Δευτέρα, 10 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Female literacy and Immunization Uptake: A Macro Level Evidence from Ghana

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Micheal Kofi Boachie, Pauline Sobiesuo.
Background: Immunization has been one of the focal healthcare interventions against major childhood killer diseases, especially infectious ones. It has emerged as an important component of preventive medicine in most countries for the prevention and possible eradication of vaccine preventable-diseases (VPDs). This study aimed to estimate the impact of female literacy on immunization uptake against measles in Ghana. Methods: We used annual data set covering the period 1990 -2013 and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to examine the impact of female literacy on immunisation uptake. Results: Factors such as female education (β=0.761, P=0.006), place of residence, i.e. urban (β=4.174, P=0.000) and rural (β=5.69, P=0.001), availability of skilled health personnel (β=0.034, P=0.062), and female labour force participation rate (β=0.776, P=0.198) were specified as determinants of immunisation uptake, proxied by percentage of children immunised against measles. Adjusted R-Squared was 0.944. Conclusion: There is strong evidence that female literacy does improve immunization uptake levels. The results further suggest that both urban and rural dwellers have significantly utilised immunisation services for measles during the study period. Policy should therefore gear towards expanding access to education among females to sustain improvement in child health through preventive health services.


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Assessment of the level of awareness about tuberculosis among the different stakeholders of a medical college, Tamil Nadu

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy.
Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) has been acknowledged as one of the deadliest infectious disease. The objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness about TB among the different stakeholders of a medical college and to formulate a comprehensive action plan to strengthen the Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization (ACSM) activities. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of five months duration (September 2015 to January 2016) was conducted among the representative section of the various stakeholders of a medical college. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule was designed after thoroughly studying the national TB training modules. All the study participants were interviewed using the schedule after obtaining their informed consent. In addition, a thorough inspection of the hospital and medical college was done to assess the status of ACSM activities. Results: Among the different stakeholders (doctors, paramedical staff, patients, relatives) who participated in the study, the clinicians 38(24.8%) group accounted for maximum respondents. The knowledge level of medical fraternity (viz. specialists / pre and para-clinical doctors and MBBS doctors) pertaining to the definition of cure, drugs used for multi-drug resistant TB, honorarium for DOT provider, and utility of Mantoux test among adults was quite poor and recorded as only 31.1%, 37.7%, 44.3%, and 42.6% respectively. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study has provided valuable insights about the knowledge of TB among all the stakeholders and the status of the ACSM activities in a medical college. Based on the study findings, a comprehensive action plan has been developed to bridge the existing gaps and strengthen the overall ACSM activities pertaining to TB within the medical college settings.


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Determination of Knowledge and Applications of workers Working Out in the Open About Skin Cancer

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Sinem Dağ, Filiz Hisar.
ABSTRACT Aim: This research was performed descriptively in order to determine the knowledge and applications of workers working out in the open about skin cancer and protection from skin cancer. Method: The universe of the research is composed of 200 workers working in the open in Nicosia Turkish Municipality in Republic of Northern Cyprus. Sample selection was not made and whole universe was incorporated to the scope of the research. In the collection of the data, individual descriptive properties questionnaire form and questionnaire form regarding protection from skin cancer and applications were used. The assessment of the data was made by percentage distribution and chi-square test. Results: In the research it was determined that 43.2% of the workers are at an age interval of 35-44 and 59.9% are graduated from primary school. 28.6% of the workers have light skin color, 21.9% of the workers have colored eyes, 19,3% have sunspot and 15.6% have increasing number, color and size of moles. It was understood that 50.6% of the workers are exposed o sunlight 8 hours a day. (between 08:00 and 17:00) It was determined that 70.3% of the workers do not have any knowledge about skin cancer, 84.8% percent hat suitable and appropriate (long-thin, light-colored) did not wear clothes, 77.6% defined the suitable sunglasses and 91.7% were not using sunscreen. Conclusion: In light of these results, necessary education about skin cancer and protection from skin cancer should be given to the workers working out in the open.


