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Τετάρτη, 4 Απριλίου 2018

Multiparametric Whole-body MRI with Diffusion-weighted Imaging and ADC Mapping for the Identification of Visceral and Osseous Metastases From Solid Tumors

Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
Source:Academic Radiology
Author(s): Michael A. Jacobs, Katarzyna J. Macura, Atif Zaheer, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Vered Stearns, Antonio C. Wolff, Thorsten Feiweier, Ihab R. Kamel, Richard L. Wahl, Li Pan
Rationale and ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the use of multiparametric, whole-body, diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T for the detection and monitoring of metastatic disease in patients.Materials and MethodsFifty-four participants (32 healthy subjects and 22 patients) were scanned with WB-DWI methods using a 3T MRI scanner. Axial, sagittal, or coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted (T2WI), T1-weighted (T1WI), and DWI images were acquired. Total MRI acquisition and set-up time was approximately 45 minutes. Metastatic disease on MRI was confirmed based on T2WI characteristics. The number of lesions was established on computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET-CT). Whole-body ADC maps and T2WI were constructed, and region-of-interests were drawn in normal and abnormal-appearing tissue for quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t tests and P < .05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThere were 91 metastatic lesions detected from the CT or PET-CT with a missed recurrent lesion in the prostate. Multiparametric WB-MRI had excellent sensitivity (96%) for detection of metastatic lesions compared to CT. ADC map values and the ADC ratio in metastatic bone lesions were significantly increased (P < .05) compared to normal bone. In soft tissue, ADC map values and ratios in metastatic lesions were decreased compared to normal soft tissue.ConclusionWe have demonstrated that multiparametric WB-MRI is feasible for oncologic staging to identify bony and visceral metastasis in breast, prostate, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. WB-MRI can be tailored to fit the patient, such that an "individualized patient sequence" can be developed for a comprehensive evaluation for staging and response during treatment.



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Ultrasound for diagnosing radiographically occult scaphoid fracture

Abstract

Objective

To systematically review the literature on the performance of ultrasound in diagnosing radiographically occult scaphoid fracture.

Methods

A systematic search was performed in the MEDLINE and Embase databases. Original studies investigating the performance of ultrasound in diagnosing radiographically occult scaphoid fracture in more than 10 patients were eligible for inclusion. Studies that included both radiographically apparent and occult scaphoid fractures (at initial radiography) were only included if independent data on radiographically occult fractures were reported. Methodological quality of the studies included was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Accuracy data were extracted. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled with a bivariate random-effects model.

Results

The inclusion criteria were met by 7 studies; total sample size comprised 314 patients. All studies, except 1, included cortical disruption of the scaphoid in their diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosing radiographically occult scaphoid fracture ranged from 77.8% to 100% and from 71.4% to 100% respectively, with pooled estimates of 85.6% (95% CI: 73.9%, 92.6%) and 83.3% % (95% CI: 72.0%, 90.6%) respectively. Exclusion of two studies with a high risk of bias in any QUADAS-2 domain did not affect the pooled results.

Conclusion

Ultrasound can diagnose radiographically occult scaphoid fracture with a fairly high degree of accuracy. Because of its relatively low costs and fairly high sensitivity, ultrasound seems more cost-effective than empiric cast immobilization and may be used when CT and MRI are not readily available.



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Fatigue, insomnia and hot flashes after definitive radiochemotherapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: An analysis from the EMBRACE study

To evaluate the pattern of manifestation of fatigue, insomnia and hot flashes within the prospective, observational, multi-center EMBRACE study.

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Clinical features and presentation of oral potentially malignant disorders

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Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Saman Warnakulasuriya
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are conditions that precede the appearance of invasive cancers of the oral cavity. The term embraces both precancerous lesions and conditions referred to in the earlier WHO definitions. Leukoplakia is the most common OPMD; erythroplakia though rare is more serious. Several variants of leukoplakia are recognized and clinical subtyping could help in predicting the prognosis to a limited extent. Biopsy is essential to confirm the provisional clinical diagnosis and timely referral to a specialist is indicated. Certain OPMDs such as oral submucous fibrosis are encountered particularly in population groups from Asia with specific life-style habits. This review provides clinical descriptions of the wide range of PMDs encountered in the oral cavity as a prelude to the topics discussed in this focus issue.



