Δευτέρα, 30 Οκτωβρίου 2017

Ring-Like Enhancement of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Multiphasic Hepatic Arterial Phase Imaging With Differential Subsampling With Cartesian Ordering.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiphasic hepatic arterial phase (HAP) imaging using DISCO (differential subsampling with Cartesian ordering) in increasing the confidence of diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. Consecutive patients (from 2 study periods) with malignant liver nodules were examined by gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using either multiphasic (6 phases; n = 135) or single (n = 230) HAP imaging, which revealed 519 liver nodules other than benign ones (HCC, 497; cholangiocarcinoma, 11; metastases, 10; and malignant lymphoma, 1). All nodules were scored in accordance with the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS v2014), with or without consideration of ring-like enhancement in multiphasic HAP images as a major feature. Results: In the multiphasic HAP group, 178 of 191 HCCs were scored as LR-3 to LR-5 (3 [1.69%], 85 [47.8%], and 90 [50.6%], respectively). Upon considering ring-like enhancement in multiphasic HAP images as a major feature, 5 more HCCs were scored as LR-5 (95 [53.4%]), which was a significantly more confident diagnosis than that with single HAP images (295 of 306 HCCs scored as LR-3 to LR-5: 13 [4.41%], 147 [49.8%], and 135 [45.8%], respectively; P = 0.0296). There was no significant difference in false-positive or false-negative diagnoses between the multiphasic and single HAP groups (P = 0.8400 and 0.1043, respectively). Conclusions: Multiphasic HAP imaging can improve the confidence of diagnosis of HCCs in gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Breast arterial calcifications on mammography: intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of a semi-automatic quantification tool

Abstract

Purpose

A strong association between breast arterial calcifications (BAC) and cardiovascular disease has been demonstrated. However, BAC quantification tools are lacking. We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of a semi-automatic tool for BAC quantification on digital mammograms.

Materials and methods

A multivendor image dataset of 212 mammographic views, 106 cranio-caudal (CC) and 106 medio-lateral oblique (MLO), were retrospectively selected from 53 subjects if BAC were seen in at least one view. Images were segmented twice by two intensively trained residents in Radiodiagnostics with > 6-month experience in mammography using a semi-automatic software. The two observers (O1, O2) independently positioned rectangular ROIs where they recognized BAC on both CC and MLO views, separately. The adaptive thresholding algorithm automatically provided the BAC amount in mm2. Number, size, and position of the ROIs were observer-dependent. Total BAC amount was calculated for each patient. Bland–Altman analysis was used.

Results

Total BAC amount was 56.6 (IQR 18.1–91.1) and 41.0 (IQR 18.8–90.9) for O1 and O2, respectively. Intra-observer Bland–Altman analysis showed a bias of 11.9 mm2, a coefficient of repeatability of 32.7 mm2, an average measurement of 72.8 mm2, for a 55% reproducibility; the same data were − 7.0, 61.4, 63.4 mm2, and only 3%, respectively, for the inter-observer analysis.

Conclusion

Our semi-automatic tool for BAC quantification showed a poor reproducibility. These results pointed out that the human identification of BAC represents the main source of variability. Further research is needed to translate BAC quantification into clinical practice.



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Unindicated multiphase CT scans in non-traumatic abdominal emergencies for women of reproductive age: a significant source of unnecessary exposure

Abstract

Purpose

To determine the frequency of unindicated CT phases and the resultant excess of absorbed radiation doses to the uterus and ovaries in women of reproductive age who have undergone CT for non-traumatic abdomino-pelvic emergencies.

Materials and methods

We reviewed all abdomino-pelvic CT examinations in women of reproductive age (40 years or less), between 1 June 2012 and 31 January 2015. We evaluated the appropriateness of each CT phase on the basis of clinical indications, according to ACR appropriateness criteria and evidence-based data from the literature. The doses to uterus and ovaries for each phase were calculated with the CTEXPO software, taking into consideration the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) after measuring the size of every single patient.

