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Η φωτογραφία μου
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/,

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Τετάρτη, 20 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Altered functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus during self-initiated movement in Parkinson's disease

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Qian Jia, Linlin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Tao Wu, Piu Chan
Background and purposePatients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulty performing self-initiated movements. The neural mechanism of this deficiency remains unclear. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during self-initiated movement in patients with PD.Materials and MethodsfMRI were acquired from patients with PD and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects during a self-initiated right hand tapping task. We selected the bilateral sensorimotor subregions of the STN as regions of interest for our connectivity analysis.Results and ConclusionsWe found that the STN contralateral to voluntary hand movement exhibited enhanced connectivity with the midbrain, thalamus, putamen, and so on in patients with PD compared to control subjects. In contrast, the STN ipsilateral to the hand movement exhibited enhanced connectivity with the midbrain and insula in PD patients compared to control subjects. Connectivity between the STN contralateral to the hand movement and the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area was positively correlated with the severity of bradykinesia. Our findings suggest that STN-related connectivity in the hyperdirect and indirect basal ganglia pathways is strengthened during self-initiated movement in patients with PD. These disrupted network connections may contribute to bradykinesia.



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Congenital involvement of the central nervous system by the Zika virus in a child without microcephaly - Spectrum of congenital syndrome by the Zika virus

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas Ribeiro, Bernardo Carvalho Muniz, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Edson Marchiori




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Spontaneous Healing of a Symptomatic Basilar Artery Dissection

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Enrico Giordan, Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino




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Feasibility of improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMSDE) prepared 3D T1-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar artery dissection

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): JinWook Choi, Miran Han, Ji Man Hong, Jin Soo Lee, Sun Yong Kim, Sam Soo Kim
Background and purposeThis study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMSDE)-prepared 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (iMSDE-3DMRI) in intracranial vertebrobasilary dissection (VBD) and to compare iMSDE-3DMRI images with those obtained using 2D-high resolution (HR) MRI with respect to their diagnostic performance in VBD.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 105 lesions from 102 patients who underwent multimodal imaging and contrast enhanced iMSDE-3DMRI (CE-iMSDE-3DMRI). The 2D-HRMRI protocol comprised four axial HR images. The CE-iMSDE-3DMRI images were reformatted in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. The 2D-HRMRI-based diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. The 2D-HRMRI and CE-iMSDE-3DMRI images were examined independently for the diagnosis performance of dissection.ResultsVBD was confirmed in 66 lesions in 63 patients; 17 patients had confirmed atherosclerosis, and 22 had no lesions in the vertebrobasilar artery. Diagnostic performances of 2D HRMRI (AUC, 0.839±0.04; sensitivity, 94.0; specificity, 79.5; diagnostic accuracy, 88.6) CE-iMSDE-3DMRI (AUC, 0.847±0.04; sensitivity, 84.8; specificity, 84.6; diagnostic accuracy, 84.7) and 2D HRMRI +CE-iMSDE-3DMRI (AUC, 0.893±0.03; sensitivity, 97.0; specificity, 85.0; diagnostic accuracy, 92.5) were good. Comparisons of the diagnostic performance of 2D HRMRI andCE-iMSDE-3DMRI showed that combined interpretation of 2D-HRMRI and iMSDE-3DMRI yields a significantly higher diagnostic performance than that of 2D-HRMRI (p= 0.042).ConclusionsCE-iMSDE-3DMRI showed good diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of intracranial VBD. These results suggest that CE-iMSDE-3DMRI can be used in combination with 2D-HRMRI for the diagnosis of intracranial VBD.



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Primary versus secondary mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation stroke in children: an update

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Manuel Cappellari, Giuseppe Moretto, Andrea Grazioli, Giuseppe Kenneth Ricciardi, Paolo Bovi, Elisa Francesca Maria Ciceri
This review of the literature on the use of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in children with acute ischemic stroke from occlusion of the internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) compares the efficacy and safety of primary and secondary MT. We analyzed the data reported for 24 case reports from 20 relevant articles published up to 31 December 2016 and the data of a patient treated at our institution. Eighteen cases received primary MT and 7 received secondary MT. The proportions of complete MCA recanalization, small infarcts, and asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were similar in both MT groups (73% [11/15] vs. 67% [4/6], 58% [7/12] vs. 60% [3/5], and 15% [2/13] vs. 17% [1/6], respectively). The proportion of favorable neurological outcomes was higher for the primary MT group (69% [11/16] vs. 43% [3/7]).We found no substantial differences in efficacy and safety between primary and secondary MT for anterior circulation stroke in children.



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Eagle's syndrome: a rare cause of cervical internal carotid pseudo-aneurysmal dissection

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Benjamin Langlet, Xavier Barreau, Gaultier Marnat, Vincent Dousset




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Greater Occipital Nerve Cryoneurolysis in the management of intractable Occipital Neuralgia

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Adrian Kastler, Arnaud Attyé, Caroline Maindet, Benjamin Nicot, Emmanuel GAY, Bruno Kastler, Alexandre Krainik




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CNS aspergilloma mimicking tumors: review of CNS aspergillus infection imaging characteristics in the immunocompetent population

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Devendra Kumar, Pankaj Nepal, Sumit Singh, Subraminayan ramanathan, Maneesh khanna, Rakesh Sheoran, S K Bansal, Santosh Patil
Background And PurposeCNS Aspergillosis is very rare and difficult to diagnose clinically and on imaging. Our objective was to elucidate distinct neuroimaging pattern of CNS aspergillosis in the immunocompetent population that helps to differentiate from other differential diagnosis.MethodsRetrospective analysis of brain imaging findings was performed in eight proven cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. Immunocompetent status was screened with clinical and radiological information. Cases were evaluated for anatomical distribution, T1 and T2 signal pattern in MRI and attenuation characteristics in CT scan, post contrast enhancement pattern, internal inhomogeneity, vascular involvement, calvarial involvement and concomitant paranasal, cavernous sinus or orbital extension. All patients were operated and diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology.ResultsThe age range was 19-50 years with mean age of 33.7 years. Concomitant sinonasal disease was seen in six patients (75%). Three patients had orbital extensions. Most of the lesions (n=7) were profoundly hypointense in T2-weighted imaging. The most common enhancement pattern was bright, solid and homogenous enhancement (n=7). Cavernous extension with ICA encasement was always associated with paranasal sinus disease. Six patients showed demineralization or complete resorption of involved bone. All of the fungal masses appear hyperdense on available CT scan images.ConclusionCNS aspergillus infection in immunocompetent patients has distinct imaging features as compared to CNS aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. A high index of suspicion in proper clinical settings, even with immunocompetent status and typical imaging features allow us to diagnose CNS aspergillosis in such patients.



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Variability of Stroke Patients Meeting Endovascular Stroke Trial Criteria in a Non-Clinical Trial Setting

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Journal of Neuroradiology
Author(s): Jennifer E. Fugate, Waleed Brinjikji, Harry Cloft, David F. Kallmes, Alejandro A. Rabinstein
BackgroundFive randomized trials proving the efficacy and safety of mechanical embolectomy for ischemic stroke within 8hours used differing radiological methods to select patients. We aimed to evaluate the proportion of patients in clinical practice that would meet radiological criteria for inclusion in these trials.MethodsRetrospective study of ischemic stroke patients at a large academic medical center who were considered for endovascular stroke therapy based on confirmed intracranial large vessel occlusion from April 2010-November 2014. All patients underwent computed tomography(CT) perfusion and CT angiogram.ResultsOf 119 patients, median age was 69 years (IQR 57-79) and median NIHSS 18 (IQR 14-21). Most patients had ASPECTS ≥ 6 (n=105, 88.2%). All 119 patients met radiological criteria for MR CLEAN while 105 (88.2%) met criteria for SWIFT-PRIME, 96 (80.7%) for REVASCAT, 80/116 (69.0%) for EXTEND-IA, and 74 (62.2%) for ESCAPE. About half (n=58,48.7%) were treated with IV rtPA and 66 (56%) underwent endovascular therapy. Any intracranial hemorrhage was more common in patients undergoing endovascular therapy than in those who were not (36% vs. 17%, p=0.034). The frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) did not significantly differ between these groups (6% vs. 4%, p=0.691).ConclusionsThe proportion of patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusion presenting within eight hours that would meet radiological criteria for endovascular stroke trials varies considerably (62-100%) in a cohort outside of clinical trials from an academic comprehensive stroke center. Thus, the radiological criteria used for candidate selection in daily practice will greatly influence the proportion of patients treated with endovascular therapy.