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Molecular markers associated with development and progression of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions: current knowledge and future implications

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Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Nikolaos G. Nikitakis, Monica Pentenero, Maria Georgaki, Catherine F. Poh, Douglas E. Peterson, Paul Edwards, Mark Lingen, John J. Sauk
Identification and management of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions (PPOELs) at highest risk of malignant transformation (MT) holds great promise for successful secondary prevention of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), potentially reducing oral cancer morbidity and mortality. However, to date, neither clinical nor histopathologic validated risk predictors have been identified that can reliably predict which PPOELs will definitively progress to malignancy. In addition, the management of PPOELs remains a major challenge. Arguably, progress in the prevention and treatment of oral premalignancy and cancer will require improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, facilitating the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers, as well as the identification of novel targeted therapeutics.This review provides a synopsis of the molecular biomarkers that have been studied in PPOELs and have been correlated with the presence and grade of dysplasia and/or their propensity to undergo MT to OSCC. The emphasis is on highlighting new emerging research fields, particularly epigenetic events, including methylation and miRNA regulation. Several promising biomarkers are highlighted. Current limitations and challenges are discussed. Recommendations for future focused research areas, in order to validate and promote clinically useful applications, are offered.



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Diffusion-Weighted Imaging With Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Mapping for Breast Cancer Detection as a Stand-Alone Parameter: Comparison With Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Purpose The aims of this study were to compare dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient mapping as a stand-alone parameter without any other supportive sequence for breast cancer detection and to assess its combination as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the breast. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved single-center study, prospectively acquired data of 106 patients who underwent breast MRI from 12/2010 to 09/2014 for an imaging abnormality (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0, 4/5) were retrospectively analyzed. Four readers independently assessed DWI and DCE as well as combined as mpMRI. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories, lesion size, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient values were recorded. Histopathology was used as the gold standard. Appropriate statistical tests were used to compare diagnostic values. Results There were 69 malignant and 41 benign tumors in 106 patients. Four patients presented with bilateral lesions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was the most sensitive test for breast cancer detection, with an average sensitivity of 100%. Diffusion-weighted imaging alone was less sensitive (82%; P

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Soft tissue sarcomas in the precision medicine era: new advances in clinical practice and future perspectives

Abstract

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) represent a rare and heterogeneous group of solid tumours derived from mesenchymal progenitors and account for 1% of all adult malignancies. Although in the last decade anthracycline-based chemotherapy single agent or in combinations has been able to improve clinical benefits, prognosis is still poor and STSs represent an important unmet medical need. Continuous advances in cancer genetics and genomics have contributed to change management paradigms of STSs as it occurred for other solid tumours. Several treatments have been recently developed with the specific aim of targeting different cell pathways and immune-checkpoints that have been recognized to drive tumour progression. The following attempts to provide a review of literature focusing on the available data concerning novel treatments and future prospective for the management of metastatic STSs.



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Association between Screening Mammography Recall Rate and Interval Cancers in the UK Breast Cancer Service Screening Program: A Cohort Study.

Association between Screening Mammography Recall Rate and Interval Cancers in the UK Breast Cancer Service Screening Program: A Cohort Study.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171539

Authors: Burnside ES, Vulkan D, Blanks RG, Duffy SW

Abstract
Purpose To determine whether low levels of recall lead to increased interval cancers and the magnitude of this effect. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme during a 36-month period (April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2008), with 3-year follow-up in women aged 50-70 years. Data on recall, cancers detected at screening, and interval cancers were available for each of the 84 breast screening units and for each year (n = 252). The association between interval cancers and recalls was modeled by using Poisson regression on aggregated data and according to age (5-year intervals) and screening type (prevalent vs incident). Results The authors analyzed 5 126 689 screening episodes, demonstrating an average recall to assessment rate (RAR) of 4.56% (range, 1.64%-8.42%; standard deviation, 1.15%), cancer detection rate of 8.1 per 1000 women screened, and interval cancer rate (ICR) of 3.1 per 1000 women screened. Overall, a significant negative association was found between RAR and ICR (Poisson regression coefficient: -0.039 [95% confidence interval: -0.062, -0.017]; P = .001), with approximately one fewer interval cancer for every additional 80-84 recalls. Subgroup analysis revealed similar negative correlations in women aged 50-54 years (P = .002), 60-64 years (P = .01), and 65-69 years (P = .008) as well as in incident screens (P = .001) and prevalent screens (P = .04). No significant relationship was found in women aged 55-59 years (P = .46). Conclusion There was a statistically significant negative correlation between RAR and ICR, which suggests the merit of a minimum threshold for RAR. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29613846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Myocardial Extracellular Volume Fraction and Change in Hematocrit Level: MR Evaluation by Using T1 Mapping in an Experimental Model of Anemia.

