Δευτέρα, 15 Ιανουαρίου 2018

The demographic features of concomitant facial fractures with closed head injuries in maricopa arizona

Objectives:1. To investigate the demographic profile of American Native patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHI).2. To explore the validation of the craniofacial crumble zone.

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Table of Contents

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2





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Society Page

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2





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Information for Readers

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2





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Editorial Board

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2





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Multiple primary squamous cell carcinomas of the lower lip and tongue arising in discoid lupus erythematosus: a case report

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2
Author(s): Ioanna-Eirini Arvanitidou, Nikolaos G. Nikitakis, Maria Georgaki, Nick Papadogeorgakis, Athanasios Tzioufas, Alexandra Sklavounou
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developing in lesions of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is rare, most frequently arising on sun-exposed skin and very rarely affecting the lips. A review of the English language literature revealed only 21 published cases of labial SCC in patients with DLE. Here, an unusual case of a patient with DLE who developed 3 primary SCCs of the oral and perioral region is presented. A 40-year-old female with a 24-year history of DLE with peri- and intraoral involvement initially developed SCC of the vermillion border of the right lower lip; the lesion was surgically removed and did not recur within 6 months. In spite of strong recommendation for regular follow-up, the patient failed to keep her appointments but returned 7 years later. No signs of recurrence of the original lower lip cancer were noticed, but a new SCC of the left lateral border of the tongue with cervical lymph node metastasis was diagnosed; despite aggressive combined treatment, locoregional recurrence and distant metastatic disease developed within a few months; in addition, a new primary SCC of the vermillion border of the left lower lip developed. This rare case and a thorough review of the pertinent literature underscore the possibility of development of even multiple intraoral and perioral SCCs in the context of longstanding DLE, which necessitates close long term follow-up for early diagnosis and management.



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Brazilian scientific production in Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2
Author(s): Rodrigo Soares de Andrade, Daniella Reis B. Martelli, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Mário Sérgio O. Swerts, Fábio Ramôa Pires, Fábio de Abreu Alves, Mário Rodrigues Melo Filho, Renato Assis Machado, Hercílio Martelli-Júnior




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Announcing

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Publication date: February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 125, Issue 2





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Transient bacteremia induced by dental cleaning is not associated with infection of central venous catheters in patients with cancer

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Saad Usmani, Linda Choquette, Robert Bona, Richard Feinn, Zainab Shahid, Rajesh V. Lalla
ObjectiveTo determine incidence of bacteremia from a dental cleaning, and subsequent established blood stream infection (BSI) caused by oral microorganisms, in cancer patients with central venous catheters (CVC).Study DesignTwenty-six cancer patients with CVCs, and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) over 1000 cells/µl, received dental cleaning without antibiotic prophylaxis. Periodontal status was assessed at baseline using Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) score. Blood cultures were drawn via CVC at baseline, 20 minutes into cleaning, and 30 minutes and 24 hours after cleaning. Medical records were monitored for 6 months.ResultsBaseline blood cultures were negative in 25 subjects. Nine of 25 subjects (36%) had positive blood culture 20 minutes into cleaning, all associated with at least 1 microorganism typically found in the mouth. These 9 subjects had significantly higher mean PSR score (3.22) compared to the other 16 (2.56; p=0.035). These expected bacteremias did not persist with no positive blood cultures (0/25) at 30 minutes and 24 hours after cleaning (p = 0.001). There were no cases of CVC infection or BSI attributable to dental cleaning.ConclusionsBacteremias following a dental cleaning are transient and unlikely to cause CVC infection or BSI in patients with ANC over 1000 cells/µl.



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Predictors of ARTHROCENTESIS outcome on JOINT effusion in PATIENTS with DISC displacement without REDUCTION

Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Eduardo Grossmann, Rodrigo Lorenzi Poluha, Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki, Rosângela Getirana Santana, Liogi Iwaki Filho
ObjectivesTo investigate the preoperative variables of patients with articular disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR) that may influence the results of arthrocentesis on joint effusion (JE).Study designThe records of 203 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of unilateral painful DDWOR and JE, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and treated with arthrocentesis were selected. The following preoperative data were recorded: gender; age; joint side; pain duration; pain intensity, measured with the visual analogue scale; and maximum interincisal distance (MID). All patients underwent a second MRI examination 3-4 months postoperatively to assess JE condition. The sample was then divided into two groups: Group 1 (N=160) – patients presenting no signs of JE; and Group 2 (N=43) – patients still presenting signs of JE. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the groups.ResultsAmong the studied variables, pain duration (p=0.1756), pain intensity (p=<0.0001), and MID (p=0.0085) were shown to affect arthrocentesis outcomes. The longer the pain duration (OR=0.930), the more intense the pain (OR=0.346), and the smaller the MID (OR=0.562), the less the chance of arthrocentesis completely eliminating JE.ConclusionsPain duration, pain intensity, and MID could be used as predictors for arthrocentesis on JE outcomes and considered during treatment planning.



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Differences in lung injury after IMRT or proton therapy assessed by 18FDG PET imaging

To compare lung injury among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with IMRT or proton therapy as revealed by 18F-FDG post-treatment uptake and to determine factors predictive for clinically symptomatic radiation pneumonitis.

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Monitoring early changes in rectal tumor morphology and volume during 5 weeks of preoperative chemoradiotherapy – An evaluation with sequential MRIs

To assess early changes in rectal tumor volume and morphology on sequential MRIs performed during 5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy.

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CT imaging of primary pancreatic lymphoma: experience from three referral centres for pancreatic diseases

Abstract

Purpose

To describe CT characteristics of primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL), a rare disease with features in common with adenocarcinoma.

Materials and methods

Fourteen patients were enrolled. CT: unenhanced scan, contrast-enhanced pancreatic and venous phases. Image analysis: tumour location; peri-pancreatic vessel encasement; necrosis; enlarged lymph nodes; fat stranding; enlarged bile duct and pancreatic duct; neoplasm longest dimension, volume and density.

Results

Histopathological diagnoses: follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5/14), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (6/14) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (3/14). Six of 14 PPLs were located in the pancreatic head and 7/14 in the body-tail; 1/14 involved the whole gland. In 5/14 cases the superior mesenteric artery and vein were encased; splenic vein and artery encasement was depicted in 2 PPLs. Necrosis was present in 2/14. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were found in 11 cases and fat stranding in all patients. The bile duct was dilated in six cases and the pancreatic duct in five. Mean neoplasm longest diameter and volume were 8.05 cm and 210.8 cm3. Mean tumour attenuation values were 39.1 HU at baseline, 60.6 HU in the pancreatic phase and 71.4 HU in the venous phase.

Conclusions

PPL presents as a large mass lesion with delayed homogeneous enhancement; peri-pancreatic fat stranding and vessel encasement are present, without vascular infiltration. Pancreatic duct dilatation is rare.

Key points

Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare haematological disease

• PPL presents imaging features in common with pancreatic carcinoma but also some distinctive findings

The majority of PPLs are large lesions with delayed homogeneous enhancement

Peri-pancreatic fat stranding and vessel encasement are common in PPL

Vascular infiltration and pancreatic duct dilatation are rare in PPL



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Response to ‘Perilesional edema in brain cancer: Independent prognosticator or epiphenomenon of biomolecular signature?’

We appreciate the opportunity to respond to the letter by Nardone et al. entitled 'Perilesional edema in brain cancer: independent prognosticator or epiphenomenon of biomolecular signature?' Below, we will discuss 'whether the preoperative edema status is an independent prognosticator or epiphenomenon of biomolecular signature for glioblastomas?', with the emphasis on the survivals and progression patterns after treatment.

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Preoperative detection of malignant liver tumors: Comparison of 3D-T2-weighted sequences with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and single shot T2 at 1.5 T

Publication date: March 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology, Volume 100
Author(s): Maxime Barat, Philippe Soyer, Raphael Dautry, Marc Pocard, Rea Lo-Dico, Haythem Najah, Clarisse Eveno, Christophe Cassinotto, Anthony Dohan
PurposeTo assess the performances of three-dimensional (3D)-T2-weighted sequences compared to standard T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2-TSE), T2-half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (T2-HASTE), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and 3D-T1-weighted VIBE sequences in the preoperative detection of malignant liver tumors.MethodsFrom 2012 to 2015, all patients of our institution undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination for suspected malignant liver tumors were prospectively included. Patients had contrast-enhanced 3D-T1-weighted, DWI, 3D-T2-SPACE, T2-HASTE and T2-TSE sequences. Imaging findings were compared with those obtained at follow-up, surgery and histopathological analysis. Sensitivities for the detection of malignant liver tumors were compared for each sequence using McNemar test. A subgroup analysis was conducted for HCCs. Image artifacts were analyzed and compared using Wilcoxon paired signed rank-test.ResultsThirty-three patients were included: 13 patients had 40 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and 20 had 54 liver metastases. 3D-T2-weighted sequences had a higher sensitivity than T2-weighted TSE sequences for the detection of malignant liver tumors (79.8% versus 68.1%; P < 0.001). The difference did not reach significance for HCC. T1-weighted VIBE and DWI had a higher sensitivity than T2-weighted sequences. 3D-T2-weighted-SPACE sequences showed significantly less artifacts than T2-weitghted TSE.Conclusion3D-T2-weighted sequences show very promising performances for the detection of liver malignant tumors compared to T2-weighted TSE sequences.



