Πέμπτη, 6 Ιουνίου 2019

City, Culture ,Society

Rose tinted spectacles: Culturally informed differences between Iran and Australia in architect's colour cognition, preference and use

Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society

Author(s): Bahareh Motamed, Richard Tucker

Abstract

This paper investigates if the cultural indoctrination of architects impacts their use of colour in their designs. Here, cultural indoctrination is considered as the process by which an architect's socio-cultural background informs their design ideas and attitudes. Specifically, a survey of 274 architects, architectural academics and postgraduates in Australia and Iran addressed the question: does an architect's cultural background affect their general attitudes to colour and their use of colour when designing and, if so, how? A series of quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to answer these questions. The findings reinforce evidence from other studies indicating that colour use is influenced by culture and elucidate for the design community greater understanding about the relationship between culture and colour use in architecture. In particular, it is demonstrated that architects' preferences towards more colourful designs are informed by practice influences; such as contemporary trends and demands, facilitated by new material and representational technologies, for more colourful buildings in our cities. Moreover, although climatic conditions, light intensity, heritage context and local materials were contextual factors influencing colour use both in Iran and Australia, a large difference was found between the two countries on the impact, and especially imposed limitations, of socio-cultural factors on colour cognition, preferences and use.



Cutting through the clutter of smart city definitions: A reading into the smart city perceptions in India

Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society

Author(s): Sarbeswar Praharaj, Hoon Han

Abstract

Smart city development has emerged as a favoured response to the 21st-century urbanisation challenges. A wide range of definitions surfaced over the last decade characterising the smart city, primarily pushed by the global elite corporations and influential academics. Simultaneously, a series of urban development expressions, such as digital city, knowledge city, eco-city is used interchangeably with the smart city, significantly mystifying the reading of the concept. This paper, first argue that smart city interpretation needs and requires the input and contribution of the local stakeholders. The aim of this research is to provide an evidence-based framework to capture the perception of local urban actors in India vis-à-vis their interpretation of smart cities given the existing urban conditions and the proposed developments under the 100 Smart Cities Mission. This research also examines the underlying linkage between the smart city and its conceptual relatives and highlights the ones with a significant convergence with the emerging urban agenda in India's Smart Cities Mission. The analysis presented in this paper show that to emerge as a holistic concept, smart cities definition models should engage with the sustainability and community issues, beyond the use of digital technology. The research reveals that the Indian urban stakeholders strongly associate the smart city concept with sustainable city and eco-city, much more than the technology-loaded phrases such as ubiquitous city and digital city. The first-of-its-kind inclusive approach developed in this paper to define smart city takes on the monopolies of top-down smart city definitions and support the democratisation of the rapidly proliferating concept.



Worlding through gendering: Female agency, artistic practices and spatio-aesthetic dynamics in and for cities

Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society

Author(s): Minna Valjakka

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the emergent practices of worlding by shifting the focus to the varied forms of female agency taking place in contemporary graffiti, street art and muralism. Given that the position of women has been underestimated in existing scholarships of worlding, (post)subcultures and contemporary art in East Asia, the questions of multiple roles of female agency, signifiers of femininity, and a more nuanced understanding of their impact to the spatio-aesthetic dynamics of public space are becoming ever more relevant. While contemporary graffiti is mainly seen as the domain of masculinity, the diversified manifestations of street art and muralism are more accepting for female participation and self-expression. Through critical analysis of the complexities of female agency and feminine aesthetics, the paper demonstrates how the transformation of contemporary graffiti into acknowledged forms of contemporary art has provided unseen possibilities for women to engage with what I call "worlding through gendering". I posit that even if feminine signifiers or feminist aspirations might not be a dominating strategy in these artistic practices amidst the ever-growing transcultural urban environment, women protagonists are contributing towards new forms of worlding through aesthetic strategies and forms of female agency. They create situated experiments how to be global in cities in East Asia and worldwide.



Farmers and the city: Urban sprawl, socio-demographic polarization and land fragmentation in a mediterranean region, 1961–2009

Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society

Author(s): Luca Salvati

Abstract

Southern European cities experienced important transformations toward a more fragmented socio-demographic structure in recent decades. Under the hypothesis that farm characteristics were influenced by the local context where holders live, long-term patterns of socio-demographic polarization in a Mediterranean city were assessed using diachronic data on basic characteristics of farms held by residents in urban and rural districts of the Athens' metropolitan region, Greece (1961–2009). Evidence of this study indicates that the spatial distribution of farms according to the holder's place of residence reflects both traditional and new social gradients linked with the dominant phase of urban expansion. As a result, the local context was related to farmers' preferences and long-term strategies, influencing decisions toward a (more or less) sustainable management of peri-urban land. Results of this study aliment the debate on future development of contemporary cities, shedding further light on the (evolving) socioeconomic relations with the surrounding (rural) regions.



Making the city smart from the grassroots up: The sustainable food networks of Bristol

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s): Matthew Reed, Daniel Keech

Abstract

Smart cities are known for their top-down focus on technology. This paper argues that emergent aspects of food policy in the UK can be understood as a social movement, which sustains development by way of bottom-up, horizontal networks of urban groups, and business associations. It suggests that as platforms of food provision, such on-line food networks offer a counter-point to top-down smart city development predicated on high-tech infrastructure. Such complex arrangements demonstrate how the city needs to be understood as a networked field of action, not simply an administratively bounded construction. Within the field of action movements emerge, whose activism is successful in influencing policymaking, and in shaping the municipal strategies assembled to build the regional structure of food provision. The caveat this paper highlights is that, although successful in influencing policy and municipal strategies, the activism of these movements has not been as effective as might have been anticipated from such a democratic impulse. This lack reflects the limited power of cities in the UK over the structure of food provision, but also the troubled extension of public participation into a territory marked by corporate and agricultural policy. The paper bases its claims about the nature of urban food policies in cities on a case study of networks in Bristol, including interviews with key activists, analysis social media networks and documents. The evidence supports claims that urban food developments represent a form of social movement, whose activism is democratic in its attempts to be both sustainable and inclusive.



