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Πέμπτη, 9 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract

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Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
Source:Academic Radiology
Author(s): Moon Hyung Choi, Seung Eun Jung, Soon Nam Oh, Jae Young Byun
Rationale and ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients.Materials and MethodsIn April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. A total of 2326 fluoroscopic examinations (779 and 1547 examinations before and after education, respectively) were performed, including 10 kinds of examinations. Fluoroscopy time and DAP were collected. A radiologist evaluated the number of spot images, captured images, cine video, captured video, and the use of collimation or magnification. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess the difference in fluoroscopy-related factors before and after education.ResultsMedian DAP decreased significantly after education, from 21.1 to 18.2 Gy∙cm2 (P < .001) in all examinations. After education DAP decreased significantly in defecography (P < .001) and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly in upper gastrointestinal series with water-soluble contrast (P < .001). Spot and cine images that increased the radiation dose were used less frequently after education than before in some kinds of examinations, especially in defecography (P < .001). More images were collimated after education in barium swallow than before (P < .001).ConclusionsEducating radiologist residents and radiographers could reduce DAP in fluoroscopy examinations of the GI tract in adult patients.



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Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Head and Neck: Influence of Fat-Suppression Technique and Multishot 2D Navigated Interleaved Acquisitions [HEAD & NECK]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

DWI of the head and neck can reveal valuable information, but the effects of fat suppression and multishot acquisition on image quality have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to comprehensively compare the quality of head and neck DWI at 3T using 2 fat-suppression techniques, STIR, and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, which were used with both single- and multishot EPI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty-five study participants underwent 3 DWI sequences of single-shot EPI–STIR, single-shot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, and multishot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery of the head and neck. In multiple anatomic regions, 2 independent readers assessed 5-point visual scores for fat-suppression uniformity and image distortion, and 1 reader measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and ADC.

RESULTS:

The mean visual score for fat-suppression uniformity was higher in single-shot EPI–STIR than in other sequences (all regions except for the orbital region, P < .05). The mean visual score for image distortion was higher in multishot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery than in single-shot EPI sequences (all regions, P < .001). Contrast-to-noise ratio was mostly lower in single-shot EPI–STIR than in other sequences (P < .001), and ADC was significantly higher in multishot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery than in single-shot EPI sequences (P ≤ .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, multishot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery provided the best image quality, with relatively homogeneous fat suppression, less image distortion than single-shot EPI sequences, and higher contrast-to-noise ratio than single-shot EPI–STIR. The measured ADC values can be higher in multishot EPI–spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, which necessitates cautious application of the previously reported ADC values to clinical settings.



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Semiautomated Evaluation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis at 3T [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease involving the upper and lower motor neurons. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic changes in the primary motor cortex include Betz cell depletion and the presence of reactive iron-loaded microglia, detectable on 7T MR images as atrophy and T2*-hypointensity. Our purposes were the following: 1) to investigate the signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex as a radiologic marker of upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a semiautomated method at 3T, 2) to compare 3T and 7T results, and 3) to evaluate whether semiautomated measurement outperforms visual image assessment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We investigated 27 patients and 13 healthy subjects at 3T, and 19 patients and 18 healthy subjects at 7T, performing a high-resolution 3D multiecho T2*-weighted sequence targeting the primary motor cortex. The signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex was calculated with a semiautomated method depicting signal intensity profiles of the cortex. Images were also visually classified as "pathologic" or "nonpathologic" based on the primary motor cortex signal intensity and thickness.

RESULTS:

The signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex was greater in patients than in controls (P < .001), and it correlated with upper motor neuron impairment in patients ( = 0.57, P < .001). The diagnostic accuracy of the signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio was high at 3T (area under the curve = 0.89) and even higher at 7T (area under the curve = 0.94). The sensitivity of the semiautomated method (0.81) outperformed the sensitivity of the visual assessment (0.56–0.63) at 3T.

CONCLUSIONS:

The signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex calculated with a semiautomated method is suggested as a radiologic marker of upper motor neuron burden in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This semiautomated method may be useful for improving the subjective radiologic evaluation of upper motor neuron pathology in patients suspected of having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.



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MR Imaging of the Superior Cervical Ganglion and Inferior Ganglion of the Vagus Nerve: Structures That Can Mimic Pathologic Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes [PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can mimic pathologic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. We studied the cross-sectional anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve to evaluate how they can be differentiated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This retrospective study consists of 2 parts. Cohort 1 concerned the signal intensity of routine neck MR imaging with 2D sequences, apparent diffusion coefficient, and contrast enhancement of the superior cervical ganglion compared with lymph nodes with or without metastasis in 30 patients. Cohort 2 used 3D neurography to assess the morphology and spatial relationships of the superior cervical ganglion, inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve, and the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in 50 other patients.

RESULTS:

All superior cervical ganglions had homogeneously greater enhancement and lower signal on diffusion-weighted imaging than lymph nodes. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of the superior cervical ganglion (1.80 ± 0.28 x 10–3mm2/s) were significantly higher than normal and metastatic lymph nodes (0.86 ± 0.10 x 10–3mm2/s, P < .001, and 0.73 ± 0.10 x 10–3mm2/s, P < .001). Ten and 13 of 60 superior cervical ganglions were hypointense on T2-weighted images and had hyperintense spots on both T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. The latter was considered fat tissue. The largest was the superior cervical ganglion, followed in order by the retropharyngeal lymph node and the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve (P < .001 to P = .004). The highest at vertebral level was the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, followed, in order, by the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve and the superior cervical ganglion (P < .001 to P = .001). The retropharyngeal lymph node, superior cervical ganglion, and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve formed a line from anteromedial to posterolateral.

CONCLUSIONS:

The superior cervical ganglion and the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can be almost always differentiated from retropharyngeal lymph nodes on MR imaging by evaluating the signal, size, and position.



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Long-Term Effectiveness of Direct CT-Guided Aspiration and Fenestration of Symptomatic Lumbar Facet Synovial Cysts [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Lumbar facet synovial cysts are commonly seen in facet degenerative arthropathy and may be symptomatic when narrowing the spinal canal or compressing nerve roots. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety, effectiveness, and long-term outcomes of direct CT-guided lumbar facet synovial cyst aspiration and fenestration for symptom relief and for obviating an operation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of 64 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2016 who underwent 85 CT-guided lumbar facet synovial cyst fenestration procedures in our department. We recorded patient demographics, lumbar facet synovial cyst imaging characteristics, presenting symptoms, change in symptoms after the procedure, and whether they underwent a subsequent operation. We also assessed long-term outcomes from the medical records and via follow-up telephone surveys with patients.

RESULTS:

Direct CT-guided lumbar facet synovial cyst puncture was technically successful in 98% of procedures. At first postprocedural follow-up, 86% of patients had a complete or partial symptomatic response. During a mean follow-up of 49 months, 56% of patients had partial or complete long-term relief without the need for an operation; 44% of patients underwent an operation. Patients with calcified, thick-rimmed, or low T2 signal intensity cysts were less likely to respond to the procedure and more likely to need an operation.

CONCLUSIONS:

CT-guided direct lumbar facet synovial cyst aspiration and fenestration procedures are safe, effective, and minimally invasive for symptomatic treatment of lumbar synovial facet cysts. This procedure obviates an operation in a substantial number of patients, even at long-term follow-up, and should be considered before surgical intervention.



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Effect of an Arm Traction Device on Image Quality and Radiation Exposure during Neck CT: A Prospective Study [HEAD & NECK]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The image quality of neck CT is frequently disturbed by streak artifact from the shoulder girdles. Our aim was to determine the effects of an arm traction device on image quality and radiation exposure in neck CT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients with lymphoma with complete remission who were scheduled to undergo 2 consecutive follow-up neck CT scans for surveillance within a 1-year interval were enrolled in this prospective study. They underwent 2 consecutive neck CT scans (intervention protocol: patients with an arm traction device; standard protocol: no positioning optimization) on the same CT system. The primary outcome measures were image noise in the lower neck and dose-length product. Secondary outcomes were streak artifacts in the supraclavicular fossa, volume CT dose index, and the extent of the biacromial line shift.

RESULTS:

Seventy-three patients were enrolled and underwent 2 consecutive CT scans with a mean interval of 155 days. In the intervention protocol, a mean noise reduction in the lower neck of 25.2%–28.5% (P < .001) was achieved, and a significant decrease in dose-length product (413 versus 397, P < .001) was observed. The intervention protocol significantly decreased streak artifacts (P < .001) and volume CT dose index (13.9 versus 13.4, P < .001) and could lower the biacromial line an average of 2.1 cm.