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Image-guided percutaneous renal cryoablation: Five years experience, results and follow-up

Publication date: March 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology, Volume 100
Author(s): Andre Arantes Pereira Azevedo, Antonio Rahal, Priscila Mina Falsarella, Gustavo Caserta Lemos, Oliver Rojas Claros, Arie Carneiro, Marcos Roberto Gomes de Queiroz, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia
ObjectivesTo describe the experience of our institution in image-guided renal nodules percutaneous cryoablation, evaluating demographic and technical aspects as well as efficacy, safety and follow up.Materials and methodsRetrospective study approved by our institutional review board. Seventy-one renal tumors evaluated in 60 patients treated with image guided percutaneous renal cryoablation from January 2009 to December 2015. No patient was excluded from study, even those who were lost on follow up. All the procedures were guided both by ultrasound and tomography. An argon and helium based cryoablation machine was used for all treatments. Hydrodissection was performed when the bowel or ureters were within 1 cm (iodinated contrast media in dextrose solution). Complications were assessed by the terminology criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Patients were monitored and evaluated by ultrasound, tomography, MRI and/or PET-CT.ResultsIn most procedures (91.9%) only one nodule was treated. Nodules had a median size of 1.6 cm. Most nodules (61,9%) were exophytic. Hydrodissection and retrograde warm pyeloperfusion were performed in most procedures. Among all variables evaluated in univariate analysis, nearness of nodule to collecting system and anterior/posterior location were significantly associated with PRCA complications. No other factor evaluated was significantly associated with complications.ConclusionPRCA is solid alternative to traditional surgical therapies for treatment of small renal tumors in wide subset of patients. Medium term evidence shows excellent long-term oncological results, similar to nephrectomy, with minimal risk of major complications.



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Impact of low dose settings on radiation exposure during pediatric fluoroscopic guided interventions

Publication date: March 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology, Volume 100
Author(s): Moritz Wildgruber, Michael Köhler, Richard Brill, Holger Goessmann, Wibke Uller, René Müller-Wille, Walter A. Wohlgemuth
PurposeTo evaluate the effects of lowering the detector entrance exposure in children undergoing interventional radiology procedures.Materials and MethodsThe study retrospectively investigated radiation dose levels in pediatric patients aged 0–18 years before (n = 39) and after (n = 26) lowering detector entrance dose, undergoing embolization of peripheral Arteriovenous malformations, Portal Vein Interventions or Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangio Drainage (PTCD) between 2014 and 2017. Patient characteristics, fluoroscopy time, protocols used as well as resulting Skin Dose and Dose Area Product (DAP) were compared in each cohort. Image quality was assessed by two independent readers.ResultsThe two patient cohorts did not differ in terms of patient demographics. Similarly, fluoroscopy time did not differ before and after implementation of the low dose settings. An overall reduction of skin dose of 75.1% for AVM embolizations, 80.5% for Portal Vein Interventions and 85.3% for PTCD placement was observed. The DAP decrease was 82.5% for AVM embolizations, 72.2% for Portal Vein Interventions and 79.8% for PTCD placement. Image quality was generally considered to be good with an insignificant difference between pre and post implementation of the low dose approach and good agreement between the two readers. Manual inroom-switching to higher dose levels was possible, however this was not performed more frequently after implementation of the low dose settings.ConclusionLowering the detector entrance dose in pediatric interventional radiology procedures results in a significant decrease of the radiation dose burden.



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Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation for Lung Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Guiyuan Li, Meijuan Xue, Wenjie Chen, Shengming Yi
ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation(RFA) for patients with lung cancers using meta-analysis.Method and materialsLiterature search (PubMed, Embase, Web of science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was undertaken until August 2017 to identify sufficient studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of RFA. Pooled proportions of estimates were calculated by performing the random effect model, including technical success rate, recurrence rate, local tumor progression rate and complications.ResultA total of 25 eligible studies were collected, giving a sample size of 1989 patients with 3025 lung tumors. In the present series, the pooled technical success rate was 96%(95%CIs: 93%–100%). Further, we observed pooled recurrence rate of 35%(95%CIs: 12%–59%) following RFA. Additionally, the pooled rate of local tumor progression was 26%(95%CIs: 20%–32%). One hundred and ninety major complications of RFA were reported in 20 studies, giving a pooled proportion of 6% (95%CIs: 3%–8%) for major RFA complications. Pooled rate of minor complications was 27% (95%CIs:14%–41%).ConclusionIn this meta-analysis, RFA was found to be a safe and efficient treatment for the patients with lung cancers. The efficacy and safety of RFA for lung cancer deserve future investigation in further well-designed randomized controlled trials.



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Comparison of Computer-Aided Detection (CADe) Capability for Pulmonary Nodules among Standard-, Reduced- and Ultra-Low-Dose CTs with and without Hybrid Type Iterative Reconstruction Technique

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Yoshiharu Ohno, Kota Aoyagi, Qi Chen, Naoki Sugihara, Tae Iwasawa, Fumito Okada, Takatoshi Aoki
PurposeTo directly compare the effect of a reconstruction algorithm on nodule detection capability of the computer-aided detection (CADe) system using standard-dose, reduced-dose and ultra-low dose chest CTs with and without adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D).Materials and methodsOur institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Standard-, reduced- and ultra-low-dose chest CTs (250 mA, 50 mA and 10 mA) were used to examine 40 patients, 21 males (mean age ± standard deviation: 63.1 ± 11.0 years) and 19 females (mean age, 65.1 ± 12.7 years), and reconstructed as 1 mm-thick sections. Detection of nodule equal to more than 4 mm in dimeter was automatically performed by our proprietary CADe software. The utility of iterative reconstruction method for improving nodule detection capability, sensitivity and false positive rate (/case) of the CADe system using all protocols were compared by means of McNemar's test or signed rank test.ResultsSensitivity (SE: 0.43) and false-positive rate (FPR: 7.88) of ultra-low-dose CT without AIDR 3D was significantly inferior to those of standard-dose CTs (with AIDR 3D: SE, 0.78, p < 0.0001, FPR, 3.05, p < 0.0001; and without AIDR 3D: SE, 0.80, p < 0.0001, FPR: 2.63, p < 0.0001), reduced-dose CTs (with AIDR 3D: SE, 0.81, p<0.0001, FPR, 3.05, p<0.0001; and without AIDR 3D: SE, 0.62, p<0.0001, FPR: 2.95, p<0.0001) and ultra-low-dose CT with AIDR 3D (SE, 0.79, p<0.0001, FPR, 4.88, p = 0.0001).ConclusionThe AIDR 3D has a significant positive effect on nodule detection capability of the CADe system even when radiation dose is reduced.



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Measurement of normal fetal cerebellar vermis at 24-32 weeks of gestation by transabdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective comparative study

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Dan Zhao, Ailu Cai, Jun Zhang, Yan Wang, Bing Wang
ObjectivesFetal cerebellar vermis may be assessed by ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and median-plane views are best for evaluation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of normal fetal vermis at 24-32 weeks of gestation obtained in median plane by transabdominal 2D-US, 3D-US, and MRI.MethodsA prospective study was conducted, examining normal singleton fetuses between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation. Within a 24-hour period, median-plane views of posterior fossa were generated using 2D-US, 3D-US, and MRI. Measurements of anteroposterior (AP) diameter, craniocaudal (CC) diameter, mid-sagittal surface area, brainstem-vermis (BV) angle and brainstem-tentorium (BT) angle were obtained to compare these imaging modalities.ResultsA total of 180 fetuses were studied. Correlation among imaging methods was good, marked by the following intraclass correlation coefficients: AP diameter, 0.955; CC diameter, 0.956; mid-sagittal surface area, 0.982; BV angle, 0.810; and BT angle, 0.865 (p<0.001).ConclusionsVisualization rates of MRI, 3D-US, and transabdominal 2D-US were decremental, MRI being superior in this regard. However, these three imaging modalities correlated well in measuring cerebellar vermis and its surroundings.



