Δευτέρα, 5 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Metaphysics special: What is consciousness?

How does something as physical as the brain create something as immaterial as your sense of self? It could all just be one big trick of the mind

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RT @theWCRC : Don't miss Highlighting Welsh Cancer Research by @ecancer this Wednesday in Cardiff https://t.co/tl89vI0S3H

RT @theWCRC : Don't miss Highlighting Welsh Cancer Research by @ecancer this Wednesday in Cardiff https://t.co/tl89vI0S3H

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Lung cancer patients whose tumour has spread to the brain could be spared chemo https://t.co/WnTQfVstlw https://t.co/zAgpgRZYlg

Lung cancer patients whose tumour has spread to the brain could be spared chemo https://t.co/WnTQfVstlw https://t.co/zAgpgRZYlg

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If you're at #CC2016 check out @vickyyyf 's very interesting poster on DNA methylation and #methotrexate @CwC_UK https://t.co/pKxt8ft9Uu

If you're at #CC2016 check out @vickyyyf 's very interesting poster on DNA methylation and #methotrexate @CwC_UK https://t.co/pKxt8ft9Uu

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RT @KatieDurka : @ecancer thanks for following! pls RT important #dexamethasone research with young people #ccam #bcam #cc2016 https://t.co/…

RT @KatieDurka : @ecancer thanks for following! pls RT important #dexamethasone research with young people #ccam #bcam #cc2016 https://t.co/…

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RT @vickyyyf : 91,250 children lose their lives to cancer every year. #cc2016 #ccam #childhoodcancerawarenessmonth

RT @vickyyyf : 91,250 children lose their lives to cancer every year. #cc2016 #ccam #childhoodcancerawarenessmonth

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Building a word cloud #CC2016 - the delegates offer their live opinions on precision medicine in paediatric cancer. https://t.co/ah5qZs80oq

Building a word cloud #CC2016 - the delegates offer their live opinions on precision medicine in paediatric cancer. https://t.co/ah5qZs80oq

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Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 32: Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME) was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

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Angiogenic Effects of Collagen/Mesoporous Nanoparticle Composite Scaffold Delivering VEGF165

Vascularization is a key issue for the success of tissue engineering to repair damaged tissue. In this study, we report a composite scaffold delivering angiogenic factor for this purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was loaded on mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN), which was then incorporated within a type I collagen sponge, to produce collagen/MSN/VEGF (CMV) scaffold. The CMV composite scaffold could release VEGF sustainably over the test period of 28 days. The release of VEGF improved the cell proliferation. Moreover, the in vivo angiogenesis of the scaffold, as studied by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that the VEGF-releasing scaffold induced significantly increased number of blood vessel complexes when compared with VEGF-free scaffold. The composite scaffold showed good biocompatibility, as examined in rat subcutaneous tissue. These results demonstrate that the CMV scaffold with VEGF-releasing capacity can be potentially used to stimulate angiogenesis and tissue repair.

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Two-Phase Algorithm for Optimal Camera Placement

As markers for visual sensor networks have become larger, interest in the optimal camera placement problem has continued to increase. The most featured solution for the optimal camera placement problem is based on binary integer programming (BIP). Due to the NP-hard characteristic of the optimal camera placement problem, however, it is difficult to find a solution for a complex, real-world problem using BIP. Many approximation algorithms have been developed to solve this problem. In this paper, a two-phase algorithm is proposed as an approximation algorithm based on BIP that can solve the optimal camera placement problem for a placement space larger than in current studies. This study solves the problem in three-dimensional space for a real-world structure.

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Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world’s human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

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An Improved Approach to Identifying Key Classes in Weighted Software Network

To help the newcomers understand a software system better during its development, the key classes are in general given priority to be focused on as soon as possible. There are numerous measures that have been proposed to identify key nodes in a network. As a metric successfully applied to evaluate the productivity of a scholar, little is known about whether -index is suitable to identify the key classes in weighted software network. In this paper, we introduced four -index variants to identify key classes on three open-source software projects (i.e., Tomcat, Ant, and JUNG) and validated the feasibility of proposed measures by comparing them with existing centrality measures. The results show that the measures proposed not only are able to identify the key classes but also perform better than some commonly used centrality measures (the improvement is at least 0.215). In addition, the finding suggests that mE-Weight defined by the weight of a node’s top edges performs best as a whole.