Myocardial Extracellular Volume Fraction and Change in Hematocrit Level: MR Evaluation by Using T1 Mapping in an Experimental Model of Anemia.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171342

Authors: Kim PK, Hong YJ, Sakuma H, Chawla A, Park JK, Park CH, Hong D, Han K, Lee JY, Hur J, Lee HJ, Kim YJ, Suh YJ, Choi BW

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate the effect of changes in hematocrit level on myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction, as quantified with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an animal model. Materials and Methods Thirteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cardiac MR imaging before and after induction of anemia. MR imaging procedures, including unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced T1 mapping, were performed by using a saturation recovery Look-Locker sequence with a 9.4-T unit. An optimized T1 mapping sequence was established in the phantom study. Systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) was calculated from the cine images. Native and postcontrast T1 values of the LV myocardium at the midcavity level and LV blood pool, partition coefficients, and ECV were calculated. Histopathologic examination of the heart was performed after sacrifice. Intergroup comparison of variables was performed with the paired t test. Results The postanemia models exhibited lower hematocrit levels, postcontrast T1 values of the LV pool, and partition coefficients (mean, 45.7% ± 5.2 [standard deviation]; 563.8 msec ± 155.7; and 29.2 ± 3.5, respectively) than did the preanemia models (mean, 59.0% ± 4.1; 690.2 msec ± 109.7; and 38.2 ± 4.4, respectively) (P < .05 for all comparisons). There were no differences between the pre- and postanemia groups in terms of LV ejection fraction (mean, 72.7% ± 2.1 vs 73.2% ± 4.7; P = .78) and ECV (mean, 15.5% ± 2.0 vs 16.0% ± 1.9; P = .24). Conclusion Myocardial ECV measured with contrast-enhanced T1 mapping cardiac MR imaging did not significantly change despite changes in hematocrit level in anemic rat models. Extrapolation of this finding from animal models to human subjects suggests that ECV measured with MR imaging could be a robust parameter in anemic patients.

PMID: 29613847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Tumor Surface Regularity at MR Imaging Predicts Survival and Response to Surgery in Patients with Glioblastoma.

Tumor Surface Regularity at MR Imaging Predicts Survival and Response to Surgery in Patients with Glioblastoma.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171051

Authors: Pérez-Beteta J, Molina-García D, Ortiz-Alhambra JA, Fernández-Romero A, Luque B, Arregui E, Calvo M, Borrás JM, Meléndez B, Rodríguez de Lope Á, Moreno de la Presa R, Iglesias Bayo L, Barcia JA, Martino J, Velásquez C, Asenjo B, Benavides M, Herruzo I, Revert A, Arana E, Pérez-García VM

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of surface-derived imaging biomarkers obtained from contrast material-enhanced volumetric T1-weighted pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Materials and Methods A discovery cohort from five local institutions (165 patients; mean age, 62 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 43% women and 57% men) and an independent validation cohort (51 patients; mean age, 60 years ± 12; 39% women and 61% men) from The Cancer Imaging Archive with volumetric T1-weighted pretreatment contrast-enhanced MR imaging sequences were included in the study. Clinical variables such as age, treatment, and survival were collected. After tumor segmentation and image processing, tumor surface regularity, measuring how much the tumor surface deviates from a sphere of the same volume, was obtained. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, correlations, and concordance indexes were used to compare variables and patient subgroups. Results Surface regularity was a powerful predictor of survival in the discovery (P = .005, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.61) and validation groups (P = .05, HR = 1.84). Multivariate analysis selected age and surface regularity as significant variables in a combined prognostic model (P < .001, HR = 3.05). The model achieved concordance indexes of 0.76 and 0.74 for the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. Tumor surface regularity was a predictor of survival for patients who underwent complete resection (P = .01, HR = 1.90). Tumors with irregular surfaces did not benefit from total over subtotal resections (P = .57, HR = 1.17), but those with regular surfaces did (P = .004, HR = 2.07). Conclusion The surface regularity obtained from high-resolution contrast-enhanced pretreatment volumetric T1-weighted MR images is a predictor of survival in patients with glioblastoma. It may help in classifying patients for surgery.

