Δευτέρα, 1 Φεβρουαρίου 2016

Maximum Temperature in Dry Surface Grinding for High Peclet Number and Arbitrary Heat Flux Profile

Regarding heat transfer in dry surface grinding, simple asymptotic expressions of the maximum temperature for large Peclet numbers are derived. For this purpose, we consider the most common heat flux profiles reported in the literature, such as constant, linear, triangular, and parabolic. In the constant case, we provide a refinement of the expression given in the literature. In the linear case, we derive the same expression found in the literature, being the latter fitted by using a linear regression. The expressions for the triangular and parabolic cases are novel.

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Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life after TBI: Comparison of a Disease-Specific (QOLIBRI) with a Generic (SF-36) Instrument

Psychosocial, emotional, and physical problems can emerge after traumatic brain injury (TBI), potentially impacting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Until now, however, neither the discriminatory power of disease-specific (QOLIBRI) and generic (SF-36) HRQoL nor their correlates have been compared in detail. These aspects as well as some psychometric item characteristics were studied in a sample of 795 TBI survivors. The Shannon index absolute informativity, as an indicator of an instrument’s power to differentiate between individuals within a specific group or health state, was investigated. Psychometric performance of the two instruments was predominantly good, generally higher, and more homogenous for the QOLIBRI than for the SF-36 subscales. Notably, the SF-36 “Role Physical,” “Role Emotional,” and “Social Functioning” subscales showed less satisfactory discriminatory power than all other dimensions or the sum scores of both instruments. The absolute informativity of disease-specific as well as generic HRQoL instruments concerning the different groups defined by different correlates differed significantly. When the focus is on how a certain subscale or sum score differentiates between individuals in one specific dimension/health state, the QOLIBRI can be recommended as the preferable instrument.

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Long-Term Follow-Up of a Revascularized Immature Necrotic Tooth Evaluated by CBCT

This case study reports the successful treatment of an immature upper premolar with periapical pathosis and sinus tract using revascularization technique. Clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated the recovery of vitality, continued root development, and periapical healing at the 7-month follow-up. In addition, severe calcification of the canal was noted at the 36-month follow-up. At the 66-month follow-up, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed complete periapical healing, apical closure, increase in root length and thickness of dentin, and severe calcification of the root canal. Even though the nature of tissue within the root canal is unknown, revascularization appears to give good clinical and radiographic success. This case report highlights that severe calcification of the canal is one of the long-term outcomes of revascularized root canals.

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Retracted: Results of Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatment of Aneurysms in a Developing Country



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Local Dynamics and Global Stability of Certain Second-Order Rational Difference Equation with Quadratic Terms

We present a complete local dynamics and investigate the global dynamics of the following second-order difference equation: , where the parameters , and are nonnegative numbers with condition , , and the initial conditions , are arbitrary nonnegative numbers such that

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Equilibrium and Optimal Strategies in M/M/1 Queues with Working Vacations and Vacation Interruptions

We consider the customers equilibrium and socially optimal joining-balking behavior in single-server Markovian queues with multiple working vacations and vacation interruptions. Arriving customers decide whether to join the system or balk, based on a linear reward-cost structure that incorporates their desire for service, as well as their unwillingness for waiting. We consider that the system states are observable, partially observable, and unobservable, respectively. For these cases, we first analyze the stationary behavior of the system and get the equilibrium strategies of the customers and compare them to socially optimal balking strategies numerically.

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Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, . A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), . Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management.

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Interaction of XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism and Alcohol Consumption Influences Susceptibility of Esophageal Cancer

Background. To explore the correlation between the Arg399Gln polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Korean and Han Chinese individuals in Harbin, China, and its potential interaction with alcohol consumption. Methods. This prospective study included 203 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; 88 were of Korean descent and 115 were of Han Chinese descent. A group of healthy controls included 105 participants of Korean descent and 105 of Han Chinese descent. Genotyping of the Arg399Gln locus of XRCC1 was performed by PCR-RFLP. Results. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were not significantly different between individuals with esophageal cancer and controls or between individuals of Korean and Han Chinese descent (). However, when individuals with the wild-type Arg/Arg genotype also consumed alcohol, the risk of esophageal cancer was lower (OR = 3.539; 95% CI = 2.039–6.142; ). Conclusions. The XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism does not appear to be associated with esophageal cancer in individuals of Korean or Han Chinese descent in Harbin, China. However, alcohol consumption may decrease the risk of esophageal cancer in persons with the wild-type genotype.