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Understanding The Three Dimensional Perspective to Prevent Risky Health Behaviours of Adolescents: Family, School and Family Physician

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Burcu Küçük Biçer, Hilal Özcebe.
Background: Determination of the prevalence of risky health behaviors (RHB) of adolescents and evaluation of the role of family, school and health sector in formation of RHB. Methods: The study was performed in high schools situated in a district in Ankara. Sample group of this research included 1467 adolescents. Data were collected by using a standardized questionnaire for adolescents. Face to face interviews were conducted with mothers, teachers and family health practitioners of some adolescents. Frequencies, ANOVA and independent t test; linear regression analysis were used when appropriate. Ethical consent was taken from Hacettepe University. Results: Mean age of adolescents were 17,15±0,45. 567 and 567 of them had risky health behaviors. The mean score of RHB scale score(t: -0,992, p: 0.321) and the mean scores of subgroups of physical activity (t: 2.261, p: 0.024), nutrition (t:0.48, p: 0.962), hygiene (t: -0.418, p: 0.676), physchosocial t:-2.772, p:0,006) and substance abuse (t:-1,273, p:0,203) of governmental high school adolescents were statistically higher than anatolian high school adolescents (p


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COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS USED FOR PATIENT CARE BYCAREGIVERS TO ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AT HOME

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
alaattin altın, ilknur aydın avci.
Aim: This study was carried outto determine thecomplementary and alternative treatment methods used for patient care by caregiver to Alzheimers disease at home. Material and Method: This study, designed in accordance with descriptive research principles, was applied in a hospital between June 15, 2014 and December 20, 2015 in Samsun. The participants were 177 Alzhemiers disease caregivers who registered to Home Care Services Centre and who agreed to participate to the study. The data of the study were collected with 'Data Collection Form'. In evaluating the obtained data, number, percentandChi-square (X²) testwere used. Results: In the study, the average age of the caregivers of Alzheimer's patients is 48.8±13.2 and the 83.6's% are women. The frequency of the complementary and alternative treatment methods used for patient care bycaregivers to Alzheimers disease at homeis 61.6%. It was found out that 21.5% of the caregivers prefer massage, 30.5% prefer honey as herbal methods, 51.4% prefer religious practices for patient care. It was determined that 59.6% of the participants did not consult to the medical staff before/during their use of complementary and alternative treatment methods. The relationship between the status of achieving to the expected results of the complementary and alternative treatment methods used for patient care by caregiver to Alzheimers disease at home and the status of economical support was foundstatistically significant (p


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Evaluatıon of The Effect of Childhood Trauma on The Anger Status of University Students

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Hülya KULAKÇI, Gülbahar KORKMAZ ASLAN, Tülay KUZLU AYYILDIZ, Ferruh Niyazi AYOĞLU, Funda VEREN.
In this study, it was intended to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma on the anger status of university students. A total of 323 students who were studying in a University, Department of Nursing were included in this cross-sectional study. All data were collected by using Descriptive Information Form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale. Data were analyzed by using numerical and percentage values, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Analysis. It was found that mean total score of Childhood Traumatic Events Scale was 102.26, mean score of emotional abuse and neglect was 59.96, mean score of physical abuse was 33.18 and mean score of sexual abuse was 9.11. Mean trait anger score of students was found to be 22.67; and mean scores of anger-out, anger-in and anger control, that are the subdimensions of anger expression styles, were found to be 17.16, 16.58 and 21.57, respectively. When the relationship between childhood traumatic events of the students and their trait anger and the forms of anger expression was examined, it was determined that their trait anger levels increased (p=0.000, r=0.203), and they reflected their anger more (p=0.000, r=0.217) as their exposure to traumatic events increased. According to the results of this study, it was found that mean score of Childhood Traumatic Events Scale was was high. Key Words: University student, Childhood Traumatic Events, Anger status


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Recommended Screening Tests During The Elderly

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Hazal ALTUNOK, Burcu IŞIKTEKİN ATALAY, Muhammet Fatih ÖNSÜZ, Burhanettin IŞIKLI.
Elderly people constitutes a specific group of the population and the proportion of elderly in the population is increasing. This increase causes an increase in a variety of health problems such as chronic diseases. Better life at aging, requires prevention of many chronic diseases. Therefore initiatives should be planned to protect elderly population from these diseases. One of the most important prevention strategies is routine screening. Diseases that can be diagnosed at early stage in the elderly are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, bone metabolism diseases, cognitive dysfunction and nutritional problems. There are some recommended screening programs also for these diseases. The elderly admitted to health institutions should be periodically examined for these diseases. During this examination, increased problems related with aging and their solutions should be explained to elderly and their relatives. In this way, protection of these diseases should be provided and secondary events related with these diseases like disability, dependence or premature deaths can be minimized.