CONCLUSIONS:

An arm traction device can improve image quality and reduce radiation exposure during neck CT. The device can be simply applied in cooperative patients with suspected lower neck lesions, and the approach offers distinct advantages over the conventional imaging protocol.



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Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year.

RESULTS:

Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls (P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy (P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline (R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P < .01). Prediction at 1 year with clinical scores (R2 = 0.54) was improved when including a combination of gray matter and white matter cross-sectional areas (R2 = 0.74).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although improvements over spinal cord cross-sectional areas were modest, this study suggests the potential use of gray matter cross-sectional areas as an MR imaging structural biomarker to monitor the evolution of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.



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Prediction of IDH1-Mutation and 1p/19q-Codeletion Status Using Preoperative MR Imaging Phenotypes in Lower Grade Gliomas [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

WHO grade II gliomas are divided into three classes: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype, IDH-mutant and no 1p/19q codeletion, and IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. Different molecular subtypes have been reported to have prognostic differences and different chemosensitivity. Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of imaging phenotypes assessed with the Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images lexicon for molecular classification of lower grade gliomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

MR imaging scans of 175 patients with lower grade gliomas with known IDH1 mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status were included (78 grade II and 97 grade III) in the discovery set. MR imaging features were reviewed by using Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images (VASARI); their associations with molecular markers were assessed. The predictive power of imaging features for IDH1-wild type tumors was evaluated using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator. We tested the model in a validation set (40 subjects).

RESULTS:

Various imaging features were significantly different according to IDH1 mutation. Nonlobar location, larger proportion of enhancing tumors, multifocal/multicentric distribution, and poor definition of nonenhancing margins were independent predictors of an IDH1 wild type according to the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator. The areas under the curve for the prediction model were 0.859 and 0.778 in the discovery and validation sets, respectively. The IDH1-mutant, 1p/19q-codeleted group frequently had mixed/restricted diffusion characteristics and showed more pial invasion compared with the IDH1-mutant, no codeletion group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Preoperative MR imaging phenotypes are different according to the molecular markers of lower grade gliomas, and they may be helpful in predicting the IDH1-mutation status.



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Simulating the mesoscale transport of krypton-85

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Anne Felsberg, J. Ole Ross, Clemens Schlosser, Gerald Kirchner
Due to its half-life, chemical inertness and low solubility in water, radioactive 85Kr is a valuable tracer for testing the performance of atmospheric dispersion models in simulating long-range transport of pollutants. This paper evaluates the capability of simulating the dispersion of radiokrypton emitted by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north-west France. Three time periods during which elevated activity concentrations of 85Kr in ground level air were detected in south-west Germany are chosen. Simulations have been performed using the HYSPLIT code and the European Centre for Median-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data base. Although their results show a slight trend of underestimating the measured 85Kr concentrations, there is a significant correlation and moderate scatter between observations and simulations with about 50% of the results being within a factor of two of the measured concentrations. The simulated travel time distributions provided a valuable tool for providing additional insight into the dispersion of the tracer radionuclides and for identifying potential causes of deviations between measured and calculated concentrations.



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Transcriptome-based biological dosimetry of gamma radiation in Arabidopsis using DNA damage response genes

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Tae Ho Ryu, Jin Kyu Kim, Jeong-Il Kim, Jin-Hong Kim
Plants are used as representative reference biota for the biological assessment of environmental risks such as ionizing radiation due to their immobility. This study proposed a faster, more economical, and more effective method than conventional cytogenetic methods for the biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in plants (phytodosimetry). We compared various dose-response curves for the radiation-induced DNA damage response (DDR) in Arabidopsis thaliana after relatively "low-dose" gamma irradiation (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 Gy) below tens of Gy using comet (or single-cell gel electrophoresis), gamma-H2AX, and transcriptomic assays of seven DDR genes (AGO2, BRCA1, GRG, PARP1, RAD17, RAD51, and RPA1E) using quantitative real time PCR. The DDR signal from the comet assay was saturated at 6 Gy, while the gamma-H2AX signal increased up to 48 Gy, following a linear-quadratic dose-response model. The transcriptional changes in the seven DDR genes were fitted to linear or supra-linear quadratic equations with significant dose-dependency. The dose-dependent transcriptional changes were maintained similarly until 24 h after irradiation. The integrated transcriptional dose-response model of AGO2, BRCA1, GRG, and PARP1 was very similar to that of gamma-H2AX, while the transcriptional changes in the BRCA1, GRG, and PARP1 DDR genes revealed significant dependency on the dose-rate, ecotype, and radiation dose. These results suggest that the transcriptome-based dose-response model fitted to a quadratic equation could be used practically for phytodosimetry instead of conventional cytogenetic models, such as the comet and gamma-H2AX assays. The effects of dose-rate and ecotype on the transcriptional changes of DDR genes should also be considered to improve the transcriptome-based phytodosimetry model.



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Prediction of thyroidal (131)I effective half-life in patients with Graves' disease.

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Prediction of thyroidal (131)I effective half-life in patients with Graves' disease.

Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 06;8(46):80934-80940

Authors: Zhang R, Zhang G, Wang R, Tan J, He Y, Meng Z

Abstract
Purpose: Calculation of effective thyroidal half-life (Teff) of iodine-131((131)I) is cumbersome and tedious. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that could be used to predict Teff and to develop a Teff prediction model in Graves' disease patients.
Methods: A total of 256 patients with GD were involved in this study. We investigated the influences of age, gender, disease duration, thyroid weight, antithyroid drugs, antithyroid drugs discontinuation period (ADP), thyroid function indexes, thyroid autoantibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) level and radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) values before (131)I therapy on Teff, applying univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: Teff correlated negatively with thyroid peroxidase antibody, TRAb and thyroid weight, as well as positively with 24-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hour RAIU. Additionally, a longer ADP (especially≥ 14d) or without antithyroid drugs before (131)I therapy led to a longer Teff. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that 24-hour and 72-hour RAIU were statistically significant predictors of Teff (P<0.001). The relationship was: predictive Teff=5.277+0.295×72-hour RAIU-0.217×24-hour RAIU (r =0.865, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The present results indicate that prediction of Teff from 24-hour and 72-hour RAIU is feasible in patients with Graves' disease, with high prediction accuracy.

PMID: 29113356 [PubMed]



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Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated 1-{2-[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl]quinolin-8-yl}piperidin-4-amine derivatives for platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) imaging.

http:--linkinghub.elsevier.com-ihub-imag Related Articles

Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated 1-{2-[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl]quinolin-8-yl}piperidin-4-amine derivatives for platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) imaging.

Bioorg Med Chem. 2017 Oct 15;25(20):5576-5585

Authors: Effendi N, Ogawa K, Mishiro K, Takarada T, Yamada D, Kitamura Y, Shiba K, Maeda T, Odani A

Abstract
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor and it is upregulated in various malignant tumors. Radiolabeled PDGFRβ inhibitors can be a convenient tool for the imaging of tumors overexpressing PDGFRβ. In this study, [(125)I]-1-{5-iodo-2-[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl]quinoline-8-yl}piperidin-4-amine ([(125)I]IIQP) and [(125)I]-N-3-iodobenzoyl-1-{2-[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl]quinolin-8-yl}-piperidin-4-amine ([(125)I]IB-IQP) were designed and synthesized, and their potential as PDGFRβ imaging agents was evaluated. In cellular uptake experiments, [(125)I]IIQP and [(125)I]IB-IQP showed higher uptake by PDGFRβ-positive cells than by PDGFRβ-negative cells, and the uptake in PDGFRβ-positive cells was inhibited by co-culture with PDGFRβ ligands. The biodistribution of both radiotracers in normal mice exhibited hepatobiliary excretion as the main route. In mice inoculated with BxPC3-luc (PDGFRβ-positive), the tumor uptake of radioactivity at 1h after the injection of [(125)I]IIQP was significantly higher than that after the injection of [(125)I]IB-IQP. These results indicated that [(125)I]IIQP can be a suitable PDGFRβ imaging agent. However, further modification of its structure will be required to obtain a more appropriate PDGFRβ-targeted imaging agent with a higher signal/noise ratio.

