase risk of prevalent cancers in postmenopausal women. Adopting ideal body-weight maintenance practices before and after weight loss should be encouraged to reduce risk of incident breast and endometrial cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 779–86. ©2017 AACR.



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Prospective Study of Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk in the United States

Background: Thyroid cancer incidence has tripled in the past three decades, yet relatively few risk factors have been identified. Some studies have suggested that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may affect thyroid cancer risk.

Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 44,039 participants in the United States Radiologic Technologists Study (153 thyroid cancer cases) from all 50 states. We examined the association between risk of thyroid cancer and exposure to UVR, estimated by ambient UVR, time outdoors, and a combined variable. Participants reported location of residence and time outdoors during five age periods starting in childhood. Ambient UVR was estimated by linking satellite-based UVR measurements to geocoded residences. We assessed the association of UVR by age and average lifetime UVR with thyroid cancer risk using Cox proportional hazards models, starting at the time of the baseline questionnaire (2003–2005) through 2012–2013.

Results: Combined UVR from the latest age period (age 40+) was associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer (HR for 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31–1.02, Ptrend = 0.04). This was limited to participants with benign thyroid disease and to those with darker complexions, although we found no evidence of effect modification. Thyroid cancer risk was unrelated to all metrics of UVR in earlier age periods and for average lifetime exposure.

Conclusions: Recent UVR exposure was associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. This association appeared to be modified by benign thyroid disease and skin complexion.

Impact: UVR exposure may be associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 684–91. ©2016 AACR.



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Highlights of This Issue



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The Interaction between Genetic Ancestry and Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Hispanic Women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

Background: Hispanic women have lower breast cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. To what extent genetic versus nongenetic factors account for this difference is unknown.

Methods: Using logistic regression, we evaluated the interactive influences of established risk factors and ethnicity (self-identified and identified by ancestral informative markers) on breast cancer risk among 2,326 Hispanic and 1,854 NHW postmenopausal women from the United States and Mexico in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

Results: The inverse association between the percentage of Native American (NA) ancestry and breast cancer risk was only slightly attenuated after adjusting for known risk factors [lowest versus highest quartile: odds ratio (OR) =1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00–1.92 among U.S. Hispanics; OR = 1.92 (95% CI, 1.29–2.86) among Mexican women]. The prevalence of several risk factors, as well as the associations with certain factors and breast cancer risk, differed according to genetic admixture. For example, higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with reduced risk among women with lower NA ancestry only [BMI <25 versus >30: OR = 0.65 (95% CI, 0.44–0.98) among U.S. Hispanics; OR = 0.53 (95% CI, 0.29–0.97) among Mexicans]. The average number of risk factors among cases was inversely related to the percentage of NA ancestry.

Conclusions: The lower NA ancestry groups were more likely to have the established risk factors, with the exception of BMI. Although the majority of factors were associated with risk in the expected directions among all women, BMI had an inverse association among Hispanics with lower NA ancestry.

Impact: These data suggest that the established risk factors are less relevant for breast cancer development among women with more NA ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 692–701. ©2016 AACR.



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The Association between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Nested Case-Control Study

Background: Overexpression of VEGF is implicated in the pathogenesis of both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We evaluated the association between AMD and RCC risk.

Methods: We conducted a matched case–control study within a population-representative database from the United Kingdom. Study cases were defined as individuals with any diagnostic code of RCC. For every case, four eligible controls were matched on age, sex, practice site, calendar time, and duration of follow-up. Exposure of interest was diagnosis of AMD prior to cancer diagnosis. Adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In a secondary analysis, we evaluated the association between other retinopathies and RCC and AMD and the hypovascular pancreatic cancer.

Results: The study population included 1,547 patients with RCC and 6,066 matched controls. Median follow-up time was 6 years (IQR, 3–9). AMD diagnosis was associated with a significantly increased RCC risk (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.09–3.29). In contrast, there was no association between other retinopathies and RCC risk (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.56–1.15). AMD was associated with a lower risk for pancreatic cancer (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.35–0.64).

Conclusions: Patients with AMD may be at higher risk for RCC. Providers should be aware of this potential link and consider screening for RCC within this population.

Impact: Providers should be aware of the potential link between AMD and RCC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 743–7. ©2017 AACR.



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Cytokeratin 7 in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Junctional Biomarker for Human Papillomavirus-Related Tumors

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents a distinct subgroup of head and neck tumors. We analyze the expression of cytokeratin 7, a junctional biomarker with a SEQIKA fragment, which stabilizes HPV-16 E7 transcripts, in oropharyngeal SCCs.

Methods: Archived tumor specimens and epidemiologic data were collected from patients with oropharyngeal SCCs over 10 years. Briefly, DNA was extracted from tissue blocks, and HPV testing was carried out using SPF10 HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping. Immunohistochemical staining for CK7 and p16ink4a was performed on the Ventana BenchMark Ultra Immunostainer. Analysis was by light microscopy using the H-score. CK7 expression was correlated with epidemiologic data, p16ink4a positivity, and HPV status using SPSS.

Results: CK7 expression was observed specifically and uniformly in the tonsillar crypt epithelium of normal tonsils and tumor specimens. There were 226 cases of oropharyngeal SCCs, with 70 demonstrating both HPV and p16 positivity. Of 216 cases evaluated for CK7, 106 demonstrated some positivity, whereas H-score > 60 was seen in 55 of these. CK7 H-score > 60 was significantly associated with tonsillar subsite and HPV and p16 positivity.

Conclusions: An association between CK7 and HPV has been demonstrated. CK7-expressing tonsillar crypt cells potentially represent an oropharyngeal subsite susceptible to HPV-related SCC.

Impact: Along with the cervix and anorectum, specific oropharyngeal expression of CK7 in a site predisposed to HPV-related tumors may suggest a role for CK7 in the pathogenesis of this subgroup of tumors. Further research is warranted to characterize the association between CK7 and HPV-related head and neck SCC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 702–10. ©2017 AACR.



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Dose-Response Relationship between Inorganic Arsenic Exposure and Lung Cancer among Arseniasis Residents with Low Methylation Capacity

Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) has been documented as a risk factor for lung cancer. This study examined the association between InAs exposure, its metabolism, and lung cancer occurrence.

Methods: We followed 1,300 residents from an arseniasis area in Taiwan, determined urinary InAs metabolites, and identified 39 lung cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards model was performed.

Results: The results demonstrated that participants with either the primary methylation index [monomethylarsonic acid (MMA)/InAs] or the secondary methylation index [dimethylarsenic acid (DMA)/MMA] lower than their respective median values were at a higher risk of lung cancer (HRs from 3.41 to 4.66) than those with high methylation capacity. The incidence density of lung cancer increased from 79.9/100,000 (year–1) to 467.4/100,000 (year–1) for residents with low methylation capacity and from 0 to 158.5/100,000 (year–1) for residents with high methylation capacity when the arsenic exposure dose increased from 2 to 10 ppb to ≥200 ppb, respectively. The analyses revealed a dose–response relationship between lung cancer occurrence and increasing arsenic concentrations in drinking water as well as cumulative arsenic exposure (monotonic trend test; P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively) among the residents with low methylation capacity. The relationship between arsenic exposure and lung cancer among high methylators was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Hypomethylation responses to InAs exposure may dose dependently increase lung cancer occurrence.

Impact: The high-risk characteristics observed among those exposed should be considered in future preventive medicine and research on arsenic carcinogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 756–61. ©2016 AACR.



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Proteomic Profiling of Serial Prediagnostic Serum Samples for Early Detection of Colon Cancer in the U.S. Military

Background: Serum proteomic biomarkers offer a promising approach for early detection of cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify proteomic profiles that could distinguish colon cancer cases from controls using serial prediagnostic serum samples.