Results

The final cohort was composed of 76 female patients with an average age of 30 (from 19 to 40 years). In total, 197 CT phases were performed with an average of 2.6 phases per patient. Out of these, 93 (47%) were unindicated with an average of 1.2 inappropriate phases per patient. Unindicated scans were most frequent for appendicitis and unlocalized abdominal pain. The excesses of mean radiation doses to the uterus and ovaries due to unindicated phases were, respectively, of 38 and 33 mSv per patient.

Conclusion

In our experience, unindicated additional CT phases were numerous with a significant excess radiation dose without an associated clinical benefit. This excess of radiation could have been avoided by widespread adoption of the ACR appropriateness criteria and evidence-based data from the literature.



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Gene expression reveals hidden variability in cancer cells' response to drugs

A study led by scientists from Harvard Medical School reveals "hidden" variability in how tumour cells are affected by anticancer drugs, offering new insights on why patients with the same form of cancer can have different responses to a drug. The...

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An experimental model might shed new light on the development of brain cancer in children

Paediatric high-grade glioma is the primary cause of cancer death in children. Genesis of these tumours is believed to be driven by mutations in proteins that disrupt fundamental mechanisms governing the development of the human brain. However, our...

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Cancer trial shows promise

New data from a Phase I clinical trial led by Clark Chen, M.D., Ph.D., Lyle French Chair in Neurosurgery and Head of the University of Minnesota Medical School Department of Neurosurgery shows more than a quarter of patients with recurrent high-grade...

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Colorectal cancer screening should start at 45

Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) should begin at 45 years of age to match rising mortality rates in young adults, research presented today at the 25th UEG Week Barcelona reveals. Scientists in France analysed 6,027 colonoscopies and found a 400%...

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Revolutionising the future of real-world, 'big data' cancer care: ASCO's CancerLinQ

Future Science Group (FSG) announced the publication of an article in Future Oncology discussing the American Society of Clinical Oncology's (ASCO's) CancerLinQ (Cancer Learning Intelligence Network for Quality) real-world, rapid learning health...

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Blocking enzyme in normal cells may impede pancreatic cancer

Cancer of the pancreas is a deadly disease, with a median survival time of less than six months. Only one in 20 people with pancreatic cancer survives five years past the diagnosis. The reason is the cancer's insidiousness; tumour cells hide deep inside...

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Artificial intelligence: Is this the future of early cancer detection?

A new endoscopic system powered by artificial intelligence (AI) has today been shown to automatically identify colorectal adenomas during colonoscopy. The system, developed in Japan, has recently been tested in one of the first prospective trials of...

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Newly discovered microRNA regulates mobility of tumour cells

Cancer cells can reactivate a cellular process that is an essential part of embryonic development. This allows them to leave the primary tumour, penetrate the surrounding tissue and form metastases in peripheral organs. In the journal Nature...

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Adult-onset Still's disease in a patient with psoriasis vulgaris showing inverse correlation of disease activity



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Eruptive multiple seborrheic keratoses with a palm tree-like pattern without underlying malignancy



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Two cases of skin infection during psoriasis treatment with brodalumab



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Non-lesional skin biopsy for a diagnosis of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease



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Complete excision of proliferating core in auricular keloids significantly reduces local recurrence: A prospective study

Abstract

Keloids are mysterious soft-tissue tumors that are characterized by excessive reparative processes composed of collagen-forming fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. Generally, complete tumor excision regardless of sufficient margin is considered as a first-line treatment because they are considered reactive rather than a neoplastic condition. Recently, a specific part of the keloids is being highlighted as an important microstructure for local recurrence, but there has been very little evidence. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the relationship of recurrence and several clinicopathological parameters with specific focus on surgical resection margin. A total 87 cases of auricular keloids from 71 patients were included. The resection margins were carefully evaluated by an exhaustive grossing method and thorough microstructural assessment. During up to 48.8 months of the follow-up period, local recurrence has been monitored and documented. The clinicopathological data including symptoms, bilaterality, size, location, prior treatment and operation history, gross type and etiology were collected and analyzed. Positive margin status was significantly related to tumor recurrence (P < 0.0001). Complete excision warrants a lower recurrence of auricular keloids in an Asian population. The most reasonable explanation for this seems to be remnant “proliferating core”, which may serve a key role in local recurrence.