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Predicting hypoxia status using a combination of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography radiomics features

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Radiotherapy and Oncology
Author(s): Mireia Crispin-Ortuzar, Aditya Apte, Milan Grkovski, Jung Hun Oh, Nancy Y. Lee, Heiko Schöder, John L. Humm, Joseph O. Deasy
Background and purposeHypoxia is a known prognostic factor in head and neck cancer. Hypoxia imaging PET radiotracers such as 18F-FMISO are promising but not widely available. The aim of this study was therefore to design a surrogate for 18F-FMISO TBRmax based on 18F-FDG PET and contrast-enhanced CT radiomics features, and to study its performance in the context of hypoxia-based patient stratification.Methods121 lesions from 75 head and neck cancer patients were used in the analysis. Patients received pre-treatment 18F-FDG and 18F-FMISO PET/CT scans. 79 lesions were used to train a cross-validated LASSO regression model based on radiomics features, while the remaining 42 were held out as an internal test subset.ResultsIn the training subset, the highest AUC (0.873±0.008) was obtained from a signature combining CT and 18F-FDG PET features. The best performance on the unseen test subset was also obtained from the combined signature, with an AUC of 0.833, while the model based on the 90th percentile of 18F-FDG uptake had a test AUC of 0.756.ConclusionA radiomics signature built from 18F-FDG PET and contrast-enhanced CT features correlates with 18F-FMISO TBRmax in head and neck cancer patients, providing significantly better performance with respect to models based on 18F-FDG PET only. Such a biomarker could potentially be useful to personalize head and neck cancer treatment at centers for which dedicated hypoxia imaging PET radiotracers are unavailable.



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Genotype-driven phase I study of weekly irinotecan in combination with capecitabine-based neoadjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
Source:Radiotherapy and Oncology
Author(s): Ji Zhu, Xinxiang Li, Yunzhu Shen, Yun Guan, Weilie Gu, Peng Lian, Weiqi Sheng, Sanjun Cai, Zhen Zhang
PurposeWe aimed to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of weekly irinotecan in combination with capecitabine-based neoadjuvant chemoradiation according to the UGT1A1∗28 genotype in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.Patients and methodsPatients with clinical stage T3-4, N0-2 who were eligible for preoperative chemoradiotherapy were screened for the UGT1A1∗28 genotype. Twenty-six patients with either the ∗1∗1 or ∗1∗28 genotype were eligible for dose escalation of irinotecan, and patients with a ∗28∗28 genotype were excluded. The starting dose of weekly irinotecan was 50 mg/m2 for the two genotype groups, whereas the dose of capecitabine was fixed at 625 mg/m2. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was applied to the whole pelvis (total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions).ResultsThe dose of weekly irinotecan was escalated to 95 mg/m2 in patients with the ∗1∗1 genotype and to 80 mg/m2 in those with the ∗1∗28 genotype. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in 2/2 ∗1∗1 patients at 95 mg/m2 and 2/3 ∗1∗28 patients at 80 mg/m2. No DLT cases were observed among the three ∗1∗1 patients at 80 mg/m2, and one DLT case was observed among the six patients with ∗1∗28 at 65 mg/m2. Hence, 80 mg/m2 and 65 mg/m2 were the MTDs for the two groups. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were neutropenia and diarrhea.ConclusionA higher dose of weekly irinotecan in combination with capecitabine-based CRT is feasible under the guidance of the UGT1A1∗28 genotype. Further clinical trials at these dose levels are warranted.



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Do clinical and laboratory variables have any impact on the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with fever of unknown origin?

Abstract

Objective

To assess the influence of clinical features and laboratory test results on the determination of fever of unknown origin (FUO) by means of 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Methods

Retrospective and longitudinal analysis, including all the PET/CT studies requested for FUO. Reference standard was established by serology, cultures or biopsy with other laboratory tests or clinical follow-up when necessary. Clinical variables, inflammation markers, protein analysis, serology and culture results close to the PET scan were obtained. The final diagnosis was classified into three groups attending to the etiology; group 1: infection or neoplasm, group 2: vasculitis, autoimmune disease or non-infectious inflammatory disease and group 3: auto-limited fever or persistent fever without diagnosis. PET/CT scans were classified as positive or negative and helpful or not in the diagnosis of the fever origin. The effect of clinical features and laboratory variables on the PET/CT results was analyzed.

Results

Sixty-seven patients were evaluated. The final diagnosis was: Group 1 (25), Group 2 (20) and Group 3 (22). 89.6% of patients had a positive inflammation marker, 28.4% proteinogram alterations and 20.9% positive cultures. PET/CT was positive in 52/67 patients. PET/CT helped in the establishment of the fever origin in 35 cases and was especially helpful in groups 1 and 2. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT were: 84, 31 and 61%. PET results shown significant relations with the final diagnosis (p = 0.035) and culture results (p = 0.037). No significant relations were observed with the rest of clinical or laboratory variables.

Conclusions

18F-FDG PET/CT had a high sensitivity but a low specificity in the diagnosis of the fever origin, probably due to the high rate of diffuse and auto-limited aetiologies. Patients who are most likely to benefit from the PET/CT study would be those with several positive inflammation markers, reflecting a higher pre-test probability of active disease.



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[Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents: about 22 cases].

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[Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents: about 22 cases].

Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28:71

Authors: Anajar S, Tatari M, Lakhbal A, Abada R, Rouadi S, Roubal M, Mahtar M

Abstract
This study aimed to highlight the features of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents and to evaluate our results compared to the international literature on the basis of the most representative case series in Morocco: 22 cases. We conducted a retrosective study of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer hospitalized in the otorhinolaryngology and cervicofacial surgery department at the Hôpital 20 Août, Casablanca, Morocco over the period January 1995-March 2015. We collected data on 22 cases that met our inclusion criteria. The average age of our patients was 14 years, with a sex-ratio of 3.4; most of our patients presented with thyroid nodule, associated with cervical lymphadenopathy in 22.7% of cases and with signs of compression in 9.1% of cases. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, followed by lymph node dissection in 31.82% of cases. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on the anatomo-pathological examination of the surgical specimen, that showed papillary carcinoma in 95.4% of cases and vesicular carcinoma in 4.5% of cases. Radioactive iodine-131 treatment was performed in 100% of cases. Subsequently all patients underwent thyroid hormone therapy. Close and regular monitoring allowed the detection of nodal metastases in 3 patients and of distant metastases in 4 patients. Differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents is rare but aggressive. Treatment is based on surgery associated with iratherapy, with excellent prognosis.

PMID: 29255541 [PubMed - in process]



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Investigation of BRAF V600E detection approaches in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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Investigation of BRAF V600E detection approaches in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract. 2017 Sep 29;:

Authors: Chen D, Qi W, Zhang P, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Guan H, Wang L

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The detection of BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) may be helpful to offer diagnostic confirmation. Additionally, such detection may provide a targeted therapeutic approach for the radioactive iodine resistant patients to predict adverse outcomes. To compare the results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using the anti-BRAF V600E (VE1) antibody with the Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach in examining BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, we investigated the sensitivity and specificity of BRAF V600E (clone VE1) mouse monoclonal antibody in detecting the BRAF V600E mutation and correlated BRAF V600E mutation with clinicopathologic features in PTC.
METHODS: IHC and qPCR were performed in 40 cases of paraffin-embedded PTCs tissues. The association between BRAFV600E mutation and clinicopathologic features of PTC was assessed with the χ2 test.
RESULTS: The concordance rate between IHC and qPCR analyses was 95% (38/40). The BRAF V600E (VE1) antibody has a sensitivity of 100% (34/34) and specificity of 66.67% (4/6) for detecting the mutation. Our study showed that there was no significant association of BRAF V600E mutation with the gender, age, tumor size and lymph node metastasis in PTCs.
CONCLUSION: We may draw the conclusion that detection of BRAF V600E mutation by immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutated BRAF V600E protein in PTC may facilitate mutational analysis in the clinical setting.