PMID: 29613845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Normal Cerebellar Growth by Using Three-dimensional US in the Preterm Infant from Birth to Term-corrected Age.

Normal Cerebellar Growth by Using Three-dimensional US in the Preterm Infant from Birth to Term-corrected Age.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171956

Authors: Benavente-Fernández I, Rodríguez-Zafra E, León-Martínez J, Jiménez-Gómez G, Ruiz-González E, Fernández-Colina RC, Lechuga-Sancho AM, Lubián-López SP

Abstract
Purpose To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values for cerebellar size in preterm infants with normal neuroimaging findings and normal 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome by using cranial ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This prospective study consecutively enrolled preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit from June 2011 to June 2014 with a birth weight of less than or equal to 1500 g and/or gestational age (GA) of less than or equal to 32 weeks. They underwent weekly cranial US from birth to term-equivalent age and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term-equivalent age. The infants underwent neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (BSID-III). Patients with adverse outcomes (death or abnormal neuroimaging findings and/or BSID-III score of <85) were excluded. The following measurements were performed: vermis height, craniocaudal diameter, superior width, inferior width, vermis area, and transcerebellar diameter. Statistical analyses were conducted by using multilevel analyses. Results A total of 137 infants with a mean GA at birth of 29.4 weeks (range, 25-32 weeks) were included. Transcerebellar diameter increased by 1.04 mm per week on average; vermis height and craniocaudal diameter increased by 0.55 mm and 0.59 mm, respectively. Superior vermian width increased by an average of 0.45 mm, whereas inferior vermian width increased by an average of 0.51 mm per week. Vermis area was found to increase by 0.22 cm2 per week on average. The sex effect was significant (female lower than male) for vermis height (P < .05), craniocaudal diameter (P < .05), inferior vermian width (P <. 05), and vermis area (P <. 05). Conclusion Cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values were established for cerebellar growth in preterm infants, which may be included in routine cranial US.

PMID: 29613844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Intraprocedural Ablation Margin Assessment by Using Ammonia Perfusion PET during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Tumor Ablation: A Pilot Study.

Intraprocedural Ablation Margin Assessment by Using Ammonia Perfusion PET during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Tumor Ablation: A Pilot Study.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:172108

Authors: Shyn PB, Casadaban LC, Sainani NI, Sadow CA, Bunch PM, Levesque VM, Kim CK, Gerbaudo VH, Silverman SG

Abstract
Purpose To prospectively determine whether nitrogen 13 (13N) ammonia perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) during fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT)-guided liver tumor ablation can be used to intraprocedurally assess ablation margins. Materials and Methods Eight patients (five women and three men; age range, 36-74 years; mean age, 57 years) were enrolled in this pilot study and underwent FDG PET/CT-guided microwave ablation of 11 FDG-avid liver metastases (mean diameter, 22 mm; range, 11-34 mm). All procedures were performed between March 2014 and December 2016. Complete ablation margin visibility and minimum ablation margin thickness were assessed by using intraprocedural 13N-ammonia perfusion PET compared with 24-hour postprocedural MR imaging by two independent blinded radiologists. Local tumor progression for each ablated tumor was assessed at follow-up imaging for 3-38 months (median, 17.6 months). Descriptive analysis was performed. Results Eleven of 11 (100%) ablation margins were fully assessable by using intraprocedural perfusion PET by both readers; six of eleven (55%) margins were fully assessable by both readers at postprocedural 24-hour MR imaging. By using perfusion PET, one tumor that had been judged by both readers to have a minimum margin of 0 mm progressed locally. No tumors judged to have a minimum margin greater than 0 mm at perfusion PET progressed locally. Conclusion 13N-ammonia perfusion PET during FDG PET/CT-guided liver tumor ablations can potentially be used to intraprocedurally assess the entire ablation margin, including the minimum margin. © RSNA, 2018.

PMID: 29613843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Rapid Contour-based Segmentation for 18F-FDG PET Imaging of Lung Tumors by Using ITK-SNAP: Comparison to Expert-based Segmentation.