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Comparison of different microbial laccases as tools for industrial uses

Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016
Source:New Biotechnology
Author(s): Fabio Tonin, Roberta Melis, Arno Cordes, Antonio Sanchez-Amat, Loredano Pollegioni, Elena Rosini
Laccases from different sources are employed in a number of biotechnological processes, each characterized by specific reaction constraints and thus requiring an enzyme with suitable properties. In order to avoid the bias generated by different assay methodologies, in this work we investigated the main properties of ten (commercial and recombinant) laccases from fungi and bacteria under identical conditions. As a general rule, the optimal activity was apparent at pH 3-4 and was lost at pH ≥ 7.0 (all laccases were stable at pH ≥ 7.0); enzymes active at neutral pH values were also identified. For all tested laccases, activity increased with temperature up to 80°C and stability was good at 25°C. Interestingly, laccases insensitive to high salt concentration were identified, this favoring their use in treating waste waters. Indeed, bacterial laccases retained a significant activity in the presence of DMSO (up to 40% final concentration) and of surfactants, suggesting that they can be applied in lignin degradation processes requiring solvents. The available laccases are versatile and satisfy requirements related to different processes. Notably, the recombinant laccase from Bacillus licheniformis favorably compares with the tested enzymes, indicating that it is well suited for different biotechnological applications.

Graphical abstract

image


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Vital clues to future cancer development in normal breast tissue DNA https://t.co/vlqPSyl8hV

Vital clues to future cancer development in normal breast tissue DNA https://t.co/vlqPSyl8hV

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Halifax surgeons help pioneer new treatment for throat and mouth cancer - CBC.ca


CBC.ca

Halifax surgeons help pioneer new treatment for throat and mouth cancer
CBC.ca
Rigby said doctors are seeing a disturbing increase in the number of people with cancer at the back of the throat. "The tonsils and the back of the tongue, the incidents or the rate of cancer is actually increasing and that's because of this HPV ...

and more »


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Dal clinicians, scientists target growing menace of HPV‑related throat and mouth cancers - Dal News


Dal clinicians, scientists target growing menace of HPV‑related throat and mouth cancers
Dal News
HPV-positive oral cancers tend to develop on the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate or the back of the throat, an area collectively known as the oropharynx. This makes them harder to detect than cancers closer to the front of the mouth ...



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Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC - Trade Arabia


Trade Arabia

Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC
Trade Arabia
The advances in imaging (CT, MRI, or Ultrasound) give more information about the location and extent of the tumor. Positron emission tomography or better known as PET - CT scan helps to determine whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

and more »


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Tips for surviving and thriving in the next accreditation system



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Combination therapy with hydrogen peroxide (4%), salicylic acid (0.5%) and D-Panthenol (4%): efficacy and skyn tolerability in common acne vulgaris during sun exposure period

OBJECTIVE: Acne vulgaris is a disease of the sebaceous follicle which affects up to 90% of adolescent patients. Topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics are the main treatments for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The use of such topical treatments is often associated with local irritation and dryness making the skin more sensitive to the sun. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy and skin tolerability of a fixed-dose combination therapy with hydrogen peroxide (4%), Salicylic acid (0.5%) and D-Panthenol (4%) (HSD) gel, in mild-moderate acne vulgaris, during the period of sun exposure.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively observed 30 patients of Central Italy with mild to moderate acne between April and September 2012. All the patients selected underwent only therapy with HSD gel once a day in the evening for 60 days, while in the morning they just applied SPF 50 sunscreen. We evaluate the efficacy at 30 and 60 days with the “Global Evaluation Scale” (GES) and the tolerability with a 0-3 qualitative scale.

RESULTS: The mean GES value showed a statistically significant reduction: 2.03 (SD 0.81) at baseline, 1.63 (SD 0.81) and 0.90 (SD 0.71) respectively at 30 and 60 days (p < 0.01). 21 (70%) and 27 patients (90%) did show good or very good tolerability at 30 and 60 days respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Topical treatments with retinoids, antibiotics and antiseptics may increase skin irritation reducing patient adherence to the treatment. HSD gel has shown a good skin tolerability and efficacy in reducing acne lesions, even during the sun exposure period in which traditional treatments should be cautiously used.

L'articolo Combination therapy with hydrogen peroxide (4%), salicylic acid (0.5%) and D-Panthenol (4%): efficacy and skyn tolerability in common acne vulgaris during sun exposure period sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Efficacy of 3.6% topical ALA-PDT for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 125 patients with Pillsbury III-IV severe facial acne were treated with 3 courses of ALA-PDT with an interval of 2 weeks. ALA gel (3.6%) was applied topically to acne lesions for 1.5 h. The lesions were irradiated by a LED light of 633 nm with a light intensity of 66 mW/cm2 and a light dose of 126 J/cm2. Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 after the initial treatment.