The governance of a smart city food system: The 2015 Milan World Expo

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s): Mark Deakin, Davide Diamantini, Nunzia Borrelli

Abstract

Studying the governance of a smart city food system, this paper offers a critical synthesis of the literature on the governance of smart cities and goes on to use the insights it offers as a basis to examine the claim made about the food system emerging from the 2015 World Expo in Milan. In particular, the claim made about the infrastructure developments underlying this urban and regional innovation as doing nothing less than building a smart city food system from the ground up. In going some way to qualify this claim, the paper suggests that while such a statement does reflect much of what is currently understood about the infrastructure developments underlying this urban and regional innovation, the claim made about the World Expo building a smart city food system from the ground up, offers more of an insight into the state-of-the-art on the governance of smart cities than it does into the critical nature of the food system surfacing from the Expo in Milan. The paper suggests the reason for the partial synthesis of smart cities as food systems, rest with the claims made about the Expo in Milan failing to recognise the: (1) need for the governance of smart cities not to be in strictly technical, but wider social, cultural and environmental terms; (2) requirement for the infrastructure developments underpinning this urban and regional innovation to also support the sustainable growth of food systems; (3) pressure there is to re-direct the participatory governance agenda of smart cities towards urban policies whose management of natural resources is wise in meeting the human expectation of and social need for food and requirement there is for the municipal strategies and capacity-building exercises underpinning food systems, to be systematic in cultivating an environment able to support the inclusive growth of them across regions; (4) call for the resilience of any such sustainable and inclusive growth to constitute a material condition of the infrastructure developments underlying this urban and regional innovation and surfacing as a smart food system in the City of Milan.



City Food Governance: Editors' Introduction to the Special Issue

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s): Mark Deakin, Nunzia Borrelli, Davide Diamantini



Editorial Board

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s):



Beyond feeding the city: The multifunctionality of urban farming in Vancouver, BC

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s): Will Valley, Hannah Wittman

Abstract

This article explores the development of municipal policy and planning processes related to urban agriculture, and more specifically to urban farming in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We examine the extent to which Vancouver's food and sustainability-related policies align with the commitments of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, a set of commitments and action framework that emerged as a key legacy from the 2015 World Expo: Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life. The article highlights the challenges and policy constraints of urban farming as a market-based food security and sustainability mechanism through a comparison of four urban farming organizations in Vancouver. This study contributes to the development of emerging value frameworks that move beyond market-based and supply-oriented rural replacement models for urban farming. We conclude by calling attention to issues of food literacy, equity, and inclusion within municipal food system policy and planning, and the opportunity to frame support for urban farming as a mechanism to orient urban citizens towards issues of peri-urban and rural food production.



Governing Bangkok's city food system: Engaging multi-stakeholders for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth

Publication date: March 2019

Source: City, Culture and Society, Volume 16

Author(s): Piyapong Boossabong

Abstract

This article aims to understand the governance of city food systems in Bangkok by drawing attention to: the participatory aspect of Bangkok's city food governance; the food production that emerges from the sustainable growth and inclusive nature of this governance system; and civil society's use of this as an activism able to empower communities and for such movements to be smart in bridging territorial divisions, by way local government strategies, secured through capacity-building exercises. The multitude of stakeholders involved in governing Bangkok's food system is not just inter-related, but also linked and connected from top-to-bottom. These stakeholders include central and local governments, large food corporations, civil society organizations and even the daily life practices of street food venders and mobile markets. As a result, the article suggests, the governance of the city food agenda in Bangkok is both empowered and participatory, because organizations from the top and the middle are unable to sustain the development of food systems without including ordinary people in the actions taken to create them. This suggests legal frameworks, plans and related infrastructure development, are insufficient for Bangkok be smart in sustaining the development of cities food systems. As while the public sector facilitates food production and distribution through the regionalization process (including the conservation of the peri-urban agriculture, irrigation systems development, and central fresh food markets establishment), the smart city food agenda still requires operations from below to sustain such technical innovations.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Surgical Neurology International

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A rare case of an intramedullary metastasis of a myxopapillary ependymoma

Category: Unique Case Observations

Article type: Case Report

Author: Lino Fonseca, Marta Cicuendez, Francisco Martínez-Ricarte, Elena Martínez-Saez, Esteban Cordero, Agustín Bescos

Published: 10-May-2019

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Retroclival and spinal subdural hematoma after traumatic brain injury - A case report and literature review

Category: Trauma

Article type: Case Report

Author: Saúl Solorio-Pineda, Adriana Ailed Nieves-Valerdi, José Alfonso Franco-Jiménez, Guillermo Axayacalt Gutiérrez-Aceves, Luis Manuel Buenrostro-Torres, Milton Inocencio Ruíz-Flores

Published: 10-May-2019

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Acute paradoxical brain herniation after decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...

Category: Trauma

Article type: Case Report

Author: Ryo Hiruta, Shinya Jinguji, Taku Sato, Yuta Murakami, Mudathir Bakhit, Yosuke Kuromi, Keiko Oda, Masazumi Fujii, Jun Sakuma, Kiyoshi Saito

Published: 10-May-2019

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Transradial approach for endovascular diagnosis and treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms: A descriptive study

Category: Neurovascular

Article type: Technical Note

Author: Javier Goland, Gustavo Doroszuk

Published: 10-May-2019

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Cerebellar hemorrhage as a complication of spine surgery

Category: Spine

Article type: Review Article

Author: Paulo Valdeci Worm, Amauri Dalla-Corte, Albert Vincent Berthier Brasil, Gerson Perondi, Ericson Sfreddo, Antônio Delacy Martini Vial, Guilherme Gago, Pablo Ramon Fruett da Costa

Published: 10-May-2019

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Thoracic cryptococcal osteomyelitis mimicking tuberculosis: A case report

Category: Spine

Article type: Case Report

Author: Nitin Adsul, K. L. Kalra, Nikhil Jain, Mukesh Haritwal, R. S. Chahal, Shankar Acharya, Sunila Jain

Published: 10-May-2019

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Spinal cord ischemia/infarct after cauda equina syndrome from disc herniation – A case study and literature review

Category: Spine

Article type: Case Report

Author: David C. Kramer, Adela Aguirre-Alarcon, Reza Yassari, Allan L. Brook, Merritt D. Kinon

Published: 10-May-2019

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Extraventricular neurocytoma with ganglioid differentiation of the sellar and parasellar regions in an elderly patient: ...