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Importance of Multidisciplinary Work in Terms of Preventive Mental Health at Hospital Noise Control

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
bahanur malak akgün, mustafa akgün.
Noise is one of the important problems among the environmental pollution. Long-term exposure to noise may cause negative effects on physical condition, physiology, psychology and performance which has important health hazard. On the other hand, it is an inevitably problem especially in public hospitals. Also, noise is an important issue for both nurses and patients. Because, an quiet environment is comfortable and peaceful. Additionally, healthy and safety environment is a human right. Further, improving the quality of working conditions will be reflected in the quality of patient care. Therefore, there are two main topics which are noise pollution in terms of society and the environment and noise pollution in terms of worker health and safety and also, nurses should research based on two main topics and take measure about noise pollution. Accordingly, we need multidisciplinary team work for preventive mental health research.


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DETERMINATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK ON PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Ayşe Dağıstan, Sebahat Gözüm.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are located at the beginning of the causes of morbidity and mortality in Turkey and in the World. CVD risk factors are determined and take the necessary precautions and control of the modifiable risk factors are very important in terms of the reduction in mortality. In order to be controlled modifiable risk factors the necessary lifestyle changes need to be made by individuals. Especially, it must be provided individual-specific risk assessment, the opportunistic and systematic screening of the CVD risk factors, consultancy on risky behaviors (diet, smoking, etc.) by Family Health Center staff. There are a lot of risk assessment systems to determine the level of individual CVD risk. Which is suited for use at Family Health Centers and one of the recommended risk assessment tools in national and international current guidelines is SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation). SCORE or other risk assessment tools should be used at family health centers which are the most significant way to reach individual and also individuals and society should be made counseling on a healthy diet, smoking cessation and physical activity.


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SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS ABOUT CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT IN LAST 10 YEARS

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Hatice YILDIRIM SARI, Esra ARDAHAN, Beste ÖZGÜVEN ÖZTORNACI.
In this study, we aimed to determine the level of available information and gaps which are related to child abuse and neglect in last ten tears. Literature review made on systematic reviews and meta-analysis in Pubmed database that has the Child abuse and neglect or Child maltreatment keywords. Studies published in English through 1st January 2005- 31th March 2015 were reviewed. Totally 112 article were resulted in the search but only 101 of them were full text and also 59 systematic review excluded in the study. 42 articles were examined which are matching the criterias. Articles were classified according to subjects of the articles (identification, prevention, intervention, identification of the relationships, and others), types of child abuse-neglect (physical, emotional, sexual and others). Although we reached the systematic reviews related to child neglect and all types of child abuse, systematic reviews about emotional and sexual abuse are inadequate. The studies about intervention and identification of relations are insufficient. We observed the gap in the literature, in this direction. Child abuse and neglect regardless of the kind; create irreversible trauma and also leads to problems in the child's adulthood. Therefore; identification and prevention is a priority, If prevention is impossible; it is a quite vital importance to intervent as soon as possible. Despite the achievement of systematic compilation associated with child neglect and abuse; especially intervention studies about emotional and sexual abuse were found as inadequate.


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THE ROLE OF MICRORNAS IN AUTISM

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Mutlu Karakuş, Alperhan Çebi.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental psychopathology. Its etiology is not clear yet. ASD is characterized by restrictive interests and behaviour paterns, deficiencies in social and communication areas. It seems 1/68 ratio according to the last epidomiological data. Despite that it seem frequently in society, promising results in medical treatment has not been until today. MicroRNAs evolutionary conversed member of non-coding RNA familiy and consists 22 nucleotides in. miRNAs are important element of the genetic regulation. Several studies have been identified consistent dsyregulation on some miRNAs in ASD. If we accept this as a new epifenom for this disorder these studies can be considered to be a new potential biomarker candidates. High reliability of the ASD gene targeting miRNAs are likely to provide new insights to the mechanisms underlying ASD. It can also help design appropriate miRNA therapeutics for such an understanding autism.