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Improved Glowworm Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multilevel Color Image Thresholding Problem

The thresholding process finds the proper threshold values by optimizing a criterion, which can be considered as a constrained optimization problem. The computation time of traditional thresholding techniques will increase dramatically for multilevel thresholding. To greatly overcome this problem, swarm intelligence algorithm is widely used to search optimal thresholds. In this paper, an improved glowworm swarm optimization (IGSO) algorithm has been presented to find the optimal multilevel thresholds of color image based on the between-class variance and minimum cross entropy (MCE). The proposed methods are examined on standard set of color test images by using various numbers of threshold values. The results are then compared with those of basic glowworm swarm optimization, adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and self-adaptive differential evolution (SaDE). The simulation results show that the proposed method can find the optimal thresholds accurately and efficiently and is an effective multilevel thresholding method for color image segmentation.

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Analysis of Peristaltic Motion of a Nanofluid with Wall Shear Stress, Microrotation, and Thermal Radiation Effects

This paper analyzes the peristaltic flow of an incompressible micropolar nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel in the presence of thermal radiation and heat sources parameters. The rotation of the nanoparticles is incorporated in the flow model. The equations governing the nanofluid flow are modeled and exact solutions are managed under long wavelength and flow Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations. Explicit expressions of axial velocity, stream function, microrotation, nanoparticle temperature, and concentration have been derived. The phenomena of shear stress and trapping have also been discussed. Finally, the influences of various parameters of interest on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Besides, the results obtained in this paper will be helpful to those who are working on the development of various realms like fluid mechanics, the rotation, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, coupling number, micropolar parameter, and the nondimensional geometry parameters.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1476: MRI Dynamically Evaluates the Therapeutic Effect of Recombinant Human MANF on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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As an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons and nondopaminergic cells. Our previous studies had shown that MANF protected against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to dynamically evaluate the therapeutic effects of MANF on ischemia/reperfusion injury. We established a rat focal ischemic model by using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MRI was performed to investigate the dynamics of lesion formation. MANF protein was injected into the right lateral ventricle at 3 h after reperfusion following MCAO for 90 min, when the obvious lesion firstly appeared according to MRI investigation. T2-weighted imaging for evaluating the therapeutic effects of MANF protein was performed in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats on Days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 post-reperfusion combined with histology methods. The results indicated that the administration of MANF protein at the early stage after ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased the mortality, improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarct volume, and alleviated the brain tissue injury. The findings collected from MRI are consistent with the morphological and pathological changes, which suggest that MRI is a useful technology for evaluating the therapeutic effects of drugs.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1482: Pharmacogenetics Biomarkers and Their Specific Role in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Treatments: An Exploratory Study on Rectal Cancer Patients

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Background: Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is still ascribed to a minority of patients. A pathway based-approach could highlight the predictive role of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The primary aim of this study was to define new predictive biomarkers considering treatment specificities. Secondary aim was to determine new potential predictive biomarkers independent from radiotherapy (RT) dosage and cotreatment with oxaliplatin. Methods: Thirty germ-line SNPs in twenty-one genes were selected according to a pathway-based approach. Genetic analyses were performed on 280 LARC patients who underwent fluoropyrimidine-based CRT. The potential predictive role of these SNPs in determining pathological tumor response was tested in Group 1 (94 patients undergoing also oxaliplatin), Group 2 (73 patients treated with high RT dosage), Group 3 (113 patients treated with standard RT dosage), and in the pooled population (280 patients). Results: Nine new predictive biomarkers were identified in the three groups. The most promising one was rs3136228-MSH6 (p = 0.004) arising from Group 3. In the pooled population, rs1801133-MTHFR showed only a trend (p = 0.073). Conclusion: This exploratory study highlighted new potential predictive biomarkers of neoadjuvant CRT and underlined the importance to strictly define treatment peculiarities in pharmacogenetic analyses.