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Radiographic patterns of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures

Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Stefano Carbone, Riccardo Mezzoprete, Matteo Papalia, Valerio Arceri, Andrea Carbone, Stefano Gumina
ObjectiveThe objectives of the study were: a) to identify osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures in a large consecutive series of patients; b) to identify radiographic fracture patterns among osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures; and c) to calculate intra- and inter-observer reliability of assessment of osteoporosis and of radiographic fracture patterns.MethodsThis was a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the emergency department affected by a proximal humerus fracture between June 2014 and June 2016. Three researchers evaluated demographic data and comorbidities, x-rays and CT-scans. A new evaluation method for assessment of osteoporosis was proposed; 7 radiographic fracture patterns were studied. Reliabilities between intra- and inter-tester evaluations, and correlations between the presence of osteoporosis and the 7 radiologic fracture patterns were calculated.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-five patients with a humeral fracture were recruited. Their mean (26-95, 32) age was 58. Of those, 163 (72.4%) were identified as osteoporotic. Among the three raters, the intra- and inter-observer agreement using the proposed methods were high or excellent. Significant correlations with diagnosis of osteoporosis were found with Codman-Lego type 12(p = 0.041), metaphyseal comminution(p < 0.001), impaction of fragments(p = 0.023), comminution of tuberosities(p = 0.037), inferior subluxation(p = 0.029). Intra- and inter-tester reliability of evaluation of these osteoporotic fracture patterns were high.ConclusionsOsteoporosis of the proximal humerus was identified in 72% of patients during a two year period; most of these patients were elderly females sustaining low energy trauma. These fractures showed to have specific radiographic patterns, as comminution of metaphysis and tuberosities, impaction of fragments, and inferior subluxation of the humeral head. These patterns can be assessed with the simple observation of a 2-plan view of a radiograph, without the use of specific software.Level of evidenceLevel III, observational study.



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Ring Ring Ring! Characterising Telephone Interruptions During Radiology Reporting and How to Reduce These

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Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Christopher Watura, Dominic Blunt, Dimitri Amiras
BackgroundTelephone calls remain one of the most frequent interruptions in radiology reporting rooms, despite modern electronic order communication systems. A call received by a radiology trainee during the hour before completing a report may increase the chance of a discrepancy by 12%.AimTo characterise telephone calls to radiology reporting rooms and identify ways to reduce these interruptions.Methods and MaterialsAn observational study over five working days (10 programmed activity reporting sessions equivalent) was conducted across two large acute teaching hospital reporting rooms. Radiologists were requested to record all calls between 9a.m–5p.m on a pre-prepared Excel proforma and indicate their initial rating of call appropriateness.Results288 calls recorded, 92% (266/288) interrupted reporting. Reasons for calls were 48% (139/288) ask for a request to be vetted, 17% (50/288) ask for a study to be reported, 17% (45/288) 'other′, 7% (19/288) discuss choice of study, 6% (16/288) review a report, 3% (9/288) wrong number, 2% (7/288) returning a bleep and 1% (3/288) provide further explanation in addition to the electronic request form.ConclusionRadiologists and referrers remain over reliant on telephone interruptions for their workflow. Attempts to educate referrers previously reduced calls to a CT reporting room by 28%. Our recommendations include (i) defining protected activities, (ii) adhering to fully electronic requesting and vetting processes, other than in time critical or exceptional circumstances, (iii) electronic critical report alerts and review of report priority triaging to reduce calls for reports, (iii) revising duty radiologist timetables to tackle non-reporting responsibilities, (iv) improving new doctor induction in the organisation to improve radiology request practice.



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CT Imaging of Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Benign Gastric Disease

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Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Maria Zulfiqar, Anup Shetty, Vilaas Shetty, Christine Menias




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Online Interactive Case-based Instruction in Prostate MRI Interpretation using PI-RADS Version 2: Impact for Novice Readers

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Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Andrew B. Rosenkrantz, Jovan Begovic, Antonio Pires, Eugene Won, Samir S. Taneja, James S. Babb
PurposeTo assess the impact on reader performance of an interactive case-based online tutorial for prostate MRI interpretation using PI-RADS.MethodsAn educational website was developed incorporating scrollable multi-parametric prostate MRI examinations with annotated solutions based on PI-RADS version 2. Three second-year radiology residents evaluated a separate set of 60 prostate MRI examinations both before and after review of the online case material, identifying and scoring dominant lesions. These 60 examinations included 30 benign cases and 30 cases with a dominant lesion demonstrating Gleason score ≥3+4 tumor on fusion-targeted biopsy. The readers′ pooled performance was compared between the two sessions using logistic regression and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.ResultsAll readers completed the online material within four-hours. Review of the online material significantly improved sensitivity (from 57.8% to 73.3%, p=0.003) and negative predictive value (from 69.2% to 78.2%, p=0.049), but not specificity (from 70.0% to 67.8%, p=0.692) or positive predictive value (from 59.6% to 64.7%, p=0.389). Reader confidence (1–10 scale; 10=maximal confidence) also improved significantly (from 5.6±2.7 to 6.3±2.6, p0.026). However, accuracy of assigned PI-RADS scores did not improve significantly (from 45.5% to 53.3%, p=0.149).ConclusionAn online interactive case-based website in prostate MRI interpretation improved novice readers′ sensitivity and NPV for tumor detection, as well as readers′ confidence. This online material may serve as a resource complementing existing traditional methods of instruction by providing a more flexible educational experience among a larger volume of learners. However, further more targeted educational initiatives regarding the proper application of PI-RADS remain warranted.



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Male Breast MRI: When is it Helpful? Our Experience over the Last Decade

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Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Kyungmin Shin, Sarah Martaindale, Gary J. Whitman
Currently, there are no clear indications or guidelines for performing breast MRI in male patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer. The literature is also very limited on the utilization of breast MRI in male patients. Although it is not common or recommended as a routine clinical practice to perform breast MRI in male patients even in the setting of a diagnosis of breast cancer, there are few instances where MRI may help clinicians and surgeons. With a comprehensive review of cases that was performed at our institution over the last 10 years, the readers may achieve better understanding of when it may be helpful to perform breast MRI in male patients.



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Radiographic Cobb Angle: A Feature of Congenital Lumbar Spine Stenosis

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Falgun H. Chokshi, Nadja Kadom, Nishant Dwivedi, Suprateek Kundu, Ahmed Y. Moussa, Chadi Tannoury, Tony Tannoury
PurposeA low cost, reproducible radiographic method of diagnosing congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is lacking. We hypothesized that the Cobb angle for lumbar lordosis would be smaller in patients with CLSS, based on observations in our spine clinic patient population. Here, we compared lumbar lordosis Cobb angles with the radiographic ratio method in patients with normal spine imaging, degenerative spinal stenosis, and with CLSS.Materials & MethodsOrthopedic surgeons categorized patients with low back pain as "Normal", "Degenerative spinal stenosis", and "CLSS" based on clinical presentation and findings on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We included 30 patients from each cohort who had undergone lateral lumbar spine radiographs and lumbar MRI. For each lateral radiograph, two measurement methods were used: 1) 4-line lumbosacral Cobb angle between L2-S1 and 2) the ratio of the anteroposterior (AP) vertebral body (VB) diameter and spinal canal AP diameter at the L3 level. We performed logistic regression analyses of CLSS prediction by Cobb angle vs. the ratio method in all three cohorts. Covariates included age, gender, and body mass index (BMI).ResultsThe radiographic Cobb angles were smaller in CLSS patients when compared to the Degenerative Disease and Normal cohorts: A smaller radiographic Cobb angle showed higher odds ratio (OR) of predicting CLSS diagnosis compared to the radiographic ratio when compared with Degenerative Disease (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.78, p=0.01) and when compared with the Normal cohort (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24–0.92, p=0.03). Radiographic ratio measurements showed no difference between the three cohorts (p=0.12). CLSS was associated with male gender (p=0.04), younger age (p=0.01), and higher BMI (p=0.01).ConclusionThe radiographic Cobb angle method for lumbar lordosis may be useful for raising the possibility of CLSS as the diagnosis.



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Estimation of DOA for Noncircular Signals via Vandermonde Constrained Parallel Factor Analysis

We provide a complete study on the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of noncircular (NC) signals for uniform linear array (ULA) via Vandermonde constrained parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. By exploiting the noncircular property of the signals, we first construct an extended matrix which contains two times sampling number of the received signal. Then, taking the Vandermonde structure of the array manifold matrix into account, the extended matrix can be turned into a tensor model which admits the Vandermonde constrained PARAFAC decomposition. Based on this tensor model, an efficient linear algebra algorithm is applied to obtain the DOA estimation via utilizing the rotational invariance between two submatrices. Compared with some existing algorithms, the proposed method has a better DOA estimation performance. Meanwhile, the proposed method consistently has a higher estimation accuracy and a much lower computational complexity than the trilinear alternating least square- (TALS-) based PARAFAC algorithm. Finally, numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of estimation accuracy and computational complexity.

