Κυριακή, 4 Ιουνίου 2017

A predictive diagnostic model using multiparametric MRI for differentiating uterine carcinosarcoma from carcinoma of the uterine corpus

Abstract

Purpose

To construct a diagnostic model for differentiating carcinosarcoma from carcinoma of the uterus.

Materials and methods

Twenty-six patients with carcinosarcomas and 26 with uterine corpus carcinomas constituted a derivation cohort. The following nine MRI features of the tumors were evaluated: inhomogeneity, predominant signal intensity, presence of hyper- and hypointense areas, conspicuity of tumor margin, cervical canal extension on T2WI, presence of hyperintense areas on T1WI, contrast defect area volume percentage, and degree of enhancement. Two predictive models—with and without contrast—were constructed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Fifteen other patients with carcinosarcomas and 30 patients with carcinomas constituted a validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of each model for the validation cohort were calculated.

Results

Inhomogeneity, predominant signal intensity on T2WI, and presence of hyperintense areas on T1WI were significant predictors in the unenhanced-MRI-based model. Presence of hyperintensity on T1WI, contrast defect area volume percentage, and degree of enhancement were significant predictors in the enhanced-MRI-based model. The sensitivity/specificity of unenhanced MRI were 87/73 and 87/70% according to reviewer 1 and 2, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the enhanced-MRI-based model were 87/70% according to both reviewers.

Conclusions

Our diagnostic models can differentiate carcinosarcoma from carcinoma of the uterus with high sensitivity and moderate specificity.



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Interactions between human endogenous and exogenous retroviruses

Abstract

Retrovirus genes have become inserted into the human genome for more than one million years. These retroviruses are now inactivated due to mutation, such as deletions or nonsense mutations. After mutation, retroviruses eventually become fixed in the genome in the endogenous form and exist as traces of ancient viruses. These retroviruses are called human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). HERVs cannot make fully active viruses, but a number of viral proteins (or even virus particles) are expressed under various conditions. By comparison with ERVs, some exogenous retroviruses are still infectious and cause serious diseases threatening human life. Recent studies have shown that some elements of HERVs are closely related to other exogenous retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This review will describe the regulation and interaction between HERVs and other active viral infections. In addition, we introduce the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents against these viral infections through the use of HERV elements.



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Cyanobacterial Neurotoxins: Their Occurrence and Mechanisms of Toxicity

Abstract

Cyanobacteria are some of the oldest organisms on earth, and have evolved to produce a battery of toxic metabolites, including hepatotoxins, dermatoxins, and neurotoxins. In this review, we focus on the occurrence and mechanisms of toxicity of a number of neurotoxins synthesised by these ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. We discuss the evidence linking β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid, to an unusual neurological disease complex reported on the island of Guam in the 1950s, and how 60 years later, the role that BMAA plays in human disease is still unclear. There is now evidence that BMAA is also produced by some eukaryotes, and can bioaccumulate in food chains; this combined with higher frequency of cyanobacterial blooms globally, increases the potential for human exposure. Three BMAA isomers that often co-occur with BMAA have been identified, and the current knowledge on the toxicity of these molecules is presented. The acute alkaloid toxins; anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and the saxitoxins, and the organophosphate neurotoxin anatoxin-a(S) are also discussed. In many cases, human exposure to a cocktail of cyanobacterial neurotoxins is likely; however, the implications of combined exposure to these toxins have not been fully explored. Increased understanding of the combined effects of cyanobacterial neurotoxins is required to fully understand how these molecules impact on human health.



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Erratum to: Identification of a restriction point at the M/G1 transition in CHO cells



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Gravitons in multiply warped scenarios: At 750 GeV and beyond

Abstract

The search for extra dimensions has so far yielded no positive results at the LHC. Along with the discovery of a 125  \(\, {\mathrm{GeV}}\) Higgs boson, this implies a moderate degree of fine-tuning in the parameter space of the Randall–Sundrum model. Within a six-dimensional warped compactification scenario, with its own interesting phenomenological consequences, the parameters associated with the additional spatial direction can be used to eliminate the need for fine-tuning. We examine the constraints on this model due to the 8  \(\, {\mathrm{TeV}}\) LHC data and survey the parameter space that can be probed at the 14  \(\, {\mathrm{TeV}}\) run of the LHC. We also identify the region of parameter space that is consistent with the recently reported excess in the diphoton channel in the 13  \(\, {\mathrm{TeV}}\) data. Finally, as an alternative explanation for the observed excess, we discuss a scenario with brane-localized Einstein–Hilbert terms with Standard Model fields in the bulk.