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Giant panda off endangered list as China’s conservation pays off

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The panda is now classified as a "vulnerable" instead of "endangered" species - but gorillas found in East Africa are sliding towards extinction

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Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 245: Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women

The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear.

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Giant panda off endangered list as China’s conservation pays off

The panda is now classified as a "vulnerable" instead of "endangered" species - but gorillas found in East Africa are sliding towards extinction

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Retraction Note to: Multifocal multi-organ ischaemia and infarction in a preterm baby due to maternal intravenous cocaine use: a case report



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Follow-up in newborn hearing screening – A systematic review

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 90
Author(s): Rohit Ravi, Dhanshree R. Gunjawate, Krishna Yerraguntla, Leslie E. Lewis, Carlie Driscoll, Bellur Rajashekhar
IntroductionThe quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs (NHS) rely heavily on appropriate follow-up. The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing recommends a follow-up rate of more than 95% of infants who fail the initial hearing screening. However, a 70% benchmark is considered to be more feasible. This high loss to follow-up (LTF) rate acts as a threat to the overall success of NHS programs. The objective of the study was to identify and examine the reported rates of LTF, attributed reasons for LTF and strategies undertaken to reduce LTF.MethodsUsing a systematic search, articles published between 2005 to December 2015 were identified from PubMed/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Scopus, Ovid, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library. To be included in the review, the study should be exploring the loss to follow-up or drop-out rate in newborn hearing screening programs and be published in an indexed peer-reviewed journal in the English language. The main outcome measures were overall rate of LTF, factors leading to LTF and measures adopted to overcome LTF.Results53 articles were short-listed for data extraction. Out of these, 27 were single-centre studies, 19 were multi-centre, 3 compared multiple databases, and 4 used survey-based methods. Overall LTF rates of 20% in single-centre and 21% in multiple-centre studies were observed. Educational disparity and lack of adequate knowledge among parents were associated with LTF. The most commonly used strategy to overcome LTF suggested by studies was the use of an adequate data management system.ConclusionThis review is a novel attempt to explore the LTF among NHS studies, reasons for LTF and strategies to reduce LTF. This review can act as a basis for planning and execution of effective NHS programs.



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The contribution of short-term memory capacity to reading ability in adolescents with cochlear implants

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 90
Author(s): Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
ObjectiveThis study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants.Methods and materialsA between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital. The hearing participants were recruited from the same schools as those attended by the implanted adolescents. Participants were 18 cochlear implant users and 14 hearing controls, aged between 12 and 18 years. All used English as their main language and had no significant learning disability or neuro-developmental disorder.Short-term memory capacity was assessed in the auditory modality using Forward and Reverse Digit Span from the WISC IV UK, and visually using Forward and Reverse Memory from the Leiter-R. Individual word reading, reading comprehension and pseudoword decoding were assessed using the WIAT II UK.ResultsA series of ANOVAs revealed that the adolescents with cochlear implants had significantly poorer auditory short-term memory capacity and reading skills (on all measures) compared with their hearing peers. However, when Forward Digit Span was entered into the analyses as a covariate, none of the differences remained statistically significant.ConclusionsDeficits in immediate auditory memory persist into adolescence in deaf children with cochlear implants. Short-term auditory memory capacity is an important neurocognitive process in the development of reading skills after cochlear implantation in childhood that remains evident in later adolescence.



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Excitement building at #CC2016 - looking forward to hearing some brilliant lectures! @CwC_UK_Research @CwC_UK https://t.co/pJfLSEZlGA

Excitement building at #CC2016 - looking forward to hearing some brilliant lectures! @CwC_UK_Research @CwC_UK https://t.co/pJfLSEZlGA

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@eturnermd1 Hi Erick, where can we learn more about #OpenTrialsFDA and does collaborate with the #AllTrials initiative?