Methods: This was a nested case–control study of active duty military members. Cases consisted of 264 patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 2001 and 2009. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender, race, serum sample count, and collection date. We identified peaks that discriminated cases from controls using random forest data analysis with a 2/3 training and 1/3 validation dataset. We then included epidemiologic data to see whether further improvement of model performance was obtainable. Proteins that corresponded to discriminatory peaks were identified.

Results: Peaks with m/z values of 3,119.32, 2,886.67, 2,939.23, and 5,078.81 were found to discriminate cases from controls with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 67% in the year before diagnosis. When smoking status was included, sensitivity increased to 76% while histories of other cancer and tonsillectomy raised specificity to 76%. Peaks at 2,886.67 and 3,119.32 m/z were identified as histone acetyltransferases while 2,939.24 m/z was a transporting ATPase subunit.

Conclusions: Proteomic profiles in the year before cancer diagnosis have the potential to discriminate colon cancer patients from controls, and the addition of epidemiologic information may increase the sensitivity and specificity of discrimination.

Impact: Our findings indicate the potential value of using serum prediagnostic proteomic biomarkers in combination with epidemiologic data for early detection of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 711–8. ©2016 AACR.



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Tobacco Use and Cancer Risk in the Agricultural Health Study

Background: Cigarettes are well known to cause cancer, but less is known about the risks of other tobacco products and use of more than one product.

Methods: We examined cancer incidence in relation to exclusive use of six tobacco products [cigarettes, other combustibles (pipe, cigar, cigarillo), and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff)] in the Agricultural Health Study. We also examined the added cancer risks associated with use of cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Results: In our study population of 84,015, ever use of smokeless tobacco was higher than the general United States population, whereas cigarette use was lower and other combustible product use was about the same. The strongest associations for exclusive ever use were for lung cancer [cigarettes HR = 15.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 11.95–20.06; other combustible tobacco HR = 3.44; 95% CI, 1.53–7.71; smokeless tobacco HR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.11–4.42]. Compared with exclusive cigarette smokers, cigarette smokers who additionally ever-used another combustible product had higher risks of smoking-related cancers (HR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04–1.30), especially among those who smoked cigarettes for more than 15 years.

Conclusions and Impact: Cigarette smokers who additionally ever used smokeless tobacco had cancer risks similar to exclusive cigarette smokers. Users of cigarettes and other combustible tobacco may have higher risks of certain cancers than exclusive cigarette users. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 769–78. ©2016 AACR.



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Perineural Invasion and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer

Background: Prostate cancer has a propensity to invade and grow along nerves, a phenomenon called perineural invasion (PNI). Recent studies suggest that the presence of PNI in prostate cancer has been associated with cancer aggressiveness.

Methods: We investigated the association between PNI and lethal prostate cancer in untreated and treated prostate cancer cohorts: the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort of 615 men who underwent watchful waiting, and the U.S. Health Professionals Follow-Up Study of 849 men treated with radical prostatectomy. One pathologist performed a standardized histopathologic review assessing PNI and Gleason grade. Patients were followed from diagnosis until metastasis or death.

Results: The prevalence of PNI was 7% and 44% in the untreated and treated cohorts, respectively. PNI was more common in high Gleason grade tumors in both cohorts. PNI was associated with enhanced tumor angiogenesis, but not tumor proliferation or apoptosis. In the Swedish study, PNI was associated with lethal prostate cancer [OR 7.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6–16.6; P < 0.001]. A positive, although not statistically significant, association persisted after adjustment for age, Gleason grade, and tumor volume (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 0.8–5.1; P = 0.17). In the U.S. study, PNI predicted lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical factors (HR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0, 3.3; P =0.04).

Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that perineural invasion creates a microenvironment that promotes cancer aggressiveness.

Impact: Our findings suggest that PNI should be a standardized component of histopathologic review, and highlights a mechanism underlying prostate cancer metastasis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 719–26. ©2017 AACR.



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Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women from the AMBER Consortium

Background: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for invasive breast cancer, but few studies involve African American women.

Methods: The current analysis included 22,338 women (5,108 cases of invasive breast cancer) from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. The association between number of alcoholic drinks per week (dpw) and breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, and stratifying by breast cancer subtype.

Results: Approximately 35% of controls were current drinkers at interview. Women who reported current drinking of ≥14 dpw had an elevated risk of breast cancer compared with light drinkers (>0–<4 dpw) [adjusted OR (ORadj), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.64]. We observed elevated risk among women drinking ≥7 dpw for ER [ORadj, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00–1.72], PR [ORadj, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00–1.63], HER2 [ORadj, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09–1.70], and triple-negative [ORadj, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.98–2.00] molecular subtype. Among receptor-positive cases, ORs remained elevated but attenuated relative to receptor-negative cases. Sensitivity analysis of age-defined windows of exposure (<30 years, 30–49, 50+ years of age) did not reveal variation in patterns of association. Risk associated with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by oral contraceptive use, smoking status, or menopausal status.

Conclusions: Among African American women, similar to women of European descent, drinking ≥7 alcoholic dpw was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer regardless of subtype.

Impact: Alcohol intake is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer, and reduced intake among African American women should be encouraged. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 787–94. ©2017 AACR.



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Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors, Hormone Receptors, and Mortality Prediction

Background: Endometrial tumors arise from a hormonally responsive tissue. Defining subtypes by hormone receptor expression might better inform etiology and prediction of patient outcomes. We evaluated the potential role of tumor estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression to define endometrial cancer subtypes.

Methods: We measured semi-continuous ER and PR protein expression in tissue specimens from 360 endometrial primary tumors from the Nurses' Health Study. To explore the impact of different definitions of marker positivity, we dichotomized ER and PR expression at different cut points in increments of 5% positive cells. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between endometrial cancer risk factors, such as body mass index, with dichotomous ER or PR status. Reclassification statistics were used to assess whether adding dichotomous ER or PR status to standard prognostic factors of stage, grade, and histologic type would improve endometrial cancer-specific mortality prediction.

Results: Compared with not being obese, obesity increased the odds of having an ER-positive tumor at cut points of 0% to 20% [maximum OR, 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–6.33] as well as the odds of having a PR-positive tumor at cut points of 70% to 90% (maximum OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.36–4.68). Adding dichotomous tumor ER or PR status to the panel of standard predictors did not improve both model discrimination and calibration.

Conclusions: Obesity may be associated with greater endometrial tumor expression of ER and PR. Adding either marker does not appear to improve mortality prediction beyond the standard predictors.

Impact: Body mass index might explain some of the biological variation among endometrial tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 727–35. ©2017 AACR.



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No Association between Radiation Dose from Pediatric CT Scans and Risk of Subsequent Hodgkin Lymphoma

Background: We examined the relationship between estimated radiation dose from CT scans and subsequent Hodgkin lymphoma in the UK pediatric CT scans cohort.

Methods: A retrospective, record linkage cohort included patients ages 0 to 21 years who underwent CT scans between 1980 and 2002 and were followed up for cancer or death until 2008. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between estimated radiation dose (lagged by 2 years) and incident Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed at least 2 years after the first CT scan.

Results: There were 65 incident cases of Hodgkin lymphoma in the cohort of 178,601 patients. Neither estimated red bone marrow dose nor mean lymphocyte dose from CT scans was clearly associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (RR for 20+ mGy vs. <5 mGy = 0.92 (0.38–2.22) Ptrend > 0.5 and 1.44 (0.60–3.48) Ptrend > 0.5), respectively.

Conclusions: Radiation exposure from pediatric CT scans 2 or more years before diagnosis was not associated with Hodgkin lymphoma in this large UK cohort.