Category: Skull Base

Article type: Case Report

Author: Shahed Tish, Ghaith Habboub, Richard A. Prayson, Troy D. Woodard, Varun R. Kshettry, Pablo F. Recinos

Published: 10-May-2019

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Minimally invasive posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty in Chiari malformation type I with ...

Category: General Neurosurgery

Article type: Original Article

Author: Maria Caffo, Salvatore M. Cardali, Gerardo Caruso, Elena Fazzari, Rosaria V. Abbritti, Valeria Barresi, Antonino Germanò

Published: 10-May-2019

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Distal Cauda equina syndrome: A case report of lumbosacral disc pathology and review of literature

Category: Neuropathology

Article type: Case Report

Author: Michael J. Benko, Aaron P. Danison, Eric A. Marvin, Brian F. Saway

Published: 10-May-2019

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Transnasal endoscopic removal of a retrochiasmatic cavernoma: A case report and review of literature

Category: General Neurosurgery

Article type: Case Report

Author: Cesare Zoia, Daniele Bongetta, Gianluigi Dorelli, Sabino Luzzi, Mattia Del Maestro, Renato J. Galzio

Published: 10-May-2019

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Giant dumbbell C2C3 neurofibroma invading prebulbar cistern: Case report and literature review

Category: General Neurosurgery

Article type: Case Report

Author: Julia Pinheiro Martinez Serrano, Maick Willen Fernandes Neves, Cassiano Marchi, Fabio Jundy Nakasone, Marcos Vinicius Calfat Maldaun, Paulo Henrique Pires de Aguiar, Wilson Scappini

Published: 10-May-2019

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Acquired Chiari I malformation due to lumboperitoneal shunt: A case report and review of literature