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“Arrogant” surgeon fined for writing his initials on patients’ livers

A senior consultant surgeon who branded his initials on the new livers of two anaesthetised transplantation patients has been fined £10 000 after admitting assault at Birmingham Crown Court.In a case...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=FBz1u1U-XVk:Y2y0meJP2jM:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=FBz1u1U-XVk:Y2y0meJP2jM:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=FBz1u1U-XVk:Y2y0meJP2jM:F7zBnMy recent?i=FBz1u1U-XVk:Y2y0meJP2jM:-BTjWOF


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Coherent and robust high-fidelity generation of a biexciton in a quantum dot by rapid adiabatic passage

A biexciton in a semiconductor quantum dot is a source of polarization-entangled photons with high potential for implementation in scalable systems. Several approaches for nonresonant, resonant, and quasiresonant biexciton preparation exist, but all have their own disadvantages; for instance, low fidelity, timing jitter, incoherence, or sensitivity to experimental parameters. We demonstrate a coherent and robust technique to generate a biexciton in an InGaAs quantum dot with a fidelity close to 1. The main concept is the application of rapid adiabatic passage to the ground-state–exciton–biexciton system. We reinforce our experimental results with simulations which include a microscopic coupling to phonons.

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Prozessführung und Vollstreckung durch die Eltern im Lichte des Betreuungsunterhalts

Die grossen Revisionen der elterlichen Sorge und des Kindesunterhaltsrechts haben auch weitreichende prozessuale Konsequenzen. Der Betreuungsunterhalt etwa stellt die Zulässigkeit der elterlichen Prozessführungsbefugnis im Kindesunterhaltsprozess wegen Eigeninteressen des betreuenden Elternteils in Frage. Gleichzeitig führt er dazu, dass beide Eltern am Prozess beteiligt sein müssten, was aber durch die formelle Qualifikation als Kindesunterhalt nicht gewährleistet ist. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über aktuelle Fragestellungen im Bereich der Prozessführung und Vollstreckung von Kindes- und Volljährigenunterhalt. Les importantes réformes de l’autorité parentale et du droit de l’entretien de l’enfant ont également des conséquences procédurales considérables. L’entretien lié à la prise en charge, par exemple, remet en question la faculté qui était reconnue aux parents d’agir en leur propre nom dans les procès liés à l’entretien de l’enfant, et ce en raison des intérêts personnels du parent assumant la prise en charge. Parallèlement, l’entretien lié à la prise en charge a pour effet que les deux parents doivent participer au procès, ce qui n’est toutefois pas garanti puisqu’il est rattaché à l’entretien de l’enfant sur le plan formel. L’article offre un aperçu des questions actuelles en matière de conduite de procès et d’exécution de l’entretien de l’enfant et de l’enfant majeur.

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Iridium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Vinylsilanes

We have screened a diverse array of iridium complexes derived from chiral N,P ligands as catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of vinylsilanes, a transformation for which generally applicable catalysts were lacking. Several catalysts emerged from this study that enabled the highly enantioselective hydrogenation of a wide range of vinylsilanes with trisubstituted or disubstituted terminal C=C bonds bearing aryl, alkyl, ethoxycarbonyl, or hydroxymethyl substituents. In addition to trimethylsilyl and dimethyl(phenyl) silyl derivatives, trialkoxysilyl- and silacyclobutyl-substituted alkenes were used as substrates.

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Review of the book: Creating Good Neighbors? Die Kultur- und Wirtschaftspolitik der USA in Lateinamerika, 1940-1946



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Polymer capsules as micro-/nanoreactors for therapeutic applications: Current strategies to control membrane permeability

Polymer capsules, fabricated either with the aid of a sacrificial template or via the self assembly of block copolymers into polymer vesicles (polymersomes), have attracted a great deal of attention for their potential use as micro-/nanoreactors and artificial organelles for therapeutic applications. Compared to other biomedical applications of polymer capsules, such as drug delivery vehicles, where the polymer shell undergoes irreversible disruption/rupture that allows the release of the payload, the polymer shell in polymer micro-/nanoreactors has to maintain mechanical integrity while allowing the selective diffusion of reagents/reaction products. In the present review, strategies that permit precise control of the permeability of the polymer shell while preserving its architecture are documented and critiqued. Together with these strategies, specific examples where these polymer capsules have been employed as micro-/nanoreactors as well as approaches to scale-up and optimize these systems along with future perspectives for therapeutic applications in several degenerative diseases are elucidated. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Lebensstil-integrierte sportliche Aktivität: Ergebnisse der MoVo-LISA Interventionsstudie

Das psychologische Interventionsprogramm MoVo-LISA wurde entwickelt, um Aufbau und Aufrechterhaltung eines körperlich-aktiven Lebensstils im Anschluss an eine stationäre Rehabilitation zu unterstützen. Anders als die meisten bisherigen Programme zielt MoVo-LISA nicht nur auf eine Stärkung der Motivation, sondern auch auf eine Förderung der Selbststeuerungsfähigkeit, um aus bloßen Absichten tatsächliches Handeln werden zu lassen (Volition). N=220 Patienten einer stationären orthopädischen Rehabilitationseinrichtung wurden einer Kontroll- bzw. Interventionsbedingung zugewiesen (quasi-experimentelles Design). Die Kontrollgruppe erhielt das Standard-Klinikprogramm, die Interventionsgruppe zusätzlich die MoVo-LISA Intervention (2 Gruppengespräche und ein kurzes Einzelgespräch während des Klinikaufenthalts, eine postalische Erinnerung 3 Wochen und ein Kurztelefonat 5 Wochen nach der Klinikentlassung). Sportaktivität, Gesundheitsstatus und psychologische Variablen wurden zu 5 Messzeitpunkten erhoben. Ein Jahr nach Rehabilitationsende waren die Teilnehmer der Interventionsgruppe im Mittel 28 min/Woche länger sportlich aktiv als die der Kontrollgruppe (p=0,05). Die Hälfte der Teilnehmer der Interventionsgruppe waren mindestens 60 min/Woche aktiv, in der Kontrollgruppe jedoch nur 33 Prozent (p=0,01). Auch im Beschwerdeerleben (Schmerzindex) erreichte die Interventionsgruppe günstigere Werte. Bei MoVo-LISA handelt es sich um ein kostengünstiges, zeitlich effizientes und standardisiertes Interventionsprogramm, das in vielen Bereichen des Gesundheitswesens (v. a. ambulante und stationäre Reha) eingesetzt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Annahme, dass es nachhaltig zum Aufbau eines körperlich-aktiven Lebensstils beitragen kann. Verf.-Referat The intervention program MoVo-LISA was developed to support setup and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle after rehabilitation. In contrast to most of the current programs MoVo-LISA does not only aim at strengthening motivation, but also at fostering self-regulation in order to help bridging the gap between intentions and actions. N=220 patients of an in-patient orthopaedic rehab clinic were assigned to the control or intervention group. While the control group only received standard care, the intervention group additionally received the MoVo-LISA intervention (consisting of two group-meetings and a one-on-one interview at the clinic, a postal reminder three weeks and a brief telephone contact five weeks after discharge). Physical exercise, health status and psychological variables were measured at five time points. One year after discharge, patients in the intervention group were more physically active than those in the control group (difference: 28 min/week; p=0,05). In the intervention group half of the patients were exercising for at least 60 min/week, in the control group only 33 percent (p=0,01). Furthermore, level of health complaints (pain index) in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group. MoVo-LISA is an economic, time-efficient and standardized intervention program which can be applied to many health-related settings (in particular to in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation). Results suggest that the program has the potential to support the long-term acquisition of a physically active lifestyle. Verf.-Referat

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Porphyrin-polymer nanocompartments: singlet oxygen generation and antimicrobial activity

A new water-soluble photocatalyst for singlet oxygen generation is presented. Its absorption extends to the red part of the spectrum, showing activity up to irradiation at 660 nm. Its efficiency has been compared to that of a commercial analogue (Rose Bengal) for the oxidation of L-methionine. The quantitative and selective oxidation was promising enough to encapsulate the photocatalyst in polymersomes. The singlet oxygen generated in this way can diffuse and remain active for the oxidation of L-methionine outside the polymeric compartment. These results made us consider the use of these polymersomes for antimicrobial applications. E. Coli colonies were subjected to oxidative stress using the photocatalyst-polymersome conjugates and nearly all the colonies were damaged upon extensive irradiation while under the same red LED light irradiation, liquid cultures in the absence of porphyrin or porphyrin-loaded polymersomes were unharmed

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Combining in Vitro and in Silico Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy to Characterize and Tune Cellulosomal Scaffoldin Mechanics

Cellulosomes are polyprotein machineries that efficiently degrade cellulosic material. Crucial to their function are scaffolds consisting of highly homologous cohesin domains, which serve a dual role by coordinating a multiplicity of enzymes as well as anchoring the microbe to its substrate. Here we combined two approaches to elucidate the mechanical properties of the main scaffold ScaA of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. A newly developed parallelized one-pot in vitro transcription-translation and protein pull-down protocol enabled high-throughput atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) measurements of all cohesins from ScaA with a single cantilever, thus promising improved relative force comparability. Albeit very similar in sequence, the hanging cohesins showed considerably lower unfolding forces than the bridging cohesins, which are subjected to force when the microbe is anchored to its substrate. Additionally, all-atom steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations on homology models offered insight into the process of cohesin unfolding under force. Based on the differences among the individual force propagation pathways and their associated correlation communities, we designed mutants to tune the mechanical stability of the weakest hanging cohesin. The proposed mutants were tested in a second high-throughput AFM SMFS experiment revealing that in one case a single alanine to glycine point mutation suffices to more than double the mechanical stability. In summary, we have successfully characterized the force induced unfolding behavior of all cohesins from the scaffoldin ScaA, as well as revealed how small changes in sequence can have large effects on force resilience in cohesin domains. Our strategy provides an efficient way to test and improve the mechanical integrity of protein domains in general.