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Indigenous wire wound conduit



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An adolescent with ischemic stroke due to arterioembolism from ruptured traumatic innominate artery pseudoaneurysm

Abstract

Hereby, we present the rare case of ischemic stroke with left-sided paralysis as a complication of the pseudoaneurysm of the brachiocephalic trunk due to clavicular fracture. After angio-computed tomography (CT) diagnostics the reconstruction of brachiocephalic trunk by upper sternotomy was performed.



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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome management: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

We performed this meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a physiotherapy modality with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, in the management of mild-to-moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Central, and Virtual Health Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of LLLT with or without splinting versus placebo on functional and electromyographic outcomes in CTS. All outcomes were pooled as mean differences (MD) under the inverse variance or random effects model, using the statistical add-in (MetaXL, version 5.0). Eight RCTs (473 patients/631 wrists) were eligible for the final analysis. The overall effect estimates did not favor LLLT therapy group over placebo in all primary outcomes: visual analogue scale (MD −1.11, 95% CI [−2.58, 0.35]), symptom severity scale score (MD −1.41, 95% CI [−5.12, 2.29]), and functional status scale score (MD −1.33, 95% CI [−3.27, 0.61]). However, LLLT was superior to placebo in terms of grip strength (MD 2.19, 95% CI [1.63, 2.76]) and inferior to placebo in terms of sensory nerve action potential (MD −2.74, 95% CI [−3.66, −1.82]). Laser therapy is superior to placebo in terms of improving the grip strength; however, no significant difference was found between both groups in terms of functional status improvement, pain reduction, or motor electrodiagnostic evaluations. Further high-quality trials with longer follow-up periods are required to establish the efficacy of LLLT for CTS treatment.



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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the right frontal lobe

Abstract

Background

We aim to present an unique case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the brain parenchyma and study the clinical presentation, imagine characteristic, intraoperative findings, and histopathology features of IMT in the brain parenchyma.

Case Presentation

A 36-year-old female with IMT come to see doctor presented with a 3-month history of progressively worsening weakness in the left upper limb along with alalia. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a lesion within the right frontal lobe. The lesions were locally clear boundary with peripheral tissues. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed and the specimens were detected by immunohistochemical staining and light microscopy. Through the microscope, the tumor was composed of large number of chronic inflammatory cells and spindle cells. From immunohistochemical stains, it demonstrated CD34 (+), SMA (+), Vimentin (+), and actin (+) were positive meanwhile S-100(-) was negative.

Conclusion

IMT of the right frontal lobe is a rare lesions. Surgical resection is the best and the most effective treatment.



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Ethical Responsibilities of the Authors



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Qualitative correlation between postoperatively increased vertical dimension and mandibular position in skeletal class III using partial-least-square path modeling

Abstract

Background

This study constructed a partial-least-square path-modeling (PLS-PM) model and found the pathway by which the postsurgical vertical dimension (VD) affects the extent of the final mandibular setback on the B point at the posttreatment stage for the skeletal class III surgery-first approach (SFA).

Methods

This study re-analyzed the data from the retrospective study by Lee et al. on 40 patients with skeletal class III bimaxillary SFA. Variables were obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-generated cephalograms. Authors investigated all variables at each time point to build a PLS-PM model to verify the effect of the VD on the final setback of the mandible.

Results

From PLS-PM, an increase in VD10 was found to decrease the absolute value of the final setback amount of the mandible, which reflects the postsurgical physiological responses to both surgery and orthodontic treatment, which, in turn, can be interpreted as an increase in postoperative mandibular changes.

Conclusions

To resolve the issue of collinear cephalometric data, the present study adopted PLS-PM to assess the orthodontic treatment. From PLS-PM, it was able to summarize the effect of increased postsurgery occlusal vertical dimension on the increased changeability of the B point position at the posttreatment stage.



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