|Binge alcohol and HIV: leaky gut and neurodegeneration through the gut–brain axis|
Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Byoung-Joon Song, Sulie L Chang
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2019 9(1):1-3
|Recent Concepts in Nutritional Therapy in Critically Ill Burn Patients|
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2019 9(1):4-36
In developing countries such as India, burn injury is still a major and frequent cause of mortality and morbidity. Nutrition therapy aims to provide adequate and early nutrition for patients suffering from burn injuries. Metabolic support during heightened inflammatory state is essential to make sure adequate treatment of burn patients. It is essential to reduce the force and effects of the hypermetabolic response, aim for healing of wounds, and help to reduce negative catabolism effects. At the same time, care of surgical and medical needs of the patient is crucial for good clinical outcomes. Nutritional sustain is an essential and integral component of burn care that requires an aggressive multifaceted approach. Impaired wound healing, dysfunction of multiple organs, increased chances of infection, and death are largely prevented by an adequate nutrition care along with proper wound management. Catecholamine and corticosteroids, inflammatory mediator levels, are increased, and this hypermetabolic response leads to catastrophic results in the postburn injury period. A shift from preventing malnutrition to disease modulation in nutrition support in critically ill patients is being aimed at present. Uncontrolled inflammation causes severe metabolic derangement in burn patients. Major challenges are assessment of nutritional status of the patient and estimation of nutrient requirements. Careful decision-making for safe use of enteral or parenteral nutrition and an aggressive nutrient delivery are required. The course of disease can be altered favorably to a great extent by supplementation of specific nutrients. Nutritional factors with positive effects on immunity and in cell regulation include glutamine, arginine, and essential fatty acids, known as immunonutrients. They reduce the severity of illness and improve response to treatment of patients. Nutrition support specialists are trying to improve the management protocols and technological advances such as nanotechnology and biomarkers will take the nutrition management to greater advances.
|Ketogenic Diet- An Evidence Based Direction for Seizure Control|
Judie Arulappan, Suja Karkada, Sathish Kumar Jayapal, Vidya Seshan
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2019 9(1):37-40
The ketogenic diet is a high fat, low carbohydrate and adequate protein diet. This diet is used in treating difficult to control epilepsy in children. The diet helps the body in utilizing fat than carbohydrate. The liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis reduces the frequency of seizure episodes.
|Phoenix dactylifera L. Fruits Date Fruit Ameliorate Oxidative Stress in 3-NP Intoxicated PC12 Cells|
Musthafa M Essa, Vandita Singh, Nejib Guizani, Tamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy J Thenmozhi, Abid Bhat, Bipul Ray, Saravana B Chidambaram
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2019 9(1):41-47
Introduction: Date palm fruits (DFs) are reported to possess antimutagenic, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Effect of date fruits in the management of Huntington’s is yet to be studied. Methods: The protective effects of DF were measured in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (rGSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrate/nitrite (NO2/NO3) content in cells. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was also measured. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that DF has the ability to protected cellular viability against 3-NP intoxication. Results: DFs increased the SOD and GPx activities and rGSH content. On the other hand, DF decreased MDA and NO2/NO3 levels in 3-NP intoxicated cells. Interestingly, DF increased ATP content in pheochromocytoma (PC) cells. Conclusion: DF has the ability to encounter 3-NP intoxication induced biochemical changes and improves cellular ATP contents, hence may be an interestingly candidate for further investigations.
|The potency of Pinus merkusii extract nanoparticles as anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in vitro study|
Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani, Koerniasari Eraiko, Koerniasari , Ernawati
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 2019 9(1):48-52
Objective: Herbal nanoparticles have gained interest in nanomedicine, and development of new therapeutic with improved bioavailability, increased sensitivity and specificity, and reduced toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of the Pinus merkusii extract nanoparticle in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of P. merkusii was set by maceration method. Tripolyphosphate (TPP) was used to make P. merkusii nanoparticles by ionotropic gelation method. The size and morphology of the P. merkusii nanoparticle was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The broth microdilution and micro diffusion methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of P. merkusii nanoparticle on strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Results: The SEM micrographs of the nanoparticle extract of P. merkusii showed that they were approximately uniform spheres with rough surface morphology and a solid dense cubical or rectangular structure. The size of P. merkusii nanoparticle ranged from10 to 800 nm; most were 500 nm. Using the broth microdilution and micro diffusion susceptibility method, P. merkusii nanoparticle was found to have the antimycobacterial effects with a MIC value of 1000 µg/ml and MBCs value of 2000 µg/ml for M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Conclusion: P. merkusii extract nanoparticle has the lead compounds that may be developed further into antimycobacterial drugs.