@eturnermd1 Hi Erick, where can we learn more about #OpenTrialsFDA and does collaborate with the #AllTrials initiative?

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Remember to register TODAY for our Highlighting Welsh Cancer Research event on the 7th! Email editor@ecancer .org for details.

Remember to register TODAY for our Highlighting Welsh Cancer Research event on the 7th! Email editor@ecancer .org for details.

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The Effect of Advanced Motherhood on Newborn Offspring’s Hippocampal Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

Objective. To investigate the effect of advanced motherhood on rat hippocampal neural stem cell proliferation. Methods. Female parents were subdivided into control and old mother group by age, and neural stem cells were cultured from hippocampal tissues for 24 h newborn offspring. The diameter and numbers of neurospheres were examined by microscopy, and differences in proliferation were examined by EdU immunofluorescence, CCK-8 assay, and cell cycle analysis. Results. The number of neurospheres in the old mother group after culture was lower than the control group. Additionally, neurospheres’ diameter was smaller than that of the control group (). The EdU positive rate of the old mother group was lower than that of the control group (). CCK-8 assay results showed that the absorbance values for the old mother group were lower than that of the control group at 48 h and 72 h (). The proportions of cells in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle for the older mother group were less than that found for the control group (). Conclusion. The proliferation rates of hippocampal NSCs seen in the older mother group were lower than that seen in the control group.

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Lung cancer patients whose tumour has spread to the brain could be spared chemo

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer which has spread to the brain could be spared whole brain radiotherapy as it makes little or no difference to how long they survive and their quality of life, according to a Cancer Research UK-funded clinical trial...

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This feed no longer exists. Cambridge Journals Online and Cambridge Books Online have been replaced by Cambridge University Press’s new academic platform, Cambridge Core: the new home of Cambridge ebooks and journals. Cambridge Core does not support RSS feeds. Therefore, please visit Cambridge Core at http://ift.tt/2cr0MF3 to find the latest content from Cambridge University Press. You can also sign up for table of content alerts for your favourite journals.

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PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk: data from COGS

Background

The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2 mutations. We aimed to estimate the relative risks associated with specific rare variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM via a multicentre case-control study.

Methods

We genotyped 10 rare mutations using the custom iCOGS array: PALB2 c.1592delT, c.2816T>G and c.3113G>A, CHEK2 c.349A>G, c.538C>T, c.715G>A, c.1036C>T, c.1312G>T, and c.1343T>G and ATM c.7271T>G. We assessed associations with breast cancer risk (42 671 cases and 42 164 controls), as well as prostate (22 301 cases and 22 320 controls) and ovarian (14 542 cases and 23 491 controls) cancer risk, for each variant.

Results

For European women, strong evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for PALB2 c.1592delT OR 3.44 (95% CI 1.39 to 8.52, p=7.1x10–5), PALB2 c.3113G>A OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.84 to 9.60, p=6.9x10–8) and ATM c.7271T>G OR 11.0 (95% CI 1.42 to 85.7, p=0.0012). We also found evidence of association with breast cancer risk for three variants in CHEK2, c.349A>G OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.95), c.1036C>T OR 5.06 (95% CI 1.09 to 23.5) and c.538C>T OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.67) (p≤0.017). Evidence for prostate cancer risk was observed for CHEK2 c.1343T>G OR 3.03 (95% CI 1.53 to 6.03, p=0.0006) for African men and CHEK2 c.1312G>T OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.06 to 4.63, p=0.030) for European men. No evidence of association with ovarian cancer was found for any of these variants.

Conclusions

This report adds to accumulating evidence that at least some variants in these genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that is clinically important.