PMID: 29254799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Intentional Drug Overdose Involving Pregabalin and Gabapentin: Findings from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland, 2007–2015

Abstract

Introduction

Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is a significant public health problem. Concerns about the misuse of gabapentinoids, i.e. pregabalin and gabapentin, including their consumption in IDO have grown in recent years. This paper examines the trends in the prevalence of gabapentinoids taken in IDO, the profile of individuals taking them, and associated overdose characteristics.

Methods

Presentations to emergency departments involving IDO, recorded by the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2015 were examined. Data items included patient demographics, drug names, total tablet quantity consumed and alcohol involvement.

Results

Gabapentinoids were involved in 2115 (2.9%) of the 72,391 IDOs recorded. Presentations involving a gabapentinoid increased proportionally from 0.5% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2015. The majority of IDOs involving a gabapentinoid were made by females (59.9%), with over one-third (37.2%) involving alcohol. Compared with IDOs involving other drugs, presentations with a gabapentinoid were made by persons who were older (median 37 vs. 32 years) and involved a significantly greater median quantity of tablets (30 vs. 21, p ≤ 0.001), with over one-quarter (27.4%) of these involving the ingestion of 50 tablets or more. Admission to hospital was significantly more common following IDOs with a gabapentinoid compared with those without (49.4% vs. 41.4%, p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusions

This study identified the increasing use of gabapentinoids in IDO, describing the profile and overdose characteristics of presentations. It is important for clinicians to exercise vigilance while prescribing gabapentinoids, including being aware of other medications that their patients may have access to. Our findings support the need for routine monitoring for signs of misuse among those prescribed gabapentinoids.



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Zwischen religiöser Identität und gleichwertiger Akzeptanz. Interreligiosität und Interkulturalität in Kindertagesstätten - eine jüdische Perspektive



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"...dass die Entdeckung des Menschen auch die Entdeckung des Juden bedeutet". Zur Sichtbarmachung der humanitas bei Joseph Carlebach.



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Population Based Metaheuristic Algorithm Approach for Analysis of Multi-Item Multi-Period Procurement Lot Sizing Problem

This research study focuses on the optimization of multi-item multi-period procurement lot sizing problem for inventory management. Mathematical model is developed which considers different practical constraints like storage space and budget. The aim is to find optimum order quantities of the product so that total cost of inventory is minimized. The NP-hard mathematical model is solved by adopting a novel ant colony optimization approach. Due to lack of benchmark method specified in the literature to assess the performance of the above approach, another metaheuristic based program of genetic algorithm is also employed to solve the problem. The parameters of genetic algorithm model are calibrated using Taguchi method of experiments. The performance of both algorithms is compared using ANOVA analysis with the real time data collected from a valve manufacturing company. It is verified that two methods have not shown any significant difference as far as objective function value is considered. But genetic algorithm is far better than the ACO method when compared on the basis of CPU execution time.

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Water Level Sensing in a Steel Vessel Using A0 and Quasi-Scholte Waves

This paper presents a water level sensing method using guided waves of A0 and quasi-Scholte modes. Theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are performed to investigate the properties of both the A0 and quasi-Scholte modes. The comparative study of dispersion curves reveals that the plate with one side in water supports a quasi-Scholte mode besides Lamb modes. In addition, group velocities of A0 and quasi-Scholte modes are different. It is also found that the low-frequency A0 mode propagating in a free plate can convert to the quasi-Scholte mode when the plate has one side in water. Based on the velocity difference and mode conversion, a water level sensing method is developed. For the proof of concept, a laboratory experiment using a pitch-catch configuration with two piezoelectric transducers is designed for sensing water level in a steel vessel. The experimental results show that the travelling time between the two transducers linearly increases with the increase of water level and agree well with the theoretical predictions.

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Robust Group Identification and Variable Selection in Regression

The elimination of insignificant predictors and the combination of predictors with indistinguishable coefficients are the two issues raised in searching for the true model. Pairwise Absolute Clustering and Sparsity (PACS) achieves both goals. Unfortunately, PACS is sensitive to outliers due to its dependency on the least-squares loss function which is known to be very sensitive to unusual data. In this article, the sensitivity of PACS to outliers has been studied. Robust versions of PACS (RPACS) have been proposed by replacing the least squares and nonrobust weights in PACS with MM-estimation and robust weights depending on robust correlations instead of person correlation, respectively. A simulation study and two real data applications have been used to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

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Experimental Characterization of Dielectric Properties in Fluid Saturated Artificial Shales

High dielectric contrast between water and hydrocarbons provides a useful method for distinguishing between producible layers of reservoir rocks and surrounding media. Dielectric response at high frequencies is related to the moisture content of rocks. Correlations between the dielectric permittivity and specific surface area can be used for the estimation of elastic and geomechanical properties of rocks. Knowledge of dielectric loss-factor and relaxation frequency in shales is critical for the design of techniques for effective hydrocarbon extraction and production from unconventional reservoirs. Although applicability of dielectric measurements is intriguing, the data interpretation is very challenging due to many factors influencing the dielectric response. For instance, dielectric permittivity is determined by mineralogical composition of solid fraction, volumetric content and composition of saturating fluid, rock microstructure and geometrical features of its solid components and pore space, temperature, and pressure. In this experimental study, we investigate the frequency dependent dielectric properties of artificial shale rocks prepared from silt-clay mixtures via mechanical compaction. Samples are prepared with various clay contents and pore fluids of different salinity and cation compositions. Measurements of dielectric properties are conducted in two orientations to investigate the dielectric anisotropy as the samples acquire strongly oriented microstructures during the compaction process.

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HPV Status and Its Correlation with BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and Survivin Expression in Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

Despite recent evidence, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in breast carcinogenesis is controversial. The correlations of HPV infection with the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-associated proteins have not been well elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPVs (HR-HPVs) infection and BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin expression in breast cancer patients and to investigate the relationship of HPV with these cancer-related proteins, in an attempt to clarify the potential mechanism of HPV in breast cancer pathogenesis. HPV presence in 81 fresh breast cancer tissues was determined by hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay, and expression of BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry. Here we showed that fourteen (17.3%) patients were HR-HPV positive. HPV infection demonstrated no significant correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. HPV-positive tumors showed significantly higher BCL2 and lower p53 expression than HPV-negative tumors. Expression of p21, Rb, and survivin was not associated with HPV status. Our results suggest a possible role of HR-HPV in breast cancer carcinogenesis, in which BCL2 and p53 may be involved.

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The Impact of Age on Clinical Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Long-Term Results of a Real-World Registry

The aim of this retrospective multicenter registry study was to investigate age-dependent trends in mortality, long-term survival, and comorbidity over time in patients who underwent isolated CABG from 2003 to 2015. The percentage of patients

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The Role of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Reducing Bacterial Contamination of Autologous Bone Graft Collected from Implant Site

The aim of this study was to evaluate if antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the bacterial contamination of bone particles collected directly from the burs used for implant site preparation. Thirty-four patients underwent the surgical procedures for a total of 34 implant sites. One 1 gr. tablet of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was given to the test group 12 hours and 1 hour before the surgery. The control group did not take antibiotic prophylaxis. Bone particles were collected and centrifuged. The suspensions were subjected to serial dilutions and each dilution was examined twice using a spatulation technique in Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA), in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, and in Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). The number of colonies was calculated and the identification of various microorganisms was made. The most represented species, in both groups of patients, belonged to the “oral Streptococci.” For TSA, the test and control groups differed significantly (p = 0.018). Conversely, there was no significant difference for MSA (p = 0.201) and for the number of bacterial species isolated in the samples of the two groups of patients (p = 0.898). The antibiotic prophylaxis reduced, but did not cancel, the risk of infection of the autogenous particulate bone graft. This trial is registered with IRCT2017102537002N1.

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The 2D Spectral Intrinsic Decomposition Method Applied to Image Analysis

We propose a new method for autoadaptive image decomposition and recomposition based on the two-dimensional version of the Spectral Intrinsic Decomposition (SID). We introduce a faster diffusivity function for the computation of the mean envelope operator which provides the components of the SID algorithm for any signal. The 2D version of SID algorithm is implemented and applied to some very known images test. We extracted relevant components and obtained promising results in images analysis applications.