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Les propietats del registre paleocarpològic: el punt de partida per a l’estudi de la seva representativitat arqueològica

Neste artigo propónse unha definición das propiedades do rexistro carpolóxico para formular un método sis-tematizado para a súa descrición, tan cuantitativa como sexa posible, de acordo co estado de desenvolve-mento da investigación. Dita descrición materialízase nunha base de datos que amosa a continuación. Fu-turas liñas de traballo para a mellora de dita metodoloxía son presentadas finalmente. Carpoloxía, metodoloxía, propiedades do rexistro paleocarpolóxico, base de datos, tafonomía En este artículo se propone una definición de las propiedades del registro carpológico para formular un método sistematizado para su descripción, tan cuantitativa como sea posible, de acuerdo con el estado de desarrollo de la investigación. Dicha descripción se materializa en una base de datos que se muestra a continuación. Futuras líneas de trabajo para la mejora de dicha metodología son presentadas finalmente, con un énfasis especial en la experimentación. Carpología, metodología, propiedades del registro paleocarpológico, base de datos, tafonomía In this paper a definition of the properties of the archaeological seeds and fruits is proposed in order to formulate a systemized method for their description, in the most quantitative way as possible, according to what the state of research allows to. This description is materialized in a database that is subsequently presented. Further lines of inves-tigation are drawn eventually and consequently with the previous work, with special emphasis on experimentation. Seed identification, methodology, properties of the paleocarpological register, database, taphonomy

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La potencialitat del registre carpològic per a l’estudi de la percepció, el treball i el consum de recursos vegetals per part de les societats prehistòriques



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Magnetic Separation of Elastin-like Polypeptide Receptors for Enrichment of Cellular and Molecular Targets

Protein-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) are promising tools for a variety of biomedical applications, from immunoassays and biosensors to theranostics and drug-delivery. In such applications, conjugation of affinity proteins (e.g., antibodies) to the nanoparticle surface many times compromises biological activity and specificity, leading to increased reagent consumption and decreased assay performance. To address this problem, we engineered a biomolecular magnetic separation system that eliminates the need to chemically modify nanoparticles with the capture biomolecules or synthetic polymers of any kind. The system consists of (i) thermoresponsive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles displaying poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm), and (ii) an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fused with the affinity protein Cohesin (Coh). Proper design of pNIPAm-mNPs and ELP-Coh allowed for efficient cross-aggregation of the two distinct nanoparticle types under collapsing stimuli, which enabled magnetic separation of ELP-Coh aggregates bound to target Dockerin (Doc) molecules. Selective resolubilization of the ELP-Coh/Doc complexes was achieved under intermediate conditions under which only the pNIPAm-mNPs remained aggregated. We show that ELP-Coh is capable of magnetically separating and purifying nanomolar quantities of Doc as well as eukaryotic whole cells displaying the complementary Doc domain from diluted human plasma. This modular system provides magnetic enrichment and purification of captured molecular targets and eliminates the requirement of biofunctionalization of magnetic nanoparticles to achieve bioseparations. Our streamlined and simplified approach is amenable for point-of-use applications and brings the advantages of ELP-fusion proteins to the realm of magnetic particle separation systems.

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Mostreig, tractament i anàlisi arqueobotànica de llavors i fruits d’època neolítica al sector de la Serra de les Ferreres de les Mines de Gavà



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Elastin-like Polypeptide Linkers for Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy

Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is by now well established as a standard technique in biophysics and mechanobiology. In recent years, the technique has benefitted greatly from new approaches to bioconjugation of proteins to surfaces. Indeed, optimized immobilization strategies for biomolecules and refined purification schemes are being steadily adapted and improved, which in turn has enhanced data quality. In many previously reported SMFS studies, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used to anchor molecules of interest to surfaces and/or cantilever tips. The limitation, however, is that PEG exhibits a well-known trans-trans-gauche to all-trans transition, which results in marked deviation from standard polymer elasticity models such as the worm-like chain, particularly at elevated forces. As a result, the assignment of unfolding events to protein domains based on their corresponding amino acid chain lengths is significantly obscured. Here, we provide a solution to this problem by implementing unstructured elastin-like polypeptides as linkers to replace PEG. We investigate the suitability of tailored elastin-like polypeptides linkers and perform direct comparisons to PEG, focusing on attributes that are critical for single-molecule force experiments such as linker length, monodispersity, and bioorthogonal conjugation tags. Our results demonstrate that by avoiding the ambiguous elastic response of mixed PEG/peptide systems and instead building the molecular mechanical systems with only a single bond type with uniform elastic properties, we improve data quality and facilitate data analysis and interpretation in force spectroscopy experiments. The use of all-peptide linkers allows alternative approaches for precisely defining elastic properties of proteins linked to surfaces.

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Nightwatch

In this essay I examine the features of night, in particular, urban night. I try to highlight the epistemological divide between day and night, light and darkness. Even as light-based experiencing, acting, and thinking, and their cultural tools colonize urban night, nocturnal elements relate dialectically to our daytime reasoning. I conclude with the question of whether a kind of half-tone thinking contained in a trialectic of light, twilight, and darkness would be capable of appreciating the peculiar qualities of night. The reveries of the weak light guide into the innermost recesses of the familiar. It looks as if there are dark corners where nothing but a fluttering light is suffered....A dreamer of the lamp knows by instinct that the images of the weak light are night lights. Their glow becomes invisible, when thinking is at work, when consciousness is bright. But as soon as thinking has a rest the images watch. Gaston Bachelard

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Post-translational Sortase-mediated Attachment of High-strength Force Spectroscopy Handles

Single-molecule force spectroscopy greatly benefits from site-specific surface immobilization and specific probing with a functionalized cantilever. Here, we describe a streamlined approach to such experiments by covalently attaching mechanically stable receptors onto proteins of interest (POI) to improve pickup efficiency and specificity. This platform provides improved throughput, allows precise control over the pulling geometry, and allows for multiple constructs to be probed with the same ligand-modified cantilever. We employ two orthogonal enzymatic ligation reactions [sortase and phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp)] to covalently immobilize POI to a pegylated surface and to subsequently ligate the POI to a mechanically stable dockerin domain at the protein’s C-terminus for use as a high-strength pulling handle. Our configuration permits expression and folding of the POI to proceed independently from the mechanically stable receptor used for specific probing and requires only two short terminal peptide sequences (i.e., ybbR-tag and sortase C-tag). We applied this system successfully to proteins expressed using in vitro transcription and translation reactions without a protein purification step and to purified proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

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Datenbankherstellerschutz für Rohdaten?



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Toward a complete decision model of item and source recognition: A discrete-state approach

In source-monitoring experiments, participants study items from two sources (A and B). At test, they are presented Source A items, Source B items, and new items. They are asked to decide whether a test item is old or new (item memory) and whether it is a Source A or a Source B item (source memory). Hautus, Macmillan, and Rotello (2008) developed models, couched in a bivariate signal detection framework, that account for item and source memory across several data sets collected in a confidence-rating response format. The present article enlarges the set of candidate models with a discrete-state model. The model is a straightforward extension of Bayen, Murnane, and Erdfelder's (1996) multinomial model of source discrimination to confidence ratings. On the basis of the evaluation criteria adopted by Hautus et al., it provides a better account of the data than do Hautus et al.'s models.

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Economic Growth and (Coalition) Governments in Central and Eastern European Countries

The paper is oriented to the topic of the relationship between economy and coalition governments. The Economic Growth has been chosen for the purpose of this paper as the tested variable. There have been examined whether type of coalition governments or a position of the government in the left – right scale have any influence on the Economic Growth. The methodology of the paper is based on empirical verification of the relationship between economic growth and political variables. It has been done by the panel regression for eight countries in the Central and Eastern European Countries during the 1993 – 2005 although those countries witnessed only 20 years of democratic development. The paper concludes with no statistically significant influence of neither coalitions nor left-right positions of the governments on the economic growth. There have been confirmed some economic rules.