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Increased CD69 Expression on Peripheral Eosinophils from Patients with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

Background: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy. We recently described a significant increase in fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) after ingestion of the causative food. However, little is known about the activation status of circulating eosinophils in patients with an acute FPIES reaction. Methods: Surface CD69 expression was assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral eosinophils from 5 patients with FPIES before and after ingestion of the causative food. Fecal EDN was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: No eosinophil activation was observed before ingestion; however, a significant increase in CD69 expression on eosinophils after an acute FIPES reaction was demonstrated in all of the patients. There was no significant change in absolute eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. The levels of fecal EDN increased on the day after ingestion of the causative food in all patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that circulating eosinophils as well as eosinophils in the intestinal mucosal tissue are activated in acute FPIES reactions and might be associated with systemic immune events in FPIES.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;170:201-205

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Invasive coronary strategy improves survival after MI, shows UK study

An invasive coronary strategy, including procedures such as coronary angiography, improves survival in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) much more than decreases...
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Real world COPD study may be better way to evaluate drug treatments

A real world controlled effectiveness study carried out in unselected patients from UK general practices provides a better way of evaluating drug treatments for use in routine clinical care than...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=s0ajK6h_KJo:r9xc2GWm7rI:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=s0ajK6h_KJo:r9xc2GWm7rI:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=s0ajK6h_KJo:r9xc2GWm7rI:F7zBnMy recent?i=s0ajK6h_KJo:r9xc2GWm7rI:-BTjWOF


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Preparation of Thermosensitive Gel for Controlled Release of Levofloxacin and Their Application in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral or intravenous administration. Chemically, levofloxacin is the levorotatory isomer (L-isomer) of racemate ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Quinolone derivatives rapidly and specifically inhibit the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, formulation of combined poloxamers thermoregulated (as Pluronic® F127) and levofloxacin for use in multiresistant bacterial treatment were poorly described in the current literature. Thus, the aim of the present work is to characterize poloxamers for levofloxacin controlled release and their use in the treatment of multidrug bacterial resistance. Micelles were produced in colloidal dispersions, with a diameter between 5 and 100 nm, which form spontaneously from amphiphilic molecules under certain conditions as concentration and temperature. Encapsulation of levofloxacin into nanospheres showed efficiency and enhancement of antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae when compared with only levofloxacin. Furthermore, all formulations were not cytotoxic for NIH/3T3 cell lineage. In conclusion, poloxamers combined with levofloxacin have shown promising results, better than alone, decreasing the minimal inhibitory concentration of the studied bacterial multiresistance strains. In the future, this new formulation will be used after being tested in animal models in patients with resistant bacterial strains.

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The Feasibility of Multidimensional CFD Applied to Calandria System in the Moderator of CANDU-6 PHWR Using Commercial and Open-Source Codes

The moderator system of CANDU, a prototype of PHWR (pressurized heavy-water reactor), has been modeled in multidimension for the computation based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technique. Three CFD codes are tested in modeled hydrothermal systems of heavy-water reactors. Commercial codes, COMSOL Multiphysics and ANSYS-CFX with OpenFOAM, an open-source code, are introduced for the various simplified and practical problems. All the implemented computational codes are tested for a benchmark problem of STERN laboratory experiment with a precise modeling of tubes, compared with each other as well as the measured data and a porous model based on the experimental correlation of pressure drop. Also the effect of turbulence model is discussed for these low Reynolds number flows. As a result, they are shown to be successful for the analysis of three-dimensional numerical models related to the calandria system of CANDU reactors.

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Key Challenges and Opportunities Associated with the Use of In Vitro Models to Detect Human DILI: Integrated Risk Assessment and Mitigation Plans

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of late-stage clinical drug attrition, market withdrawal, black-box warnings, and acute liver failure. Consequently, it has been an area of focus for toxicologists and clinicians for several decades. In spite of considerable efforts, limited improvements in DILI prediction have been made and efforts to improve existing preclinical models or develop new test systems remain a high priority. While prediction of intrinsic DILI has improved, identifying compounds with a risk for idiosyncratic DILI (iDILI) remains extremely challenging because of the lack of a clear mechanistic understanding and the multifactorial pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug reactions. Well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria and risk factors are also missing. This paper summarizes key data interpretation challenges, practical considerations, model limitations, and the need for an integrated risk assessment. As demonstrated through selected initiatives to address other types of toxicities, opportunities exist however for improvement, especially through better concerted efforts at harmonization of current, emerging and novel in vitro systems or through the establishment of strategies for implementation of preclinical DILI models across the pharmaceutical industry. Perspectives on the incorporation of newer technologies and the value of precompetitive consortia to identify useful practices are also discussed.