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Multiple Tophaceous Gout of Hand with Extensor Tendon Rupture

A 45-year-old man presented with painless subcutaneous masses bilaterally on his hands and loss of motion or contracture of the fingers. Initially, drug therapy to reduce the serum uric acid was administered and was expected to reduce the tophi. However, during observation at the clinic, spontaneous rupture of an extensor tendon occurred, and surgical repair of the tendon and resection of the masses were performed. Surgical exploration of the right hand showed hypertrophic white-colored crystal deposits that both surrounded and invaded the extensor digitorum communis of the index finger, which was ruptured. Histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated findings consistent with gouty tophi. Tophaceous gout can induce a rupture of tendons during clinical observation, and surgical resection of the tophi might be needed to prevent ruptures.

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Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus following Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Background. This study examines gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) following GDM pregnancy. Methods. A cohort of 988 pregnant women with PCOS who delivered during 2002–2005 was examined to determine the prevalence and predictors of GDM, with follow-up through 2010 among those with GDM to estimate the risk of DM. Results. Of the 988 pregnant women with PCOS, 192 (19%) developed GDM. Multivariable predictors of GDM included older age, Asian race, prepregnancy obesity, family history of DM, preconception metformin use, and multiple gestation. Among women with PCOS and GDM pregnancy, the incidence of DM was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–4.2) per 100 person-years and substantially higher for those who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (6.6 versus 1.5 per 100 person-years, ). The multivariable adjusted risk of DM was fourfold higher in women who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (adjusted hazard ratio 4.1, 95% CI 1.8–9.6). The five-year incidence of DM was 13.1% overall and also higher in the pharmacologic treatment subgroup (27.0% versus 7.1%, ). Conclusions. The strongest predictors of GDM among women with PCOS included Asian race and prepregnancy obesity. Pharmacologic treatment of GDM is associated with fourfold higher risk of subsequent DM.

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Integrated Karyotyping of Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with Oligopaint FISH Probes

Chromosome identification is critical for many aspects of cytogenetic research. However, for Fragaria vesca, definite identification of individual chromosomes is almost impossible because of their small size and high similarity. Here, we demonstrate that bulked oligonucleotide (oligo) probes can be used as chromosome-specific DNA markers for chromosome identification in F. vesca. Oligos specific to entire pseudochromosomes in the draft genome of F. vesca were identified and synthesized as libraries. In all, we synthesized 6 oligo libraries corresponding to 6 pseudochromosomes of F. vesca. These libraries were amplified and labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two rounds of multicolor FISH analysis were sequentially conducted on the same metaphase cells with each round including 3 probe libraries, which permitted simultaneous identification of all chromosomes of F. vesca. Moreover, 45S and 5S rDNA were mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, and 7, respectively. A karyotype of metaphase chromosomes was constructed, representing the first FISH-based molecular cytogenetic karyotype of F. vesca. Our study can serve as a basis for future comparative cytogenetic research through cross-species chromosome painting using bulked oligo probes and will facilitate the application of breeding technologies that rely on the identification of chromosomes in the genus Fragaria.
Cytogenet Genome Res

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2773: Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2773: Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122773

Authors: Long Zheng Peisheng Hu Brandon Wolfe Caryn Gonsalves Luqing Ren Leslie Khawli Harvey Kaslow Alan Epstein

T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR) on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgammanull (NSG) mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP) in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2772: Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2772: Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122772

Authors: Sandra Vomund Anne Schäfer Michael Parnham Bernhard Brüne Andreas von Knethen

Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development.



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Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 400: Structural Characterization and Association of Ovine Dickkopf-1 Gene with Wool Production and Quality Traits in Chinese Merino

Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 400: Structural Characterization and Association of Ovine Dickkopf-1 Gene with Wool Production and Quality Traits in Chinese Merino

Genes doi: 10.3390/genes8120400

Authors: Fang Mu Enguang Rong Yang Jing Hua Yang Guangwei Ma Xiaohong Yan Zhipeng Wang Yumao Li Hui Li Ning Wang

Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling pathway and regulates hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. To investigate the potential involvement of DKK1 in wool production and quality traits, we characterized the genomic structure of ovine DKK1, performed polymorphism detection and association analysis of ovine DKK1 with wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino. Our results showed that ovine DKK1 consists of four exons and three introns, which encodes a protein of 262 amino acids. The coding sequence of ovine DKK1 and its deduced amino acid sequence were highly conserved in mammals. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the ovine DKK1 genomic region. Gene-wide association analysis showed that SNP5 was significantly associated with mean fiber diameter (MFD) in the B (selected for long wool fiber and high-quality wool), PW (selected for high reproductive capacity, high clean wool yield and high-quality wool) and U (selected for long wool fiber with good uniformity, high wool yield and lower fiber diameter) strains (p < 4.55 × 10−3 = 0.05/11). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms wide association analysis showed that SNP8 was significantly associated with MFD in A strain and fleece weight in A (selected for large body size), PM (selected for large body size, high reproductive capacity and high meat yield) and SF (selected for mean fiber diameter less than 18 μm and wool fiber length between 5 and 9 cm) strains (p < 0.05), SNP9 was significantly associated with curvature in B and U strains (p < 0.05) and SNP10 was significantly associated with coefficient of variation of fiber diameter in A, PW and PM strains and standard deviation of fiber diameter in A and PM strains (p < 0.05). The haplotypes derived from these 11 identified SNPs were significantly associated with MFD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that DKK1 may be a major gene controlling wool production and quality traits, also the identified SNPs (SNPs5, 8, 9 and 10) might be used as potential molecular markers for improving sheep wool production and quality in sheep breeding.



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Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 401: Using Human iPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Activity-Dependent Non-Coding RNAs

Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 401: Using Human iPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Activity-Dependent Non-Coding RNAs

Genes doi: 10.3390/genes8120401

Authors: Mainá Bitar Stefanie Kuiper Elizabeth O’Brien Guy Barry

Humans are arguably the most complex organisms present on Earth with their ability to imagine, create, and problem solve. As underlying mechanisms enabling these capacities reside in the brain, it is not surprising that the brain has undergone an extraordinary increase in size and complexity within the last few million years. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be differentiated into many cell types that were virtually inaccessible historically, such as neurons. Here, we used hiPSC-derived neurons to investigate the cellular response to activation at the transcript level. Neuronal activation was performed with potassium chloride (KCl) and its effects were assessed by RNA sequencing. Our results revealed the involvement of long non-coding RNAs and human-specific genetic variants in response to neuronal activation and help validate hiPSCs as a valuable resource for the study of human neuronal networks. In summary, we find that genes affected by KCl-triggered activation are implicated in pathways that drive cell proliferation, differentiation, and the emergence of specialized morphological features. Interestingly, non-coding RNAs of various classes are amongst the most highly expressed genes in activated hiPSC-derived neurons, thus suggesting these play crucial roles in neural pathways and may significantly contribute to the unique functioning of the human brain.



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Turbinate reduction with complete preservation of mucosa and submucosa during rhinoplasty

Abstract

Background

Turbinate surgery is an important adjunct to functional and cosmetic rhinoplasty. Many studies have analyzed the effects of various mucosal-sparing techniques, such as radiofrequency, laser, shaver, and others. These techniques, however, result in the destruction of the submucosal tissue of the turbinate. The goal of this study was to determine whether excellent functional outcome could be achieved with techniques sparing both the mucosa and submucosa from destruction when addressing the turbinates in rhinoplasty surgery.

Materials and methods

A prospective single-surgeon clinical study analyzing submucous resection of turbinate bone without destruction of the submucosa or mucosa in patients undergoing functional–esthetic rhinoplasty was performed. In all, 122 patients (47 men, 75 women, average age: 32.1 years, range: 16–69 years) were eligible for the study. The functional outcome was measured prospectively using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) score. Occurrence of complications was documented.

Results

Of over 1000 surgical patients, 307 candidates fulfilled multiple selection criteria and were entered in a rhinoplasty database. The surveys sufficient for the present study were completed by 122 of 307 patients (39.7%), of whom 91 patients reported improvement, 14 patients reported no subjective change, and 12 patients reported minimal worsening of nasal breathing. Overall, postoperative function was excellent (preoperative vs. postoperative NOSE score 47.5 vs. 20.1, p < 0.001). A large proportion of patients reporting worsening of symptoms (50%) were diagnosed with decongestant nasal spray abuse. Specific complications such as bleeding, foul drainage, dryness, and crusting were not reported.

Conclusion

All function-bearing structures of the inferior nasal turbinates, mucosa, and submucosa can be fully preserved without impairment of functional outcome during rhinoplasty. The technique of selective submucous bone resection is as an excellent alternative for patients undergoing rhinoplasty for concomitant treatment or prevention of nasal obstruction.