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Impact of Floods on Local Political Representation

Natural disasters have significant material and social impacts on the communities affected. It may also influence the result of the political process, especially at the local level. Therefore, the paper investigates the political consequences of the disastrous floods in the Czech Republic with the focus on the largest floods in 2002. Its main goal is to test the hypothesis that floods in the Czech Republic influenced the results of local elections, i.e. that floods caused changes in local representations of those municipalities, which were affected by floods just before the local elections. The hypothesis was formulated on the basis of the current distribution of responsibility in the Czech system of flood protection (responsibility is shared by citizens, local governments and the national government). There have been used data concerning the elections at the local level held in November 2002 and data on flood damages. The data sample included not only those municipalities affected by floods, but also those which weren’t affected. It enabled to verify the plausibility of the results. The statistical analysis shows that there was no statistically significant influence of floods on re-election of candidates standing for their offices again. There was a moderate influence on the participation of the electorate in the elections.

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Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Catalyst-Controlled Synthesis of Axially Chiral Compounds

The fundamental role that aldol chemistry adopts in various disciplines, such as stereoselective catalysis or the biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides, illustrates its exceptional versatility. On the one hand, numerous aldol addition reactions reliably transfer the stereochemical information from catalysts into various valuable products. On the other hand, countless aromatic polyketide natural products are produced by an ingenious biosynthetic machinery based on arene-forming aldol condensations. With the aim of complementing aldol methodology that controls stereocenter configuration, we recently combined these two tenets by investigating small-molecule-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions that stereoselectively form diverse axially chiral compounds through the construction of a new aromatic ring.

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Direct repression of IGF2 is implicated in the anti-angiogenic function of microRNA-210 in human retinal endothelial cells

Abstract

Pathological angiogenesis leads to the development of retinal vasculopathies and causes severe vision impairment. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the angiogenic behavior of retinal endothelial cells helps provide new insights for developing treatment of retinal vasculopathies. Pro-angiogenic function of miR-210 has previously been identified. However, the functional implication of miR-210 in retinal endothelial cells remains unknown. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) were employed to investigate the impact of miR-210 on the angiogenic capacity of retinal endothelial cells. It was observed that without affecting the viability of HRECs, miR-210 significantly suppressed the migration and capillary-like tube formation in HRECs. Moreover, pro-angiogenic insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) was newly identified as a direct target of miR-210 in HRECs. MiR-210 decreased the expression of IGF2 at both mRNA and protein levels in HRECs. IGF2-simulated activation of p38 MAPK was attenuated by miR-210 in HRECs. Recombinant IGF2 protein rescued miR-210-induced impairment of tube formation in HRECs. Therefore, in contrast to the previously reported pro-angiogenic function of miR-210, the current work reveals novel anti-angiogenic activity of miR-210 in HRECs. Furthermore, IGF2 is identified for the first time as a direct target of miR-210 in HRECs, adding new mechanistic insights into the expression regulation of pro-angiogenic IGF2 in human retinal endothelial cells. The current work helps increase the understanding of regulatory mechanisms underlying retinal endothelial cell physiology, justifying further evaluation for the therapeutic implications of miR-210/IGF2 interaction in the treatment of related retinal vasculopathies.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 135: Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 135: Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010135

Authors: Laura Tam Gail Garvey Judith Meiklejohn Jennifer Martin Jon Adams Euan Walpole Michael Fay Patricia Valery

Amongst Indigenous Australians, “cancer” has negative connotations that detrimentally impact upon access to cancer care services. Barriers to accessing cancer services amongst Indigenous Australians are widely reported. In contrast, factors that facilitate this cohort to successfully navigate cancer care services (“enablers”) are scarcely reported in the literature. Through qualitative interviews, this article examines factors that assist Indigenous Australians to have positive cancer experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve adult Indigenous oncology patients recruited from a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia during 2012–2014. Data generated from the interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers via inductive thematic analytical processes. Discussions followed by consensus on the major categories allowed conclusions to be drawn on potential enablers. Two major categories of enablers were identified by the researchers: resilience and communication. Individual’s intrinsic strength, their coping strategies, and receipt of support improved participant’s resilience and consequently supported a positive experience. Communication methods and an effective patient-provider relationship facilitated positive experiences for participants. Despite potential barriers to access of care for Indigenous cancer patients, participants in the study demonstrated that it was still possible to focus on the positive aspects of their cancer experiences. Many participants explained how cancer changed their outlook on life, often for the better, with many feeling empowered as they progressed through their cancer diagnosis and treatment processes.



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CTLA-4 polymorphisms: influence on transplant-related mortality and survival in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Abstract

Purpose

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative approach for a variety of hematological diseases; however, it is still associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) after HSCT depends mainly on the toxicity of the conditioning regimen, infections, and graft-versus-host disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between CTLA-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms and TRM in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

Methods

153 donors and 153 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia who had undergone allogeneic HSCT were genotyped of CTLA-4 gene for rs3087243 (CT60G>A), rs231775 (+ 49 A>G) and rs4553808 using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results

We observed a significant association between the donor’s CLTA-4 genotype of rs3087243 and TRM in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Genotype AG was found in 78 donors (51%), GG in 44 donors (29%) and 31 donors (20%) were homozygous for AA. 30 patients died as a result of transplant-related causes. Interestingly, we observed a significantly reduced TRM in children who were transplanted from a donor with the CTLA-4 genotype GG in comparison to genotype AG or AA (9 versus 19 versus 36%, P = 0.013). In addition, we found significant differences of event-free survival (EFS) depending on the donor’s genotype. The EFS was 64, 46 or 32% if the patient was transplanted from a donor with CTLA-4 genotype GG, AG or AA, respectively (P = 0.043). In multivariate analysis, CTLA-4 genotype of rs3087243 was an independent risk factor for TRM (P = 0.011) and EFS (P = 0.035).

Conclusion

This study provides first evidence that the CTLA-4 polymorphisms are significant risk factors for TRM and survival in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT and should be evaluated in further trials.



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T cell responses to tumor: how dominant assumptions on immune activity led to a neglect of pathological functions, and how evolutionary considerations can help identify testable hypotheses for improving immunotherapy

Abstract

Cancer immunotherapy is based on the premise that activated, pro-inflammatory T cell responses to tumor will mostly combat tumor growth. Nowadays accepted as largely valid, this hypothesis has been formed as a result of extensive theoretical and experimental argumentation on the inherent function of the immune system and the nature of the immunological self, dating back to the foundations of immunology. These arguments have also been affected by how current working hypotheses were set by researchers, an issue that has been the focus of study by medical anthropologists. As a result of these processes, cancer immunotherapy has developed into a truly promising anti-cancer strategy, with very substantial benefits in clinical outcomes. However, as immunotherapy still has large margins for improvement, a more thorough examination of both the historical background and evolutionary context of current assumptions for how the immune system responds to cancer can help reveal novel, testable questions. We describe how attempting to answer some of these questions experimentally, such as identifying the contributors of tumor-associated fibrosis, has led to potentially useful insights on how to improve immunotherapy.



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Rayner Walter Guillery FRS, 28th August 1929–7th April 2017



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Catalytic Arene-forming Aldol Condensation: Stereoselective Synthesis of Rotationally Restricted Aromatic Compounds

By taking inspiration from the fascinating biosynthetic machinery that creates aromatic polyketides, our group investigates analogous reactions catalyzed by small molecules. We are particularly captivated by the prospects of intramolecular aldol condensation reactions to generate different rotationally restricted aromatic compounds. In a first project of our independent research group, a highly stereoselective amine catalyzed synthesis of axially chiral biaryls, tertiary aromatic amides and oligo-1,2-naphthylenes has been developed. In this article, we outline the twists and turns for our escape from the aromatic flatland to structurally intriguing chiral arene scaffolds relevant for various fields of application.

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A 1,5-Bifunctional Organomagnesium Reagent for the Synthesis of Disubstituted Anthracenes and Anthrones

The preparation of a 1,5-bifunctional organomagnesium alkoxide reagent by a deprotonation–magnesiation sequence is described. This reagent reacts with carboxylic acid esters to incorporate the carboxyl carbon atom of the ester into the newly formed ring. The magnesium bisalkoxide resulting from this double nucleophilic attack is subsequently transformed in situ into halogenated disubstituted anthracenes, monosubstituted anthracenes, anthrones, or 9-substituted dihydroanthracene-cis-diols by variation of the acidic workup procedures.

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Test Master Thesis



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A note on Maurin's theorem

We combine the strategy described in a paper of the first, third and fourth authors with a recent result of the second author to obtain a new proof of Maurin’s Theorem to the effect that the points satisfying two independent multiplicative relations on a fixed algebraic curve form a finite set when there is no natural obstacle.

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Weakly bounded height on modular curves

We study the intersection of a fixed plane algebraic curve C with modular curves of varying level. The height of points in such intersections cannot be bounded from above independently of the level when C is defined over the field of algebraic numbers. But we find a certain class of curves C for which the height is bounded logarithmically in the level. This bound is strong enough to imply certain finiteness result. Such evidence leads to a conjecture involving a logarithmic height bound unless C is of so-called special type. We also discuss connections to recent progress on conjectures concerning unlikely intersections.