Category: General Neurosurgery

Article type: Case Report

Author: Aslam Hentati, Mohamed Badri, Kamel Bahri, Ihsen Zammel

Published: 10-May-2019

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Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Patients Supported With Ventricular Assist Device—A Multi-Institutional Analysis
Objectives: The use of ventricular assist devices for pediatric patients with heart failure is increasing, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objectives were to describe the admission outcomes and resource utilization of pediatric patients supported with ventricular assist devices, utilizing a multicenter database. Data Sources: Pediatric Health Information System database (comprising 49 nonprofit children's hospitals). Study Selection: Retrospective cohort analysis of the database from January 2006 to September 2015 for all admissions less than or equal to 21 years old with ventricular assist device implantation. Data Extraction: The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay and adjusted cost. Data Synthesis: We analyzed 744 ventricular assist device implantations (740 patients), 422 (57%) males, and 363 (49%) non-Hispanic white. Median age at admission was 5.9 years (interquartile range, 0.9–13.5 yr), and median length of stay was 69 days (interquartile range, 36–122 d). The overall hospital mortality was 188 (25%), whereas 395 (53%) were transplanted and 141 (19%) were discharged on ventricular assist device. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used, in addition to ventricular assist device, in 340 (46%). The majority of ventricular assist device implantations (453, 61%) were from 2011 to 2015 (compared to 2006–2010). More patients discharged on ventricular assist device from 2011 to 2015 (23% vs 13% in 2006–2010; p = 0.001). There was no difference in median age, mortality, length of stay, or adjusted costs between these time periods. On multivariable analysis, underlying congenital heart disease, renal failure, liver congestion, sepsis, cerebrovascular accident, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with hospital mortality. Sepsis and ventricular assist device replacement/repair were associated with higher adjusted cost and longer length of stay. Conclusions: The pediatric ventricular assist device experience continues to grow, with a significant increase in the number of patients undergoing ventricular assist device implantation and a higher proportion being discharged from hospital on ventricular assist device support in recent years. Underlying congenital heart disease, renal failure, sepsis, cerebrovascular accident, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are significantly associated with hospital mortality. Dr. Puri carried out the initial analyses, drafted the initial article, and reviewed and revised the article. Dr. Anders conceptualized and designed the study, coordinated data collection, and reviewed and revised the article. Drs. Causey and Moffett coordinated and completed the data collection, and reviewed and revised the article. Dr. Wang supervised the analysis and critically reviewed the article. Drs. Tume, Cabrera, Heinle, and Shekerdemian supervised analysis, and critically reviewed and revised the article. All authors approved the final article as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). Dr. Cabrera's institution received funding from Novartis, and he disclosed off-label product use of continuous flow device use in children. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: kriti.puri@bcm.edu ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Age-Specific Distribution of Diagnosis and Outcomes of Children Admitted to ICUs: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Objectives: Although several studies have reported outcome data on critically ill children, detailed reports by age are not available. We aimed to evaluate the age-specific estimates of trends in causes of diagnosis, procedures, and outcomes of pediatric admissions to ICUs in a national representative sample. Design: A population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting: Three hundred forty-four hospitals in South Korea. Patients: All pediatric admissions to ICUs in Korea from August 1, 2009, to September 30, 2014, were covered by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation, with virtually complete coverage of the pediatric population in Korea. Patients less than 18 years with at least one ICUs admission between August 1, 2009, and September 30, 2014. We excluded neonatal admissions (< 28 days), neonatal ICUs, and admissions for health status other than a disease or injury. The final sample size was 38,684 admissions from 32,443 pediatric patients. Intervention: None. Measurements and Main Results: The overall age-standardized admission rate for pediatric patients was 75.9 admissions per 100,000 person-years. The most common primary diagnosis of admissions was congenital malformation (10,897 admissions, 28.2%), with marked differences by age at admission (5,712 admissions [54.8%] in infants, 3,994 admissions [24.6%] in children, and 1,191 admissions [9.9%] in adolescents). Injury was the most common primary diagnosis in adolescents (3,248 admissions, 27.1%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 2,234 (5.8%) with relatively minor variations across age. Neoplasms and circulatory and neurologic diseases had both high frequency of admissions and high in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Admission patterns, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of pediatric patients admitted to ICUs varied by age groups. Strategies to improve critical care qualities of pediatric patients need to be based on the differences of age and may need to be targeted at specific age groups. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). The authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: joongbum.cho@gmail.com ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Nutritional Status Deterioration Occurs Frequently During Children's ICU Stay
Objectives: Malnutrition and faltering growth at PICU admission have been related to suboptimal outcomes. However, little is known about nutritional status deterioration during PICU stay, as critical illness is characterized by a profound and complex metabolism shift, which affects energy requirements and protein turnover. We aim to describe faltering growth occurrence during PICU stay. Design: Single-center prospective observational study. Setting: Twenty-three-bed general PICU, Lyon, France. Patients: All critically ill children 0–18 years old with length of stay longer than 5 days were included (September 2013–December 2015). Interventions: Weight and height/length were measured at admission, and weight was monitored during PICU stay, in order to calculate body mass index for age z score. Faltering growth was defined as body mass index z score decline over PICU stay. Children admitted during the first year of the study and who presented with faltering growth were followed after PICU discharge for 3 months. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 579 admissions. Of them, 10.2% presented a body mass index z score decline greater than 1 SD and 27.8% greater than 0.5. Admission severity risk scores and prolonged PICU stay accounted for 4% of the variability in nutritional status deterioration. Follow-up of post-PICU discharge nutritional status showed recovery within 3 months in most patients. Conclusions: Nutritional deterioration is frequent and often intense in critically ill children with length of stay greater than 5 days. Future research should focus on how targeted nutritional therapies can minimize PICU faltering growth and improve post-PICU rehabilitation. Drs. Valla, Ginhoux, Cour-Andlauer, and Javouhey designed the study, collected, and participated to interpretation of data. Drs. Ford-Chessel, Gervet, and Ms. Giraud helped to design the study and to collect data. Drs. Baudin and Gaillard Le Roux helped designing and analyzing the data. Dr. Tume participated to interpretation of data and provided English editing of the article. All authors were involved in writing the article and had final approval of the submitted and published versions. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). This study was conducted with the financial support of ACTICLAN 2011 grant (sponsored by Fresenius Kabi, on behalf of the French speaking nutrition scientific society [SFNEP]) and Association Lyonnaise de logistique post hospitalière grant. In addition, this study was conducted with the support of the "Centre d'Investigation Clinique pédiatrique" des Hospices Civils de Lyon, with the precious help of Behaa Krefa. Dr. Valla reports personal fees from Baxter, personal fees and nonfinancial support from Nutricia. Dr. Valla's institution received funding from Fresenius Kabi and Association Lyonnaise de logistique post hospitalière, and he received funding from Baxter and Nutricia. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. This work was performed in Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. For information regarding this article, E-mail: Frederic.valla@chu-lyon.fr ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Tracheal Size and Morphology on the Reconstructed CT Imaging
Objectives: To characterize the real size and morphology of tracheas in childhood for the optimal selection of endotracheal tube. Design: A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who received CT scan of the cervical spine from July 2011 to March 2018. Cross-sectional CT images vertical to trachea were reconstructed and the accurate tracheal diameters were measured. The validity of the traditional age-based formula for predicting the endotracheal tube size was assessed for the best fit to trachea. Setting: Tertiary Emergency and Critical Care Center of Kyushu University Hospital. Patients: Children, who are 1 month to 15 years old, received CT scan of the cervical spine. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: We enrolled 86 children with median age of 53 months. The cross-sectional shape of pediatric trachea was circular at the cricoid level and elliptical at the infraglottic level. The narrowest part of pediatric trachea was the transverse diameter at the infraglottic level at any age. Significant positive correlation between age and the narrowest diameter was observed. When compared the transverse diameter at the infraglottic level with the outer diameter of endotracheal tubes, uncuffed endotracheal tubes selection based on the traditional age-based formula ran a significant risk of oversized endotracheal intubation until 10 years old compared with cuffed endotracheal tubes selection (60.0% vs 23.8%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate the safety and efficacy of cuffed endotracheal tubes in infants and children and the reconsideration for the airway management in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). Drs. Maki and Baba disclosed work for hire. The remaining authors disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: ystmmtmr@pediatr.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Spontaneous Breathing Trial for Prediction of Extubation Success in Pediatric Patients Following Congenital Heart Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of a spontaneous breathing trial for predicting extubation success in pediatric patients in the postoperative period after cardiac surgery compared with a physician-led weaning. Study Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: PICU of a tertiary-care university hospital. Patients: A population of pediatric patients following cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Interventions: Patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours after surgery who were considered ready for weaning were randomized to the spontaneous breathing trial group or the control group. The spontaneous breathing trial was performed on continuous positive airway pressure with the pressure support of 10 cmH2O, the positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O, and the fraction of inspired oxygen less than or equal to 0.5 for 2 hours. Patients in the control group underwent ventilator weaning according to clinical judgment. Measurements and Main Results: The primary endpoint was extubation success defined as no need for reintubation within 48 hours after extubation. Secondary outcomes were PICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, occurrence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and mortality. One hundred ten patients with the median age of 8 months were included in the study: 56 were assigned to the spontaneous breathing trial group and 54 were assigned to the control group. Demographic and clinical data and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 classification were similar in both groups. Patients undergoing the spontaneous breathing trial had greater extubation success (83% vs 68%, p = 0.02) and shorter PICU length of stay (median 85 vs 367 hr, p < 0.0001) compared with the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between groups in hospital length of stay, occurrence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and mortality. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with congenital heart disease undergoing the spontaneous breathing trial postoperatively had greater extubation success and shorter PICU length of stay compared with those weaned according to clinical judgment. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). The authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: apcarlotti@fmrp.usp.br ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Temporal Variability in the Sampling of Vital Sign Data Limits the Accuracy of Patient State Estimation
Objectives: Physiologic signals are typically measured continuously in the critical care unit, but only recorded at intermittent time intervals in the patient health record. Low frequency data collection may not accurately reflect the variability and complexity of these signals or the patient's clinical state. We aimed to characterize how increasing the temporal window size of observation from seconds to hours modifies the measured variability and complexity of basic vital signs. Design: Retrospective analysis of signal data acquired between April 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. Setting: Critical care unit at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Patients: Seven hundred forty-seven patients less than or equal to 18 years old (63,814,869 data values), within seven diagnostic/surgical groups. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Measures of variability (SD and the absolute differences) and signal complexity (multiscale sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis [expressed as the scaling component α]) were calculated for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. The variability of all vital signs increases as the window size increases from seconds to hours at the patient and diagnostic/surgical group level. Significant differences in the magnitude of variability for all time scales within and between groups was demonstrated (p < 0.0001). Variability correlated negatively with patient age for heart rate and oxygen saturation, but positively with systolic blood pressure. Changes in variability and complexity of heart rate and systolic blood pressure from time of admission to discharge were found. Conclusions: In critically ill children, the temporal variability of physiologic signals supports higher frequency data capture, and this variability should be accounted for in models of patient state estimation. Drs. Eytan and Jegatheeswaran are co-first authors. Supported by the David and Stacey Cynamon Chair in Pediatric Critical Care, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Dr. Laussen disclosed that he was the lead developer of the T3 software, which is owned by Boston Children's Hospital, from whom he has received a royalty, and an unpaid medical consultant of Etiometry LLC, Boston, MA. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. This work was performed at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. For information regarding this article, E-mail: peter.laussen@sickkids.ca ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