Impact: These findings are consistent with the majority of previous studies, which do not support a link between ionizing radiation and Hodgkin lymphoma. The results contrast our previous positive findings in this cohort for brain tumors and leukemia, both of which are known to be strongly linked to radiation exposure during childhood. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 804–6. ©2017 AACR.



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Structure and Function of a Prostate Cancer Dissemination-Permissive Extracellular Matrix

Purpose: The poor prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer continues to present a major challenge in prostate cancer treatment. The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating metastasis. Here, we investigated the structure and function of an ECM that facilitates prostate cancer metastasis by comparing orthotopic tumors that frequently metastasize to poorly metastatic subcutaneous tumors.

Experimental Design: Both tumors were derived from a human prostate cancer PC3 cell line engineered to fluoresce under hypoxia. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was used to characterize collagen 1 (Col1) fiber patterns in the xenografts as well as in human samples. MRI was used to determine albumin-Gd-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (alb-GdDTPA) transport through the ECM using a saturation recovery MR method combined with fast T1 SNAPSHOT-FLASH imaging. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) were also quantified in these tumors.

Results: Significant structural and functional differences were identified in the prometastatic orthotopic tumor ECM compared to the less metastatic subcutaneous tumor ECM. The significantly higher number of CAFs in orthotopic tumors may explain the higher Col1 fiber volumes in these tumors. In vivo, alb-GdDTPA pooling was significantly elevated in metastatic orthotopic tumors, consistent with the increased Col1 fibers.

Conclusions: Developing noninvasive MRI indices of macromolecular transport, together with characterization of Col1 fiber patterns and CAFs can assist in stratifying prostate cancers for aggressive treatments or active surveillance. These results highlight the role of CAFs in supporting or creating aggressive cancers, and the importance of depleting CAFs to prevent metastatic dissemination in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2245–54. ©2016 AACR.



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Dysregulation of Rab37-Mediated Cross-talk between Cancer Cells and Endothelial Cells via Thrombospondin-1 Promotes Tumor Neovasculature and Metastasis

Purpose: Accumulating evidence indicates that factors secreted by cancer epithelial cells shape the tumor microenvironment to promote cancer invasion and metastasis. Recent studies also shed light on alterations of Rab small GTPase–mediated exocytosis in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms for Rab-mediated exocytosis in tumor microenvironment remain elusive. We aimed to investigate the interplay between Rab37-mediated exocytosis and tumor microenvironment, focusing on endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis.

Experimental Design: We performed fluorescence IHC for Rab37, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1, an antiangiogenesis factor), and angiogenesis marker CD31 in 183 surgically resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patient samples. Cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis were measured.

Results: ESCC patients with low expression of Rab37 or TSP1 significantly correlated with high CD31 expression and were associated with worse progression-free survival. The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that concordant low expression of both Rab37 and TSP1 was an independent prognostic factor of ESCC patients. Rab37-mediated exocytosis of TSP1 led to the inhibition of neovasculature in vitro and in vivo. Secreted TSP1 from cancer cells with Rab37 exocytic function inhibited the p-FAK/p-paxillin/p-ERK migration signaling in both cancer epithelial cells and their surrounding endothelial cells. Dysfunction of Rab37 or loss of TSP1 abrogated the suppressive effects on angiogenesis and metastasis.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Rab37-mediated TSP1 secretion in cancer cells suppresses metastasis and angiogenesis via a cross-talk with endothelial cells and reveal a novel component of the vesicular exocytic machinery in tumor microenvironment and tumor progression. Dysregulation of Rab37/TSP1 axis has clinical implications for prognosis prediction. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2335–45. ©2016 AACR.



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Osimertinib for the Treatment of Metastatic EGFR T790M Mutation-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

On November 13, 2015, the FDA granted accelerated approval to osimertinib (TAGRISSO; AstraZeneca), a breakthrough therapy-designated drug for the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFR T790M mutation–positive non–small cell lung cancer, as detected by an FDA-approved test, with progression on or after EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Approval was based on durable tumor response rates in two single-arm, multicenter trials: the dose extension cohort of a first-in-human trial (FIH; AURA extension; n = 201) and a fixed-dose, activity-estimating trial (AURA2; n = 210). Osimertinib was administered at 80 mg orally once daily. The objective response rates (ORR) per blinded independent committee review were 57% [95% confidence interval (CI), 50–64) in AURA extension and 61% (95% CI, 54–68) in AURA2. Median duration of response (DOR) could not be estimated. Supportive efficacy data from 63 patients in the dose-finding part of the FIH trial demonstrated an ORR of 51% (95% CI, 38–64), with a median DOR of 12.4 months. Common adverse events (AE) evaluated in 411 patients included diarrhea (42%), rash (41%), dry skin (31%), and nail toxicity (25%). Grade 3 to 4 AEs occurred in 28% of patients, and 5.6% discontinued treatment due to AEs. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2131–5. ©2016 AACR.



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Axl Blockade by BGB324 Inhibits BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Sensitive and -Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Purpose: BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors are employed successfully for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, resistant disease and persistence of BCR-ABL1–independent leukemia stem and progenitor cells (LSPC) remain clinical challenges. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl can mediate survival and therapy resistance of different cancer cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of Axl inhibition in CML.

Experimental Design: We used primary cells from patients with CML and TKI-sensitive and -resistant BCR-ABL1+ CML cell lines and a novel ponatinib-resistant cell line KCL-22 PonR. We analyzed the effects of genetic and pharmacologic Axl blockade by the small-molecule Axl inhibitor BGB324 in vitro and in vivo. In BCR-ABL1–unmutated cells, we also investigated BGB324 in combination with imatinib.

Results: We demonstrate overexpression of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in primary cells of patients with CML compared with healthy individuals and a further increase of Axl expression in BCR-ABL TKI-resistant patients. We show that Axl blockage decreased growth of BCR-ABL TKI-sensitive CML cells including CD34+ cells and exerts additive effects with imatinib via inhibition of Stat5 activation. BGB324 also inhibits BCR-ABL TKI-resistant cells, including T315I-mutated and ponatinib-resistant primary cells. BGB324 exerted therapeutic effects in BCR-ABL1 T315I-mutated and ponatinib-resistant preclinical mouse models. Notably, BGB324 does not inhibit BCR-ABL1 and consequently inhibits CML independent of BCR-ABL1 mutational status.

Conclusions: Our data show that Axl inhibition has therapeutic potential in BCR-ABL TKI-sensitive as well as -resistant CML and support the need for clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2289–300. ©2016 AACR.



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Molecular Pathways: Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Cancer

The aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways is a universal phenomenon in cancer and drives tumorigenesis and malignant transformation. This abnormal activation of signaling pathways in cancer is due to the altered expression of protein kinases and phosphatases. In response to extracellular signals, protein kinases activate downstream signaling pathways through a series of protein phosphorylation events, ultimately producing a signal response. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are a family of enzymes that hydrolytically remove phosphate groups from proteins. Initially, PTPs were shown to act as tumor suppressor genes by terminating signal responses through the dephosphorylation of oncogenic kinases. More recently, it has become clear that several PTPs overexpressed in human cancers do not suppress tumor growth; instead, they positively regulate signaling pathways and promote tumor development and progression. In this review, we discuss both types of PTPs: those that have tumor suppressor activities as well as those that act as oncogenes. We also discuss the potential of PTP inhibitors for cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2136–42. ©2017 AACR.