PMID: 28838832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Radiotherapy and Oncology
Author(s): Ting Martin Ma, Jimm Grimm, Riley McIntyre, Heather Anderson-Keightly, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Russell K. Hales, Joseph Moore, Tracy Vannorsdall, Kristin J. Redmond
Background and purposeTo prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation.Material and methodsEffects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose–volume histograms were generated and dose–response data were fitted to a nonlinear model.ResultsOf 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose–response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline.ConclusionsThis prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment.



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Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Imaging with Quantitative Vessel Wall T1 Mapping: Technical Development and Initial Experience.

Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Imaging with Quantitative Vessel Wall T1 Mapping: Technical Development and Initial Experience.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 08;:170526

Authors: Qi H, Sun J, Qiao H, Chen S, Zhou Z, Pan X, Wang Y, Zhao X, Li R, Yuan C, Chen H

Abstract
Purpose To develop a three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution time-efficient sequence for use in quantitative vessel wall T1 mapping. Materials and Methods A previously described sequence, simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging, was extended by introducing 3D golden angle radial k-space sampling (GOAL-SNAP). Sliding window reconstruction was adopted to reconstruct images at different inversion delay times (different T1 contrasts) for voxelwise T1 fitting. Phantom studies were performed to test the accuracy of T1 mapping with GOAL-SNAP against a two-dimensional inversion recovery (IR) spin-echo (SE) sequence. In vivo studies were performed in six healthy volunteers (mean age, 27.8 years ± 3.0 [standard deviation]; age range, 24-32 years; five male) and five patients with atherosclerosis (mean age, 66.4 years ± 5.5; range, 60-73 years; five male) to compare T1 measurements between vessel wall sections (five per artery) with and without intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). Statistical analyses included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with data permutation by subject. Results Phantom T1 measurements with GOAL-SNAP and IR SE sequences showed excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.99), with a mean bias of -25.8 msec ± 43.6 and a mean percentage error of 4.3% ± 2.5. Minimum T1 was significantly different between sections with IPH and those without it (mean, 371 msec ± 93 vs 944 msec ± 120; P = .01). Estimated T1 of normal vessel wall and muscle were 1195 msec ± 136 and 1117 msec ± 153, respectively. Conclusion High-spatial-resolution (0.8 mm isotropic) time-efficient (5 minutes) vessel wall T1 mapping is achieved by using the GOAL-SNAP sequence. This sequence may yield more quantitative reproducible biomarkers with which to characterize IPH and monitor its progression. (©) RSNA, 2017.

PMID: 29117484 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A Manganese-based Alternative to Gadolinium: Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography, Excretion, Pharmacokinetics, and Metabolism.

A Manganese-based Alternative to Gadolinium: Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography, Excretion, Pharmacokinetics, and Metabolism.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 08;:170977

Authors: Gale EM, Wey HY, Ramsay I, Yen YF, Sosnovik DE, Caravan P

Abstract
Purpose To compare intravascular contrast enhancement produced by the manganese-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent manganese-N-picolyl-N,N',N'-trans-1,2-cyclohexenediaminetriacetate (Mn-PyC3A) to gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and to evaluate the excretion, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of Mn-PyC3A. Materials and Methods Contrast material-enhanced MR angiography was performed in baboons (Papio anubis; n = 4) by using Mn-PyC3A and Gd-DTPA. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 minutes following Mn-PyC3A injection to monitor distribution and elimination. Serial blood sampling was performed to quantify manganese and gadolinium plasma clearance by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and to characterize Mn-PyC3A metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Intravascular contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta and brachiocephalic artery was quantified by measuring contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) versus muscle at 9 seconds following Mn-PyC3A or Gd-DTPA injection. Plasma pharmacokinetics were modeled with a biexponential function, and data were compared with a paired t test. Results Aorta versus muscle CNR (mean ± standard deviation) with Mn-PyC3A and Gd-DTPA was 476 ± 77 and 538 ± 120, respectively (P = .11). Brachiocephalic artery versus muscle CNR was 524 ± 55 versus 518 ± 140, respectively (P = .95). Mn-PyC3A was eliminated via renal and hepatobiliary excretion with similar pharmacokinetics to Gd-DTPA (area under the curve between 0 and 30 minutes, 20.2 ± 3.1 and 17.0 ± 2.4, respectively; P = .23). High-performance liquid chromatography revealed no evidence of Mn-PyC3A biotransformation. Conclusion Mn-PyC3A enables contrast-enhanced MR angiography with comparable contrast enhancement to gadolinium-based agents and may overcome concerns regarding gadolinium-associated toxicity and retention. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29117483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Zero Echo Time Imaging of the Shoulder: Enhanced Osseous Detail by Using MR Imaging.

Zero Echo Time Imaging of the Shoulder: Enhanced Osseous Detail by Using MR Imaging.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 08;:170906

Authors: Breighner RE, Endo Y, Konin GP, Gulotta LV, Koff MF, Potter HG

Abstract
Purpose To determine the intermodality agreement of morphologic grading and clinically relevant quantitative measurements between computed tomography (CT) and zero echo time (ZTE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder. The primary objective was to demonstrate the clinical applicability of ZTE in osseous shoulder imaging. Materials and Methods Thirty-four patients undergoing standard-of-care (SOC) MR imaging with concomitant CT were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved study. ZTE images were acquired after SOC MR imaging. Glenoid morphology (version, vault depth, erosion), injury or disease (osteoarthritis, Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions, subchondral cysts), and evidence of prior surgery were graded or measured. κ Values, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were used to establish agreement. Qualitative comparison of osseous findings was performed between ZTE and SOC MR imaging. Results Binary classification and nominal/ordinal grades showed substantial or better agreement between raters and modalities (κ or ICC > 0.6). Continuous measurements exhibited strong correlation between raters and modalities, although not universally. Bankart ICCs were not significant, owing to low prevalence. ZTE exhibited greater conspicuity of enthesopathic cysts and marrow edema. In 21 of 34 cases, ZTE imaging of osseous features exceeded SOC MR imaging. Conclusion ZTE MR imaging provides "CT-like" contrast for bone. The results of this study demonstrate strong intermodality agreement between measurements and grades from CT and ZTE images in a cohort of patients undergoing imaging with both modalities. A majority of ZTE image sets provided superior visualization of osseous features when compared with SOC MR image sets. This superiority coupled with strong quantitative agreement with CT suggests that ZTE may be used clinically in lieu of CT in some cases. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29117482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Advanced Diffusion-weighted Imaging Modeling for Prostate Cancer Characterization: Correlation with Quantitative Histopathologic Tumor Tissue Composition-A Hypothesis-generating Study.

Advanced Diffusion-weighted Imaging Modeling for Prostate Cancer Characterization: Correlation with Quantitative Histopathologic Tumor Tissue Composition-A Hypothesis-generating Study.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 08;:170904

Authors: Hectors SJ, Semaan S, Song C, Lewis S, Haines GK, Tewari A, Rastinehad AR, Taouli B

Abstract
Purpose To correlate quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters derived from conventional monoexponential DWI, stretched exponential DWI, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with quantitative histopathologic tumor tissue composition in prostate cancer in a preliminary hypothesis-generating study. Materials and Methods This retrospective institutional review board-approved study included 24 patients with prostate cancer (mean age, 63 years) who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including high-b-value DWI and DTI at 3.0 T, before prostatectomy. The following parameters were calculated in index tumors and nontumoral peripheral zone (PZ): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained with monoexponential fit (ADCME), ADC obtained with stretched exponential modeling (ADCSE), anomalous exponent (α) obtained at stretched exponential DWI, ADC obtained with DKI modeling (ADCDKI), kurtosis with DKI, ADC obtained with DTI (ADCDTI), and fractional anisotropy (FA) at DTI. Parameters in prostate cancer and PZ were compared by using paired Student t tests. Pearson correlations between tumor DWI and quantitative histologic parameters (nuclear, cytoplasmic, cellular, stromal, luminal fractions) were determined. Results All DWI parameters were significantly different between prostate cancer and PZ (P < .012). ADCME, ADCSE, and ADCDKI all showed significant negative correlation with cytoplasmic and cellular fractions (r = 0.546 to -0.435; P < .034) and positive correlation with stromal fractions (r = 0.619-0.669; P < .001). ADCDTI and FA showed correlation only with stromal fraction (r = 0.512 and -0.413, respectively; P < .045). α did not correlate with histologic parameters, whereas kurtosis showed significant correlations with histopathologic parameters (r = 0.487, 0.485, -0.422 for cytoplasmic, cellular, and stromal fractions, respectively; P < .040). Conclusion Advanced DWI methods showed significant correlations with histopathologic tissue composition in prostate cancer. These findings should be validated in a larger study. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29117481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A young man with palpitations and pre-syncope

A 20 year old man presented to the emergency department with palpitations lasting half an hour. He was also feeling dizzy and felt close to fainting. He denied any chest pain. He had no known cardiac...
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Should doctors support restrictions on anti-abortion protests?