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Model-free extraction of spin label position distributions from pseudocontact shift data

A significant problem with paramagnetic tags attached to proteins and nucleic acids is their conformational mobility. Each tag is statistically distributed within a volume between 5 and 10 Angstroms across; structural biology conclusions from NMR and EPR work are necessarily diluted by this uncertainty. The problem is solved in electron spin resonance, but remains open in the other major branch of paramagnetic resonance - pseudocontact shift (PCS) NMR spectroscopy, where structural biologists have so far been reluctantly using the point paramagnetic centre approximation. Here we describe a new method for extracting probability densities of lanthanide tags from PCS data. The method relies on Tikhonov-regularised 3D reconstruction and opens a new window into biomolecular structure and dynamics because it explores a very different range of conditions from those accessible to double electron resonance work on paramagnetic tags: a room-temperature solution rather than a glass at cryogenic temperatures. The method is illustrated using four different Tm3+ DOTA-M8 tagged mutants of human carbonic anhydrase II; the results are in good agreement with rotamer library and DEER data. The wealth of high-quality pseudocontact shift data accumulated by the biological magnetic resonance community over the last 30 years, and so far only processed using point models, could now become a major source of useful information on conformational distributions of paramagnetic tags in biomolecules.

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Donor-Acceptor Molecular Triangles

The synthesis and Pt electr nic properties of five donoracceptor molecules, featuring an electron-acceptor unit made of six fused benzenoid rings that resembles an equilateral triangle, are described. These molecular 'triangles' were synthesized in eight steps from simple building blocks such that the electron-donor substituents could be installed in the last step by means of the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. All molecules absorb and emit visible light in the region of around 450-650 and 550-850 nm, respectively, exhibit solvatochromism, and possess up to four redox states.

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CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte interplay in controlling tumor growth

Abstract

The outstanding clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade has revived the interest in underlying mechanisms of the immune system that are capable of eliminating tumors even in advanced stages. In this scenario, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are part of the cancer immune cycle and both populations significantly influence the clinical outcome. In general, the immune system has evolved several mechanisms to protect the host against cancer. Each of them has to be undermined or evaded during cancer development to enable tumor outgrowth. In this review, we give an overview of T lymphocyte-driven control of tumor growth and discuss the involved tumor-suppressive mechanisms of the immune system, such as senescence surveillance, cancer immunosurveillance, and cancer immunoediting with respect to recent clinical developments of immunotherapies. The main focus is on the currently existing knowledge about the CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte interplay that mediates the control of tumor growth.



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Amyloid precursor protein products concentrate in a subset of exosomes specifically endocytosed by neurons

Abstract

Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques of Alzheimer’s disease brains, is produced by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its C-terminal fragments (CTFs). An unanswered question is how amyloidogenic peptides spread throughout the brain during the course of the disease. Here, we show that small lipid vesicles called exosomes, secreted in the extracellular milieu by cortical neurons, carry endogenous APP and are strikingly enriched in CTF-α and the newly characterized CTF-η. Exosomes from N2a cells expressing human APP with the autosomal dominant Swedish mutation contain Aβ peptides as well as CTF-α and CTF-η, while those from cells expressing the non-mutated form of APP only contain CTF-α and CTF-η. APP and CTFs are sorted into a subset of exosomes which lack the tetraspanin CD63 and specifically bind to dendrites of neurons, unlike exosomes carrying CD63 which bind to both neurons and glial cells. Thus, neuroblastoma cells secrete distinct populations of exosomes carrying different cargoes and targeting specific cell types. APP-carrying exosomes can be endocytosed by receiving cells, allowing the processing of APP acquired by exosomes to give rise to the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Thus, our results show for the first time that neuronal exosomes may indeed act as vehicles for the intercellular transport of APP and its catabolites.



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Bacteriophages targeting intestinal epithelial cells: a potential novel form of immunotherapy

Abstract

In addition to their established role as a physical barrier to invading pathogens and other harmful agents, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are actively involved in local immune reactions. In the past years, evidence has accumulated suggesting the role of IEC in the immunopathology of intestinal inflammatory disorders (IBD). Recent advances in research on bacteriophages strongly suggest that—in addition to their established antibacterial activity—they have immunomodulating properties that are potentially useful in the clinic. We suggest that these immunomodulating phage activities targeting IEC may open novel treatment perspectives in disorders of the alimentary tract, particularly IBD.



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Vertebrate GAF/ThPOK: emerging functions in chromatin architecture and transcriptional regulation

Abstract

GAGA factor of Drosophila melanogaster (DmGAF) is a multifaceted transcription factor with diverse roles in chromatin regulation. Recently, ThPOK/c-Krox was identified as its vertebrate homologue (vGAF), which has a basic domain structure similar to DmGAF and is decorated with a number of post-translationally modified residues. In vertebrate genomes, vGAF associates with purine-rich GAGA sequences and performs diverse chromatin-mediated functions, viz., gene activation, repression and enhancer blocking. Expansion of regulatory chromatin proteins with the acquisition of PTMs appears to be the general trend that facilitated the evolution of complexity in vertebrates. Here, we compare the structural and functional features of vGAF with those of DmGAF and also assess the possible functional redundancy among paralogues of vGAF. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms which aid in the diverse and context-dependent functions of this protein.



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Mechanisms of ciliary targeting: entering importins and Rabs

Abstract

Primary cilium is a rod-like plasma membrane protrusion that plays important roles in sensing the cellular environment and initiating corresponding signaling pathways. The sensory functions of the cilium critically depend on the unique enrichment of ciliary residents, which is maintained by the ciliary diffusion barrier. It is still unclear how ciliary cargoes specifically enter the diffusion barrier and accumulate within the cilium. In this review, the organization and trafficking mechanism of the cilium are compared to those of the nucleus, which are much better understood at the moment. Though the cilium differs significantly from the nucleus in terms of molecular and cellular functions, analogous themes and principles in the membrane organization and cargo trafficking are notable between them. Therefore, knowledge in the nuclear trafficking can likely shed light on our understanding of the ciliary trafficking. Here, with a focus on membrane cargoes in mammalian cells, we briefly review various ciliary trafficking pathways from the Golgi to the periciliary membrane. Models for the subsequent import translocation across the diffusion barrier and the enrichment of cargoes within the ciliary membrane are discussed in detail. Based on recent discoveries, we propose a Rab–importin-based model in an attempt to accommodate various observations on ciliary targeting.



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Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo

Abstract

Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Therefore, we have inactivated the Klk7 gene in adipose tissue using conditional gene-targeting strategies in mice. Klk7-deficient mice (ATKlk7 /) exhibited less weight gain, predominant expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue and improved whole body insulin sensitivity under a high fat diet (HFD). ATKlk7 / mice displayed higher energy expenditure and food intake, most likely due to altered adipokine secretion including lower circulating leptin. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was significantly reduced in combination with an increased percentage of alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory) M2 macrophages in epigonadal adipose tissue of ATKlk7 /. Taken together, by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation, altering adipokine secretion and epigonadal adipose tissue expansion, Klk7 deficiency in adipose tissue partially ameliorates the adverse effects of HFD-induced obesity. In summary, we provide first evidence for a previously unrecognized role of KLK7 in adipose tissue with effects on whole body energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity.



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C3aR and C5aR1 act as key regulators of human and mouse β-cell function

Abstract

Aims

Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability.

Materials and methods

Human and mouse islet mRNAs encoding key elements of the complement system were quantified by qPCR and distribution of C3 and C5 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry. Activation of C3aR and C5aR1 was determined using DiscoverX beta-arrestin assays. Insulin secretion from human and mouse islets was measured by radioimmunoassay, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), ATP generation and apoptosis were assessed by standard techniques.

Results

C3 and C5 proteins and C3aR and C5aR1 were expressed by human and mouse islets, and C3 and C5 were mainly localised to β- and α-cells. Conditioned media from islets exposed for 1 h to 5.5 and 20 mM glucose stimulated C3aR and C5aR1-driven beta-arrestin recruitment. Activation of C3aR and C5aR1 potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion from human and mouse islets, increased [Ca2+]i and ATP generation, and protected islets against apoptosis induced by a pro-apoptotic cytokine cocktail or palmitate.

Conclusions

Our observations demonstrate a functional link between activation of components of the innate immune system and improved β-cell function, suggesting that low-level chronic inflammation may improve glucose homeostasis through direct effects on β-cells.