RESULTS: The total effective rates were 1.6%, 24.8%, 68.8%, 89.6% and 88.8% at the 2- 4- 6- 8- and 12-week after the initial treatment respectively. The clinical outcomes were the best at 4 weeks after the final treatment. The best effective rate and cure rate were 89.6% and 44% respectively. 26 patients and 16 patients showed apparent exacerbation of acne lesions before the 2nd and 3rd treatment respectively, but all of them showed good or excellent improvement after 3-course treatment. Adverse reactions were mild and transient.

CONCLUSIONS: 3.6% ALA-PDT is a simple, safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris.

L'articolo Efficacy of 3.6% topical ALA-PDT for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Descriptive epidemiology of clubfoot in Romania: a clinic-based study

OBJECTIVE: Congenital clubfoot affects 1 per 1000 live births per year in Romania. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted in this country to assess risk factors associated with the deformity. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific environmental and socio-demographic factors that may increase the risk of an infant to be born with clubfoot.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive clinic-based study over a twelve-week period was conducted using structured questionnaires given to biological parents of clinically confirmed clubfoot and control subjects. 62 parents of probands and 66 parents of control patients were enrolled for risk factor questionnaires. Phenotypic data from clubfoot children was also collected.

RESULTS: We found that males were twice as likely to have clubfoot and half of clubfoot subjects were affected bilaterally. There was no significant difference in the rate of left versus right clubfoot. Infant and maternal characteristics showing a strong association with clubfoot included breech presentation and old maternal age at conception.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support reported literature data that males are two times as likely to have clubfoot which indicates a genetic influence. Previous reports suggest clubfoot babies are born to young mothers but in Romania advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years) was an indicator which may suggest genetic influence. This clinic-based study does not support previously recorded data of a positive association for maternal or household smoking. Data from this Romanian population also does not support previous data suggesting strong associations with maternal diabetes.

L'articolo Descriptive epidemiology of clubfoot in Romania: a clinic-based study sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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The curative efficacy of arthroscopic therapy in treating anterior cruciate ligament rupture with secondary osteoarthritis

OBJECTIVE: To compare and analyze the clinical effects of arthroscopic therapy and drug therapy in treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture with secondary osteoarthritis (OA).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 68 patients that were diagnosed as ACL rupture with secondary OA in our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were enrolled in our study. All of the patients were randomly divided into control group (n = 30) and observation group (n = 38) according to the order of admission. The patients in the control group were given analgesic, anti-inflammatory drugs + functional rehabilitation training whereas the patients in the observation group were given ACL reconstruction + OA debridement and functional rehabilitation training under arthroscopy.

RESULTS: The success rate of the observation group was 92.1%. After 3-month follow-up, the clinical total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, the prevalence of complications in the observation group was significantly lower than in the control group, and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Lysholm scale scoring of observation group was significantly higher than of the control group, modified McGill pain scale score was significantly lower than that of the control group, and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Quadriceps muscle peak torque, average power, and the optimal single work at 60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s were significantly higher than those of the control group, and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic operative therapy was safe and effective for the treatment of ACL with secondary OA. Compared with drug therapy, it can significantly improve the movement function of the knee joint, so it was worthy of clinical application.

L'articolo The curative efficacy of arthroscopic therapy in treating anterior cruciate ligament rupture with secondary osteoarthritis sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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A combined partially threaded cancellous lag screw for achieving maximum compressive force without compromising pullout strength

OBJECTIVE: The partially threaded cancellous lag screw (PTLS) could not provide maximum compressive force (CMAX) for compression due to compromised pullout strength (POS). The combined partially threaded cancellous lag screw (CPTLS) could provide higher CMAX than PTLS. However, the change of POS at the point of CMAX when using CPTLS for compression has never been explored. The aim of this study was to determine whether POS decreased at the point of CMAX during CPTLS compression for different bone mineral densities (BMDs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three synthetic cancellous bone blocks were used for this study, and the BMDs were 0.12 g/cm3, 0.16 g/cm3, and 0.20 g/cm3, respectively. 20 pilot holes with 3.2 mm diameters were prepared equably in each block. A CPTLS was inserted through the custom-designed measuring device into a pilot hole manually until failure for measuring CMAX, and the pullout test was done with the identical CPTLS for measuring POS.