On the 50th anniversary of the Abortion Act, on October 27, more than 100 MPs put their names to a letter urging the government to introduce buffer zones to prevent anti-abortion activity outside...
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Men, women, and symptoms . . . and other stories

InkblotsHermann Rorschach created his famous test in 1921 and it’s still widely used in some parts of the world. Responses to the 10 inkblots are supposed to provide information about cognition and...
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Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia Associated with Surfactant Protein C Gene Mutation

Familial interstitial lung disease (ILD) is defined as presence of ILD in 2 or more family members. Surfactant protein C (SFTPC) gene mutations are rare, but well-known cause of familial ILD. We reported a 20-year-old male, who was referred for lung transplantation. He was symptomatic at age 3 and underwent surgical lung biopsy at age 6, which revealed a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. Genetic workup revealed a novel SFTPC mutation in the first intron with a C to A transversion. At age 21, he underwent bilateral lung transplantation. Explanted lung histology suggested NSIP. In addition there was pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (PNEC) hyperplasia and carcinoid tumorlets. His mother had undergone lung transplantation several years earlier, and her explanted lung showed similar pathology. SFTPC mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Various types of ILD have been associated with SFTPC mutation including NSIP, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). PNEC hyperplasia has been described to occur in association with lung inflammation but has not been previously described with familial ILD associated with SFTPC mutation.

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Revisiting the Low-Frequency Dipolar Perturbation by an Impenetrable Ellipsoid in a Conductive Surrounding

This contribution deals with the scattering by a metallic ellipsoidal target, embedded in a homogeneous conductive medium, which is stimulated when a 3D time-harmonic magnetic dipole is operating at the low-frequency realm. The incident, the scattered, and the total three-dimensional electromagnetic fields, which satisfy Maxwell’s equations, yield low-frequency expansions in terms of positive integral powers of the complex-valued wave number of the exterior medium. We preserve the static Rayleigh approximation and the first three dynamic terms, while the additional terms of minor contribution are neglected. The Maxwell-type problem is transformed into intertwined potential-type boundary value problems with impenetrable boundary conditions, whereas the environment of a genuine ellipsoidal coordinate system provides the necessary setting for tackling such problems in anisotropic space. The fields are represented via nonaxisymmetric infinite series expansions in terms of harmonic eigenfunctions, affiliated with the ellipsoidal system, obtaining analytical closed-form solutions in a compact fashion. Until nowadays, such problems were attacked by using the very few ellipsoidal harmonics exhibiting an analytical form. In the present article, we address this issue by incorporating the full series expansion of the potentials and utilizing the entire subspace of ellipsoidal harmonic eigenfunctions.

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Vaginal Endosalpingiosis Case Report: A Rare Entity Presenting as Intermenstrual Bleeding

Endosalpingiosis is a benign and rare entity whose pathophysiology remains unknown. It has been described in pelvic organs, the abdomen, or axillar lymph nodes. Its underrecognition has occasionally led to its misinterpretation for an adenocarcinoma. This case reports the treatment and follow-up of vaginal endosalpingiosis, presenting as a vaginal polyp in a premenopausal women with intermenstrual bleeding. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of vaginal endosalpingiosis and the second mucosal localization after bladder endosalpingiosis.

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Thrombin-Induced Calpain Activation Promotes Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Internalization

The serine protease thrombin activates Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by the proteolytic cleavage of their extracellular N-terminal domain. Four members of this family have been identified: PAR1–4. The activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 1(PAR1), the prototype of this receptor family, leads to an increase in intracellular Ca+2 concentration ([Ca+2]i) mediated by α coupling and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. We have previously shown that the stimulation of PAR1 by thrombin promotes intracellular signaling leading to RPE cell transformation, proliferation, and migration which characterize fibroproliferative eye diseases leading to blindness. Within this context, the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in PAR1 inactivation is of utmost importance. Due to the irreversible nature of PAR1 activation, its inactivation must be efficiently regulated in order to terminate signaling. Using ARPE-19 human RPE cell line, we characterized thrombin-induced [Ca+2]i increase and demonstrated the calcium-dependent activation of μ-calpain mediated by PAR1. Calpains are a family of calcium-activated cysteine proteases involved in multiple cellular processes including the internalization of membrane proteins through clathrin-coated vesicles. We demonstrated that PAR1-induced calpain activation results in the degradation of α-spectrin by calpain, essential for receptor endocytosis, and the consequent decrease in PAR1 membrane expression. Collectively, the present results identify a novel μ-calpain-dependent mechanism for PAR1 inactivation following exposure to thrombin.

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Targeted Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics to Malignant Tumors

Over the past 20 years, a diverse group of ligands targeting surface biomarkers or receptors has been identified with several investigated to target siRNA to tumors. Many approaches to developing tumor-homing peptides, RNA and DNA aptamers, and single-chain variable fragment antibodies by using phage display, in vitro evolution, and recombinant antibody methods could not have been imagined by researchers in the 1980s. Despite these many scientific advances, there is no reason to expect that the ligand field will not continue to evolve. From development of ligands based on novel or existing biomarkers to linking ligands to drugs and gene and antisense delivery systems, several fields have coalesced to facilitate ligand-directed siRNA therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the major categories of ligand-targeted siRNA therapeutics for tumors, as well as the different strategies to identify new ligands.

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What Happened in Caesarea? Symphagein as Bonding Experience (Acts 10-11.18)



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Zu Anton Weberns George-Vertonung "Erwachen aus dem tiefsten Traumesschosse". Eine Spurensuche



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Pynchon's sonic fiction

Music is ever present in Thomas Pynchon’s literary work but little attention has been paid to it. The present dissertation aims to fill this gap and present the first book-length monograph dedicated to cataloging, exploring, and interpreting the musical dimension of Pynchon’s work. It argues that music is the most consistent and most central cultural reference point throughout the author’s career. Music is of symbolic and structural importance and it helps set the historical frame. It permeates the writing, from basic structural metaphors to its style. And, finally, throughout Pynchon’s work there is a strong moral undercurrent, an allegiance with the underdog, a solidarity with the preterite. This moral undercurrent is particularly strong with the way he treats music. The dissertation reads some of the most salient passages concerning music and organizes them along different although at times intertwined trajectories. Chapter 1 is dedicated to a review of the existing literature on the topic and a musical biography of the author. Chapter 2 looks at the ways musical instruments are portrayed. It takes as a starting point the physical fact that every musical instrument only produces sound because it resists its player. By analogy, one could say that music is born out of resistance, and this is played out in the way a handful of instruments enter Pynchon’s stories, in particular the ukulele, the kazoo, the harmonica, and the saxophone. Chapter 3 takes its cue from Jacques Attali’s widely discussed thesis (which he adapted from Plato) that the development of music prefigures the organization of society and the distribution of power. Emblematic readings confirm the importance of this belief for Pynchon’s characters. Chapter 4 approaches the subject from a quantitative angle. Every identifiable reference and allusion to historical musicians and works of music is analyzed in terms of frequency, genres, temporal distribution, gender, and media to produce some unexpected findings and confirm some intuitively held assumptions.

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Das Testament Hiobs : Hiob, Dina und ihre Töchter



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Uptake of HPV testing and extended cervical cancer screening intervals following cytology alone and Pap/HPV cotesting in women aged 30–65 years

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the adoption of HPV testing and recommended extended cervical cancer screening intervals in clinical practice, we described yearly uptake of Pap/HPV cotesting and estimated length of time between normal screens by patient characteristics.

Methods

We examined 55,575 Pap/HPV records from 27,035 women aged 30–65 years from the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pathology Data System between 2006 and 2013. Cotest uptake and median times to next screening test for cotests and cytology only were calculated. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, with random effects adjustment for clustering within clinic.