Rapid Contour-based Segmentation for 18F-FDG PET Imaging of Lung Tumors by Using ITK-SNAP: Comparison to Expert-based Segmentation.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171756

Authors: Besson FL, Henry T, Meyer C, Chevance V, Roblot V, Blanchet E, Arnould V, Grimon G, Chekroun M, Mabille L, Parent F, Seferian A, Bulifon S, Montani D, Humbert M, Chaumet-Riffaud P, Lebon V, Durand E

Abstract
Purpose To assess the performance of the ITK-SNAP software for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) segmentation of complex-shaped lung tumors compared with an optimized, expert-based manual reference standard. Materials and Methods Seventy-six FDG PET images of thoracic lesions were retrospectively segmented by using ITK-SNAP software. Each tumor was manually segmented by six raters to generate an optimized reference standard by using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimate algorithm. Four raters segmented 76 FDG PET images of lung tumors twice by using ITK-SNAP active contour algorithm. Accuracy of ITK-SNAP procedure was assessed by using Dice coefficient and Hausdorff metric. Interrater and intrarater reliability were estimated by using intraclass correlation coefficients of output volumes. Finally, the ITK-SNAP procedure was compared with currently recommended PET tumor delineation methods on the basis of thresholding at 41% volume of interest (VOI; VOI41) and 50% VOI (VOI50) of the tumor's maximal metabolism intensity. Results Accuracy estimates for the ITK-SNAP procedure indicated a Dice coefficient of 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.89) and a Hausdorff distance of 12.6 mm (95% confidence interval: 9.82, 15.32). Interrater reliability was an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.96). The intrarater reliabilities were intraclass correlation coefficients above 0.97. Finally, VOI41 and VOI50 accuracy metrics were as follows: Dice coefficient, 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.51) and 0.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.38), respectively, and Hausdorff distance, 25.6 mm (95% confidence interval: 21.7, 31.4) and 31.3 mm (95% confidence interval: 26.8, 38.4), respectively. Conclusion ITK-SNAP is accurate and reliable for active-contour-based segmentation of heterogeneous thoracic PET tumors. ITK-SNAP surpassed the recommended PET methods compared with ground truth manual segmentation.

PMID: 29613842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Increased Pancreatic Echogenicity with US: Relationship to Glycemic Progression and Incident Diabetes.

Increased Pancreatic Echogenicity with US: Relationship to Glycemic Progression and Incident Diabetes.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:170331

Authors: Hung CS, Tseng PH, Tu CH, Chen CC, Liao WC, Lee YC, Chiu HM, Lin HJ, Yang WS, Chen MF, Wu MS

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate the association between increased pancreatic echogenicity (IPE) and the risk of glycemic progression and incident diabetes. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Consecutive individuals who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography as part of a health examination at a tertiary hospital between January 2005 and December 2011 were included. IPE was defined as increased echogenicity of the pancreas compared with that of the left lobe of liver. Glycemic progression was defined as the development of new prediabetes or diabetes in normoglycemic participants or as new diabetes in prediabetic participants during the follow-up period (median, 3.17 years; interquartile range, 2.01-4.67 years). The occurrence of incident diabetes, defined as a new diagnosis of diabetes during follow-up, was also analyzed. Results Mean age of the 32 346 participants was 50.4 years ± 12.2, and 48% (15 489 of 32 346) were female. The prevalence of IPE and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was 8.4% (2720 of 32 346) and 41.4% (13 389 of 32 346), respectively. A total of 8856 participants were included in the follow-up analysis. During the 29 819.2 person-years of follow-up, 1217 (13.7%) and 449 (5.1%) of the 8856 participants developed glycemic progression and new diabetes, respectively. IPE was associated with more glycemic progression (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 1.92; P < .001) and incident diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.11; P = .024) after adjustment for confounders, HbA1c concentration, and NAFLD. Conclusion Increased pancreatic echogenicity is associated with deteriorating glycemic parameters and higher risk of glycemic progression and incident diabetes, independent of HbA1c concentration and NAFLD. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29613841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Detection and Characterization of Solid Pulmonary Nodules at Digital Chest Tomosynthesis: Data from a Cohort of the Pilot Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study.