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The Neuroscience of Paid Parental Leave

Having parents present is crucial during an infant’s first weeks of development—but institutions that train physicians don’t always seem to...

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Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 320: The Role of Brincidofovir in Preparation for a Potential Smallpox Outbreak

Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 320: The Role of Brincidofovir in Preparation for a Potential Smallpox Outbreak

Viruses doi: 10.3390/v9110320

Authors: Scott Foster Scott Parker Randall Lanier

Smallpox (variola) virus is considered a Category A bioterrorism agent due to its ability to spread rapidly and the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection. Current recommendations recognize the importance of oral antivirals and call for having at least two smallpox antivirals with different mechanisms of action available in the event of a smallpox outbreak. Multiple antivirals are recommended due in large part to the propensity of viruses to become resistant to antiviral therapy, especially monotherapy. Advances in synthetic biology heighten concerns that a bioterror attack with variola would utilize engineered resistance to antivirals and potentially vaccines. Brincidofovir, an oral antiviral in late stage development, has proven effective against orthopoxviruses in vitro and in vivo, has a different mechanism of action from tecovirimat (the only oral smallpox antiviral currently in the US Strategic National Stockpile), and has a resistance profile that reduces concerns in the scenario of a bioterror attack using genetically engineered smallpox. Given the devastating potential of smallpox as a bioweapon, preparation of a multi-pronged defense that accounts for the most obvious bioengineering possibilities is strategically imperative.



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Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 299: DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update

Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 299: DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update

Genes doi: 10.3390/genes8110299

Authors: Estela Gimenez Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro

Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR &amp; Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.



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Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 298: Chromosome Evolution in the Free-Living Flatworms: First Evidence of Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Karyotype Evolution of Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida)

Genes, Vol. 8, Pages 298: Chromosome Evolution in the Free-Living Flatworms: First Evidence of Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Karyotype Evolution of Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida)

Genes doi: 10.3390/genes8110298

Authors: Kira Zadesenets Nikita Ershov Eugene Berezikov Nikolay Rubtsov

The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a hidden tetraploid. Its genome was formed by a recent whole genome duplication followed by chromosome fusions. Its karyotype (2n = 8) consists of a pair of large chromosomes (MLI1), which contain regions of all other chromosomes, and three pairs of small metacentric chromosomes. Comparison of MLI1 with metacentrics was performed by painting with microdissected DNA probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization of unique DNA fragments. Regions of MLI1 homologous to small metacentrics appeared to be contiguous. Besides the loss of DNA repeat clusters (pericentromeric and telomeric repeats and the 5S rDNA cluster) from MLI1, the difference between small metacentrics MLI2 and MLI4 and regions homologous to them in MLI1 were revealed. Abnormal karyotypes found in the inbred DV1/10 subline were analyzed, and structurally rearranged chromosomes were described with the painting technique, suggesting the mechanism of their origin. The revealed chromosomal rearrangements generate additional diversity, opening the way toward massive loss of duplicated genes from a duplicated genome. Our findings suggest that the karyotype of M. lignano is in the early stage of genome diploidization after whole genome duplication, and further studies on M. lignano and closely related species can address many questions about karyotype evolution in animals.