Results

Cotest usage increased from < 10% in 2006 to 78% in 2013. The median time to next screening test following normal cytology alone remained constant around 1.5 years. Screening intervals following a dual-negative cotest increased from 1.5 years in 2006/2007 to 2.5 years in 2010, coincident with increases in the proportion of women cotested. Intervals following a dual negative cotest were longer among Medicare patients (3 years) compared with privately insured women (2.5 years), and shorter among black (2 years) compared with white women (2.8 years).

Conclusion

By mid-2013 we observed broad adoption of Pap/HPV cotesting in routine screening in a large academic medical center. Increased screening intervals were observed only among cotested women, while those screened by cytology alone continued to be screened almost annually. The influence of different combinations of race and insurance on screening intervals should be further evaluated to ensure balance of screening risks and benefits in the U.S. population.



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Determinants of prolactin in postmenopausal Chinese women in Singapore

Abstract

Purpose

Mechanistic and observational data together support a role for prolactin in breast cancer development. Determinants of prolactin in Asian populations have not been meaningfully explored, despite the lower risk of breast cancer in Asian populations.

Methods

Determinants of plasma prolactin were evaluated in 442 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. At baseline all cohort members completed an in-person interview that elicited information on diet, menstrual and reproductive history, and lifestyle factors. One year after cohort initiation we began collecting blood samples. Quantified were plasma concentrations of prolactin, estrone, estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Analysis of covariance method was used for statistical analyses with age at blood draw, time since last meal, and time at blood draw as covariates.

Results

Mean prolactin levels were 25.1% lower with older age at menarche (p value = 0.001), and 27.6% higher with greater years between menarche and menopause (p value = 0.009). Prolactin levels were also positively associated with increased sleep duration (p value = 0.005). The independent determinants of prolactin were years from menarche to menopause, hours of sleep, and the plasma hormones estrone and SHBG (all p values < 0.01).

Conclusion

The role of prolactin in breast cancer development may involve reproductive and lifestyle factors, such as a longer duration of menstrual cycling and sleep patterns.



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Atypical HRCT manifestations of pulmonary sarcoidosis

Abstract

Purpose

To present our experience of cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis with atypical HRCT patterns found during 2016 focusing on the differential diagnosis to contribute to the difficult role of the radiologist in the disease identification and to help the clinicians to reach the diagnosis.

Materials and methods

The HRCT examinations of 47 patients with sarcoidosis were studied retrospectively. All patients had a histopathological confirm of the disease. 29 (61.7%) show a typical pulmonary pattern and 18 (38.3%) an atypical pattern. The latter were evaluated by three experienced radiologists dedicated to thoracic disease to radiologically define the predominant pattern of presentation.

Results

In the 18 patients (38.3%) with atypical sarcoidosis, the following parenchymal patterns were observed: four patients (22.2%) had interstitial fibrotic alterations, three patients (16.6%) with reticular pattern with inter–intralobular septal thickening, two patients (11.1%) with small-airway involvement with mosaic oligoemia, two patients (11.1%) with pleural involvement (pneumothorax and pleural plaques), one patient (5.5%) with fibrocystic changes, 1 (5.5%) with halo-sign, 1 (5.5%) with diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities, and 1 (5.5%) with isolated lung mass; in addition, three patients (16.6%) with atypical lymph node pattern were also found.

Conclusions and Discussion

The atypical pulmonary alterations found in CT examination can be confused with other lung diseases and they are always a challenge even for the most experienced radiologist. In our experience, cases with atypical pulmonary sarcoidosis patterns evaluated in the study are consistent with similar cases described in the literature, both in lymph node and atypical parenchymal involvement. All the atypical characteristics of the work should alert the radiologist to consider sarcoidosis among the possible differential diagnoses, always correlating the results of the computed tomography examination with appropriate clinical-laboratory evaluations.



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An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 2: impacts on organisms and ecosystems

Abstract

New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods. Little new information has been gathered on soil organisms. The impact on marine and coastal ecosystems is still largely uncharted. The chronic lethality of neonicotinoids to insects and crustaceans, and the strengthened evidence that these chemicals also impair the immune system and reproduction, highlights the dangers of this particular insecticidal class (neonicotinoids and fipronil), with the potential to greatly decrease populations of arthropods in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Sublethal effects on fish, reptiles, frogs, birds, and mammals are also reported, showing a better understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity of these insecticides in vertebrates and their deleterious impacts on growth, reproduction, and neurobehaviour of most of the species tested. This review concludes with a summary of impacts on the ecosystem services and functioning, particularly on pollination, soil biota, and aquatic invertebrate communities, thus reinforcing the previous WIA conclusions (van der Sluijs et al. 2015).



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Identification of potential embryokines in the bovine reproductive tract

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): P. Tríbulo, L.G.B. Siqueira, L.J. Oliveira, T. Scheffler, P.J. Hansen
Knowledge of the molecules used by the maternal reproductive tract to regulate development of the preimplantation embryo is largely incomplete. The goal of the present experiment was to identify candidates for this function. The approach was to assess expression patterns in the endometrium and oviduct of 93 genes encoding for hormones, growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and WNT-related molecules. Results show that all of the genes were expressed in the reproductive tract. Expression in oviduct was affected by day of the estrous cycle for 21 genes with 11 genes having highest expression at estrus (CCL21, CTGF, CXCL10, CXCL16, DKK3, FGF10, IL18, IL33, IL34, PGF, and SFRP2), one gene at d 3 (WNT4), 8 at d 5 (BMP7, HGF, IL6, SFRP1, TGFB1, WIF1, WNT2, and WNT5A), and one at d 7 (IK). For endometrium, expression of 34 genes was affected by day of the estrous cycle with 11 having highest expression at d 0 (BMP7, CCL14, CCL21, CCL26, CTGF, CXCL12, IGF2, IL16, IL33, SFRP2, and WIF1), 2 at d 3 (HDGF, IL15), 14 at d 5 (CSF2, CX3CL1, CXCL3, FGF1, FGF2, GRO1, HGF, IGF1, IL1B, IL8, SFRP1, SFRP4, WNT5A, and WNT16), and 7 at d 7 (CXCL16, FGF13, HDGFRP2, TDGF1, VEGFB, WNT7A, and WNT11). Results are consistent with a set of genes regulated by estradiol early in the estrous cycle and another set regulated by progesterone later in the cycle. The cell-signaling genes identified here as being expressed in the oviduct and endometrium could serve to regulate early embryonic development in a stage-of-pregnancy-specific manner.



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Strain hardening and anisotropy in tensile fracture properties of sheared model Mozzarella cheeses

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Prateek Sharma, Peter A. Munro, Tzvetelin T. Dessev, Peter G. Wiles, E. Allen Foegeding
We studied the tensile fracture properties of model Mozzarella cheeses with varying amounts of shear work input (3.3–73.7 kJ/kg). After manufacture, cheeses were elongated by manual rolling at 65°C followed by tensile testing at 21°C on dumbbell-shaped samples cut both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction. Strain hardening parameters were estimated from stress–strain curves using 3 different methods. Fracture stress and strain for longitudinal samples did not vary significantly with shear work input up to 26.3 kJ/kg and then decreased dramatically at 58.2 kJ/kg. Longitudinal samples with shear work input <30 kJ/kg demonstrated significant strain hardening by all 3 estimation methods. At shear work inputs <30 kJ/kg, strong anisotropy was observed in both fracture stress and strain. After a shear work input of 58.2 kJ/kg, anisotropy and strain hardening were absent. Perpendicular samples did not show strain hardening at any level of shear work input. Although the distortion of the fat drops in the cheese structure associated with the elongation could account for some of the anisotropy observed, the presence of anisotropy in the elongated nonfat samples reflected that shear work and rolling also aligned the protein structure.



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Genome-wide association study for ketosis in US Jerseys using producer-recorded data

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): K.L. Parker Gaddis, J.H. Megonigal, J.S. Clay, C.W. Wolfe
Ketosis is one of the most frequently reported metabolic health events in dairy herds. Several genetic analyses of ketosis in dairy cattle have been conducted; however, few have focused specifically on Jersey cattle. The objectives of this research included estimating variance components for susceptibility to ketosis and identification of genomic regions associated with ketosis in Jersey cattle. Voluntary producer-recorded health event data related to ketosis were available from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). Standardization was implemented to account for the various acronyms used by producers to designate an incidence of ketosis. Events were restricted to the first reported incidence within 60 d after calving in first through fifth parities. After editing, there were a total of 42,233 records from 23,865 cows. A total of 1,750 genotyped animals were used for genomic analyses using 60,671 markers. Because of the binary nature of the trait, a threshold animal model was fitted using THRGIBBS1F90 (version 2.110) using only pedigree information, and genomic information was incorporated using a single-step genomic BLUP approach. Individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects and the proportion of variance explained by 10-SNP windows were calculated using postGSf90 (version 1.38). Heritability of susceptibility to ketosis was 0.083 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.021] and 0.078 (SD = 0.018) in pedigree-based and genomic analyses, respectively. The marker with the largest associated effect was located on chromosome 10 at 66.3 Mbp. The 10-SNP window explaining the largest proportion of variance (0.70%) was located on chromosome 6 beginning at 56.1 Mbp. Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) enrichment analyses identified several overrepresented processes and terms related to immune function. Our results indicate that there is a genetic component related to ketosis susceptibility in Jersey cattle and, as such, genetic selection for improved resistance to ketosis is feasible.