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Seltene Ursache einer Rektumstenose



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Perioperativer Umgang mit immunsuppressiver Therapie

Zusammenfassung

Pro Jahr werden in Deutschland ca. 16 Mio. operative Eingriffe durchgeführt. Eine ganze Reihe von Patienten hat eine Autoimmunerkrankung, z. B. rheumatoide Arthritis, Psoriasis, chronisch-entzündliche Darmerkrankungen, die einer Therapie bedarf. Hier werden vor allem Immunsuppressiva eingesetzt. Im klinischen Alltag ist der operativ tätige Arzt mit der Frage konfrontiert, ob diese perioperativ fortgeführt werden können oder pausiert werden sollten und wenn ja, mit welchem Risiko. Der perioperative Umgang mit dieser Medikamentengruppe ist äußerst relevant, da viele Patienten z. B. mit rheumatoider Arthritis im Verlauf eine totale Knie- oder Hüftendoprothese benötigen oder auch Patienten mit chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen aufgrund ihrer Erkrankung operiert werden müssen. Das Pausieren einer immunsuppressiven Therapie sollte im interdisziplinären Konsens anhand der zugrunde liegenden Erkrankung diskutiert werden, da es bei einer Fortführung zu einer erhöhten Rate an Komplikationen, vor allem Wundheilungsstörungen, kommen kann. Bekommt ein Patient Glukokortikoide zur Immunsuppression, muss berücksichtigt werden, dass es in der perioperativen Phase zu einer vermehrten Stressreaktion des Körpers kommt, bei der ein erhöhter Bedarf an Glukokortikoiden vorhanden ist. Bei einer exogenen Zufuhr (ab 7,5 mg/Tag Prednisolonäquivalent) wird diese Stressantwort inhibiert. Daher wird in diesen Fällen in der perioperativen Phase eine Hydrokortisonsubstitution empfohlen.



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Pankreasfrühkarzinom

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Das Pankreaskarzinom steht bei den tumorbedingten Todesursachen aktuell an vierter Stelle und wird bis 2020 voraussichtlich die zweithäufigste Todesursache in den USA sein.

Fragestellung

Welche Diagnosemöglichkeiten und Therapiestrategien zur Behandlung eines Pankreasfrühkarzinoms und seiner präkanzerösen Vorstufen können angewandt werden?

Ergebnisse

Eine flächendeckende Vorsorgeuntersuchung ist zur Früherkennung beim Pankreaskarzinom in der Normalbevölkerung nicht sinnvoll. Beim Verdacht auf auf das Vorliegen eines familiären Pankreaskarzinoms oder bei nachgewiesenen sporadischen Keimbahnmutationen mit erhöhtem Erkrankungsrisiko sollte hingegen eine Vorsorgeuntersuchung spätestens ab dem 45. Lebensjahr begonnen werden. Ebenfalls sollte bei Patienten mit einer präkanzerösen Pankreasneoplasie (insbesondere muzinöse Pankreastumoren) eine elektive Pankreas(teil)resektion durchgeführt werden, da hier ein relevantes Risiko für das Vorliegen eines Pankreasfrühkarzinoms besteht. Komplementär zur bildgebenden Diagnostik können möglicherweise zukünftig nichtinvasive, blutbasierte Biomarker wie zirkulierende Tumorzellen, Exosome oder zellfreie Tumor-DNA eingesetzt werden, um ein Pankreaskarzinom bereits im Frühstadium erkennen zu können.

Schlussfolgerung

Die rechtzeitige Diagnose und Behandlung eines Pankreasfrühkarzinoms kann die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten deutlich verbessern.



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Primärtumordiagnostik bei metastasierten neuroendokrinen Tumoren



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Antibiotics, Vol. 6, Pages 39: Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

Antibiotics, Vol. 6, Pages 39: Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

Antibiotics doi: 10.3390/antibiotics6040039

Authors: Christina Stefanaki Alexandra Ieronymaki Theoni Matoula Chrysseis Caroni Evaggelia Polythodoraki Stella-Eugenia Chryssou George Kontochristopoulos Christina Antoniou

Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010–2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%), followed by erythromycin (34.3%). Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%), fusidic acid (46%), clindamycin (38%) and tetracycline (35.5%). Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.



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Metropole de Lyon and IARC unveil plans for new IARC building

After an 18-month international competitive bidding process for the design and construction of the "Nouveau Centre" (combined design-build contract) for the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the winning team has been selected by the Metropole de Lyon. The team consists of Demathieu Bard (general contractor), Art&Build (architects), Unanime (architects), WSP (design engineering company), and Inddigo (sustainable development engineering company). The project is managed by the Metropole de Lyon and funded by the French government, the Metropole de Lyon, the Region Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, and the Ville de Lyon.


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Senior Visiting Scientist Award 2017

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the recipient of the 2017 Senior Visiting Scientist Award is Dr Brent Richards, Associate Professor of Medicine at the Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.


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IARC launches COSMOS-France, a survey on mobile phone use and health

cosmos.pngThe International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is launching the French component of the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) project. France is joining a study that is already under way in Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

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Novel combination therapy shown to be effective in ovarian cancer

Researchers at The Wistar Institute have found that combining PARP inhibitors, recently approved for the treatment of BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer, with another small molecule inhibitor was effective to treat ovarian cancers without BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene...

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Mechanism behind metabolic vulnerability of some breast cancers

Scientists have known since the 1980s that many cancer cells are relatively sensitive to the deprivation of an essential amino acid known as methionine. It has, however, long been unclear what causes such marked dependency on methionine. Now, a Ludwig...

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Arthritis drug could help treat advanced skin cancer

Treatment for the most deadly form of skin cancer could be more effective if combined with a well-known drug for rheumatoid arthritis, new research has shown. The study, by scientists at the University of East Anglia (UEA), found that in mice, using the...

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Size Matters: Influence of Gold-to-Ligand Ratio and Sulfur-Sulfur Distance of Linear Thioether Heptamers on the Size of Gold Nanoparticles

A systematic investigation of two parameters steering the size of linear octadentate heptamer-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is presented, being i) the chemical structure (sulfur-sulfur distance) of the coating thioether heptamer ligand and ii) the ratio of ligand to tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) reduced during the formation of the AuNPs. For this purpose, a novel terphenyl-based thioether heptamer (Ter) is synthesized via an end-capping oligomerization strategy, comprising an increased distance between neighboring sulfur atoms in the ligand backbone compared to the meta-xylene- (Xyl) and tetraphenylmethane- (TPM) based heptamers. While for both investigated parameters a clear trend to various-sized NPs is shown, a stronger influence in the resulting sizes is observed by alteration of ligand to gold-ratio. Remarkable processability- and long-term stability-features were observed for AuNPs stabilized by the bulky tetraphenylmethane-based heptamer (TPM).

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Selective photodissociation of tailored molecular tags as a tool for quantum optics

Recent progress in synthetic chemistry and molecular quantum optics has enabled demonstrations of the quantum mechanical wave–particle duality for complex particles, with masses exceeding 10 kDa. Future experiments with even larger objects will require new optical preparation and manipulation methods that shall profit from the possibility to cleave a well-defined molecular tag from a larger parent molecule. Here we present the design and synthesis of two model compounds as well as evidence for the photoinduced beam depletion in high vacuum in one case.

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Antioxidant Functionalized Polymer Capsules to Prevent Oxidative Stress

Polymeric capsules exhibit significant potential for therapeutic applications as microreactors, where the bio-chemical reactions of interest are efficiently performed in a spatial and time defined manner due to the encapsulation of an active biomolecule (e.g., enzyme) and control over the transfer of reagents and products through the capsular membrane. In this work, catalase loaded polymer capsules functionalized with an external layer of tannic acid (TA) are fabricated via a layer-by-layer approach using calcium carbonate as a sacrificial template. The capsules functionalised with TA exhibit a higher scavenging capacity for hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that the external layer of TA shows intrinsic antioxidant properties, and represents a valid strategy to increase the overall antioxidant potential of the developed capsules. Additionally, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity of the capsules is enhanced in the presence of the encapsulated catalase. The capsules prevent oxidative stress in an in vitro inflammation model of degenerative disc disease. Moreover, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-5 (ADAMTS-5), which represents the major proteolytic enzymes in intervertebral disc, are attenuated in the presence of the polymer capsules. This platform technology exhibits potential to reduce oxidative stress, a key modulator in the pathology of a broad range of inflammatory diseases.