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Highlights of This Issue



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Musashi RNA-Binding Proteins as Cancer Drivers and Novel Therapeutic Targets

Aberrant gene expression that drives human cancer can arise from epigenetic dysregulation. Although much attention has focused on altered activity of transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins, proteins that act posttranscriptionally can potently affect expression of oncogenic signaling proteins. The RNA-binding proteins (RBP) Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2) are emerging as regulators of multiple critical biological processes relevant to cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Following identification of Musashi as a regulator of progenitor cell identity in Drosophila, the human Musashi proteins were initially linked to control of maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, then stem cell compartments for additional cell types. More recently, the Musashi proteins were found to be overexpressed and prognostic of outcome in numerous cancer types, including colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers; glioblastoma; and several leukemias. MSI1 and MSI2 bind and regulate the mRNA stability and translation of proteins operating in essential oncogenic signaling pathways, including NUMB/Notch, PTEN/mTOR, TGFβ/SMAD3, MYC, cMET, and others. On the basis of these activities, MSI proteins maintain cancer stem cell populations and regulate cancer invasion, metastasis, and development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes, including drug resistance. Although RBPs are viewed as difficult therapeutic targets, initial efforts to develop MSI-specific inhibitors are promising, and RNA interference–based approaches to inhibiting these proteins have had promising outcomes in preclinical studies. In the interim, understanding the function of these translational regulators may yield insight into the relationship between mRNA expression and protein expression in tumors, guiding tumor-profiling analysis. This review provides a current overview of Musashi as a cancer driver and novel therapeutic target. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2143–53. ©2017 AACR.



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Preclinical Evaluation of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting CD70-Expressing Cancers

Purpose: CD70 expression in normal tissues is restricted to activated lymphoid tissues. Targeting CD70 on CD70-expressing tumors could mediate "on-target, off-tumor" toxicity. This study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using anti-human CD70 CARs to treat cancer patients whose tumors express CD70.

Experimental Design: Seven anti-human CD70 CARs with binding moieties from human CD27 combined with CD3-zeta and different costimulatory domains from CD28 and/or 41BB were constructed. In vitro functionality of these receptors was compared and in vivo treatment efficacy was evaluated in a xenograft mouse model. A homologous, all murine anti-CD70 CAR model was also used to assess treatment-related toxicities.

Results: The CAR consisting of the extracellular binding portion of CD27 fused with 41BB and CD3-zeta (trCD27-41BB-zeta) conferred the highest IFN production against CD70-expressing tumors in vitro, and NSG mice bearing established CD70-expressing human tumors could be cured by human lymphocytes transduced with this CAR. In the murine CD27-CD3-zeta CAR model, significant reduction of established tumors and prolonged survival were achieved using CAR-transduced splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Host preirradiation enhanced treatment efficacy but increased treatment-related toxicities such as transient weight loss and hematopoetic suppression. The treatment did not appear to block adaptive host immune responses.

Conclusions: Preclinical testing supports the safety and efficacy of a CD27-containing CAR targeting CD70-expressing tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2267–76. ©2016 AACR.



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Long-term Follow-up of Treatment with Ibrutinib and Rituximab in Patients with High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Background: Ibrutinib is an active therapy with an acceptable safety profile for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including high-risk patients with del17p or with TP53 mutations. Ibrutinib is broadly indicated for the treatment of patients with CLL and specifically including those with 17p deletion. The optimal use of ibrutinib in combination with other agents remains controversial.

Experimental Design: We report the long-term outcome [median follow-up of 47 months (range, 36–51 months)] of 40 patients with high-risk CLL, treated on the first ibrutinib combination trial with rituximab (IR). The majority of patients (36/40) were previously treated.

Results: Median age was 65 years, and 21 patients (52%) had 17p deletion. Median duration on treatment was 41 months (range, 2–51 months), and median number of treatment cycles was 42 (range, 2–49). Overall response rate was 95%, and 9 patients (23%) attained a complete remission. Twenty-one patients discontinued treatment, 10 due to disease progression, 9 for other causes, and 2 due to stem cell transplantation; the remaining 19 patients continue on ibrutinib. Median progression-free survival for all patients was 45 months, which was significantly shorter in the subgroup of patients with del17p (n = 21, 32.3 months, P = 0.02). Fourteen patients (35%) died, five from progressive disease, five from infections, and four from other causes. Median overall survival has not been reached.

Conclusions: IR combination therapy leads to durable remissions in high-risk CLL; the possible benefit from the addition of rituximab is currently explored in a randomized trial. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2154–8. ©2016 AACR.



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The Dual Syk/JAK Inhibitor Cerdulatinib Antagonizes B-cell Receptor and Microenvironmental Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Purpose: B-cell receptor (BCR)–associated kinase inhibitors, such as ibrutinib, have revolutionized the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these agents are not curative, and resistance is already emerging in a proportion of patients. IL4, expressed in CLL lymph nodes, can augment BCR signaling and reduce the effectiveness of BCR kinase inhibitors. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of the IL4- and BCR signaling pathways by cerdulatinib, a novel dual Syk/JAK inhibitor currently in clinical trials (NCT01994382), may improve treatment responses in patients.

Experimental Design: PBMCs from patients with CLL were treated in vitro with cerdulatinib alone or in combination with venetoclax. Cell death, chemokine, and cell signaling assay were performed and analyzed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, q-PCR, and ELISA as indicated.

Results: At concentrations achievable in patients, cerdulatinib inhibited BCR- and IL4-induced downstream signaling in CLL cells using multiple readouts and prevented anti-IgM- and nurse-like cell (NLC)–mediated CCL3/CCL4 production. Cerdulatinib induced apoptosis of CLL cells, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and particularly in IGHV-unmutated samples with greater BCR signaling capacity and response to IL4, or samples expressing higher levels of sIgM, CD49d+, or ZAP70+. Cerdulatinib overcame anti-IgM, IL4/CD40L, or NLC-mediated protection by preventing upregulation of MCL-1 and BCL-XL; however, BCL-2 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, in samples treated with IL4/CD40L, cerdulatinib synergized with venetoclax in vitro to induce greater apoptosis than either drug alone.

Conclusions: Cerdulatinib is a promising therapeutic for the treatment of CLL either alone or in combination with venetoclax, with the potential to target critical survival pathways in this currently incurable disease. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2313–24. ©2016 AACR.



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FCGR Polymorphisms Influence Response to IL2 in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Purpose: Fc-gamma receptors (FCGRs) are expressed on immune cells, bind to antibodies, and trigger antibody-induced cell-mediated antitumor responses when tumor-reactive antibodies are present. The affinity of the FCGR/antibody interaction is variable and dependent upon FCGR polymorphisms. Prior studies of patients with cancer treated with immunotherapy indicate that FCGR polymorphisms can influence antitumor response for certain immunotherapies that act via therapeutically administered mAbs or via endogenous tumor-reactive antibodies induced from tumor antigen vaccines. The previously published "SELECT" trial of high-dose aldesleukin (HD-IL2) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma resulted in an objective response rate of 25%. We evaluated the patients in this SELECT trial to determine whether higher-affinity FCGR polymorphisms are associated with outcome.

Experimental Design: SNPs in FCGR2A, FCGR3A, and FCGR2C were analyzed, individually and in combination, for associations between genotype and clinical outcome.

Results: When higher-affinity genotypes for FCGR2A, FCGR3A, and FCGR2C were considered together, they were associated with significantly increased tumor shrinkage and prolonged survival in response to HD-IL2.

Conclusions: Although associations of higher-affinity FCGR genotype with clinical outcome have been demonstrated with mAb therapy and with idiotype vaccines, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show associations of FCGR genotypes with outcome following HD-IL2 treatment. We hypothesize that endogenous antitumor antibodies may engage immune cells through their FCGRs, and HD-IL2 may enhance antibody-induced tumor destruction, or antibody-enhanced tumor antigen presentation, via augmented activation of innate or adaptive immune responses; this FCGR-mediated immune activity would be augmented through immunologically favorable FCGRs. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2159–68. ©2016 AACR.