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Da sabato 4 novembre con I Cioccolatini della Ricerca sosteniamo il lavoro dei ricercatori AIRC

AIRC COMUNICATO STAMPA

In occasione dei Giorni della Ricerca
Da sabato 4 novembre con I Cioccolatini della Ricerca sosteniamo il lavoro dei ricercatori AIRC

I volontari dell’Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro distribuiscono su tutto il territorio,  in oltre 900 piazze, I Cioccolatini della Ricerca per sostenere i 5.000 ricercatori al lavoro ogni giorno per rendere il cancro sempre più curabile.



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Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source–sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand. An alternative view, however, is that NSC accumulation reflects the relatively high NSC levels required for plant survival; an important issue that remains highly controversial. Here, we assembled a new global database to examine broad patterns of seasonal NSC variation across organs (leaves, stems, and belowground), plant functional types (coniferous, drought-deciduous angiosperms, winter deciduous angiosperms, evergreen angiosperms, and herbaceous) and biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and tropical). We compiled data from 121 studies, including seasonal measurements for 177 species under natural conditions. Our results showed that, on average, NSC account for ~10% of dry plant biomass and are highest in leaves and lowest in stems, whereas belowground organs show intermediate concentrations. Total NSC, starch, and soluble sugars (SS) varied seasonally, with a strong depletion of starch during the growing season and a general increase during winter months, particularly in boreal and temperate biomes. Across functional types, NSC concentrations were highest and most variable in herbaceous species and in conifer needles. Conifers showed the lowest stem and belowground NSC concentrations. Minimum NSC values were relatively high (46% of seasonal maximums on average for total NSC) and, in contrast to average values, were similar among biomes and functional types. Overall, although starch depletion was relatively common, seasonal depletion of total NSC or SS was rare. These results are consistent with a dual view of NSC function: whereas starch acts mostly as a reservoir for future use, soluble sugars perform immediate functions (e.g., osmoregulation) and are kept above some critical threshold. If confirmed, this dual function of NSC will have important implications for the way we understand and model plant carbon allocation and survival under stress.

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Water and solutes dynamics during rainfall events in headwater catchments in the Central Swiss Alps under the influence of green alder shrubs and wetland soils

In the Swiss Alps, shrubs (e.g. Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC) are encroaching into formerly open habitats. The shrub encroachment might affect soil hydrological properties, which in turn influence runoff generation. Moreover, alder species (Alnus spp.) are known to affect chemical soil properties (e.g. increase of nitrate concentrations in the soil solution) and can therefore alter the water quality of stream water. In our study, we investigated four small alpine headwater catchments to assess the influence of shrub encroachment and wetland soils on stream water geochemistry during storm runoff. Stream water was sampled in the growing season of 2010 at hourly intervals during one single rainfall event. Stable isotope values (δ18O) of stream water (ranging from −13.8 to −8.5‰) and rainfall (bulk mean δ18O value of about −5.6‰) during the single event were used to estimate the fraction of event water in stream discharge. Continuously measured electrical conductivity in the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 was used to infer information on runoff generation during 15 rainfall events. Riparian wetland soils were flushed by a high fraction of event water of up to 72% during peak discharge, which increased the dissolved organic carbon export during the single rainfall event. Besides the atmospheric input through nitrate in rainwater, the expected expansion of green alder shrubs in the region, associated with increasing number and intensity of summer rainfall events in the future, might increase the episodic export of nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon and NO3− from these catchments.

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Seed bank and big sagebrush plant community composition in a range margin for big sagebrush

The potential influence of seed bank composition on range shifts of species due to climate change is unclear. Seed banks can provide a means of both species persistence in an area and local range expansion in the case of increasing habitat suitability, as may occur under future climate change. However, a mismatch between the seed bank and the established plant community may represent an obstacle to persistence and expansion. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plant communities in Montana, USA, we compared the seed bank to the established plant community. There was less than a 20% similarity in the relative abundance of species between the established plant community and the seed bank. This difference was primarily driven by an overrepresentation of native annual forbs and an underrepresentation of big sagebrush in the seed bank compared to the established plant community. Even though we expect an increase in habitat suitability for big sagebrush under future climate conditions at our sites, the current mismatch between the plant community and the seed bank could impede big sagebrush range expansion into increasingly suitable habitat in the future.