A Retrospective Case-Control Study to Identify Predictors of Unplanned Admission to Pediatric Intensive Care Within 24 Hours of Hospitalization
Objectives: To identify the clinical findings available at the time of hospitalization from the emergency department that are associated with deterioration within 24 hours. Design: A retrospective case-control study. Setting: A pediatric hospital in Ottawa, ON, Canada. Patients: Children less than 18 years old who were hospitalized via the emergency department between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Cases (n = 98) had an unplanned admission to the PICU or unexpected death on the hospital ward within 24 hours of hospitalization and controls (n = 196) did not. Interventions: None. Main Results: Ninety-eight children (53% boys; mean age 63.2 mo) required early unplanned admission to the PICU. Multivariable conditional logistic regression resulted in a model with five predictors reaching statistical significance: higher triage acuity score (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.7–10.2), tachypnea in the emergency department (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8–11.8), tachycardia in the emergency department (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–6.5), PICU consultation in the emergency department (odds ratio, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.1–57.7), and admission to a ward not typical for age and/or diagnosis (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7–11.6). Conclusions: We have identified risk factors that should be included as potential predictor variables in future large, prospective studies to derive and validate a weighted scoring system to identify hospitalized children at high risk of early clinical deterioration. Supported, in part, by an operating grant from the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute. Dr. Krmpotic disclosed that this study was funded by an operating grant from the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute. Dr. Toppozini received funding from acting as a Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute research assistant (aided in design of data collection tool, data collection and verification, interpretation, and writing/revising article). Dr. Plint's institution received funding from Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, and she disclosed that she is supported in part by a University of Ottawa Tier II Clinical Research Chair award. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. Current affiliation for Dr. Krmpotic: Pediatric Critical Care, IWK Health Centre, 5850/5980 University Ave, Halifax, NS, B3K6R8, Canada. For information regarding this article, E-mail: kristina.krmpotic@iwk.nshealth.ca ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