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Exploiting non-canonical translation to identify new targets for T cell-based cancer immunotherapy

Abstract

Cryptic MHC I-associated peptides (MAPs) are produced via two mechanisms: translation of protein-coding genes in non-canonical reading frames and translation of allegedly non-coding sequences. In general, cryptic MAPs are coded by relatively short open reading frames whose translation can be regulated at the level of initiation, elongation or termination. In contrast to conventional MAPs, the processing of cryptic MAPs is frequently proteasome independent. The existence of cryptic MAPs derived from allegedly non-coding regions enlarges the scope of CD8 T cell immunosurveillance from a mere ~2% to as much as ~75% of the human genome. Considering that 99% of cancer-specific mutations are located in those allegedly non-coding regions, cryptic MAPs could furthermore represent a particularly rich source of tumor-specific antigens. However, extensive proteogenomic analyses will be required to determine the breath as well as the temporal and spatial plasticity of the cryptic MAP repertoire in normal and neoplastic cells.



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Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

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-Iterative Exponential Forgetting Factor for EEG Signals Parameter Estimation

Electroencephalograms (EEG) signals are of interest because of their relationship with physiological activities, allowing a description of motion, speaking, or thinking. Important research has been developed to take advantage of EEG using classification or predictor algorithms based on parameters that help to describe the signal behavior. Thus, great importance should be taken to feature extraction which is complicated for the Parameter Estimation (PE)–System Identification (SI) process. When based on an average approximation, nonstationary characteristics are presented. For PE the comparison of three forms of iterative-recursive uses of the Exponential Forgetting Factor (EFF) combined with a linear function to identify a synthetic stochastic signal is presented. The one with best results seen through the functional error is applied to approximate an EEG signal for a simple classification example, showing the effectiveness of our proposal.

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A Novel Approach for Reducing Attributes and Its Application to Small Enterprise Financing Ability Evaluation

Attribute reduction is viewed as a kind of preprocessing steps for reducing large dimensionality in data mining of all complex systems. A great deal of researchers have proposed various approaches to reduce attributes or select key features in multicriteria decision making evaluation. In practice, the existing approaches for attribute reduction focused on improving the classification accuracy or saving the cost of computational time, without considering the influence of the reduction results on the original data set. To help address this gap, we develop an advanced novel attribute reduction approach combining Pearson correlation analysis with test significance discrimination for the screening and identification of key characteristics related to the original data set. The proposed model has been verified using the financing ability evaluation data of 713 small enterprises of a city commercial bank in China. And the experimental results show that the proposed reduction model is efficient and effective. Moreover, our experimental findings help to locate the qualified partners and alleviate the difficulties faced by enterprises when applying loan.

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The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, , (), and significant improvements appeared in communication, cooperation, social interaction, and self-control subdomains (). Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found in the control group (). The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression.

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Enhanced Ant Colony Optimization with Dynamic Mutation and Ad Hoc Initialization for Improving the Design of TSK-Type Fuzzy System

This paper proposes an enhanced ant colony optimization with dynamic mutation and ad hoc initialization, ACODM-I, for improving the accuracy of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang- (TSK-) type fuzzy systems design. Instead of the generic initialization usually used in most population-based algorithms, ACODM-I proposes an ad hoc application-specific initialization for generating the initial ant solutions to improve the accuracy of fuzzy system design. The generated initial ant solutions are iteratively improved by a new approach incorporating the dynamic mutation into the existing continuous ACO (). The introduced dynamic mutation balances the exploration ability and convergence rate by providing more diverse search directions in the early stage of optimization process. Application examples of two zero-order TSK-type fuzzy systems for dynamic plant tracking control and one first-order TSK-type fuzzy system for the prediction of the chaotic time series have been simulated to validate the proposed algorithm. Performance comparisons with and different advanced algorithms or neural-fuzzy models verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm. The effects on the design accuracy and convergence rate yielded by the proposed initialization and introduced dynamic mutation have also been discussed and verified in the simulations.

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Adaptive Gain Scheduled Semiactive Vibration Control Using a Neural Network

We propose an adaptive gain scheduled semiactive control method using an artificial neural network for structural systems subject to earthquake disturbance. In order to design a semiactive control system with high control performance against earthquakes with different time and/or frequency properties, multiple semiactive control laws with high performance for each of multiple earthquake disturbances are scheduled with an adaptive manner. Each semiactive control law to be scheduled is designed based on the output emulation approach that has been proposed by the authors. As the adaptive gain scheduling mechanism, we introduce an artificial neural network (ANN). Input signals of the ANN are the measured earthquake disturbance itself, for example, the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. The output of the ANN is the parameter for the scheduling of multiple semiactive control laws each of which has been optimized for a single disturbance. Parameters such as weight and bias in the ANN are optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed design method is applied to semiactive control design of a base-isolated building with a semiactive damper. With simulation study, the proposed adaptive gain scheduling method realizes control performance exceeding single semiactive control optimizing the average of the control performance subject to various earthquake disturbances.

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Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents

Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods. Adolescents (N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Results. Adolescents with higher grit scores (, P

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A Case of Early Stage Bladder Carcinosarcoma in Late Recurrence of Urothelial Carcinoma after Transurethral Resection

Carcinosarcomas of the urinary bladder are rare biphasic neoplasms, consisting of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components, and the prognosis of this tumor is unfavorable in most patients with even possibility of resection of disease. A 77-year-old male with a history of transurethral resection (TUR) of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy with pirarubicin 10 years ago revisited our department with a gross hematuria. Cystoscopy demonstrated an approximately 2.5 cm nonpapillary tumor on the right wall of the bladder. Pelvic MRI showed the tumor without extending the base of the bladder wall. The tumor could be completely removed with TUR. The malignant epithelial elements consisted of high-grade UC and the majority of mesenchymal components were fibrosarcomatous differentiation based on immunohistochemical studies. The tumor could be pathologically also suspected to be an early stage on TUR specimens. Although he has received no additional intervention due to the occurrence of myocardial infarction at three weeks after the TUR, he has been alive with no evidence of recurrence of the disease 27 months after the TUR. Some early stages of bladder carcinosarcoma might have a favorable prognosis without aggressive treatments.

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Citrus limon from Tunisia: Phytochemical and Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities

Natural plant extracts contain a variety of phenolic compounds which are assigned various biological activities. Our work aims to make a quantitative and qualitative characterization of the Zest (ZL) and the Flesh (FL) of lemon (Citrus limon), to valorize the pharmacological uses of lemon, by evaluating in vitro activities (DPPH, free radical scavenging and reducing power). The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities were sought in the ability of Citrus limon extracts to protect DNA and protein. We found that the ZL contains high amounts of phenolics responsible for the important antioxidant properties of the extract. However, the FL is richer in flavonoids than the ZL. The FL extract was also found to be more effective than the ZL in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals. We also concluded that the FL extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity unlike ZL. Analysis by LC/MS-MS identified 6 compounds (Caffeoyl N-Tryptophan, Hydroxycinnamoyl-Oglucoside acid, Vicenin 2, Eriocitrin, Kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, and Quercetin-3-rutinoside). These preliminary results showed that Citrus limon has antibacterial and antioxidant activity in vitro. It would be interesting to conduct further studies to evaluate the in vivo potential in an animal model.

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Real-Time EEG Signal Enhancement Using Canonical Correlation Analysis and Gaussian Mixture Clustering

Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are usually contaminated with various artifacts, such as signal associated with muscle activity, eye movement, and body motion, which have a noncerebral origin. The amplitude of such artifacts is larger than that of the electrical activity of the brain, so they mask the cortical signals of interest, resulting in biased analysis and interpretation. Several blind source separation methods have been developed to remove artifacts from the EEG recordings. However, the iterative process for measuring separation within multichannel recordings is computationally intractable. Moreover, manually excluding the artifact components requires a time-consuming offline process. This work proposes a real-time artifact removal algorithm that is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), feature extraction, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to improve the quality of EEG signals. The CCA was used to decompose EEG signals into components followed by feature extraction to extract representative features and GMM to cluster these features into groups to recognize and remove artifacts. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by effectively removing artifacts caused by blinks, head/body movement, and chewing from EEG recordings while preserving the temporal and spectral characteristics of the signals that are important to cognitive research.

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Acceleration Harmonic Estimation in a Hydraulic Shaking Table Using Water Cycle Algorithm

Hydraulic shaking table is mainly used to stimulate the desired vibration environment and evaluate the shock resistance of structure. However, due to the inherent nonlinearities of the hydraulic shaking table, the acceleration response displays amplitude attenuation and phase delay for sinusoidal excitation signal. The distorted response degrades the control performance and even leads to an increase in system instability. In this paper, the water cycle algorithm (WCA), a recently developed metaheuristic method, is developed to estimate the harmonic information such as amplitude and phase. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is inspired from nature and based on the observation of water cycle process and how rivers and streams flow to the sea in the nature world. The estimation process based on WCA is sequentially updating the weight vector of the signal. The amplitude and phase of fundamental as well as each harmonic can be achieved when the objective function is minimized. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed harmonic estimation algorithm has good real-time performance, fast convergence, and excellent accuracy.

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3D-printed structures can help regenerate tissue

2018_01_12_19_52_0511_3d-printed-tissue-Researchers from a top London facility have developed a 3D printing technique...


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