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Spatial and ecological variation in dryland ecohydrological responses to climate change: implications for management

Ecohydrological responses to climate change will exhibit spatial variability and understanding the spatial pattern of ecological impacts is critical from a land management perspective. To quantify climate change impacts on spatial patterns of ecohydrology across shrub steppe ecosystems in North America, we asked the following question: How will climate change impacts on ecohydrology differ in magnitude and variability across climatic gradients, among three big sagebrush ecosystems (SB-Shrubland, SB-Steppe, SB-Montane), and among Sage-grouse Management Zones? We explored these potential changes for mid-century for RCP8.5 using a process-based water balance model (SOILWAT) for 898 big sagebrush sites using site- and scenario-specific inputs. We summarize changes in available soil water (ASW) and dry days, as these ecohydrological variables may be helpful in guiding land management decisions about where to geographically concentrate climate change mitigation and adaptation resources. Our results suggest that during spring, soils will be wetter in the future across the western United States, while soils will be drier in the summer. The magnitude of those predictions differed depending on geographic position and the ecosystem in question: Larger increases in mean daily spring ASW were expected for high-elevation SB-Montane sites and the eastern and central portions of our study area. The largest decreases in mean daily summer ASW were projected for warm, dry, mid-elevation SB-Montane sites in the central and west-central portions of our study area (decreases of up to 50%). Consistent with declining summer ASW, the number of dry days was projected to increase rangewide, but particularly for SB-Montane and SB-Steppe sites in the eastern and northern regions. Collectively, these results suggest that most sites will be drier in the future during the summer, but changes were especially large for mid- to high-elevation sites in the northern half of our study area. Drier summer conditions in high-elevation, SB-Montane sites may result in increased habitat suitability for big sagebrush, while those same changes will likely reduce habitat suitability for drier ecosystems. Our work has important implications for where land managers should prioritize resources for the conservation of North American shrub steppe plant communities and the species that depend on them.

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Ten years of eddy covariance measurements in Basel, Switzerland: Seasonal and interannual variabilities of urban CO2 mole fraction and flux

Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in urban environments are carried out widely since the late nineties. However, long-term time series are still rare and little is known about long-term tendencies, even though cities are major sources of CO2 globally. Here a full decade of EC measurements from Basel, Switzerland, is presented. An approach for the calculation of horizontal averages is presented. It improves the significance and comparability of measured fluxes from heterogeneous environments and emphasizes the need of adequate weighting by horizontal averaging in such heterogeneous urban environments, especially for the derivation of cumulative quantities like the annual net ecosystem exchange. The urban CO2 mole fraction (ρC) is compared with regional background measurements, and good agreement in terms of long-term trend and seasonal variability is found. Over the last decade an increase of 2 ppm y1 is observed, both locally and globally. CO2 flux (FC) data are analyzed for diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as interannual variabilities. FC shows a large interannual variability in times of high source activity (e.g., during the day and in winter). In contrast, a relatively constant background flux of 5 μmolm2 s1 is found during periods of low source activity. The long-term trend of FC is mostly superimposed by the large temporal variability and is found to be 5% over the last 10 years.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood: Evidence From a Birth Cohort Supporting a Late-Onset Syndrome