Detection and Characterization of Solid Pulmonary Nodules at Digital Chest Tomosynthesis: Data from a Cohort of the Pilot Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:171481

Authors: Meltzer C, Vikgren J, Bergman B, Molnar D, Norrlund RR, Hassoun A, Gottfridsson B, Båth M, Johnsson ÅA

Abstract
Purpose To investigate the performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for detection and characterization of incidental solid lung nodules. Materials and Methods This prospective study was based on a population study with 1111 randomly selected participants (age range, 50-64 years) who underwent a medical evaluation that included chest computed tomography (CT). Among these, 125 participants with incidental nodules 5 mm or larger were included in this study, which added DTS in conjunction with the follow-up CT and was performed between March 2012 and October 2014. DTS images were assessed by four thoracic radiologists blinded to the true number of nodules in two separate sessions according to the 5-mm (125 participants) and 6-mm (55 participants) cut-off for follow-up of incidental nodules. Pulmonary nodules were directly marked on the images by the readers and graded regarding confidence of presence and recommendation for follow-up. Statistical analyses included jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic, receiver operating characteristic, and Cohen κ coefficient. Results Overall detection rate ranges of CT-proven nodules 5 mm or larger and 6 mm or larger were, respectively, 49%-58% and 48%-62%. Jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristics figure of merit for detection of CT-proven nodules 5 mm or larger and 6 mm or larger was 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve regarding recommendation for follow-up was 0.62 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusion Routine use of DTS would result in lower detection rates and reduced number of small nodules recommended for follow-up. © RSNA, 2018.

PMID: 29613826 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Limitations of Detecting Small Solid Lung Nodules by Using Digital Chest Tomosynthesis.

Limitations of Detecting Small Solid Lung Nodules by Using Digital Chest Tomosynthesis.

Radiology. 2018 Apr 03;:180144

Authors: Lee KS, Chung MJ

PMID: 29613825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Application of genomics to identify therapeutic targets in recurrent pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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Application of genomics to identify therapeutic targets in recurrent pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018 Apr;4(2):

Authors: Ronsley R, Rassekh SR, Shen Y, Lee AF, Jantzen C, Halparin J, Albert C, Hawkins DS, Amed S, Rothstein R, Mungall AJ, Dix D, Blair G, Nadel H, Jones SJM, Laskin J, Marra MA, J Deyell R

Abstract
Children with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) may relapse despite response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Two children with multiply relapsed PTC underwent whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing. A TPM3-NTRK1 fusion was identified in one tumor, with outlier NTRK1 expression compared to the TCGA thyroid cancer compendium and to Illumina BodyMap normal thyroid. This patient demonstrated resolution of multiple pulmonary nodules without toxicity on oral TRK inhibitor therapy. A RET fusion was identified in the second tumor, another potentially actionable finding. Identification of oncogenic drivers in recurrent pediatric PTC may facilitate targeted therapy while avoiding repeated RAI.

PMID: 29610391 [PubMed - in process]



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Radon-222 related influence on ambient gamma dose

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Publication date: September 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 189
Author(s): A. Melintescu, S.D. Chambers, J. Crawford, A.G. Williams, B. Zorila, D. Galeriu
Ambient gamma dose, radon, and rainfall have been monitored in southern Bucharest, Romania, from 2010 to 2016. The seasonal cycle of background ambient gamma dose peaked between July and October (100–105 nSv h−1), with minimum values in February (75–80 nSv h−1), the time of maximum snow cover. Based on 10 m a.g.l. radon concentrations, the ambient gamma dose increased by around 1 nSv h−1 for every 5 Bq m−3 increase in radon. Radon variability attributable to diurnal changes in atmospheric mixing contributed less than 15 nSv h−1 to the overall variability in ambient gamma dose, a factor of 4 more than synoptic timescale changes in air mass fetch. By contrast, precipitation-related enhancements of the ambient gamma dose were 15–80 nSv h−1. To facilitate routine analysis, and account in part for occasional equipment failure, an automated method for identifying precipitation spikes in the ambient gamma dose was developed. Lastly, a simple model for predicting rainfall-related enhancement of the ambient gamma dose is tested against rainfall observations from events of contrasting duration and intensity. Results are also compared with those from previously published models of simple and complex formulation. Generally, the model performed very well. When simulations underestimated observations the absolute difference was typically less than the natural variability in ambient gamma dose arising from atmospheric mixing influences. Consequently, combined use of the automated event detection method and the simple model of this study could enable the ambient gamma dose "attention limit" (which indicates a potential radiological emergency) to be reduced from 200 to 400% above background to 25–50%.



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