RESULTS: The CMAX and POS of the CPTLS were not significantly different in the three specimens, and the ratios of the mean CMAX to the mean POS were very similar in the three specimens (0.98 in the 0.12 g/cc specimen, 1.01 in the 0.16 g/cc specimen and 0.98 in the 0.20 g/cc specimen).

CONCLUSIONS: CMAX is achieved without a decrease in POS during CPTLS compression independent of the BMD.

L'articolo A combined partially threaded cancellous lag screw for achieving maximum compressive force without compromising pullout strength sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Ulipristal acetate prior to in vitro fertilization in a female patient affected by uterine fibroids: a case report

OBJECTIVE: Uterine leiomyomatosis and especially submucosal myomas hamper the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). Even though surgical treatment eliminates gross anatomical anomalies, medical treatment should be encouraged to improve the overall structure of the uterus, thereby enabling ART.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an infertile female patient suffering from symptomatic uterine fibromatosis, who received 5 mg/day ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRMs), for three months before and after hysteroscopic myomectomy. Uterine bleeding reduced on the eight days of treatment, with a subsequent improvement of pelvic pain. Under transvaginal ultrasound the uterus appeared globally enlarged with a diffuse leiomyomatosis of the myometrial layer. Saline infusion showed a markedly distorted cavity due two submucosal myomas (sized 31 × 24 mm and 21 × 19 mm, respectively) and one intramural myoma (37 × 34 mm). After three months the size of the myomas was reduced by 30-40%, allowing the hysteroscopic removal of the submucosal fibroids and the bigger intramural one. The smaller fibroids involving the myometrial layer were instead too diffused to be removed. At the conclusion of the subsequent cycle of UPA, the overall appearance of the cavity had improved, and the endometrial layer was regular, allowing the patient to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). There was no adverse effect related to treatment, and the endometrial biopsy did not reveal any histologic change.

CONCLUSIONS: UPA seems to have a triple effect: it ensures prompt symptom relief, it reduces the size of the myomas enabling surgery and it improves the morphology of the uterus.

L'articolo Ulipristal acetate prior to in vitro fertilization in a female patient affected by uterine fibroids: a case report sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Letter to the Editor – Autonomic nervous system and hypertension

L'articolo Letter to the Editor – Autonomic nervous system and hypertension sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Letter to the Editor – Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in unusual form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

L'articolo Letter to the Editor – Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in unusual form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Letter to the Editor – Ovarian transposition in young women and fertility sparing

L'articolo Letter to the Editor – Ovarian transposition in young women and fertility sparing sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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African science contributes to the fight against cancer in the world: reflections after the 10th AORTIC conference, 18–22nd November 2015, Marrakesh, Morocco



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Isoflurane Is More Deleterious to Developing Brain Than Desflurane: The Role of the Akt/GSK3 Signaling Pathway

Demand is increasing for safer inhalational anesthetics for use in pediatric anesthesia. In this regard, researchers have debated whether isoflurane is more toxic to the developing brain than desflurane. In the present study, we compared the effects of postnatal exposure to isoflurane with those of desflurane on long-term cognitive performance and investigated the role of the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. Postnatal day 6 (P6) mice were exposed to either isoflurane or desflurane, after which the phosphorylation levels of Akt/GSK3β and learning and memory were assessed at P8 or P31. The phosphorylation levels of Akt/GSK3β and learning and memory were examined after intervention with lithium. We found that isoflurane, but not desflurane, impaired spatial learning and memory at P31. Accompanied by behavioral change, only isoflurane decreased p-Akt (ser473) and p-GSK3β (ser9) expressions, which led to GSK3β overactivation. Lithium prevented GSK3β overactivation and alleviated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits. These results suggest that isoflurane is more likely to induce developmental neurotoxicity than desflurane in context of multiple exposures and that the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway partly participates in this process. GSK3β inhibition might be an effective way to protect against developmental neurotoxicity.

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The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Effects of stroke include significant deficits in sensory-motor skills and cognitive abilities. At present, there are limited effective interventions for postacute stroke patients. In this preliminary research we studied a new noninvasive, very low intensity, low frequency, electromagnetic field treatment (VLIFE), targeting a neural network, on an in vivo stroke rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups: sham (M1) and two treatment groups which were exposed to VLIFE treatment for 4 weeks, one using theta waves (M2) and another using beta waves (M3); all groups were followed up for an additional month. Results indicate that the M2 and M3 treated groups showed recovery of sensorimotor functional deficits, as demonstrated by Modified Neurological Severity Score and forelimb placement tests. Brain MRI imaging results show a decrease in perilesional edema and lateral ventricle widening in the treated groups. Fiber tracts’ imaging, following VLIFE treatment, showed a higher white matter integrity compared to control. Histological findings support neural regeneration processes. Our data suggest that VLIFE treatment, targeting a specific functional neural network by frequency rather than location, promotes neuronal plasticity after stroke and, as a result, improves clinical recovery. Further studies will investigate the full potential of the treatment.