The Effect of Asphyxia Arrest Duration on a Pediatric End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Model
Objectives: To determine the effect of the duration of asphyxial arrest on the survival benefit previously seen with end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. Design: Preclinical randomized controlled study. Setting: University animal research laboratory. Subjects: Two-week-old swine. Interventions: After either 17 or 23 minutes of asphyxial arrest, animals were randomized to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was optimized by marker, monitor, and verbal feedback about compression rate, depth, and release. End-tidal CO2-guided delivery used adjustments to chest compression rate and depth to maximize end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for both groups proceeded from 10 minutes of basic life support to 10 minutes of advanced life support or return of spontaneous circulation. Measurements and Main Results: After 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest, mean end-tidal CO2 during 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 18 ± 9 torr in the standard group and 33 ± 15 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.004). The rate of return of spontaneous circulation was three of 14 (21%) in the standard group rate and nine of 14 (64%) in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.05). After a 23-minute asphyxial arrest, neither end-tidal CO2 values (20 vs 26) nor return of spontaneous circulation rate (3/14 vs 1/14) differed between the standard and end-tidal CO2-guided groups. Conclusions: Our previously observed survival benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery after 20 minutes of asphyxial arrest was confirmed after 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest. The poor survival after 23 minutes of asphyxia shows that the benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is limited by severe asphyxia duration. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). Research reported in this publication was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development award R21HD072845, by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke awards K08NS080984, R01NS060703, R01NS107417, and R21NS095036, by the National Research Service Award for Clinician Scientists in Pediatric Critical Cardiopulmonary Disease T32HL125239, and by the National Center for Research Resources of the National Institutes of Health Roadmap for Medical Research grant UL1RR025005. Dr. O'Brien's institution received funding from National Institutes of Health (NIH) T32 Institutional Grant (T32HL125239), and she disclosed work for hire. Dr. Lee's institution received funding from the NIH and the American Heart Association, and she received funding from Medtronic (consulting on near-infrared spectroscopy technology in 2016). Dr. Koehler's institution received funding from the NIH. Dr. Hunt received funding from the NIH (grant support as a coinvestigator), Zoll Medical Corporation (consulting on simulation-based medicine education innovation she created called "Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice" and from medical education technologies that she and her research partners have created that Zoll has a nonexclusive license for two of the devices, although she has not received any royalties), and National Medical Consultants (for performing expert medical reviews). Dr. Shaffner's institution received funding from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; he received funding from Wolters Kluwer. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. This work was performed in the research facilities of the Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. For information regarding this article, E-mail: dshaffn1@jhmi.edu ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Etiologies and Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis at a Tertiary PICU
Objectives: To assess the etiologies and outcomes of patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the PICU. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: A single PICU at a pediatric tertiary hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Patients: Pediatric patients meeting the criteria for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Between June 2017 and May 2018, 25 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 23.3 months (21.6 mo) were included. Collected variables included etiologies of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and clinical and laboratory findings at admission. The Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score at admission was calculated. Outcomes were death and multiple organ dysfunction. The severity of multiple organ dysfunction was assessed by the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction 2 score. The mean (SD) Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 predicted mortality rate was 5.6% (7.6%). Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus coinfections (60%) were the most common suspected etiology of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Other etiologies included Epstein-Barr virus sole infections (20%), cytomegalovirus sole infections (16%), and one unknown cause (4%). Multiple organ dysfunction (excluding hematologic failure) was found in 22 patients (88%) with death occurring in 14 patients (56%). The mean (SD) Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction 2 predicted mortality rate among patients with multiple organ dysfunction was 11.9% (11.2%). Despite having lower Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 predicted mortality rates at admission, Epstein-Barr virus-cytomegalovirus coinfection cases with multiple organ dysfunction had slightly greater Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction 2 predicted mortality rates than Epstein-Barr virus sole infection cases with multiple organ dysfunction: 12.2% (10.5%) versus 11.3% (11.0%). However, these rates were lower than cytomegalovirus sole infection cases with multiple organ dysfunction (14.4% [16.3%]). Area under the curve values for Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction 2 were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.52–0.95) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.52–1.00), respectively, suggesting that both scales were fair to good at predicting mortality. Conclusions: Viral infections, particularly Epstein-Barr virus-cytomegalovirus coinfections, were a common cause of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The implication of these coinfections on the clinical course of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis needs to be delineated. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal). Ms. Dao received funding and support for article research from Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) (Research Travel Funding). Dr. Galeano received funding from Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine (travel grant for research). The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: ouellette.yves@mayo.edu ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Open Chest Management After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
Objectives: Although open chest management optimizes hemodynamics after cardiac surgery, it increases postoperative infections and leads to increased mortality. Despite the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis during open chest management, no specific recommendations exist. We aimed to compare the occurrence rates of bloodstream infection and surgical site infection between the different prophylactic antibiotic regimens for open chest management after pediatric cardiac surgery. Design: Retrospective, single-center, observational study. Setting: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. Patients: Consecutive patients less than or equal to 18 years old with open chest management after cardiac surgery followed by delayed sternal closure, between January 2012 and June 2018. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: We compared the composite occurrence rate of postoperative bloodstream infection and surgical site infection within 30 days after cardiac surgery between three prophylactic antibiotic regimens: 1) cefazolin, 2) cefazolin + vancomycin, and 3) vancomycin + meropenem. In 63 pediatric cardiac surgeries with open chest management, 17 bloodstream infections, and 12 surgical site infections were identified postoperatively. The composite occurrence rates of bloodstream infection and surgical site infection were 10 of 15 (67%), 10 of 19 (53%), and nine of 29 (31%) in the cefazolin, cefazolin + vancomycin, and vancomycin + meropenem regimens, respectively (p = 0.07). After adjusting for age, open chest management duration, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use, and nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in multivariable analysis, there was no significant difference between the cefazolin and the cefazolin + vancomycin regimens (p = 0.19), while the vancomycin + meropenem regimen had a lower occurrence rate of bloodstream infection and surgical site infection than the cefazolin regimen (odds ratio, 0.0885; 95% CI, 0.0176–0.446; p = 0.003). Conclusions: In this study, a lower occurrence rate of postoperative bloodstream infection and surgical site infection was observed among patients with broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen after pediatric cardiac surgery with open chest management. Further studies, ideally randomized controlled studies investigating the efficacy of broad-spectrum antibiotics and their complications, are warranted before routine implementation of broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotic regimen. The authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest. For information regarding this article, E-mail: hatachi@wch.opho.jp ©2019The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Microbiological Research

A novel contact-independent T6SS that maintains redox homeostasis via Zn2+ and Mn2+ acquisition is conserved in the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): David DeShazer

Abstract

The Burkholderia pseudomallei complex consists of six phylogenetically related Gram-negative bacterial species that include environmental saprophytes and mammalian pathogens. These microbes possess multiple type VI secretion systems (T6SS) that provide a fitness advantage in diverse niches by translocating effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in a contact-dependent manner. Several recent studies have elucidated the regulation and function of T6SS-2, a novel contact-independent member of the T6SS family. Expression of the T6SS-2 gene cluster is repressed by OxyR, Zur and TctR and is activated by GvmR and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two genes of the T6SS-2 gene cluster encode a zincophore (TseZ) and a manganeseophore (TseM) that are exported into the extracellular milieu in a contact-independent fashion when microbes encounter oxidative stress. TseZ and TseM bind Zn2+ and Mn2+, respectively, and deliver them to bacteria where they provide protection against the lethal effects of ROS. The TonB-dependent transporters that interact with TseZ and TseM, and actively transport Zn2+ and Mn2+ across the outer membrane, have also been identified. Finally, T6SS-2 provides a contact-independent growth advantage in nutrient limited environments and is critical for virulence in Galleria mellonella larvae, but is dispensable for virulence in rodent models of infection.

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Graphical abstract for this article



Effect of growth temperature on biosynthesis and accumulation of carotenoids in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 under diazotrophic conditions

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Kinga Kłodawska, Anna Bujas, Maria Turos-Cabal, Paweł Żbik, Pengcheng Fu, Przemysław Malec

Abstract

Carotenoid composition has been studied in mesophilic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 grown photoautotrophically, under diazotrophic conditions at four different temperatures (15 °C, 23 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). The relative accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and proteins was the highest at temperature of 23 °C. At a suboptimal temperature (15 °C) β-carotene was the dominant carotenoid compound, whereas the increase in temperature caused ketocarotenoids (echinenone, canthaxanthin, keto-myxoxanthophyll) to accumulate. A significant increase in the accumulation of phytoene synthase (CrtB) transcript was observed at both extreme growth temperatures (15 °C and 37 °C). The relative amount of β-carotene ketolase (CrtW) transcript directly corresponded to the accumulation of its product (keto-myxoxanthophyll) with a maximum at 30 °C and a profound decrease at 37 °C, whereas the transcription level of β-carotene ketolase (CrtO) was significantly decreased only at a suboptimal temperature (15 °C). These results show that temperature affects the functioning of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Anabaena cells under photoautotrophic growth. Specifically, the balance between β-carotene and ketocarotenoids is altered according to temperature conditions. The transcriptional regulation of genes encoding enzymes active both at the early (CrtB) and the final steps (CrtO, CrtW) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may participate in the acclimation mechanism of cyanobacteria to low and high temperatures.