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Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) on risk of biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): M. Baldin, G.I. Zanton, K.J. Harvatine
Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial condition resulting from the interaction of numerous risk factors, including diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acids concentration, feed additives, and individual cow effects. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a methionine analog that has been observed to increase milk fat in some cases, and interactions with MFD risk factors may exist. The objective was to evaluate the effect of HMTBa supplementation on milk fat synthesis in cows with different levels of milk production and fed diets with increasing risk of biohydrogenation-induced MFD. Sixteen high-producing cows (44.1 ± 4.5 kg of milk/d; mean ± SD) and 14 low-producing (31.4 ± 4.3 kg of milk/d) were used in a randomized block design. Treatments were unsupplemented control and HMTBa fed at 0.1% of diet dry matter (25 g/d at 25 kg of dry matter intake). The experiment was 70 d and included a 14-d covariate period followed by 3 phases whereby diets were fed with increasing risk of MFD to determine the interaction of treatment and diet-induced MFD. During the low-risk phase, the base diet was balanced to 33.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and had no exogenous oil (28 d); during the moderate-risk phase, the diet was balanced to 31% NDF and contained 0.75% soybean oil (14 d); and, during the high-risk phase, the diet was balanced to 28.5% NDF and contained 1.5% soybean oil (14 d). An interaction of treatment, production-level, and dietary phase was observed. Low producing cows neither experienced substantial biohydrogenation-induced MFD nor a response in milk fat to HMTBa supplementation. In high-producing cows, HMTBa maintained higher milk fat concentration during the moderate- (2.94 vs. 3.49%) and high-risk (2.38 vs. 3.11%) phases. High-producing cows receiving HMTBa also had greater milk fat yield (0.94 vs. 1.16 kg/d) and lower trans-10 C18:1 (6.11 vs. 1.50) during the high-risk phase. In conclusion, HMTBa increased milk fat in situations with a high risk of biohydrogenation-induced MFD by decreasing absorption of alternate biohydrogenation intermediates.



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Lowering rumen-degradable and -undegradable protein improved amino acid metabolism and energy utilization in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): J.D. Kaufman, K.G. Pohler, J.T. Mulliniks, A.G. Ríus
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on protein and energy metabolism in heat-stressed dairy cows. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12/treatment). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments that included 2 levels of RDP (10 and 8%; D) and 2 levels of RUP (8 and 6%; U) of dry matter for 21 d as (1) 10D:8U, (2) 8D:8U, (3) 10D:6U, and (4) 8D:6U. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows were housed in a freestall barn. Three weeks before start of treatments, all animals were fed the 10D:8U diet and received supplemental cooling to prevent heat stress. During the treatment period, cows experienced a daily increment in temperature-humidity index from 74 to 82 for 1000 to 2000 h. Blood samples were collected on d −1 and 21 of the treatment period to determine plasma concentrations of AA, glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. For primiparous cows, reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations. For multiparous cows, we found significant RDP by RUP interactions for insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, total essential AA, and 3-methylhistidine concentrations. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations at 6% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 8% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP increased nonesterified fatty acid and total essential AA concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP decreased 3-methylhistidine concentration at 8% RDP, but not at 10% RDP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP increased milk protein yield efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate that reducing RDP and RUP lowers circulating insulin, which was associated with mobilization and utilization of fatty acids. Reduced RDP and RUP increases the use of AA to maintain milk protein synthesis and limit AA catabolism in cows exposed to warm climates.



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Phenotypic and genetic relationships between age at first calving, its component traits, and survival of heifers up to second calving

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Johannes Heise, Kathrin F. Stock, Friedrich Reinhardt, Ngoc-Thuy Ha, Henner Simianer
The aim of this study was to answer the question whether models for genetic evaluations of longevity should include a correction for age at first calving (AFC). For this purpose, phenotypic and genetic relationships between AFC, its component traits age at first insemination (AFI) and interval from first to last insemination (FLI), and survival of different periods of the first lactation (S1: 0 to 49 d, S2: 50 to 249 d, S3: 250 d to second calving) were investigated. Data of 721,919 German Holstein heifers, being inseminated for the first time during the years from 2003 to 2012, were used for the analyses. Phenotypic correlations of AFI, FLI, and AFC to S1 to S3 were negative. Mean estimated heritabilities were 0.239 (AFI), 0.007 (FLI), and 0.103 (AFC) and 0.023 (S1), 0.016 (S2), and 0.028 (S3) on the observed scale. The genetic correlation between AFI and FLI was close to zero. Genetic correlations between AFI and the survival traits were −0.08 (S1), −0.02 (S2), and −0.10 (S3); those between FLI and the survival traits were −0.14 (S1), −0.20 (S2), and −0.44 (S3); and those between AFC and the survival traits were −0.09 (S1), −0.06 (S2), and −0.20 (S3). Some of these genetic correlations were different from zero, which suggests that correcting for AFC in genetic evaluations for longevity in dairy cows might remove functional genetic variance and should be reconsidered.



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Exposure to light-emitting diodes may be more damaging to the sensory properties of fat-free milk than exposure to fluorescent light

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Ana C. Chang, Robin Dando
Light exposure can damage the sensory properties of milk, leading to adverse consumer responses. This is presumed to be through the action of photosensitive compounds such as riboflavin, present in milk and capable of releasing energy when irradiated, leading to damage of proteins and fats in the milk. Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is assumed to be less damaging to milk, due to lower inherent power consumption. In this study, fat-free milk was exposed to LED and fluorescent light at 2,000 lx to compare the sensory thresholds of exposure, the flavor profile of milk produced by these exposures, and resultant consumer acceptance of the samples. Additionally, the effectiveness of light-protective packaging and supplementation with antioxidants was evaluated. The sensory threshold from LED exposure was no longer than from fluorescence, whereas with antioxidants (tocopherols and ascorbic acid), the majority of the panelists failed to discriminate milk exposed to LED light even at 48 h of exposure. Trained panelists described light-exposed milk as significantly higher in cardboard, old oil, and plastic, with LED exposure resulting in a marginally more plastic aroma, and fluorescent marginally more cardboard. Consumers reported higher liking for fluorescent-exposed samples versus those exposed to LED. The antioxidant-supplemented samples, and those exposed to LED light engineered to eliminate wavelengths below 480 nm (thus most of riboflavin's absorption peaks), resulted in significantly higher old oil; however, the former received higher liking scores than LED-exposed samples. Light-protective packaging offered near-complete protection from LED exposure, with a similar flavor profile as unexposed milk, and the best liking scores of any treatment. Nevertheless, consumers disliked its appearance, due to unfamiliarity, suggesting some consumer education may be needed if this were to be an efficient protective strategy.



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Liver proteomic analysis of postpartum Holstein cows exposed to heat stress or cooling conditions during the dry period

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Amy L. Skibiel, Maya Zachut, Bruno C. do Amaral, Yishai Levin, Geoffrey E. Dahl
Heat stress negatively affects cow performance, compromises immune function, and increases susceptibility to metabolic disorders, particularly during the dry period and as cows transition from gestation to lactation. Metabolic adaptations of the liver are critical for successful transition, yet it is unclear how heat stress affects metabolic pathways within the liver at the proteomic level. The objective of this study was to investigate the liver proteome of postpartum cows that were cooled or heat stressed during the dry period to gain insight into how protein expression is altered by prior heat stress and may contribute to performance and disease outcomes. During the dry period, cows were either housed in shaded barns with fans and water soakers [cooled group (CL); n = 5] or in shaded barns lacking these cooling devices [heat-stressed group (HT); n = 5]. Liver biopsies were collected at 2 d postpartum, and protein content was analyzed by label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics (nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry). In the most comprehensive bovine liver proteomics analysis completed to date, we identified 3,270 proteins, 75 of which were differentially expressed between HT and CL cows (fold change ±1.2). The top pathways differing between HT and CL cows were oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, and the methylmalonyl pathway. Cooling cows during the dry period likely improves ATP production, reduces oxidative stress, and prevents excessive accumulation of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, which may contribute to greater milk yield and lower susceptibility to transition-related diseases.