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lncRNAs as Novel Indicators of Patients' Prognosis in Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Retrospective and Multicentric Study

Purpose: Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents about 10% of all EOCs and is characterized by good prognosis with fewer than 20% of patients relapsing. As it occurs less frequently than advanced-stage EOC, its molecular features have not been thoroughly investigated. We have demonstrated that in stage I EOC miR-200c-3p can predict patients' outcome. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) to enable potential definition of a non-coding transcriptional signature with prognostic relevance for stage I EOC.

Experimental Design: 202 snap-frozen stage I EOC tumor biopsies, 47 of which relapsed, were gathered together from three independent tumor tissue collections and subdivided into a training set (n = 73) and a validation set (n = 129). Median follow up was 9 years. LncRNAs' expression profiles were correlated in univariate and multivariate analysis with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: The expression of lnc-SERTAD2-3, lnc-SOX4-1, lnc-HRCT1-1, and PVT1 was associated in univariate and multivariate analyses with relapse and poor outcome in both training and validation sets (P < 0.001). Using the expression profiles of PVT1, lnc-SERTAD2-3, and miR-200c-3p simultaneously, it was possible to stratify patients into high and low risk. The OS for high- and low-risk individuals are 36 and 123 months, respectively (OR, 15.55; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–63.36).

Conclusions: We have identified a non-coding transcriptional signature predictor of survival and biomarker of relapse for stage I EOC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2356–66. ©2016 AACR.



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Neoadjuvant Enzalutamide Prior to Prostatectomy

Purpose: Prostate cancer is dependent on androgen receptor (AR) activation. Optimal AR antagonism may effectively cytoreduce local disease and suppress or eliminate micrometastases. We evaluated neoadjuvant therapy prior to prostatectomy with the potent AR antagonist enzalutamide (enza) either alone or in combination with dutasteride (dut) and leuprolide (enza/dut/luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues [LHRHa]).

Experimental Design: Forty-eight of 52 men with intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer proceeded to prostatectomy after neoadjuvant enzalutamide or enza/dut/LHRHa for 6 months. We assessed pathologic complete response (pCR), minimal residual disease (MRD; ≤3 mm maximum diameter of residual disease), residual cancer burden (RCB), and expression of PSA and serum and tissue androgen concentrations. We compared the proportion of patients with pCR in each treatment arm with a historical control rate of 5%, based on previous reports of flutamide with LHRHa.

Results: In the enzalutamide arm, none of the 25 patients achieved pCR or MRD. In the enza/dut/LHRHa arm, one of 23 patients (4.3%) achieved pCR and 3 of 23 (13.0%) achieved MRD. Median RCB was higher in the enzalutamide arm than in the enza/dut/LHRHa arm (0.41 cm3 vs. 0.06 cm3, respectively). Tissue testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels correlated with RCB. No adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation were reported.

Conclusions: Combination therapy with enza/dut/LHRHa resulted in pCR and MRD rates comparable with historical controls. Evidence of continued AR activity in residual tumor suggests that AR signaling may contribute to survival. Strategies to more effectively ablate AR activity are warranted to determine whether more substantial antitumor effects are observed. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2169–76. ©2016 AACR.



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Biological and Clinical Relevance of Associated Genomic Alterations in MYD88 L265P and non-L265P-Mutated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Analysis of 361 Cases

Purpose: MYD88 mutations, notably the recurrent gain-of-function L265P variant, are a distinguishing feature of activated B-cell like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), leading to constitutive NFB pathway activation. The aim of this study was to examine the distinct genomic profiles of MYD88-mutant DLBCL, notably according to the presence of the L265P or other non-L265P MYD88 variants.

Experimental Design: A cohort of 361 DLBCL cases (94 MYD88 mutant and 267 MYD88 wild-type) was submitted to next-generation sequencing (NGS) focusing on 34 genes to analyze associated mutations and copy number variations, as well as gene expression profiling, and clinical and prognostic analyses.

Results: Importantly, we highlighted different genomic profiles for MYD88 L265P and MYD88 non-L265P–mutant DLBCL, shedding light on their divergent backgrounds. Clustering analysis also segregated subgroups according to associated genetic alterations among patients with the same MYD88 mutation. We showed that associated CD79B and MYD88 L265P mutations act synergistically to increase NFB pathway activation, although the majority of MYD88 L265P–mutant cases harbors downstream NFB alterations, which can predict BTK inhibitor resistance. Finally, although the MYD88 L265P variant was not an independent prognostic factor in ABC DLBCL, associated CD79B mutations significantly improved the survival of MYD88 L265P–mutant ABC DLBCL in our cohort.

Conclusions: This study highlights the relative heterogeneity of MYD88-mutant DLBCL, adding to the field's knowledge of the theranostic importance of MYD88 mutations, but also of associated alterations, emphasizing the usefulness of genomic profiling to best stratify patients for targeted therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2232–44. ©2016 AACR.



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The Landscape of Viral Expression Reveals Clinically Relevant Viruses with Potential Capability of Promoting Malignancy in Lower-Grade Glioma

Purpose: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has recently proved to be effective for revealing novel virus–tumor associations. To get a thorough investigation of virus–glioma associations, we screened viruses in gliomas with RNA-seq data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas project.

Experimental Design: In total, 325 samples were enrolled into this study. Reads that failed to map to the human genome were aligned to viral genomes and screened for potential virus-derived transcripts. For quantification, VPKM was calculated according to mapped reads weighted by genome sizes and sequencing depth.

Results: We observed that viruses tended to concertedly express in a certain subgroup of patients. Survival analysis revealed that individuals who were infected with Simian virus 40 (SV40) or woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV) had a significantly shorter overall survival than those uninfected. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, taking clinical and molecular factors into account, was applied to assess the prognostic value of SV40 and WMSV. Both SV40 and WMSV were independent prognostic factors for predicting patient's survival in lower-grade gliomas. Subsequent gene analysis demonstrated that SV40 was correlated with regulation of transcription, whereas WMSV was correlated with cell-cycle phase, which indicated frequent proliferation of tumor cells.

Conclusions: RNA-seq was sufficient to identify virus infection in glioma samples. SV40 and WMSV were identified to be prognostic markers for patients with lower-grade gliomas and showed potential values for targeting therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2177–85. ©2016 AACR.



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Multiplex Genome Editing to Generate Universal CAR T Cells Resistant to PD1 Inhibition

Purpose: Using gene-disrupted allogeneic T cells as universal effector cells provides an alternative and potentially improves current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy against cancers and infectious diseases.

Experimental Design: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a simple and efficient way for multiplex genome engineering. By combining lentiviral delivery of CAR and electro-transfer of Cas9 mRNA and gRNAs targeting endogenous TCR, β-2 microglobulin (B2M) and PD1 simultaneously, to generate gene-disrupted allogeneic CAR T cells deficient of TCR, HLA class I molecule and PD1.

Results: The CRISPR gene–edited CAR T cells showed potent antitumor activities, both in vitro and in animal models and were as potent as non-gene–edited CAR T cells. In addition, the TCR and HLA class I double deficient T cells had reduced alloreactivity and did not cause graft-versus-host disease. Finally, simultaneous triple genome editing by adding the disruption of PD1 led to enhanced in vivo antitumor activity of the gene-disrupted CAR T cells.

Conclusions: Gene-disrupted allogeneic CAR and TCR T cells could provide an alternative as a universal donor to autologous T cells, which carry difficulties and high production costs. Gene-disrupted CAR and TCR T cells with disabled checkpoint molecules may be potent effector cells against cancers and infectious diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2255–66. ©2016 AACR.



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Biomarker and Tumor Responses of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Trametinib: A Phase II Neoadjuvant Window-of-Opportunity Clinical Trial

Purpose: Ras/MEK/ERK pathway activation is common in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). We performed a neoadjuvant (preoperative) trial to determine the biomarker and tumor response of OCSCC to MEK inhibition with trametinib.