Microscopic analysis of colonization of Colletotrichum abscissum in citrus tissues

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Daiani Cristina Savi, Bruno Janoski Rossi, Gustavo Rodrigues Rossi, Lisandra Santos Ferreira-Maba, Israel Henrique Bini, Edvaldo da Silva Trindade, Eduardo Henrique Goulin, Marcos Antonio Machado, Chirlei Glienke

Abstract

Postbloom fruit drop (PFD), caused mainly by Colletotrichum abscissum, is one of the most severe citrus diseases and can causes up to 80% fruit loss in favorable climatic conditions. According to the literature, other Colletotrichum species colonize hosts using distinct strategies: intracellular hemibiotrophic or subcuticular intramural necrotrophic colonization. However, so far, for C. abscissum only the necrotrophic stage has been described and some aspects remain unclear in PFD disease cycle. To better understand the disease cycle, microscopy studies could be applied. However, even using eGFP strains (expressing green fluorescent protein), the results are unclear due to the autofluorescence of citrus leaves. To eliminate this problem and to study the interaction between C. abscissum-citrus we used a destaining and staining methodologies, and we observed that in leaves, even applying injury before inoculation, C. abscissum does not colonize adjacent tissues. Apparently, in the leaves the fungus only uses the nutrients exposed in the artificial lesions for growth, and then produces large amount of spores. However, in flowers, C. abscissum penetrated and colonized the tissues of the petals 12 h after inoculation. In the early stages of infection, we observed the development of primary biotrophic hyphae, suggesting this species as a hemibiotrophic fungus, with a short biotrophic phase during flower colonization followed by dominant necrotrophic colonization. In conclusion, the use of an eGFP strain of C. abscissum and a different methodology of destaining and staining allowed a better understanding of the morphology and mechanisms used by this citrus pathogen to colonize the host.



Anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm activity of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: Insights from in vitroin vivo and in silico studies

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Dhanasekhar Reddy, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Ranjith Kumavath, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Siddhardha Busi

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens associated with nosocomial infections and a great concern to immunocompromised individuals especially in the cases of cystic fibrosis, AIDS and burn wounds. The pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa is largely directed by the quorum sensing (QS) system. Hence, QS may be considered an important therapeutic target to combat P. aeruginosa infections. The anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm efficacy of aromatic aldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) against P. aeruginosa PAO1 were assessed. At the sub-inhibitory concentration, 5-HMF suppressed the production of QS-controlled virulence phenotypes and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. It was also able to significantly enhance the survival rate of C. elegans infected with P. aeruginosa. The in silico studies revealed that 5-HMF could serve as a competitive inhibitor for the auto-inducer molecules as it exhibited a strong affinity for the regulatory proteins of the QS-circuits i.e. LasR and RhlR. In addition, a significant down-regulation in the expression of QS-related genes was observed suggesting the ability of 5-HMF in mitigating the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa.



Regulation of antimonite oxidation and resistance by the phosphate regulator PhoB in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Jingxin Li, Zixu Qiao, Manman Shi, Yuxiao Zhang, Gejiao Wang

Abstract

Microbial oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] to antimonate [Sb(V)] is a detoxification process which contributes to Sb(III) resistance. Antimonite oxidase AnoA is essential for Sb(III) oxidation, however, the regulation mechanism is still unknown. Recently, we found that the expressions of phosphate transporters were induced by Sb(III) using proteomics analysis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, thus, we predicted that the phosphate regulator PhoB may regulate bacterial Sb(III) oxidation and resistance. In this study, comprehensive analyses were performed and the results showed that (1) Genomic analysis revealed two phoB (named as phoB1 and phoB2) and one phoR gene in strain GW4; (2) Reporter gene assay showed that both phoB1 and phoB2 were induced in low phosphate condition (50 μM), but only phoB2 was induced by Sb(III); (3) Genes knock-out/complementation, Sb(III) oxidation and Sb(III) resistance tests showed that deletion of phoB2 significantly inhibited the expression of anoA and decreased bacterial Sb(III) oxidation efficiency and Sb(III) resistant. In contrast, deletion of phoB1did not obviously affect anoA's expression level and Sb(III) oxidation/resistance; (4) A putative Pho motif was predicted in several A. tumefaciens strains and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PhoB2 could bind with the promoter sequence of anoA; (5) Site-directed mutagenesis and short fragment EMSA revealed the exact DNA binding sequence for the protein-DNA interaction. These results showed that PhoB2 positively regulates Sb(III) oxidation and PhoB2 is also associated with Sb(III) resistance. Such regulation mechanism may provide a great contribution for bacterial survival in the environment with Sb and for bioremediation application.



RNA interference and CRISPR: Promising approaches to better understand and control citrus pathogens

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Eduardo Henrique Goulin, Diogo Manzano Galdeano, Laís Moreira Granato, Emilyn Emy Matsumura, Ronaldo José Durigan Dalio, Marcos Antonio Machado

Abstract

Citrus crops have great economic importance worldwide. However, citrus production faces many diseases caused by different pathogens, such as bacteria, oomycetes, fungi and viruses. To overcome important plant diseases in general, new technologies have been developed and applied to crop protection, including RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems. RNAi has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for application in plant defence mechanisms against different pathogens as well as their respective vectors, and CRISPR/Cas system has become widely used in gene editing or reprogramming or knocking out any chosen DNA/RNA sequence. In this article, we provide an overview of the use of RNAi and CRISPR/Cas technologies in management strategies to control several plants diseases, and we discuss how these strategies can be potentially used against citrus pathogens.