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Evaluation of the Impacts of Assimilating the TAMDAR Data on 12/4 km Grid WRF-Based RTFDDA Simulations over the CONUS

An analysis of the impacts of assimilating the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Report (TAMDAR) data with the Weather Research and Forecasting- (WRF-) real-time four-dimensional data assimilation (RTFDDA) and forecasting system over the Contiguous US (CONUS) is presented. The impacts of the horizontal resolution increase from 12 km to 4 km on the WRF-RTFDDA simulations are also examined in conjunction with the TAMDAR data impacts. The assimilation of the TAMDAR data reduces the root mean squared error of the moisture field predictions and increases the correlation between the predictions and the observations for both domains with 12 km and 4 km grid spacings. The TAMDAR data reduce the model dry biases in the middle and lower levels by adding moisture at those levels. Assimilating the TAMDAR data improves temperature predictions at middle to high levels and wind speed predictions at all levels especially for the 12 km domain. Increasing the horizontal resolution from 12 km to 4 km results in significantly larger impacts on surface variables than assimilating the TAMDAR data.

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Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitiligo and Human Leukocyte Antigen-A

Objective. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the association between vitiligo and human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) A. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and reference lists were searched for relevant original articles. Results. Nineteen case-control studies comprising 3042 patients and 5614 controls were included, in which 33 HLA-A alleles were reported. Overall, three alleles (HLA-02, 33, and A31) were significantly associated with increased risk of vitiligo, two (HLA-09 and A19) were associated with decreased risk, and the remaining 28 were unassociated. Twelve alleles, seven alleles, and 19 alleles were common to three ethnicities, both types of vitiligo, and both typing methods, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and typing methods, the association of six alleles and five alleles was inconsistent in three populations and both typing methods, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by clinical type, the association of all seven alleles was consistent in both types of vitiligo. Conclusion. The meta-analysis suggests that HLA-02, 33, and A31 are associated with increased risk of vitiligo, while HLA-09 and A19 are associated with decreased risk of vitiligo. The association of some alleles varies in terms of ethnicity and typing methods.

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Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL) during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB) of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

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The Prevalence of MRSA Nasal Carriage in Preoperative Pediatric Orthopaedic Patients

Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been described as a risk factor for postsurgical infection. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA in pediatric orthopaedic patients and whether being a MRSA carrier is a predictor of postoperative infection. Six hundred and ninety-nine consecutive pediatric patients who underwent MRSA nasal screening prior to surgery were studied. Postoperative cultures, total surgical site infections (SSIs), and epidemiological and surgical prophylaxis data were reviewed. Forty-four of 699 patients (6.29%) screened positive for MRSA. Nine of the 44 patients (20.5%) that screened positive for MRSA had a subsequent SSI compared to 10 of the 655 patients (1.52%) that screened negative (). All 9 patients with a SSI had myelomeningocele. The prevalence of MRSA was 6.30% and was predictive of postoperative infection. Children with myelomeningocele were at the highest risk for having a positive MRSA screening and developing SSI.

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Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment.

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Analyzing the miRNA-Gene Networks to Mine the Important miRNAs under Skin of Human and Mouse

Genetic networks provide new mechanistic insights into the diversity of species morphology. In this study, we have integrated the MGI, GEO, and miRNA database to analyze the genetic regulatory networks under morphology difference of integument of humans and mice. We found that the gene expression network in the skin is highly divergent between human and mouse. The GO term of secretion was highly enriched, and this category was specific in human compared to mouse. These secretion genes might be involved in eccrine system evolution in human. In addition, total 62,637 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in human integument genes (IGs), while 26,280 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in mouse IGs. The interactions between miRNAs and IGs in human are more complex than those in mouse. Furthermore, hsa-miR-548, mmu-miR-466, and mmu-miR-467 have an enormous number of targets on IGs, which both have the role of inhibition of host immunity response. The pattern of distribution on the chromosome of these three miRNAs families is very different. The interaction of miRNA/IGs has added the new dimension in traditional gene regulation networks of skin. Our results are generating new insights into the gene networks basis of skin difference between human and mouse.