Experimental Design: Patients with stage II–IV OCSCC received trametinib (2 mg/day, minimum 7 days) prior to surgery. Primary tumor specimens were obtained before and after trametinib to evaluate immunohistochemical staining for p-ERK1/2 and CD44, the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included changes in clinical tumor measurements and metabolic activity [maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT), and in tumor downstaging. Drug-related adverse events (AE) and surgical/wound complications were evaluated.

Results: Of 20 enrolled patients, 17 (85%) completed the study. Three patients withdrew because of either trametinib-related (n = 2: nausea, duodenal perforation) or unrelated (n = 1: constipation) AEs. The most common AE was rash (9/20 patients, 45%). Seventeen patients underwent surgery. No unexpected surgical/wound complications occurred. Evaluable matched pre- and posttrametinib specimens were available in 15 (88%) of these patients. Reduction in p-ERK1/2 and CD44 expression occurred in 5 (33%) and 2 (13%) patients, respectively. Clinical tumor response by modified World Health Organization criteria was observed in 11 of 17 (65%) evaluable patients (median 46% decrease, range 14%–74%). Partial metabolic response (≥25% reduction in SUVmax) was observed in 6 of 13 (46%) evaluable patients (median 25% decrease, range 6%–52%). Clinical-to-pathologic tumor downstaging occurred in 9 of 17 (53%) evaluable patients.

Conclusions: Trametinib resulted in significant reduction in Ras/MEK/ERK pathway activation and in clinical and metabolic tumor responses in patients with OCSCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2186–94. ©2016 AACR.



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Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Kill Chemo-surviving Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells

Purpose: The MHC-unrestricted activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against chemo-surviving melanoma cancer stem cells (mCSC) was explored, as CSCs are considered responsible for chemoresistance and relapses.

Experimental Design: Putative mCSCs were visualized by engineering patient-derived melanoma cells (MC) with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP under expression control by stemness gene promoter oct4. Their stemness potential was confirmed in vivo by limiting dilution assays. We explored the sensitivity of eGFP+ mCSCs to chemotherapy (CHT), BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) or CIK cells, as single agents or in sequence, in vitro. First, we treated MCs in vitro with fotemustine or dabrafenib (BRAF-mutated cases); then, surviving MCs, enriched in mCSCs, were challenged with autologous CIK cells. CIK cell activity against chemoresistant mCSCs was confirmed in vivo in two distinct immunodeficient murine models.

Results: We visualized eGFP+ mCSCs (14% ± 2.1%) in 11 MCs. The tumorigenic precursor rate in vivo was higher within eGFP+ MCs (1/42) compared with the eGFP counterpart (1/4,870). In vitro mCSCs were relatively resistant to CHT and BRAFi, but killed by CIK cells (n = 11, 8/11 autologous), with specific lysis ranging from 95% [effector:tumor ratio (E:T), 40:1] to 20% (E:T 1:3). In vivo infusion of autologous CIK cells into mice bearing xenografts from three distinct melanomas demonstrated significant tumor responses involving CHT-spared eGFP+ mCSCs (P = 0.001). Sequential CHT–immunotherapy treatment retained antitumor activity (n = 12, P = 0.001) reducing mCSC rates (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: These findings are the first demonstration that immunotherapy with CIK cells is active against autologous mCSCs surviving CHT or BRAFi. An experimental platform for mCSC study and rationale for CIK cells in melanoma clinical study is provided. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2277–88. ©2016 AACR.



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Impact of TP53 Mutations on Outcome in EGFR-Mutated Patients Treated with First-Line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Purpose: To analyze the impact of TP53 mutations on response to first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with EGFR-mutated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Experimental Design: 136 EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients receiving first-line TKIs were analyzed. TP53 mutations were evaluated in 123 patients in relation to disease control rate (DCR), objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results: TP53 mutations were observed in 37 (30.1%), 10 (27.0%), 6 (16.2%), 9 (24.3%), and 12 (32.4%) patients in exons 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively. DCR was 70% in TP53-mutated patients compared with 88% in TP53-wild type (wt) patients [relative risk, RR, of disease progression: 3.17 (95% CI, 1.21–8.48), P = 0.019]. In particular, a 42% DCR was observed in patients with TP53 exon 8 mutation versus 87% in exon 8 wt patients [RR of disease progression 9.6 (2.71–36.63), P < 0.001]. Shorter median PFS and OS were observed in patients with TP53 exon 8 mutations compared with others (4.2 vs. 12.5, P = 0.058, and 16.2 vs. 32.3, P = 0.114, respectively); these differences became significant in the subgroup with EGFR exon 19 deletion (4.2 vs. 16.8, P < 0.001, and 7.6 vs. not reached, P = 0.006, respectively), HR 6.99 (95% CI, 2.34–20.87, P < 0.001) and HR 4.75 (95% CI, 1.38–16.29, P = 0.013), respectively.

Conclusions: TP53 mutations, especially exon 8 mutations, reduce responsiveness to TKIs and worsen prognosis in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients, mainly those carrying exon 19 deletions. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2195–202. ©2016 AACR.



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Characterization of an Abiraterone Ultraresponsive Phenotype in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts

Purpose: To identify the molecular signature associated with abiraterone acetate (AA) response and mechanisms underlying AA resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs).

Experimental Design: SCID mice bearing LuCaP 136CR, 77CR, 96CR, and 35CR PDXs were treated with AA. Tumor volume and prostate-specific antigen were monitored, and tumors were harvested 7 days after treatment or at end of study for gene expression and immunohistochemical studies.

Results: Three phenotypic groups were observed based on AA response. An ultraresponsive phenotype was identified in LuCaP 136CR with significant inhibition of tumor progression and increased survival, intermediate responders LuCaP 77CR and LuCaP 96CR with a modest tumor inhibition and survival benefit, and LuCaP 35CR with minimal tumor inhibition and no survival benefit upon AA treatment. We identified a molecular signature of secreted proteins associated with the AA ultraresponsive phenotype. Upon resistance, AA ultraresponder LuCaP 136CR displayed reduced androgen receptor (AR) signaling and sustainably low nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (nGR) localization, accompanied by steroid metabolism alteration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition phenotype enrichment with increased expression of NF-B–regulated genes; intermediate and minimal responders maintained sustained AR signaling and increased tumoral nGR localization.

Conclusions: We identified a molecular signature of secreted proteins associated with AA ultraresponsiveness and sustained AR/GR signaling upon AA resistance in intermediate or minimal responders. These data will inform development of noninvasive biomarkers predicting AA response and suggest that further inhibition along the AR/GR signaling axis may be effective only in AA-resistant patients who are intermediate or minimal responders. These findings require verification in prospective clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2301–12. ©2016 AACR.



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What matters most [Letters]



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Strengthening Canadian research [News]



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Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion [Research]

BACKGROUND:

Although antibiotics are widely used during pregnancy, evidence regarding their fetal safety remains limited. Our aim was to quantify the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion.

METHODS:

We conducted a nested case–control study within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (1998–2009). We excluded planned abortions and pregnancies exposed to fetotoxic drugs. Spontaneous abortion was defined as having a diagnosis or procedure related to spontaneous abortion before the 20th week of pregnancy. The index date was defined as the calendar date of the spontaneous abortion. Ten controls per case were randomly selected and matched by gestational age and year of pregnancy. Use of antibiotics was defined by filled prescriptions between the first day of gestation and the index date and was compared with (a) non-exposure and (b) exposure to penicillins or cephalosporins. We studied type of antibiotics separately using the same comparator groups.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for potential confounders, use of azithromycin (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34–2.02; 110 exposed cases), clarithromycin (adjusted OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.90–2.91; 111 exposed cases), metronidazole (adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.27–2.26; 53 exposed cases), sulfonamides (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.36–2.97; 30 exposed cases), tetracyclines (adjusted OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97–3.41; 67 exposed cases) and quinolones (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI 2.27–3.27; 160 exposed cases) was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Similar results were found when we used penicillins or cephalosporins as the comparator group.