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On Graphs of the Cone Decompositions for the Min-Cut and Max-Cut Problems

We consider maximum and minimum cut problems with nonnegative weights of edges. We define the graphs of the cone decompositions and find a linear clique number for the min-cut problem and a superpolynomial clique number for the max-cut problem. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons.

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Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors

A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL). It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a miniaturized internal volume, to achieve fast response and high sensitivity, and that can also be heated to improve sensitivity towards less volatile compounds. The sensor has been assembled and successfully tested in the lab with several compounds, including IED’s precursors such as acetone, nitromethane, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The identification capability and limits of detection near the ppm level have been estimated for all these compounds.

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Soy Isoflavone Protects Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Decreasing Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

There is a special role for estrogens in preventing and curing cardiovascular disease in women. Soy isoflavone (SI), a soy-derived phytoestrogen, has similar chemical structure to endogenous estrogen-estradiol. We investigate to elucidate the protective mechanism of SI on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Female SD rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. One week later, rats were randomly divided into several groups, sham ovariectomy (control group), ovariectomy with MI/R, or ovariectomy with sham MI/R. Other ovariectomy rats were given different doses of SI or 17β-estradiol (E2). Four weeks later, they were exposed to 30 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 6 or 24 hours of reperfusion. SI administration significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved left ventricle function and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation function of thoracic aortas after MI/R in ovariectomized rats. SI also decreased serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced plasma malonaldehyde, and attenuated oxidative stress in the myocardium. Meanwhile, SI increased phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signal pathway. SI failed to decrease infarct size of hearts with I/R in ovariectomized rats if PI3K was inhibited. Overall, these results indicated that SI protects myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in ovariectomized rats through increasing PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway and decreasing oxidative stress.

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Enrichment of the Glycyrrhizic Acid from Licorice Roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Isoelectric Focused Adsorptive Bubble Chromatography

The main aim of this study was to enrich glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt known as one of the main compounds of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique with different foaming agents. In the experiments, four bubble separation parameters were used with β-lactoglobulin, albumin bovine, and starch (soluble) preferred as foaming agents and without additives. The enrichment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam was influenced by different additive substances. The results showed that highest enrichment values were obtained from β-lactoglobulin as much as 368.3 times. The lowest enrichment values (5.9 times) were determined for the application without additive. After enrichment, each experiment of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt confirmed that these substances could be quantitatively enriched into the collection vessel with isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble separation technique. The transfer of glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt into the foam from standard solution in the presence of additive was more efficient than aqueous licorice extract.

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Sentient Nonpersons and the Disvalue of Death

Abstract

Implicit in our everyday attitudes and practices is the assumption that death ordinarily harms a person who dies. A far more contested matter is whether death harms sentient individuals who are not persons, a category that includes many animals and some human beings. On the basis of the deprivation account of the harm of death, I argue that death harms sentient nonpersons (whenever their lives would be worth continuing). I next consider possible bases for the commonsense judgment that death ordinarily harms persons more than it harms sentient nonpersons. Contrary to what some philosophers believe, it is doubtful that the familiar resources of prudential value theory can vindicate this judgment. I show that the approach that at first glance seems most promising for supporting this judgment – namely, invoking an objective account of well-being – faces substantial challenges, before arguing that McMahan's time-relative interest account supplies the needed theoretical basis. I then go on to extract a significant practical implication of the first thesis, that death ordinarily harms sentient nonpersons: We should find a way to discontinue the routine killing of animal subjects following their use in experiments.



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Moral Enhancement and Those Left Behind

Abstract

Opponents to genetic or biomedical human enhancement often claim that the availability of these technologies would have negative consequences for those who either choose not to utilize these resources or lack access to them. However, Thomas Douglas has argued that this objection has no force against the use of technologies that aim to bring about morally desirable character traits, as the unenhanced would benefit from being surrounded by such people. I will argue that things are not as straightforward as Douglas makes out. The widespread use of moral enhancement would raise the standards for praise and blame worthiness, making it much harder for the unenhanced to perform praiseworthy actions or avoid performing blameworthy actions. This shows that supporters of moral enhancement cannot avoid this challenge in the way that Douglas suggests.