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Wnt5a Increases the Glycolytic Rate and the Activity of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Cortical Neurons

In the last few years, several reports have proposed that Wnt signaling is a general metabolic regulator, suggesting a role for this pathway in the control of metabolic flux. Wnt signaling is critical for several neuronal functions, but little is known about the correlation between this pathway and energy metabolism. The brain has a high demand for glucose, which is mainly used for energy production. Neurons use energy for highly specific processes that require a high energy level, such as maintaining the electrical potential and synthesizing neurotransmitters. Moreover, an important metabolic impairment has been described in all neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the key role of glucose metabolism in the brain, little is known about the cellular pathways involved in regulating this process. We report here that Wnt5a induces an increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic rate and an increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway; the effects of Wnt5a require the intracellular generation of nitric oxide. Our data suggest that Wnt signaling stimulates neuronal glucose metabolism, an effect that could be important for the reported neuroprotective role of Wnt signaling in neurodegenerative disorders.

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Joint Power and Time Allocation in Full-Duplex Wireless Powered Communication Networks

We consider a full-duplex wireless powered communication network (WPCN) with one hybrid access point (H-AP) and a set of distributed users, where downlink wireless energy broadcasting is employed at H-AP and at the same time, uplink wireless information transmission takes place at users in a time-division multiple access manner. We extend proportional fair scheduler to this category of network when dealing with "doubly near-far problem," where users far away from H-AP achieve low throughput but suffer from both low harvested energy and high data transmission power consumption. We jointly optimize power and time allocation for each user to achieve proportional fairness while controlling the energy consumption offset for network to a low level. By using optimization techniques, the optimal transmit power and transmission time for users are obtained via proposed algorithm. Simulation results confirm the positive effect on improving the fairness metric and reducing energy consumption offset for network.

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Effects of Low Incoming Turbulence on the Flow around a 5 : 1 Rectangular Cylinder at Non-Null-Attack Angle

The incompressible high Reynolds number flow around the rectangular cylinder with aspect ratio 5 : 1 has been extensively studied in the recent literature and became a standard benchmark in the field of bluff bodies aerodynamics. The majority of the proposed contributions focus on the simulation of the flow when a smooth inlet condition is adopted. Nevertheless, even when nominally smooth conditions are reproduced in wind tunnel tests, a low turbulence intensity is present together with environmental disturbances and model imperfections. Additionally, many turbulence models are known to be excessively dissipative in laminar-to-turbulent transition zones, generally leading to overestimation of the reattachment length. In this paper, Large Eddy Simulations are performed on a 5 : 1 rectangular cylinder at non-null-attack angle aiming at studying the sensitivity of such flow to a low level of incoming disturbances and compare the performance of standard Smagorinsky-Lilly and Kinetic Energy Transport turbulence models.

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Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process) with state space . Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time) space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

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rLj-RGD3, a Novel Three-RGD-Motif-Containing Recombinant Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects PC12 Cells from Injury Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion