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Linking International Human Rights Law to Policy in Protecting Adverse Effects of Climate Change

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Ilhami Alkan Olsson, Johanna Alkan Olsson.
The article aims to illustrate the multifaceted interlink between climate change, heat, and human rights and discuss in what ways international human rights law may be used to support the development and implementation of policy at various levels to limit adverse effects of climate change on humans in general and right to health in particular. This is done by overviewing the possibilities and limits international law offers and displays in the fields of the environment, climate change and heat. Moreover, through emphasising the inter-linkages between international law and domestic law and policy, the article sets out how and by what means international human rights law is and may be incorporated and used in national law and policy-making in the area of climate change. The article concludes that human rights norms and principles could be used to promote a right-based national climate change regime in six different ways.


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lactation consult

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
HÜLYA ÖZKARA, BERNA EREN FİDANCI, DİLEK YILDIZ, ÇAĞLA KAYMAKAMGİL.
Breast milk is a natural food; all that is required for optimal growth and development of newborn, including fluids,energy and nutrients, bioavailability is high and easy to digest. Breast milk and breastfeeding for babies, as well as for the mother, including nutrition first, health, immunity, developmental, psychological, social and economic aspects are numerous benefits. Breastfeeding is a codependent relationship. The infants ability to breastfeed affects the mothers milk supply. Maternal problems affect the infants ability to receive adequate milk for growth. When real or potential problems are suspected, a lactation consult is required. To solve all the problems related to breastfeeding by experts specially trained in this regard in the literature is called "lactation consultation". Lactation consultants work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, doctors offices, clinics and community centers, and as independent consultants, helping breastfeeding mothers with the challenges of early breastfeeding and working to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. Studies have shown that appropriate breastfeeding counseling increases the rates of initiation and sustaining the breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration rates are affected by the type of care families receive during prenatal and postpartum primary care office visits. Nurses make positive changes in behaviors of breastfeeding mothers during pregnancy, by using the education, caregiving and mentoring roles. The training given to the mother by the nurse has a significant role in the to maintaining of breastfeeding, the prevention of breast complications and success of breastfeeding. Nurses should do breast examination to women during pregnancy and should show the nipple massage to pregnant women for baby's comfortable and easy nozzle to suck. In addition, information about breast care, supportive bras use, the benefits of breast milk and breastfeeding, breastfeeding techniques and the general principles of nutrition to lactating mothers should be provided. An effective counseling services to individuals is an important part of nursing care and the nurses


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THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF FOLLOW-UP EXAMINATIONS AT PRIMARY CARE OF 15-49 YEAR OLD WOMEN ADMITTED TO A GYNECOLOGY POLYCLINIC OF A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN IZMIR.

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
MÜMİNE YÜKSEL, HEDİYE ASLI DAVAS.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the frequency and quality of follow-up examinations by family physicians of 15-49 years old women admitted to the gynecology polyclinic of a university hospital in Izmir. METHOD: 359 women between the ages of 15 and 49 who admitted to the gynecology polyclinic of a university hospital in İzmir, between 2013 December-2014 April and who were not pregnant participated in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was applied through face to face interviews after obtaining the consent of the ethical committee. Chi-square test and logistics regression were used in the analyses. P


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Level of knowledge on organ and tissue transplantation among a group of Turkish middle school and high school students

2016-10-10T18-48-24Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Fatih Öz, Ünal Ayrancı, Didem Arslantaş, Alaettin Ünsal.
Background: Society's lack of knowledge about organ donation and insensitivity to this issue emerge as one of the low organ transplantation reasons. The aims of this study were to determine the middle school and high school students level of knowledge about organ, tissue and blood donation-transfusion, to provide knowledge to the students about the subject and also to evaluate the effectiveness of this informative work. Methods: The study group consisted of 342 high school students. Created questionnaire included 40 questions of knowledge regarding organ and tissue transplantation and blood donation. Knowledge level of the students were measured by the questionnaire. After a week of this process, an informative education study that lasted about 40 minutes was performed to all students including the studying group by the researchers regarding organ and tissue transplantation and blood donation. Fifteen days after the informative education, the same students in the same classes filled in the same questionnaires previously applied. Results: Organ and tissue transplantation and blood donation knowledge levels of those who obtained 15 and over scores as a result of the ROC Analysis were considered to be adequate. The knowledge score mean was 17.81±7.99. The item description of transplant was the most correctly known knowledge question. The knowledge score average students obtained from tissue, organ and blood transfusion-donation items by before informative study was lower than after informative study. Conclusion: Informative activities to the students were found to be effective in increasing the students level of knowledge about the donations.