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Ethical Obligations in the Face of Dilemmas Concerning Patient Privacy and Public Interests: The Sasebo Schoolgirl Murder Case

Abstract

A murder case that had some features in common with the Tarasoff case occurred in Sasebo City, Japan, in 2014. A 15-year-old high school girl was murdered and her 16-year-old classmate was arrested on suspicion of homicide. One and a half months before the murder, a psychiatrist who had been examining the girl called a prefectural child consultation centre to warn that she might commit murder, but he did not reveal her name, considering it his professional duty to keep it confidential. Article 134 of the Japanese Criminal Law states that doctors should not disclose patient information obtained in clinical practice without a legitimate reason, but the Japanese Supreme Court has not specified what constitutes a legitimate reason. Mass media and commentators suggested that the murder could have been prevented if the psychiatrist had disclosed the girl's name to the authorities or had isolated her coercively in a psychiatric ward. However, the authors disagree with such claims. This article discusses obligations imposed on concerned individuals and third party members in cases involving ethical dilemmas regarding patient confidentiality and information disclosure. It is concluded that everyone should fulfill their obligations to prevent such tragedies and one should judge the appropriateness of others’ actions based not on the consequences of their actions, but on the processes used to decide on a course of action and their commitment. It is necessary for us to establish a society in which concerned parties can do what they think is ethically best without fearing ungrounded charges.



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Tumori, per batterli nanofarmaci ??intelligenti?? in viaggio verso la fermata giusta

Comunicato stampa congiunto
Tumori, per batterli nanofarmaci “intelligenti” in viaggio verso la fermata giusta
La sfida della ricerca contro il cancro si concentra sulla nanomedicina: eliminare gli effetti collaterali e aumentare la precisione dei farmaci, questi gli obiettivi. La UE dal 2008 al 2014 ha finanziato più di 50 progetti di ricerca di nanomedicina. Nella conferenza stampa italiana dell’evento internazionale Nano World Cancer Day 2016, organizzata dall’Università di Milano-Bicocca e dalla Fondazione IRCCS Istituto dei Tumori, sono stati presentati gli orizzonti della ricerca scientifica nella lotta contro il cancro.
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1 - 20126 Milano
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
Via Giacomo Venezian, 1 - 20133 Milano



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Adjuvant Treatment of Graves' Disease with Diclofenac: Safety, Effects on Ophthalmopathy and Antibody Concentrations

Background: Orbital morphological changes are often present in patients with Graves' disease (GD) already at diagnosis, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Objective: To investigate if adjuvant treatment of GD with the COX inhibitor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-#x03B3; (PPAR-#x03B3;) antagonist diclofenac decreases the development of ophthalmopathy and if laboratory parameters are affected. Methods: This is a multicenter trial where 61 subjects were randomized to methimazole (block and replace with L-thyroxine) either with or without diclofenac 50 mg 1 × 2 for 12 months. The primary end point development of GO after 24 months was evaluated. Smoking habits were registered and the thyroid parameters TSH, free T4, free T3, TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and anti-TPO were followed. Safety parameters (kidney, liver and blood) and adverse events were regularly registered. Results: GO developed in 11% (n = 3) of the patients treated with diclofenac and in 21% (n = 6) of the controls (p = 0.273). The adverse event profile was acceptable without any severe events related to diclofenac. Both TRAb and anti-TPO concentrations decreased during treatment with methimazole, but the anti-TPO concentrations were lower in patients treated with diclofenac after 15 months (p = 0.031). The TRAb concentrations were not significantly changed between groups. Smokers had higher concentrations of TRAb than nonsmokers both at diagnosis of GD (p = 0.048) and after 15 months (p = 0.042). Conclusions: Treatment with diclofenac had no significant influence on development of GO. Diclofenac reduces anti-TPO concentrations and seems to be safe to use in GD patients.
Eur Thyroid J

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Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC - Trade Arabia


Trade Arabia

Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC
Trade Arabia
The advances in imaging (CT, MRI, or Ultrasound) give more information about the location and extent of the tumor. Positron emission tomography or better known as PET - CT scan helps to determine whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

and more »


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Chemopreventive Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Obesity-Related Cancers

Background: It has been generally accepted that being overweight or obese is a risk factor for several types of cancers, including breast, thyroid, colon, pancreatic and liver. In fact, people who are obese have more fat tissues that can produce hormones, such as insulin or estrogen, which may cause cancer cells to grow. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is anorganosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid, which is produced in animals normally, and is essential for aerobic metabolism. Summary: Studies in both in vitro cells and in vivo animal models have shown that ALA inhibits the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting that ALA has considerable attention as a chemopreventive agent. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning ALA and highlights its anti-cancer properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory implications. Key Messages: Based on scientific evidences so far, ALA might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of obesity-related cancers.
Ann Nutr Metab 2016;68:137-144

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Tumori, i 10 segnali del corpo da non sottovalutare

Tumori, i 10 segnali del corpo da non sottovalutare 'We can. I can' è lo slogan del 'World Cancer Day 2016', la giornata mondiale contro il cancro che il prossimo 4 febbraio invita tutti, cittadini e governi, a puntare l'attenzione sull'importanza della...