rLj-RGD3 is a 14.5 kDa recombinant protein with 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs from the salivary gland secretions of Lampetra japonica, which is a histidine-rich and arginine-rich protein. Previous reports indicated that rLj-RGD3 has typical functions of RGD-toxin protein, such as platelet aggregation suppression tumour metastasis and angiogenesis inhibition. Because histidine and arginine have cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and neuroprotective functions, we investigated whether rLj-RGD3 has such activities and studied the mechanism. The effects of rLj-RGD3 on neuroprotection and antiapoptosis were determined. The expression level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p-FAK, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD-R) was examined. The viability of PC12 cells incubated with rLj-RGD3 at high concentrations (16 μmol/L) increased significantly due to its ability to protect the cells from apoptosis after OGD-R-induced injury. Furthermore, rLj-RGD3 attenuated the damage due to OGD-R. Most of the PC12 cells were apoptotic after OGD-R. In contrast, the number of apoptotic PC12 cells was significantly decreased in the group treated with a high-dose of rLj-RGD3. In addition, rLj-RGD3 activated FAK and p-FAK protein. rLj-RGD3 inhibited Caspase-3 and upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression in PC12 cells after OGD-R. The study provides the first evidence for neuroprotective effects of rLj-RGD3 in ischemic injury that may be partly mediated through inhibition of Caspase-3 and upregulation of Bcl-2, FAK, and p-FAK protein expression.

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One-Step Electrochemical Polymerization of Polyaniline Flexible Counter Electrode Doped by Graphene

To improve the photoelectric property of polyaniline (PANI) counter electrode using for flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), graphene (GN) was doped in PANI films covered on flexible conducting substrate by one-step electrochemical method, and then GN/PANI composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), four probe instrument, and so on. The results show that PANI particles can be electrodeposited on the surface of GN sheets as the potential rising to 2.0 V. This formed unique PANI-GN-PANI lamellar structure owing to the strong interaction of conjugated π electron between GN and PANI results in the superior conductivity and catalytic performance of GN/PANI electrode. The maximum conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell with this counter electrode reaches 4.31%, which is much higher than that of GN-free PANI counter electrode.

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Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

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Nyfødtscreening for sjelden sykdom?

Alle nyfødte barn screenes for medfødte, alvorlige sykdommer. En ny metode for påvisning av Niemann-Picks sykdom type C er nå utviklet.

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How do speech-and-language therapists address the psychosocial well-being of people with aphasia? Results of a UK online survey

Abstract

Background

The psychosocial impact of stroke and aphasia is considerable.

Aims

To explore UK speech-and-language therapists’ (SLTs) clinical practice in addressing the psychological and social needs of people with aphasia, including their experiences of working with mental health professionals.

Methods & Procedures

A 22-item online survey was distributed to UK SLTs via the British Aphasiology Society mailing list and Clinical Excellence Networks. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis.

Outcomes & Results

UK SLTs (n = 124) overwhelmingly considered that addressing psychological well-being (93%) and social participation (99%) was part of their role. To achieve this, they frequently/very frequently used supportive listening (100%) and selected holistic goals collaboratively with clients (87%), including social goals (83%). However, only 42% felt confident in addressing the psychological needs of clients. The main barriers to addressing psychosocial well-being were time/caseload pressures (72%); feeling under-skilled/lack of training (64%), and lack of ongoing support (61%). The main barriers to referring on to mental health professionals were that mental health professionals were perceived as under-skilled when working with people with aphasia (44%); were difficult to access (41%); and provided only a limited service (37%). A main theme from the free-text responses was a concern that those with aphasia, particularly more severe aphasia, received inadequate psychological support due to the stretched nature of many mental health services; mental health professionals lacking skills working with aphasia; and SLTs lacking the necessary time, training and support. The main enablers to addressing psychosocial well-being were collaborative working between SLTs and stroke-specialist clinical psychologists; SLTs with training in providing psychological and social therapy; and ongoing support provided by the voluntary sector.

Conclusions & Implications

The vast majority of SLTs consider the psychosocial well-being of their clients, and work collaboratively with people with aphasia in selecting holistic goals. It is, however, of concern that most respondents felt they lacked confidence and received insufficient training to address psychological well-being. In order to improve psychological services for this client group, there is a strong case that stroke-specialist mental health professionals should strive to make their service truly accessible to people with even severe aphasia, which may involve working more closely with SLTs. Further, improving the skills and confidence of SLTs may be an effective way of addressing psychological distress in people with aphasia.



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