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The effects of feeding a partial mixed ration plus a top-dress before feeding on milk production and the daily rhythm of feed intake and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): M. Niu, K.J. Harvatine
Total mixed rations (TMR) are commonly fed to dairy cows with a goal of reducing ruminal acidosis, but the daily pattern of feed intake has major implication for rumen fermentation and postabsorptive physiology. Generally there is low feed intake during the overnight period and high intake after feeding and during the afternoon. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding a partial mixed ration (PMR) plus a high starch top-dress before feeding of the PMR would improve production and modify key daily rhythms. The top-dress was fed before feeding as ruminal starch is at a nadir and amylolytic capacity is expected to be low. Ten Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 14-d periods. Cows were housed in tie stalls with feed tubs and feed weight was recorded every 10 s for observation of feeding behavior. Treatments were a control TMR fed once per day at 0900 h or a partial mixed ration plus a top-dress (PMR+TD). The top-dress was fed at 9.5% of DMI offered at 0800 h and contained steamflaked corn, canola meal, and nonprotein nitrogen. No interaction was observed between treatment and milking time. Milk yield tended to be decreased 1.1 kg and milk fat yield was decreased 70 g/d by PMR+TD. Milk fat preformed fatty acids were decreased and no effect was observed of treatment on trans-10 C18:1 or other indicators of biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression. No effect was observed of treatment on meal parameters including meal size and number. The PMR+TD increased total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility by 1.2 percentage points. Treatment changed the daily pattern of fecal NDF and indigestible NDF, indicating changes in rumen function over the day. No effect was observed on plasma glucose, but the amplitude of the daily rhythm of insulin was increased by PMR+TD. The PMR+TD also increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and decreased blood urea nitrogen across the day. Core body temperature is entrained by the central biological clock and its phase was advanced 42 min and its amplitude slightly increased by PMR+TD. In conclusion, the top-dress appears to have modified the central circadian rhythm and plasma insulin and blood urea nitrogen. This demonstrates that timing of feeding can be used to manage daily rhythms of the dairy cow, although the optimal timing requires further investigation.



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Predicting milk protein responses and the requirement of metabolizable protein by lactating dairy cows

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): L.E. Moraes, E. Kebreab, J.L. Firkins, R.R. White, R. Martineau, H. Lapierre
The objective of this study was to develop a modeling framework to predict milk protein yield responses to varying metabolizable protein (MP) supplies and to determine the requirement of MP by lactating dairy cows. The logistic curve was used to model milk protein yield while accounting for a variable efficiency of MP utilization and between-study variability. Models were developed with databases from 2 recently published meta-analyses and based on either total MP supply or MP supply available for milk production. All models provided reasonable fit to data, with root mean square prediction error ranging from 18 to 22% of the average milk protein yield. The estimated horizontal asymptotes were 1.15 (posterior SD = 0.01) and 1.39 (posterior SD = 0.02) in the 2 databases, suggesting that the limiting milk protein yield, as MP supply increases, converges to 1.15 or 1.39 kg/d in the environments determined by the 2 databases. The observed efficiencies ranged from 0.68 to 0.17 when total MP supply was used as the denominator and practically 1 to 0.22 when the MP supply available for milk production was used as the denominator. The predicted efficiencies were in good agreement with the data, decreasing nonlinearly with the MP supply. The MP requirement was calculated with a function constructed with the inverse of the logistic model and modified at regions of maximum marginal efficiency and minimum second derivative. This strategy assumes that the MP solution, or the MP needed to predict a given protein yield in the fitted logistic curve, determines the MP requirement for maintenance and lactation. Requirements calculated with the independent variable as total MP supply refer to the total requirement of maintenance plus lactation, whereas the requirement from models based on MP supply available for milk production are referent to the MP required only for lactation. The requirements were, on average, smaller than the ones predicted by the current Northern American feeding system for dairy cows at lower protein yields and greater than currently recommended at high yields.



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Meta-analysis to predict the effects of metabolizable amino acids on dairy cattle performance

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): I.J. Lean, M.B. de Ondarza, C.J. Sniffen, J.E.P. Santos, K.E. Griswold
Meta-analytic methods were used to determine statistical relationships between metabolizable AA supplies and milk protein yield, milk protein percentage, and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-three research publications (258 treatment means) were identified through a search of published literature using 3 search engines and met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) version 6.5 was used to determine dietary nutrient parameters including metabolizable AA. Two approaches were used to analyze the data. First, mixed models were fitted to determine whether explanatory variables predicted responses. Each mixed model contained a global intercept, a random intercept for each experiment, and data were weighted by the inverse of the SEM squared. The second analysis approach used classical effect size meta-analytical evaluation of responses to treatment weighted by the inverse of the treatment variance and with a random effect of treatment nested within experiment. Regardless of the analytical approach, CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Met (g/d) was associated with milk protein percentage and yield. Milk yield was positively associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable His, Leu, Trp, Thr, and nonessential AA (g/d). Milk true protein yield was also associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Leu (g/d). Predicted metabolizable Lysine (g/d) did not increase responses in production outcomes. However, mean metabolizable Lys supply was less than typically recommended and the change with treatment was minimal (157 vs. 162 g; 6.36 vs. 6.38% metabolizable protein). Experiments based solely on Lys or Met interventions were excluded from the study database. It is possible that the inclusion of these experiments may have provided additional insight into the effect of these AA on responses. This meta-analysis supports other research indicating a positive effect of Met and His as co-limiting AA in dairy cows and suggests Leu, Trp, and Thr be given greater consideration in future research.



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Short communication: The effects of morning compared with evening feed delivery in lactating dairy cows during the summer

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): M. Niu, K.J. Harvatine
Delivering fresh feed in the evening is a management strategy sometimes used during periods of heat stress, but previous experiments have observed that night feeding increased feed intake during the 2 h after feeding and did not change intake during the overnight period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of night feeding on daily rhythms of the dairy cow during the summer season. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were ad libitum feeding with fresh feed delivery 1×/d at 0830 h or 2030 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment, but night feeding decreased the concentration of preformed fatty acids in milk fat. Night feeding decreased feed intake 1.7 kg/d, and decreased total-tract dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility by 0.7 and 0.8 percentage units, respectively. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2 h after feeding was 64% greater with night feeding, but intake did not differ between treatments during the night or early afternoon. A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF concentration and plasma glucose, insulin, and urea concentrations. Night feeding resulted in an increase in plasma insulin after feeding, which decreased plasma glucose. The daily rhythm of core body temperature was entrained by treatment, with the phase shifted and the amplitude decreased by night feeding indicating alteration of the central clock. In conclusion, feeding cows once per day in the evening during the summer caused a similar increase in feed intake and plasma insulin after feeding as previously observed during non-heat stress seasons. Night feeding also decreased intake and total-tract digestibility. The daily pattern of feed intake and other behaviors should be considered before initiation of night feeding.