INTERPRETATION:

After adjustment for potential confounders, use of macro-lides (excluding erythromycin), quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Our findings may be of use to policy-makers to update guidelines for the treatment of infections during pregnancy.



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An opportunity for pharmacists and physicians to collaborate to prevent violence [Letters]



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Dual-stent retrieval for mechanical thrombectomy of refractory clot in acute stroke as a rescue technique [Practice]



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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis -- a challenge for the Canadian health care system [Commentary]



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Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs [Practice]



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The author responds to "What matters most" [Letters]



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Bazex syndrome [Practice]



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Why Trumpcare failed [News]



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The new medical model: a renewed challenge for biomedicine [Humanities]



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Trial overstated HRT risk for younger women [News]



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Energy Balance Modulation Impacts Epigenetic Reprogramming, ER{alpha} and ER{beta} Expression, and Mammary Tumor Development in MMTV-neu Transgenic Mice

The association between obesity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is well established in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease but less clear in HER2-positive disease. Here, we report preclinical evidence suggesting weight maintenance through calorie restriction (CR) may limit risk of HER2-positive breast cancer. In female MMTV-HER2/neu transgenic mice, we found that ERα and ERβ expression, mammary tumorigenesis, and survival are energy balance dependent in association with epigenetic reprogramming. Mice were randomized to receive a CR, overweight-inducing, or diet-induced obesity regimen (n = 27/group). Subsets of mice (n = 4/group/time point) were euthanized after 1, 3, and 5 months to characterize diet-dependent metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic perturbations. Remaining mice were followed up to 22 months. Relative to the overweight and diet-induced obesity regimens, CR decreased body weight, adiposity, and serum metabolic hormones as expected and also elicited an increase in mammary ERα and ERβ expression. Increased DNA methylation accompanied this pattern, particularly at CpG dinucleotides located within binding or flanking regions for the transcriptional regulator CCCTC-binding factor of ESR1 and ESR2, consistent with sustained transcriptional activation of ERα and ERβ. Mammary expression of the DNA methylation enzyme DNMT1 was stable in CR mice but increased over time in overweight and diet-induced obesity mice, suggesting CR obviates epigenetic alterations concurrent with chronic excess energy intake. In the survival study, CR elicited a significant suppression in spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis. Overall, our findings suggest a mechanistic rationale to prevent or reverse excess body weight as a strategy to reduce HER2-positive breast cancer risk. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2500–11. ©2017 AACR.

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Genetic Manipulation of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Function by Host Carcinogenic Phenotypes

Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a minority of infected persons ever develop this malignancy. One cancer-linked locus is the cag type 4 secretion system (cagT4SS), which translocates an oncoprotein into host cells. A structural component of the cagT4SS is CagY, which becomes rapidly altered during in vivo adaptation in mice and rhesus monkeys, rendering the cagT4SS nonfunctional; however, these models rarely develop gastric cancer. We previously demonstrated that the H. pylori cag+ strain 7.13 rapidly induces gastric cancer in Mongolian gerbils. We now use this model, in conjunction with samples from patients with premalignant lesions, to define the effects of a carcinogenic host environment on the virulence phenotype of H. pylori to understand how only a subset of infected individuals develop cancer. H. pylori cagY sequence differences and cagT4SS function were directly related to the severity of inflammation in human gastric mucosa in either a synchronous or metachronous manner. Serial infections of Mongolian gerbils with H. pylori strain 7.13 identified an oscillating pattern of cagT4SS function. The development of dysplasia or cancer selected for attenuated virulence phenotypes, but robust cagT4SS function could be restored upon infection of new hosts. Changes in the genetic composition of cagY mirrored cagT4SS function, although the mechanisms of cagY alterations differed in human isolates (mutations) versus gerbil isolates (addition/deletion of motifs). These results indicate that host carcinogenic phenotypes modify cagT4SS function via altering cagY, allowing the bacteria to persist and induce carcinogenic consequences in the gastric niche. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2401–12. ©2017 AACR.

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Genomic Instability in Cancer: Teetering on the Limit of Tolerance

Cancer genomic instability contributes to the phenomenon of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, provides the genetic diversity required for natural selection, and enables the extensive phenotypic diversity that is frequently observed among patients. Genomic instability has previously been associated with poor prognosis. However, we have evidence that for solid tumors of epithelial origin, extreme levels of genomic instability, where more than 75% of the genome is subject to somatic copy number alterations, are associated with a potentially better prognosis compared with intermediate levels under this threshold. This has been observed in clonal subpopulations of larger size, especially when genomic instability is shared among a limited number of clones. We hypothesize that cancers with extreme levels of genomic instability may be teetering on the brink of a threshold where so much of their genome is adversely altered that cells rarely replicate successfully. Another possibility is that tumors with high levels of genomic instability are more immunogenic than other cancers with a less extensive burden of genetic aberrations. Regardless of the exact mechanism, but hinging on our ability to quantify how a tumor's burden of genetic aberrations is distributed among coexisting clones, genomic instability has important therapeutic implications. Herein, we explore the possibility that a high genomic instability could be the basis for a tumor's sensitivity to DNA-damaging therapies. We primarily focus on studies of epithelial-derived solid tumors. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2179–85. ©2017 AACR.

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Highlights from Recent Cancer Literature



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Master Transcriptional Regulators in Cancer: Discovery via Reverse Engineering Approaches and Subsequent Validation

Reverse engineering of transcriptional networks using gene expression data enables identification of genes that underpin the development and progression of different cancers. Methods to this end have been available for over a decade and, with a critical mass of transcriptomic data in the oncology arena having been reached, they are ever more applicable. Extensive and complex networks can be distilled into a small set of key master transcriptional regulators (MTR), genes that are very highly connected and have been shown to be involved in processes of known importance in disease. Interpreting and validating the results of standardized bioinformatic methods is of crucial importance in determining the inherent value of MTRs. In this review, we briefly describe how MTRs are identified and focus on providing an overview of how MTRs can and have been validated for use in clinical decision making in malignant diseases, along with serving as tractable therapeutic targets. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2186–90. ©2017 AACR.

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NR1D1 Recruitment to Sites of DNA Damage Inhibits Repair and Is Associated with Chemosensitivity of Breast Cancer

DNA repair capacity is critical for survival of cancer cells upon therapeutic DNA damage and thus is an important determinant of susceptibility to chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, we identified a novel function of nuclear receptor NR1D1 in DNA repair, which enhanced chemosensitivity in breast cancer cells. NR1D1 inhibited both nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination double-strand breaks repair, and delayed the clearance of γH2AX DNA repair foci that formed after treatment of doxorubicin. PARylation of NR1D1 by PARP1 drove its recruitment to damaged DNA lesions. Deletion of the ligand binding domain of NR1D1 that interacted with PARP1, or treatment of 6-(5H)-phenanthridinone, an inhibitor of PARP1, suppressed the recruitment of NR1D1 to DNA damaged sites, indicating PARylation as a critical step for the NR1D1 recruitment. NR1D1 inhibited recruitment of the components of DNA damage response complex such as SIRT6, pNBS1, and BRCA1 to DNA lesions. Downregulation of NR1D1 in MCF7 cells resulted in resistance to doxorubicin, both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of four public patient data sets indicated that NR1D1 expression correlates positively with clinical outcome in breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that NR1D1 and its ligands provide therapeutic options that could enhance the outcomes of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2453–63. ©2017 AACR.

