Πέμπτη, 2 Μαΐου 2019

Anesthesia

Anesthesia practice for endovascular therapy of acute ischemic stroke in Europe
Purpose of review Anesthetic assistance is often required during endovascular therapy (EVT) of large vessel occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It is currently debated whether EVT should be performed under general anesthesia or conscious sedation. This review will summarize the recent literature with emphasis on the influence of anesthesia method on neurological outcome. Recent findings Recent randomized trials have reported no difference in outcome after EVT performed under either conscious sedation or general anesthesia. This is in contrast to a substantial number of retrospective studies, which found that EVT performed under general anesthesia was associated with a worse neurologic outcome compared with conscious sedation. Anesthetic drugs affect vessel tone and the level of blood pressure may influence outcome. The most favorable choice of anesthetic agents and ventilatory strategy is still debated. Summary The optimal anesthetic practice for EVT remains to be identified. Currently, conscious sedation is often an easy first-line strategy, but general anesthesia can be considered an equal and safe alternative to conscious sedation when there is a carefully administered anesthetic that maintains strict hemodynamic control. Attention to ventilation is advocated. The presence of a specialized neuroanesthesiologist or otherwise dedicated anesthesia personnel is highly recommended. Correspondence to Mads Rasmussen, Section of Neuroanesthesia, Department of Anesthesia, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Tel: +45 30566977; e-mail: mads.rasmussen@vest.rm.dk Copyright © 2019 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nonoperating room anesthesia education: preparing our residents for the future
Purpose of review Nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA) is the fastest growing segment of anesthetic practice. This review provides an overview of knowledge and trends that will need to be introduced to residents as part of their education. Recent findings Topics for the future include, but are not limited to, new medications, artificial intelligence and big data, monitoring depth of hypnosis, translational innovation and collaboration, demographic changes, financial driving forces, destination hubs, medical tourism, and new approaches to education training and self-management. Summary Implementing new medical technologies for anesthesia outside the operating room will help to successfully master this ever evolving subspecialty. Anesthesiologists require specific preparation for the diverse settings that they will encounter during their training. In this rapidly changing field, cognitive fitness must be factored into teaching and evaluation of residents. We describe the most important topics to consider when educating anesthesiology residents, and highlight research that addresses upcoming challenges. Correspondence to Steven D. Boggs, MD, MBA, Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Tennessee School of Health Sciences Memphis, Chandler Building, Suite 600, 877 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, TN 38103, USA. Tel: +1 901 448 5988; e-mail: sboggs6@uthsc.edu Copyright © 2019 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Anesthesia-administered sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: monitored anesthesia care or general endotracheal anesthesia?
Purpose of review The decision to undertake monitored anesthesia care (MAC) or general endotracheal anesthesia (GEA) for patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is influenced by many factors. These include locoregional practice preferences, procedure complexity, patient position, and comorbidities. We aim to review the data regarding anesthesia-administered sedation for ERCP and identify the impact of airway management on procedure success, adverse event rates and endoscopy unit efficiency. Recent findings Several studies have consistently identified patients at high risk for sedation-related adverse events during ERCP. This group includes those with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class and (BMI). ERCP is commonly performed in the prone position, which can make the placement of an emergent advanced airway challenging. Although this may be alleviated by performing ERCP in the supine position, this technique is more technically cumbersome for the endoscopist. Data regarding the impact of routine GEA on endoscopy unit efficiency remain controversial. Summary Pursuing MAC or GEA for patients undergoing ERCP is best-approached on an individual basis. Patients at high risk for sedation-related adverse events likely benefit from GEA. Larger, multicenter randomized controlled trials will aid significantly in better delineating which sedation approach is best for an individual patient. Correspondence to Zachary L. Smith, DO, University Hospitals Digestive Health Institute, 11100 Euclid Ave, Wearn 2nd Floor, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Tel: +1 216 844 6172; fax: +1 216 844 7480; e-mail: zachary.smith2@uhhospitals.org Copyright © 2019 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Anesthesia for peroral endoscopic myotomy in Japan
Purpose of review Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed in Japan as a less invasive treatment for esophageal achalasia requiring general anesthesia under positive pressure ventilation. In 2018, the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society published the first guidelines describing the standard care for POEM. Based on these guidelines, we discuss the typical approach to anesthesia during POEM for the management of esophageal achalasia in Japan. Recent findings Prior cleansing of the esophagus is essential to prevent both aspiration during induction of anesthesia and contamination of the mediastinum and thoracic/abdominal cavity by esophageal remnants after endoscopic resection of the esophageal mucosa. Although rare, adverse events related to intraoperative carbon dioxide insufflation occur. These are treated through percutaneous needle decompression and insertion of a chest drainage tube for pneumoperitoneum and pneumothorax, respectively. Caution should be exercised regarding the development of subcutaneous emphysema and its involvement in airway obstruction. Summary Prevention of aspiration pneumonia and adverse events related to the insufflation of carbon dioxide is essential in the management of esophageal achalasia through POEM. Close cooperation between gastrointestinal endoscopic surgeons and anesthesiologists is indispensable in POEM. Correspondence to Hiroaki Murata, Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan. Tel: +81-95-819-7370; fax: +81-95-819-7373; e-mail: h-murata@nagasaki-u.ac.jp Copyright © 2019 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
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