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Ferrocene derivatives of liquid chiral molecules allow assignment of absolute configuration by X-ray crystallography

The present study investigates a synthetically simple ferrocene derivatization of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Seven new crystal structures are analyzed together with 16 structures of ferrocene derivatives reported previously. In all cases, the unambiguous determination of the absolute structure was established from anomalous dispersion using the methods of Flack and Parsons. A comparison with other derivatization approaches shows the advantage of the described ferrocene derivatization for establishing the absolute configuration of novel compounds.

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Stealthy Hardware Trojan Based Algebraic Fault Analysis of HIGHT Block Cipher

HIGHT is a lightweight block cipher which has been adopted as a standard block cipher. In this paper, we present a bit-level algebraic fault analysis (AFA) of HIGHT, where the faults are perturbed by a stealthy HT. The fault model in our attack assumes that the adversary is able to insert a HT that flips a specific bit of a certain intermediate word of the cipher once the HT is activated. The HT is realized by merely 4 registers and with an extremely low activation rate of about 0.000025. We show that the optimal location for inserting the designed HT can be efficiently determined by AFA in advance. Finally, a method is proposed to represent the cipher and the injected faults with a merged set of algebraic equations and the master key can be recovered by solving the merged equation system with an SAT solver. Our attack, which fully recovers the secret master key of the cipher in 12572.26 seconds, requires three times of activation on the designed HT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Trojan attack on HIGHT.

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Radical Scavenger Capacity of Jabuticaba Fruit (Myrciaria cauliflora) and Its Biological Effects in Hypertensive Rats

Jabuticaba is an exotic fruit native to Brazil that has been arousing medicinal interest. Using chemical (HPLC-PDA, resonance mass spectra, and NMR), electroanalytical (differential pulse voltammetry, radical scavenging assay), and pharmacological (in vivo and in vitro) approaches, we have identified its bioactive compounds and hypotensive effects on hypertensive rats. The hydroalcoholic extract of jabuticaba (HEJ) presents a great quantity of phenolic compounds, and several molecules with hydroxyl groups present high efficiency as an antioxidant. The treatment with HEJ (100 and 300 mg/kg/day, for four weeks) presented hypotensive effects on L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats, possibly improving the nitric oxide bioavailability because of its high antioxidant potential. Furthermore, renal and cardiac hypertrophies were also attenuated after the HEJ treatment. Moreover, the vascular responses to contractile and dilating agonists were improved with the HEJ treatment, which is also able to induce nitric oxide production in endothelial cells.

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Audiovisual Biofeedback-Based Trunk Stabilization Training Using a Pressure Biofeedback System in Stroke Patients: A Randomized, Single-Blinded Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of audiovisual biofeedback-based trunk stabilization training using a pressure biofeedback system (PBS) in stroke patients. Forty-three chronic stroke patients, who had experienced a stroke more than 6 months ago and were able to sit and walk independently, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group () or a control group (). The experimental group participated in audiovisual biofeedback-based trunk stabilization training for 50 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. The control group underwent trunk stabilization training without any biofeedback. The primary outcome of this study was the thickness of the trunk muscles. The secondary outcomes included static sitting balance ability and dynamic sitting balance ability. The thickness of the trunk muscles, static sitting balance ability, and dynamic sitting balance ability were significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the control group (). The present study showed that trunk stabilization training using a PBS had a positive effect on the contracted ratio of trunk muscles and balance ability. By providing audiovisual feedback, the PBS enables accurate and effective training of the trunk muscles, and it is an effective method for trunk stabilization.

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Effects of Human-Centered Factors on Crash Injury Severities

Factors related to drivers and their driving habits dominate the causation of traffic crashes. An in-depth understanding of the human factors that influence risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the application of effective countermeasures. This paper sought to investigate effects of human-centered crash contributing factors on crash outcomes. To select the methodology that best accounts for unobserved heterogeneity between crash outcomes, latent class (LC) logit model and random parameters logit (RPL) model were developed. Model estimation results generally show that serious injury crashes were more likely to involve unemployed drivers, no seatbelt use, old drivers, fatigued driving, and drivers with no valid license. Comparison of model fit statistics shows that the LC logit model outperformed the RPL model, as an alternative to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL) model.

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A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA), oleic acid (OL), and essential fatty acids (EFA), was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA) contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

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Pattern of Contrast Sensitivity Changes in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

Purpose. To evaluate contrast sensitivity (CS) changes in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods. Visual acuity (VA), CS, and subretinal fluid (SRF) were evaluated monthly for 6 months. Treatment was considered at 3 months in case of persistent SRF. Results. Twelve of 20 eyes (60%) had spontaneous SRF resolution within 4 months. Five of 8 patients with delayed SRF resolution received either focal laser or photodynamic therapy. The CS was impaired in all spatial frequencies at baseline. There was a negative correlation between the baseline SRF thickness and CS at 3 and 6 cycles per degree (cpd). The CS improved significantly at the time of fluid resolution () and continued to improve in 3 and 6 cpd. The CS at 6 cpd did not recover if compared to a normal fellow eye at 6 months (). The CS of 12 cpd at 6 months was superior in the spontaneous resolution group. Conclusion. The impaired CS gradually improved as the SRF reduced at all spatial frequencies. CS at 3 and 12 cpd continued to improve after complete fluid resolution. Despite an excellent final VA, the CS at 6 months did not regain its normal value.

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FRAX® Fracture Risks Are Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification Score

Purpose. To examine the association between fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score in adults. Methods. The medical records of 81 adults who underwent both coronary computed tomography and bone mineral density (BMD) studies in a package during their health exams were reviewed at a regional hospital in Southern Taiwan. Data collected included health history, anthropomorphic characteristics, clinical laboratory results, and BMD. Fracture risk was determined using FRAX. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to assess the association between CAC score and 10-year probability of hip fracture (HF) and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) determined by FRAX. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years, and 63.0% were male. Univariate linear regression analysis showed that increases in MOF and HF risks, as measured by FRAX, were significantly and positively associated with CAC score. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders showed that CAC score remained significantly associated with four FRAX indicators, including right MOF (, ), left MOF (, ), right HF (, ), and left HF (, ). Conclusions. Increased risks of MOF and HF as determined by FRAX were significantly and independently associated with CAC score.

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Assessing the Performance of a Noninvasive Glucose Monitor in People with Type 2 Diabetes with Different Demographic Profiles

Background. Noninvasive glucose-monitoring devices represent an exciting frontier in diabetes research. GlucoTrack® is a noninvasive device that indirectly measures glucose fluctuation in the earlobe tissue. However, GlucoTrack measurements may be susceptible to effects of quasi-stable factors that may be affected by demographic profiles. The current study, thus, examined device performances in people with type 2 diabetes with different demographic profiles, focusing on age, gender, body mass, and whether the earlobe is pierced. Materials and Methods. Clinical trials were conducted on 172 type 2 adult diabetic subjects. Device performance was clinically evaluated using the Clarke error grid (CEG) analysis and statistically assessed using absolute relative difference (ARD). Results. CEG analysis revealed that 97.6% of glucose readings were within the clinically acceptable CEG A + B zones. Mean and median ARD were 22.3% and 18.8%, respectively. Likelihood ratio and parametric bootstrap tests revealed that there were no significant differences in ARD values across age, gender, body mass, and whether the earlobe was pierced, indicating that the accuracy of GlucoTrack remains consistent across the tested demographic profiles. Conclusions. Our results suggest that GlucoTrack performance does not depend on demographic profiles of its users and it is thus suitable for various people with type 2 diabetes.

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Development of ANN Model for Wind Speed Prediction as a Support for Early Warning System

The impact of natural disasters increases every year with more casualties and damage to property and the environment. Therefore, it is important to prevent consequences by implementation of the early warning system (EWS) in order to announce the possibility of the harmful phenomena occurrence. In this paper, focus is placed on the implementation of the EWS on the micro location in order to announce possible harmful phenomena occurrence caused by wind. In order to predict such phenomena (wind speed), an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model is developed. The model is developed on the basis of the input data obtained by local meteorological station on the University of Rijeka campus area in the Republic of Croatia. The prediction model is validated and evaluated by visual and common calculation approaches, after which it was found that it is possible to perform very good wind speed prediction for time steps , , and . The developed model is implemented in the EWS as a decision support for improvement of the existing “procedure plan in a case of the emergency caused by stormy wind or hurricane, snow and occurrence of the ice on the University of Rijeka campus.”