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Whither Radioimmunotherapy: To Be or Not To Be?

Therapy of cancer with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies has produced impressive results in preclinical experiments and in clinical trials conducted in radiosensitive malignancies, particularly B-cell lymphomas. Two “first-generation,” directly radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies, 131iodine-tositumomab and 90yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan, were FDA-approved more than a decade ago but have been little utilized because of a variety of medical, financial, and logistic obstacles. Newer technologies employing multistep “pretargeting” methods, particularly those utilizing bispecific antibodies, have greatly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy and diminished its toxicities. The dramatically improved therapeutic index of bispecific antibody pretargeting appears to be sufficiently compelling to justify human clinical trials and reinvigorate enthusiasm for radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of malignancies, particularly lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2191–6. ©2017 AACR.

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Role of CBX4 in the Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis—Letter



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 952: Inhibitory Effects of Dimethyllirioresinol, Epimagnolin A, Eudesmin, Fargesin, and Magnolin on Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

Magnolin, epimagnolin A, dimethyllirioresinol, eudesmin, and fargesin are pharmacologically active tetrahydrofurofuranoid lignans found in Flos Magnoliae. The inhibitory potentials of dimethyllirioresinol, epimagnolin A, eudesmin, fargesin, and magnolin on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in human liver microsomes were evaluated using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to determine the inhibition mechanisms and inhibition potency. Fargesin inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4’-hydroxylation with a Ki value of 16.3 μM, and it exhibited mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C19-catalyzed [S]-mephenytoin 4’-hydroxylation (Ki, 3.7 μM; kinact, 0.102 min−1), CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation (Ki, 10.7 μM; kinact, 0.082 min−1), and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1’-hydroxylation (Ki, 23.0 μM; kinact, 0.050 min−1) in human liver microsomes. Fargesin negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2A6-catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation, and CYP2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1’-hydroxylation at 100 μM in human liver microsomes. Dimethyllirioresinol weakly inhibited CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 with IC50 values of 55.1 and 85.0 μM, respectively, without inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 activities at 100 μM. Epimagnolin A, eudesmin, and magnolin showed no the reversible and time-dependent inhibition of eight major CYP activities at 100 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results suggest that it is necessary to investigate the potentials of in vivo fargesin-drug interaction with CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 substrates.

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Solstice Wins MIT Clean Energy Prize With Smart Energy System for Developing Nations

Earlier this month, Solstice Energy Solutions -a start-up working to bring an energy-metering program to homes across Nigeria -  took the $100k grand prize at The MIT Clean...

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SIRT5 Binds to Cardiolipin and Regulates the Electron Transport Chain [Bioenergetics]

SIRT5 is a lysine desuccinylase known to regulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and the urea cycle. Here, SIRT5 was observed to bind to cardiolipin via an amphipathic helix on its amino terminus. In vitro, succinyl-CoA was used to succinylate liver mitochondrial membrane proteins. SIRT5 largely reversed the succinyl-CoA-driven lysine succinylation. Quantitative mass spectrometry of SIRT5-treated membrane proteins pointed to the electron transport chain, particularly Complex I, as being highly targeted for desuccinylation by SIRT5. Correspondingly, SIRT5-/- HEK293 cells showed defects in both Complex I and Complex II-driven respiration. In mouse liver, SIRT5 expression was observed to localize strictly to the periportal hepatocytes. However, homogenates prepared from whole SIRT5-/- liver did show reduced Complex II-driven respiration. The enzymatic activities of Complex II and ATP synthase were also significantly reduced. Three-dimensional modeling of Complex II suggested that several SIRT5-targeted lysine residues lie at the protein: lipid interface of subunit SDHB. We postulate that succinylation at these sites may disrupt Complex II subunit-subunit interactions and electron transfer. Lastly, SIRT5-/- mice, like humans with Complex II deficiency, were found to have mild lactic acidosis. Our findings suggest that SIRT5 is targeted to protein complexes on the inner mitochondrial membrane via affinity for cardiolipin in order to promote respiratory chain function.

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Treatment and outcomes of UK and German patients with relapsed intracranial germ cell tumors following uniform first-line therapy

Abstract

We aimed to retrospectively assess treatments/outcomes, including the value of high-dose-chemotherapy and autologous-stem-cell-rescue (HDC+AuSCR) and re-irradiation, in a large, European patient-cohort with relapsed intracranial germ-cell-tumors (GCTs) receiving uniform first-line therapy, including radiotherapy as standard-of-care. Fifty-eight UK/German patients (48 male/10 female) with relapsed intracranial-GCTs [13 germinoma/45 non-germinomatous GCT(NGGCT)] treated 1996-2010 as per the SIOP-CNS-GCT-96 protocol were evaluated. For germinoma, six patients relapsed with germinoma and five with NGGCT (one palliative, one teratoma patient excluded). Five-year overall-survival (OS) for the whole-group (n=11) was 55%. Four of six germinoma relapses and two of five relapsing with NGGCT were salvaged; patients were salvaged with either standard-dose-chemotherapy (SDC) and re-irradiation or HDC+AuSCR with/without re-irradiation. Of 45 relapsed NGGCT patients, 13 were excluded (3 non-protocol adherence, 5 teratoma, 5 palliation). Five-year OS for the remaining 32 relapsed malignant NGGCT patients treated with curative intent was 9%(95%CI: 2-26%). By treatment received, 5-year OS for the 10 patients receiving SDC and 22 patients treated with intention for HDC+AuSCR was 0%(0-0%) and 14%(3-36%), respectively. The three relapsed NGGCT survivors had raised HCG markers alone; two received additional irradiation. Patients with relapsed germinoma had better 5-year OS than those with relapsed NGGCT (55%vs.9%; p=0.007). Patients with relapsed germinoma were salvaged both with SDC and re-irradiation or HDC+AuSCR with/without re-irradiation; which both represent valid treatment options. Outcomes for malignant relapse following initial diagnosis of NGGCT were exceptionally poor; the few survivors received thiotepa-based HDC+AuSCR, which is a treatment option at first malignant relapse for such patients, with further surgery/irradiation where feasible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Long term risk of colorectal cancer after negative colonoscopy in a Danish gFOBT screening cohort

ABSTRACT

Faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) is implemented in several countries. Approximately half of all screen positive persons have negative colonoscopy, but consensus is lacking on how these persons should be followed up. Health authorities in Denmark and The Netherlands recommend suspending screening for 8-10 years, while patients in UK are invited to screening after two years. In this cohort-study we followed 166,277 individuals invited to FOBT-screening in 2005-2006 and a reference group comprising the remaining 1,240,348 Danes of the same age. We linked Danish population and health service registers to obtain information about colonoscopy outcome and incident CRC. We estimated CRC risk by colonoscopy outcome (adenoma, other colorectal pathology or negative colonoscopy) for the reference group, the screening group, and subgroups. Persons with positive screening FOBT followed by negative colonoscopy had the same long-term CRC risk as persons with adenoma detected due to a positive screening FOBT (aHR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.65-2.71). We found no difference in the long-term CRC risk between persons with negative colonoscopy after a positive FOBT screening test and the unscreened reference population (aHR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.62-1.78). Since FOBT screen positive persons in our study remained at average risk of CRC despite of a negative index colonoscopy, we question the safety of suspending FOBT screening for this group. It needs to be monitored whether recent efforts to improve colonoscopy quality have been successful in ensuring low CRC risk after negative colonoscopy also in FOBT positive persons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Report on the 1st European Tissue Repair Society Summer School, London 29th June - 1st July 2016



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Energy Efficiency 'Godfather' Art Rosenfeld (1926-2017)

Dr. Art Rosenfeld was an energy efficiency pioneer whose work served as the foundation for numerous state and federal regulations to save energy across the United States. 

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Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each ). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

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