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Androgen Receptor Genotype in Humans and Susceptibility to Endocrine Disruptors

Although animal studies have raised concern that the influence of endocrine-disrupting compounds would obstruct the development of the male reproductive system, in general, exposure levels far above those found in humans have been needed to induce reproductive toxicity in animal models. Human data are inconclusive and have evoked the question whether endocrine-disrupting compounds can have any impact on hormonal function and thus health consequences when natural hormones are present. Indeed, many contaminants with hormone-like activity are much less potent than endogenous hormones themselves: 17β-oestradiol was, for instance, estimated to be 17,000 times more potent than o,p′-DDT. However, humans are exposed to a multitude of agents, and when present in sufficient number and concentration, they might in principle act collected on the actions of endogenous hormones. Whether such effects will be physiologically relevant is still not known. Nevertheless, in the worst-case scenario, there are no threshold levels below which there are no effects at all, and one target molecule is the androgen receptor. This mini review focuses on the androgen receptor gene, its link with classical endocrine disruptors and smoking, and how common genetic variants in the androgen receptor gene may influence physiological outcomes.
Horm Res Paediatr

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Comparison of Histopathological Effects of Thymoquinone and Local Nasal Corticosteroids in Allergic Rhinitis in a Rabbit Model

Background/Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the histopathological effects of thymoquinone treatment of the nasal mucosa in a rabbit model of allergic rhinitis, and we compared its effects with those of nasal mometasone furoate. Methods: A total of 24 male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group 1 received no treatment, while group 2 underwent ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization only. Group 3 was the study group; after OVA sensitization, the rabbits were treated with intranasal thymoquinone. The group 4 rabbits received mometasone furoate for 7 days after OVA sensitization. Mucosal structures were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, while toluidine blue was used to stain mast cells. Apoptosis was evaluated using a TUNEL assay. Results: In the positive control groups, including the thymoquinone and intranasal mometasone furoate groups, intraepithelial and submucosal inflammation and goblet cell hypertrophy were significantly decreased compared to group 2 (p Conclusion: This is the first study to evaluate the histopathological effects of thymoquinone in an allergic rhinitis model. Thymoquinone reduced allergic inflammation and may be valuable for treating allergic rhinitis. However, additional studies are needed.
ORL 2016;78:55-60

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Hard-hitting 'stop smoking' campaign features Teesside families affected by cancer - Gazette Live


Gazette Live

Hard-hitting 'stop smoking' campaign features Teesside families affected by cancer
Gazette Live
The toll of smoking-related cancers on Teesside is revealed for today's launch of a hard-hitting new “quit” campaign. The graphic new campaign by Fresh North East, Quit 16, warns that smoking causes 16 different types of cancer. The campaign features ...



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NCRA Unveils Educational Conference Agenda - ADVANCE


NCRA Unveils Educational Conference Agenda
ADVANCE
... and three rotating concurrent sessions on AJCC TNM Staging: Cancer of the Breast, Colon, and Lung with Melissa Riddle, CTR; AJCC TNM Staging: Cancer of Larynx/Pharynx with Jayne Holubowsky, CTR; and AJCC TNM Staging: Cancer of the Pancreas ...



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India sees progress in child health but rising obesity, shows health survey

Some states in India have made great strides in improving maternal and child health over the past decade, the fourth National Family Health Survey has found.The findings of the first phase of the...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=4rDNpf01Wl0:k0QyJ8Oj0WE:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=4rDNpf01Wl0:k0QyJ8Oj0WE:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=4rDNpf01Wl0:k0QyJ8Oj0WE:F7zBnMy recent?i=4rDNpf01Wl0:k0QyJ8Oj0WE:-BTjWOF


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PRISMA harms checklist: improving harms reporting in systematic reviews

Introduction For any health intervention, accurate knowledge of both benefits and harms is needed. Systematic reviews often compound poor reporting of harms in primary studies by failing to report...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=bCZ9oU4SIyM:8i7ofnVbOpM:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=bCZ9oU4SIyM:8i7ofnVbOpM:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=bCZ9oU4SIyM:8i7ofnVbOpM:F7zBnMy recent?i=bCZ9oU4SIyM:8i7ofnVbOpM:-BTjWOF