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On the Difference of Scaling Properties for Temperature and Precipitation over China

The daily air temperature and precipitation records of four meteorological observation stations over China are used to investigate the differences of scaling property employing the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that the values in DFA-exponent for temperature are higher than those for precipitation compared by different orders DFA1–3. A 95% significance test is also applied to verify LRCs by resampling the temperature and precipitation records 10000 times in Beijing. The values of scaling exponent from original temperature and precipitation records are larger than the upper range value of the interval threshold after shuffling the data records, which implies there are positive LRCs. For temperature records, the value of scaling exponent calculated by FA is greater than those by DFA1–3 at all four stations. This indicates that the FA curve overestimates the scaling behavior due to the effect of trends. By contrast, the values of scaling exponent in precipitation are almost the same by using FA and DFA1–3 for all time scales, respectively. Furthermore, there are crossovers on short time scales in different orders DFA1–3 for the temperature records, while the slopes keep almost consistent on all time scales for the precipitation records.

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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1608: Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1608: Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121608

Authors: Anne-Kathrin Konze Wladislaw Rivkin Klaus-Helmut Schmidt

Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.



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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1607: School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1607: School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121607

Authors: Gabriella Olsson Sara Låftman Bitte Modin

As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.



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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1609: Association between Cesarean Section and Weight Status in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Survey

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1609: Association between Cesarean Section and Weight Status in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Survey

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121609

Authors: Jingjing Liang Zheqing Zhang Wenhan Yang Meixia Dai Lizi Lin Yajun Chen Jun Ma Jin Jing

Previous research on the association between cesarean section (CS) and childhood obesity has yielded inconsistent findings. This study assessed the secular trend of CS and explored the relationship between CS and the risks of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents. Data came from a national multicenter school-based study conducted in seven provinces of China in 2013. Covariate data including weight, height and delivery mode were extracted. Poisson regression was applied to determine the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of overweight and obesity associated with the delivery mode. A total of 18,780 (41.2%) subjects were born by CS between 1997 and 2006. The rate of CS increased from 27.2% in 1997 to 54.1% in 2006. After adjusting for major confounders, the RRs (95% CI) of overweight and obesity among subjects born by CS were 1.21 (1.15 to 1.27) and 1.51 (1.42 to 1.61), respectively. Similar results were observed in different subgroups stratified by sex, age, and region. In summary, the CS rate increased sharply in China between 1997 and 2006. CS was associated with increased risks of overweight and obesity in offspring after accounting for major confounding factors.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2710: High-Throughput RNA-Seq Data Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Zygomorphic Flower Development in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2710: High-Throughput RNA-Seq Data Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Zygomorphic Flower Development in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122710

Authors: Keyuan Jiao Xin Li Wuxiu Guo Shihao Su Da Luo

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a model plant that has been used in classical genetics and organ development studies. However, its large and complex genome has hindered research investigations in pea. Here, we generated transcriptomes from different tissues or organs of three pea accessions using next-generation sequencing to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and further investigated petal differentially expressed genes to elucidate the mechanisms regulating floral zygomorphy. Eighteen samples were sequenced, which yielded a total of 617 million clean reads, and de novo assembly resulted in 87,137 unigenes. A total of 9044 high-quality SNPs were obtained among the three accessions, and a consensus map was constructed. We further discovered several dorsoventral asymmetrically expressed genes that were confirmed by qRT-PCR among different petals, including previously reported three CYC-like proliferating cell factor (TCP) genes. One MADS-box gene was highly expressed in dorsal petals, and several MYB factors were predominantly expressed among dorsal, lateral, and/or ventral petals, together with a ventrally expressed TCP gene. In sum, our comprehensive database complements the existing resources for comparative genetic mapping and facilitates future investigations in legume zygomorphic flower development.



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The Surfaceome



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The interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of migration of mesenchymal stem cells during early stages of bone fracture healing

Bone fractures are a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken due to a fall or accident. The fracture may also be the result of medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancers of bone or osteogenesis imperfect. During the bone fracture healing process, the mesenchymal stem cells (undifferentiated connective tissue cells) are recruited from local and systemic sources. The modulation of mesenchymal cell migration to the fractured site is the desired goal. Still, there are many processes that are still required to be studied and analyzed. We aimed to consolidate and review the available information on this topic.

L'articolo The interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of migration of mesenchymal stem cells during early stages of bone fracture healing sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Mid term results of radial metaphyseal core decompression on Kienböck’s disease

OBJECTIVE: Kienböck’s disease is a commonly seen posttraumatic avascular necrosis characterized by avascular necrosis of the lunate bone of the wrist which involves the dominant hand. In our study, we aimed to present midterm outcomes of 12 cases treated with radial metaphyseal core decompression.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our clinic, 12 patients who applied to our outpatient clinic with intractable pain despite at least six weeks of conservative treatment were previously diagnosed and evaluated as Kienböck’s disease between the years 2006 and 2014. Patients at early stage received radial metaphyseal core decompression.

RESULTS: The patients were evaluated as postoperative grip strength, flexion-extension gap, ulnar-radial deviation gap, VAS, Quick DASH and MAYO wrist scoring and patient satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS: We determined that interventions performed for Kienböck’s disease cannot halt radiological progression. We are of the opinion that radial metaphyseal core decompression, aiming at increasing blood perfusion, improve early diagnosis and treatment of Kienböck’s disease, increasing the patient satisfaction.

L'articolo Mid term results of radial metaphyseal core decompression on Kienböck’s disease sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Autophagy attenuates the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of Mc3T3-E1 osteoblasts

OBJECTIVE: The oxidative stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis plays an important role in the pathological process of osteoporosis, but the roles of autophagy in oxidative stress and apoptosis of osteoblasts remain unclear. This study aimed to observe the role of autophagy in oxidative stress injury of osteoblasts and the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mc3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide. The cell viability was detected via cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) at different time points (0, 2, 6, 8, and 12 h), the apoptosis was detected via Western blotting and flow cytometry, and the autophagy was detected via macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and transmission electron microscope. The changes in expression of autophagy-associated protein, Beclin1, and LC3II/I ratio, were detected via Western blotting. Moreover, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) level were observed using the autophagy regulators, rapamycin (Rap) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), so as to clarify the interaction between autophagy and cellular oxidation.

RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and autophagy of osteoblasts were in dose- and time-dependent manners; the hydrogen peroxide inhibitors could inhibit the autophagy level, and autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) could significantly enhance the hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS level and apoptosis rate in cells. Besides, Western blotting confirmed that the cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins were increased. The autophagy inducer (Rap) partially inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy inhibits the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of osteoblasts, which is a potential target for the osteoporosis treatment.

L'articolo Autophagy attenuates the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of Mc3T3-E1 osteoblasts sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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The function of miR-218 and miR-618 in postmenopausal osteoporosis

OBJECTIVE: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (POMP) is a serious disorder with significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences, which greatly reduce the postmenopausal women’s life quality. The related issues of postmenopausal osteoporosis are increasingly concerned by society. Past researches have shown that miRNAs play an important role in the occurrence and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the role of miR-218 and miR-618 in the osteoporosis regulation is still unclear.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: First of all, we investigated the alteration of miR-218 and miR-618 during osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 cells. Next, we transfected RAW264.7 cells with miR-218 or miR-618 mimics and inhibitors to explore the influences of miR-218 and miR-618 on osteoclast differentiation. Then, we conducted bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay to identify and test the target gene of miR-218 and miR-618.

RESULTS: MiR-218 and miR-618 were down-regulated when RAW264.7 cells differentiated into osteoclasts. In addition, overexpression of miR-218 or miR-618 attenuated RAW264.7 cells differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro, whereas inhibition of miR-218 or miR-618 promoted this progress. This was demonstrated by increased expression of osteoclast-specific genes and TRAP staining. TLR-4 was confirmed to be the direct target of miR-218 and miR-618 by bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that miR-218 and miR-618 play an important role in osteoclastogenesis via TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, targeting miR-218 and miR-618 promise a therapeutic potential in the treatment of osteoporosis.