Aphicidal activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains in the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae)

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volume 226

Author(s): Guadalupe López-Isasmendi, Adriana Elisabet Alvarez, Gabriela Petroselli, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Marcela Carina Audisio

Abstract

Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a generalist cosmopolitan insect that infests more than 400 plant species of 40 different families and is one of the major pests infesting potato crops. It causes direct damage and also spread plant viruses. The intensive use of synthetic insecticide to control aphids has led to resistant populations. Therefore, there is a need to develop biopesticides for effective control that minimizes environmental hazards. The bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is recognized as a producer of a variety of bioactive compounds. The aim here was to evaluate the aphicidal effect of B. amyloliquefaciens strains, CBMDDrag3, PGPBacCA2, and CBMDLO3, and their metabolites on the mortality and fecundity of M. persicae. Cells suspensions, heat-killed cell suspensions, cell-free supernatants, or isolated lipopeptide fractions from B. amyloliquefaciens strains were offered to aphids through artificial diets. The isolated lipopeptide fractions composed mainly of kurstakins, surfactins, iturins, and fengycins, when were administrated through diets, had no aphicidal effect against M. persicae. However, aphids fed on diets with whole cell suspensions and its cell-free supernatant of all three bacteria strains resulted in 100% mortality of adult aphids and nymphs. Specially, B. amyloliquefaciens CBMDLO3, has an effective aphicidal effect on M. persicae, used both bacterial cells and their metabolites. Moreover, heat-killed cells of B. amyloliquefaciens CBMDLO3 also had aphicidal action, although the aphid mortality was lower than on diet with living bacteria. Therefore, these results propose that B. amyloliquefaciens, could function as a novel eco-friendly biopesticide for the control of M. persicae.



Codon-usage frequency mediated SNPs selection in lasR gene of cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates

Publication date: June–August 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volumes 223–225

Author(s): Huifang Qiu, Yuanhao Li, Weijun Dai

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with high clinical relevance for hospital infections of patients. Accumulating DNA sequencing results of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates have revealed frequent mutations in lasR gene, which encodes the highest arches component of quorum-sensing system (QS). We analyzed the sequencing data of lasR gene from a large collection of cystic fibrosis (CF) P. aeruginosa isolates. Our systematical analyses revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection in lasR gene were largely constrained by codon-usage frequency. As a whole, SNP-substituted codons encoding unconserved amino acid resulted in unfavored codons with relatively low codon-usage frequency, while those associating with conserved amino acid were not strictly regulated in such way. These SNPs substitutions gives rise to diverse functional LasR isoforms and contributes to the relative growth fitness of recombinant lasR variant strains. Our survey reveals a novel pattern of SNPs selections in lasR gene of CF isolates. Our findings could be served as a powerful resource for understanding adaptive mechanism of clinical isolates under environmental constrains and developing anti-bacteria drugs for CF patients.



Heterobasidion-growth inhibiting Bacillus subtilis A18 exhibits medium- and age-dependent production of lipopeptides

Publication date: June–August 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volumes 223–225

Author(s): Muhammad Azeem, Marina Barba-Aliaga, Anna Karin Borg-Karlson, Olle Terenius, Anders Broberg, Gunaratna Kuttuva Rajarao

Abstract

Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and H. parviporum are severe pathogens of conifers causing butt rot and root rot thus reducing the economic value of timber. Here, the antifungal activity of Bacillus subtilis isolate A18 against these two Heterobasidion species was investigated. Five different culture media with different culture age were investigated to study the effect of substrate composition and culture age for metabolite production. Bacterial cultures and cell-free culture filtrates were tested for antifungal activity. Inhibition of fungal growth was analysed using the agar disc-diffusion method. MALDI-TOF and LC-HRMS analyses were used to identify the antifungal metabolites. Substrate composition and age of culture were found to be active variables with direct effect on the antifungal activity of bacterial culture extracts. High anti-fungal activity was observed when B. subtilis was cultured in PDB, SGB and LB media for four days. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed the presence of lipopeptides in culture filtrates identified as members of the surfactins, polymixins, kurstakins and fengycins. A culture filtrate containing fengycin-type lipopeptides showed the highest bioactivity against Heterobasidion species. Bacterial cultures had higher bioactivity compared to their respective cell free culture filtrates. The results of the present study suggest that B. subtilis A18 is a powerful biocontrol agent against Heterobasidion infections of tree wounds and stumps.

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Graphical abstract for this article



Beneficial effects of inoculation of growth-promoting bacteria in strawberry

Publication date: June–August 2019

Source: Microbiological Research, Volumes 223–225

Author(s): Fernanda Marcondes de Andrade, Thiago de Assis Pereira, Thiago Pereira Souza, Paulo Henrique Sales Guimarães, Adalvan Daniel Martins, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Moacir Pasqual, Joyce Dória

Abstract

Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been highlighted by their potential for application in plant production, allowing the reduction of the use of fertilizers and pesticides, which is due to the ability to stimulate the growth of plants by nitrogen-fixation and production of phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The objective of this study was to verify the potential of plant growth promotion of 25 wild isolates from the Agricultural Microbiology Culture Collection of the Federal University of Lavras (CCMA-UFLA) through the evaluation of the biological nitrogen-fixation capacity and the production of IAA. In addition, the growth of three selected strains inoculated on roots of strawberry seedlings in greenhouse conditions was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD), with an 8 × 2 factorial schemes involving eight combinations of bacteria: alone, in pairs and threes, plus the control without inoculation. Two fertilizer levels were used (0% and 50% of nitrogen), totaling 16 treatments with eight replicates each. After 75 days, variables such as root length, root dry weight, aerial part length, aerial part dry weight, leaf number, total dry mass and ultrastructural analysis of the inoculated and uninoculated roots, were evaluated. The results showed that the strawberry crop responded positively to inoculation with the three bacteria combined Azospirillum brasilense (Ab-V5) + Burkholderia cepacia (CCMA 0056) + Enterobacter cloacae (CCMA 1285) compared to the uninoculated controls. More expressive responses in terms of plant growth were observed in relation to the combined inoculation of the three bacterial strains plus fertilizer application with 50% of nitrogen.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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