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New approaches to evaluating complex health and care systems

The NHS has many examples of effective service changes that took too long to implement, from structured patient education in diabetes1 to enhanced recovery programmes in surgery.2 Other initiatives...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=wf8YCaorLCY:SiNnJPyN3gg:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=wf8YCaorLCY:SiNnJPyN3gg:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=wf8YCaorLCY:SiNnJPyN3gg:F7zBnMy recent?i=wf8YCaorLCY:SiNnJPyN3gg:-BTjWOF


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Proton beam therapy offers potential to treat childhood brain cancer with fewer side effects than radiotherapy https://t.co/I4JV2MX6yy

Proton beam therapy offers potential to treat childhood brain cancer with fewer side effects than radiotherapy https://t.co/I4JV2MX6yy

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Neuroprotective Activity of Curcumin in Combination with Piperine against Quinolinic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration in Rats

Aim: Quinolinic acid (QA) is an excitotoxin that induces Huntington's-like symptoms in animals and humans. Curcumin (CMN) is a well-known antioxidant but the major problem is its bioavailability. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of CMN in the presence of piperine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death in rats. Material and Methods: QA was administered intrastriatally at a dose of 200 nmol/2 µl saline, bilaterally. CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and combination of CMN (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and with piperine (2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered daily for the next 21 days. Body weight and behavioral parameters were observed on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day. On the 22nd day, animals were sacrificed and striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, nitrite and GSH), neuroinflammatory (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and neurochemical (dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, glutamate, 5-HT, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) estimation. Results: CMN treatment showed beneficial effect against QA-induced motor deficit, biochemical and neurochemical abnormalities in rats. Combination of piperine (2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) with CMN (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly enhanced its protective effect as compared to treatment with CMN alone. Conclusion: This study has revealed that the combination of CMN and piperine showed strong antioxidant and protective effect against QA-induced behavioral and neurological alteration in rats.
Pharmacology 2016;97:151-160

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Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC - Gulf Digital News


Complex medical procedures on the rise in GCC
Gulf Digital News
The advances in imaging (CT, MRI, or Ultrasound) give more information about the location and extent of the tumor. Positron emission tomography or better known as PET - CT scan helps to determine whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body.



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Negotiating knowledge: parents’ experience of the neuropsychiatric diagnostic process for children with autism

Abstract

Background

Parents often recognize problems in their child's development earlier than health professionals do and there is new emphasis on the importance of involving parents in the diagnostic process. In Gothenburg, Sweden, over 100 children were identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2009–11 through a general population language and autism screening of 2.5 year olds at the city's child healthcare centres.

Aims

To increase understanding of parents’ lived experience of the neuropsychiatric diagnostic process, i.e. the period from the initial screening at age 2.5 years to the 2-year follow-up of the ASD diagnosis.

Methods & Procedures

A qualitative design, a phenomenological hermeneutic method, was used. Interviews were conducted with parents of 11 children who were diagnosed with ASD 2 years prior. The parents were interviewed about their experiences of the neuropsychiatric diagnostic process, i.e. the time before the screening, the time during the neuropsychiatric multidisciplinary evaluation and the time after diagnosis. The interviews lasted for 45–130 min, and an interview guide with set questions was used. Most of the interviews were conducted at the parents’ homes.

Outcomes & Results

The essence that emerged from the data was negotiating knowledge, and the three themes capturing the parents’ experiences of going through the process of having their child diagnosed with ASD were seeking knowledge, trusting and challenging experts, and empowered but alone.

Conclusions & Implications

The parents expected intervention to start directly after diagnosis but felt they had to fight to obtain the resources their child needed. After the process, they described that they felt empowered but still alone, i.e. although they received useful and important information about their child, they were left to manage the situation by themselves. As for clinical implications, the study points to the necessity of developing routines to support the parents during and after the diagnostic process. Recommended measures include developing a checklist outlining relevant contacts and agencies, establishing a coordinator responsible for each child, dividing the summary meeting at the clinic into two parts, making more than one visit to the preschool, and providing a parental training programme.



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The Maneka Gandhi column: What's scaly, eats ants, and is the most poached animal in India? - Firstpost


The Maneka Gandhi column: What's scaly, eats ants, and is the most poached animal in India?
Firstpost
It has a long, sticky tongue, to catch ants and termites. When fully extended it is longer than the animal's body. At rest the tongue retracts into ... Over the past 20 years, the pangolin has been hunted by poachers for its skin, which is used to make ...



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