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Altering the ratio of dietary palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in diets with or without whole cottonseed affects nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production responses of dairy cows

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): J. de Souza, C.L. Preseault, A.L. Lock
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying the ratio of dietary palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids in basal diets containing soyhulls or whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production response of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows were used in a split-plot Latin square design. Cows were allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, n = 12) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, n = 12) that was fed throughout the experiment. Within each plot a 4 × 4 Latin square arrangement of treatments was used in 4 consecutive 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control (CON; no supplemental fat), (2) high C16:0 supplement [PA; fatty acid (FA) supplement blend provided ∼80% C16:0], (3) C16:0 and C18:0 supplement (PA+SA; FA supplement blend provided ∼40% C16:0 + ∼40% C18:0), and (4) C16:0 and cis-9 C18:1 supplement (PA+OA; FA supplement blend provided ∼45% C16:0 + ∼35% cis-9 C18:1). Interactions between basal diets and FA treatments were observed for dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. Among the SH diets, PA and PA+SA increased DMI compared with CON and PA+OA treatments, whereas in the CS diets PA+OA decreased DMI compared with CON. The PA, PA+SA, and PA+OA treatments increased milk yield compared with CON in the SH diets. The CS diets increased milk fat yield compared with the SH diets due to the greater yield of de novo and preformed milk FA. The PA treatment increased milk fat yield compared with CON, PA+SA, and PA+OA due to the greater yield of mixed-source (16-carbon) milk FA. The PA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk compared with CON and tended to increase it compared with PA+SA and PA+OA. The CS diets increased body weight (BW) change compared with the SH diets. Additionally, PA+OA tended to increase BW change compared with CON and PA and increased it in comparison with PA+SA. The PA and PA+OA treatments increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with PA+SA and tended to increase them compared with CON. The PA+SA treatment reduced 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total FA digestibility compared with the other treatments. The CS diets increased energy partitioning toward body reserves compared with the SH diets. The PA treatment increased energy partitioning toward milk compared with CON and PA+OA and tended to increase it compared with PA+SA. In contrast, PA+OA increased energy partitioned to body reserves compared with PA and PA+SA and tended to increase it compared with CON. In conclusion, milk yield responses to different combinations of FA were affected by the addition of whole cottonseed in the diet. Among the combinations of C16:0, C18:0, and cis-9 C18:1 evaluated, fat supplements with more C16:0 increased energy output in milk, whereas fat supplements with more cis-9 C18:1 increased energy storage in BW. The combination of C16:0 and C18:0 reduced nutrient digestibility, which most likely explains the lower performance observed compared with other treatments.



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A longitudinal study of gastrointestinal parasites in English dairy farms. Practices and factors associated with first lactation heifer exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi on pasture

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): C. Bellet, M.J. Green, A.J. Bradley, J. Kaler
The gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi is an important cause of lost production, health, and welfare in cattle. Detailed records were obtained over a 5-yr period (2010–2015) by questionnaires and qualitative interviews to investigate the practices adopted by dairy farmers to control cattle helminth infections and the factors associated with heifer exposure to O. ostertagi on pasture. In total, 1,454 heifers' individual milk samples were collected over a 1-yr period (2014–2015) in 43 dairy farms in England and tested for O. ostertagi antibody by ELISA. Multilevel linear regression models were used to investigate the association between individual milk optical density ratio (ODR) against O. ostertagi and heifer management from birth to time of sampling. Farm and heifer median ODR against O. ostertagi were 0.98 (interquartile range = 0.76–1.02) and 0.64 (interquartile range = 0.42–0.84), respectively. The majority of heifers (88%) received an anthelmintic treatment before sampling in this study. After controlling for the effect of anthelmintic treatments, heifer individual milk ODR against O. ostertagi significantly increased with high stocking rate at first grazing and co-grazing with adult cows before calving. Conversely, heifer individual milk ODR against O. ostertagi significantly decreased when heifers had co-grazed with sheep and pasture grass had frequently been mowed. Overall, these results provide evidence to support targeting grazing management toward limiting the use of anthelmintics in dairy young stock to enable sustainable control of cattle helminth infections in England. However, to be accepted and adopted by farmers, these best practices would need to take into account farmers' perspectives and contextual challenges.



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Short communication: Genetic association of variations in the osteopontin gene (SPP1) with lactation persistency in dairy cattle

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Nathalie Bissonnette
Improving lactation persistency (LP) in dairy cattle has a beneficial effect on animal health and fertility and herd productivity. A complex trait, LP not only reflects the cow's ability to maintain milk secretion activity after the lactation peak but is also a function of the postcalving development of the mammary gland and, later on, of tissue remodeling as lactation declines. This decline is a consequence of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal. In a previous study, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the osteopontin (OPN) gene, SPP1. Osteopontin is a multifaceted protein that plays an important role in immune regulation and tissue remodeling. Because OPN is involved in involution, it might also have an effect on LP. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether LP could be influenced by genetic variations in the SPP1 gene. This association with LP was analyzed in the population of 578 bulls characterized in a previous study. The population mean of estimated breeding value (EBV) for LP was 100.95 ± 5.06 units. Allele and genotype association analyses were performed by comparing the frequencies of the different genotypes and alleles with EBV for LP for the respective lactation using logistic regression. The EBV for LP at the first lactation (LP1), second lactation (LP2), and third lactation (LP3) and for overall lactation (OLP) are reported for the genotypes SPP1c.-1301G>A, SPP1c.-1251C>T, SPP1c.-430G>A, and SPP1c.*40A>C. The first single nucleotide polymorphism, SPP1c.-1301G>A, affected LP1, LP2, LP3, and OLP. Analysis of the estimated average allele substitution effects also confirmed that G is a favorable allele for LP, given the gain observed over LP1, LP2, LP3, and OLP. Differences in EBV for LP were observed between animals with different haplotypes at LP1, LP2, LP3, and OLP. Contrast analysis for OLP revealed that mean EBV is greater for block H1 (101.34 ± 0.30) than for animals that do not have H1 (98.20 ± 0.77). The gain with block H1 (GCGA) suggests the presence of the favorable allele G (first position in the block: SPP1c.-1301G). The pleiotropic roles of OPN position it at the crossroads of immune regulation, tissue remodeling, and involution. From a genetic perspective, data from the present study suggest OPN as a candidate gene associated with LP for dairy cows.



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Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Kholoud Awad Al-Shamsi, Priti Mudgil, Hassan Mohamed Hassan, Sajid Maqsood
Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems.



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Genome-wide association studies to identify quantitative trait loci affecting milk production traits in water buffalo

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): J.J. Liu, A.X. Liang, G. Campanile, G. Plastow, C. Zhang, Z. Wang, A. Salzano, B. Gasparrini, M. Cassandro, L.G. Yang
Water buffalo is the second largest resource of milk supply around the world, and it is well known for its distinctive milk quality in terms of fat, protein, lactose, vitamin, and mineral contents. Understanding the genetic architecture of milk production traits is important for future improvement by the buffalo breeding industry. The advance of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provides an opportunity to identify potential genetic variants affecting important economical traits. In the present study, GWAS was performed for 489 buffaloes with 1,424 lactation records using the 90K Affymetrix Buffalo SNP Array (Affymetrix/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Santa Clara, CA). Collectively, 4 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2 genomic regions were found to associate with buffalo milk production traits. One region affecting milk fat and protein percentage was located on the equivalent of Bos taurus autosome (BTA)3, spanning 43.3 to 43.8 Mb, which harbored the most likely candidate genes MFSD14A, SLC35A3, and PALMD. The other region on the equivalent of BTA14 at 66.5 to 67.0 Mb contained candidate genes RGS22 and VPS13B and influenced buffalo total milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield. Interestingly, both of the regions were reported to have quantitative trait loci affecting milk performance in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that buffaloes with the C allele at AX-85148558 and AX-85073877 loci and the G allele at AX-85106096 locus can be selected to improve milk fat yield in this buffalo-breeding program. Meanwhile, the G allele at AX-85063131 locus can be used as the favorable allele for improving milk protein percentage. Genomic prediction showed that the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) of 6 milk production traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.22, and the correlation between estimated breeding values and GEBV ranged from 0.23 to 0.35. These findings provide useful information to understand the genetic basis of buffalo milk properties and may play a role in accelerating buffalo breeding programs using genomic approaches.



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Application of whey protein isolate in bone regeneration: Effects on growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-forming cells

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Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Timothy E.L. Douglas, Marta Vandrovcová, Nikola Kročilová, Julia K. Keppler, Jana Zárubová, Andre G. Skirtach, Lucie Bačáková
Recently, milk-derived proteins have attracted attention for applications in the biomedical field such as tissue regeneration. Whey protein isolate (WPI), especially its main component β-lactoglobulin, can modulate immunity and acts as an antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial agent. There are very few reports of the application of WPI in tissue engineering, especially in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we tested the influence of different concentrations of WPI on behavior of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (FIB). The positive effect on growth was apparent for Saos-2 cells and FIB but not for ASC. However, the expression of markers characteristic for early osteogenic cell differentiation [type-I collagen (COL1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] as well as ALP activity, increased dose-dependently in ASC. Importantly, Saos-2 cells were able to deposit calcium in the presence of WPI, even in a proliferation medium without other supplements that support osteogenic cell differentiation. The results indicate that, depending on the cell type, WPI can act as an enhancer of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, enrichment of biomaterials for bone regeneration with WPI seems a promising approach, especially due to the low cost of WPI.



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