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Role of ultrasonography in diagnosis of urological lesions: hospital based study

2016-10-10T05-34-40Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Ameet C. Panchmahalkar, Shoeb Khan, Wajahat Salim.
Background: Ultrasound examination is considered to be a very useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of renal colic as well as other renal or extra-renal diseases. One of the major advantages of ultrasound examination is the avoidance of radiation exposure. However, it is reported to be operator dependent and less accurate when compared with Computed Tomography. Present study describes role of ultrasonography in assessment of suspected urological disease in patients referred to radiodiagnosis department of Nair Hospital, Mumbai during the study period. Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted during June 2006 to June 2008 at Department of Radiology, BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India. 84 patients with clinical features suggestive of urological disease and referred to the department for ultrasound examination were enrolled. Ultrasonography was done on a TOSHIBA ECCOCEE duplex Doppler Ultrasound machine with 3.5-5 MHz curvilinear transducer. USG findings were correlated with the final diagnosis and USG examination findings were considered diagnostic if they resulted in correct histopathological diagnosis or correct identification of malignant tumours along with organ site. They were considered contributory when either the organ site was correctly identified without histology diagnosis or when malignancy was identified but without proper organ site. If the lesion was not detected, USG findings were marked as false negative and they were marked as false positive when the predicted disease was found to be incorrect on confirmatory diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 0 to 76 years. Out of 84 patients studied, 49 were males and 35 were females. Overall ultrasound examination findings were found to be diagnostic in 48 cases (57.14%), contributory in 26 cases (30.95%), false negative in 10 cases (11.9%) whereas there were no false positive reports. There were 56 cases in which there were kidney lesions. Ultrasound examination findings were found to be diagnostic in 35 cases (62.5%), contributory in 17 cases (30.35%) and false negative in 4 cases (7.14%) whereas there were no false positive reports. There were 10 cases in which there were lesions involving both kidney and ureters. Ultrasound examination findings were found to be contributory in 8 cases (80%) and false negative in 2 cases (20%).There were 4 cases in which there were lesions involving ureters. Ultrasound examination findings were found to be false negative in all 4 cases (100%). There were 14 cases in which there were lesions involving urinary bladder. Ultrasound examination findings were found to be diagnostic in 4 cases (28.57%), contributory in 9 cases (64.28%) and false negative in 1 case (7.14%). Conclusions: Ultrasound examination was found to be diagnostic or contributory in diagnosis in most of the cases (88.1%). However there were a sizeable proportion of cases (11.9%) with false negative results on ultrasonography.


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Prevalence and factors affecting occupational and non-occupational stress among industrial workers, a descriptive cross sectional study from a single industrial unit in South India

2016-10-10T04-33-31Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Rajan Rushender Chitharaj, Dinesh Kumar Ganesan, Ganesh Parasuraman, Vijayakrishnan Ganesan.
Background: Stress related to work is a complex process that influences both the workers health and his productivity. Identification of the stressors may elicit psychological, behavioural or physical response in the work environment. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in a single thermal power unit located in Tamilnadu state. A standard and validated questionnaire by O'Donnell MP, was used to assess the occupational and non-occupational stress. Results: A total of 126 participants were included in the study. Psychological stress was the most common form of stress reported by 32.5% of the subjects. The prevalence of occupational stress was 9.5% in study population. Physical stress and family stress were reported by 13.5% and 12.7% of the subjects respectively. The highest odds of stress were observed in 30 to 39-year age group, when compared to youngest age group (20 to 29 years). Strong positive association was observed between the psychological stress and hypertension in study population. Conclusions: Psychological stress was the most common form of stress reported in industrial workers. Male gender, middle age groups, current use of smoking or alcohol is strongly associated with occupational stress.


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Effect of Broiler Breeder’s Age on Incubation and Chick Quality Parameters

2016-10-10T03-00-10Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
A.M.J.B. Adikari, M. H. M. Rifkhan, G. A. S. N. Gamlath.
This study was carried out to evaluate the age effect of broiler breeders on incubation and chick quality parameters. Three different age groups of broiler breeders were selected for the study. Six hundreds eggs from each age group were collected. The experiment was composed with four replicates from each group and each replicate consisted of 150 eggs. Incubation and chick quality parameters were measured and eggs breakout analysis was done. Egg shape indexes were significantly different (P

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