L'articolo The function of miR-218 and miR-618 in postmenopausal osteoporosis sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Overexpression of TAFI promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition in endometriosis

OBJECTIVE: Endometriosis is a disease that occurs in women. Thrombin-activated fibrinolytic inhibitor (TAFI) is mainly secreted by stem cells and acts as a regulatory role in the body. Epithelial leaf transition plays a leading role in cell growth and invasion. Our study focuses on the mechanism of TAFI in patients with endometriosis.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of TAFI was determined by immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) served to detect the expression of TAFI and the effect of TAFI on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) levels. The changes of primary cytology in patients with endometriosis were observed under a microscope. The cell source was further determined by immunofluorescence labeling of vimentin and cytokeratin, and the expression of TAFI was detected by Western-blot. 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell invasion assay were utilized to detect the viability and aggressiveness of cells after epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT).

RESULTS: TAFI was overexpressed in endometriosis tissues and no expression of TAFI was found in normal tissues, which is consistent with RT-PCR results. TAFI overexpressed endometriosis patients had low levels of overall OS and PFS. There were statistically significant differences. Cell morphology shows that endometriosis primary cells are mainly composed of epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Immunofluorescence assay showed that vimentin and cytokeratin were expressed in cells, and the expression of TAFI was detected by Western-blot. Compared with normal tissues, TAFI was considerably higher in patients with endometriosis. The results of Western-blot and RT-PCR showed that the expression of TAFI was significantly increased in patients with endometriosis and the cell proliferation and cell invasion were significantly accelerated.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that TAFI is highly expressed in endometriosis and causes EMT, which accelerated the cell proliferation and cell invasion. Snail is an inhibitor of E-cadherin, which may participate in metastasis and invasion of endometriosis by mediating EMT. So, we suspect that Snail controls the occurrence of the EMT and then affects the cell metastasis and invasion, which requires further verification.

L'articolo Overexpression of TAFI promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition in endometriosis sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Exosomes secreted by mice adipose-derived stem cells after low-level laser irradiation treatment reduce apoptosis of osteocyte induced by hypoxia

OBJECTIVE: Kienböck’s disease is a commonly seen posttraumatic avascular necrosis characterized by avascular necrosis of the lunate bone of the wrist which involves the dominant hand. In our study, we aimed to present midterm outcomes of 12 cases treated with radial metaphyseal core decompression.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our clinic, 12 patients who applied to our outpatient clinic with intractable pain despite at least six weeks of conservative treatment were previously diagnosed and evaluated as Kienböck’s disease between the years 2006 and 2014. Patients at early stage received radial metaphyseal core decompression.

RESULTS: The patients were evaluated as postoperative grip strength, flexion-extension gap, ulnar-radial deviation gap, VAS, Quick DASH and MAYO wrist scoring and patient satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS: We determined that interventions performed for Kienböck’s disease cannot halt radiological progression. We are of the opinion that radial metaphyseal core decompression, aiming at increasing blood perfusion, improve early diagnosis and treatment of Kienböck’s disease, increasing the patient satisfaction.

L'articolo Exosomes secreted by mice adipose-derived stem cells after low-level laser irradiation treatment reduce apoptosis of osteocyte induced by hypoxia sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Effects of pheophorbide a-mediated photodynamic therapy on proliferation and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of pheophorbide a-mediated photodynamic therapy (Pa-PDT) on the in vitro proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and to investigate its possible mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pa-PDT in gradient concentrations (0 μM, 0.25 μM, 0.5 μM, 1 μM, 2 μM, and 4 μM) were used to act on PC-3 cells; the cell proliferation in each group was detected via methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and clone formation assay, and the cell apoptosis was detected via Hochst33258 staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double labeling. Moreover, the effects of Pa-PDT on invasion and proliferation of PC-3 cells were observed via wound healing assay and transwell chamber assay. Finally, the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in each group were detected after treatment by Western blotting.

RESULTS: MTT and clone formation assays showed that Pa-PDT could inhibit the proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results of apoptosis assay revealed that Pa-PDT could significantly promote the apoptosis of PC-3 cells, obviously up-regulate the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (BAX), Caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP), and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2. Besides, the wound healing assay and Transwell chamber assay showed that Pa-PDT could inhibit the invasion and metastasis capacities of PC-3 cells, whose relevant mechanisms were related to the fact that Pa-PDT inhibited the EMT process and down-regulated the expressions of MMPs in PC-3 cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Pa-PDT can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Moreover, it can also inhibit the invasion and metastasis capacities of PC-3 cells via inhibiting the EMT process and down-regulating the expressions of MMPs.

L'articolo Effects of pheophorbide a-mediated photodynamic therapy on proliferation and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Overexpression of lncRNA MNX1-AS1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer

OBJECTIVE: Long non-coding RNAs MNX1-AS1(MNX1-AS1) has been proved to be associated with ovarian cancer proliferation and invasion. However, the clinical significance of MNX1-AS1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the MNX1-AS1 expression in EOC.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We first measured MNX1-AS1 expression level in 177 paired of EOC and matched normal tissues by Real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The relevance of MNX1-AS1 expression to the clinicopathological factors was assessed. Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by log-rank test, and survival curves were plotted according to Kaplan-Meier. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the prognostic significance of MNX1-AS1 expression.

RESULTS: We found that the levels of MNX1-AS1 were higher in EOC tissue than in matched normal tissues (p<0.01). In addition, MNX1-AS1 expression level was significantly positively correlated with FIGO stage (p=0.005), grade (p=0.040) and distant metastasis (p=0.000). Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with high-MNX1-AS1 expression showed poorer progression-free survival and overall survival than those with low-MNX1-AS1 expression (p<0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). Then, Cox regression analysis revealed that FIGO stage, distant metastasis, and MNX1-AS1 expression were independent prognostic factors of both overall survival and progression-free survival for patients with EOC.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated, for the first time, that MNX1-AS1 expression may be a useful marker for predicting the outcome in patients with EOC.

L'articolo Overexpression of lncRNA MNX1-AS1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Mir-138-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 in human retinoblastoma

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs have caught more attention for their role in tumor progression. Retinoblastoma (RB) is one of these ordinary malignant tumors. This study aims to identify whether mir-138-5p can regulate the development of RB, and find out its potential mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mir-138-5p expression in RB cells was monitored by RT-qPCR. Besides, the role of mir-138-5p in RB development was explored through function experiments in vitro. The potential mechanism was further explored by RT-qPCR, luciferase assay, and Western blot assay.

RESULTS: In our investigation, mir-138-5p was lower-expressed in RB cells than that in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Moreover, overexpression of mir-138-5p repressed cell viability, migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of RB cells, while downregulated mir-138-5p increased cell viability, migration and invasion, and reduced apoptosis of RB cells. Furthermore, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) could be downregulated via overexpression of mir-138-5p, while PDK1 was upregulated via knockdown of mir-138-5p.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that mir-138-5p could repress the development of RB via suppressing PDK1, which may offer a new vision for interpreting the mechanism of RB tumorigenesis.

L'articolo Mir-138-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 in human retinoblastoma sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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AIB1 regulates the ovarian cancer cell cycle through TUG1

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) to promote ovarian cancer progress.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cor correlation analysis was performed to obtain the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The relationship of taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) and clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed to predict the biological process where TUG1 may be involved in. At last, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colon formation and flow cytometry were conducted to explore the biological process that TUG1 may influence. Meanwhile, Western blot was performed to explore the mechanism of TUG1.

RESULTS: In this study, it was found that P73 antisense RNA 1T (TP73-AS1), LINC00654 and TUG1 had the tumor-promoting effect in the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The expression level of TUG1 was significantly decreased after intervention of AIB1. Then, the clinical data were analyzed and the results showed that TUG1 was related to the tumor residue, tumor staging, tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis revealed that TUG1 was mainly involved in the regulation of cell cycle. After intervention in TUG1, it was found that the cell proliferation capacity was significantly decreased, and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. Finally, Western blot revealed that the expressions of G1 phase-related proteins were significantly changed. This study indicated that AIB1 regulates the cycle of ovarian cancer cells through TUG1.

CONCLUSIONS: This study proved that AIB1 can regulate the cell cycle through regulating TUG1.

L'articolo AIB1 regulates the ovarian cancer cell cycle through TUG1 sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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