The requirement of a childhood onset has always been a key criterion for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, but recently this requirement has become surrounded by controversy.; To investigate whether impaired young adults with ADHD symptoms always have a childhood-onset disorder in a population-based longitudinal study.; Participants belonged to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, including 5249 individuals born in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993. They were followed up to 18 to 19 years of age, with 81.3% retention. The data analysis was performed between August 8, 2015, and February 5, 2016.; The ADHD status was first ascertained at 11 years of age using a screening instrument (hyperactivity subscale of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) calibrated for a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis based on clinical interviews with parents using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. At 18 to 19 years of age, ADHD diagnosis was derived using DSM-5 criteria, except age at onset. We estimated the overlap between these groups assessed at 11 and 18 to 19 years of age and the rates of markers of impairment in these 2 groups compared with those without ADHD.; At 11 years of age, childhood ADHD (C-ADHD) was present in 393 individuals (8.9%). At 18 to 19 years of age, 492 individuals (12.2%) fulfilled all DSM-5 criteria for young adult ADHD (YA-ADHD), except age at onset. After comorbidities were excluded, the prevalence of YA-ADHD without comorbidities decreased to 256 individuals (6.3%). Children with C-ADHD had a male preponderance not observed among children without ADHD (251 [63.9%] vs 1930 [47.9%] male, P < .001), whereas the YA-ADHD group had a female preponderance (192 [39.0%] vs 1786 [50.4%] male, P < .001). Both groups had increased levels of impairment in adulthood, as measured by traffic incidents, criminal behavior, incarceration, suicide attempts, and comorbidities. However, only 60 children (17.2%) with ADHD continued to have ADHD as young adults, and only 60 young adults (12.6%) with ADHD had the disorder in childhood.; The findings of this study do not support the assumption that adulthood ADHD is necessarily a continuation of childhood ADHD. Rather, they suggest the existence of 2 syndromes that have distinct developmental trajectories.

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Soil formation and weathering in a permafrost environment of the Swiss Alps: a multi-parameter and non-steady-state approach

Spatially discontinuous permafrost conditions frequently occur in the European Alps. How soils under such conditions have evolved and how they may react to climate warming is largely unknown. This study focuses on the comparison of nearby soils that are characterised by the presence or absence of permafrost (active-layer thickness: 2–3 m) in the alpine (tundra) and subalpine (forest) range of the Eastern Swiss Alps using a multi-method (geochemical and mineralogical) approach. Moreover, a new non-steady-state concept was applied to determine rates of chemical weathering, soil erosion, soil formation, soil denudation, and soil production. Long-term chemical weathering rates, soil formation and erosion rates were assessed by using immobile elements, fine-earth stocks and meteoric 10Be. In addition, the weathering index (K + Ca)/Ti, the amount of Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides and clay minerals characteristics were considered. All methods indicated that the differences between permafrost-affected and non-permafrost-affected soils were small. Furthermore, the soils did not uniformly differ in their weathering behaviour. A tendency towards less intense weathering in soils that were affected by permafrost was noted: at most sites, weathering rates, the proportion of oxyhydroxides and the weathering stage of clay minerals were lower in permafrost soils. In part, erosion rates were higher at the permafrost sites and accounted for 79–97% of the denudation rates. In general, soil formation rates (8.8–86.7 t/km2/yr) were in the expected range for Alpine soils. Independent of permafrost conditions, it seems that the local microenvironment (particularly vegetation and subsequently soil organic matter) has strongly influenced denudation rates. As the climate has varied since the beginning of soil evolution, the conditions for soil formation and weathering were not stable over time. Soil evolution in high Alpine settings is complex owing to, among others, spatio-temporal variations of permafrost conditions and thus climate. This makes predictions of future behaviour very difficult.

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Modelling Hot Spots of Soil Loss by Wind Erosion (SOLOWIND) in Western Saxony, Germany

While it needs yet to be assessed whether or not wind erosion in Western Saxony is a major point of concern regarding land degradation and fertility, it has already been recognized that considerable off-site effects of wind erosion in the adjacent regions of Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg are connected to the spread of herbicides, pesticides and dust. So far no wind erosion assessment for Western Saxony, Germany, exists. The wind erosion model previously applied for Germany (DIN standard 19706) is neither considering changes in wind direction over time nor influences of field size. This study aims to provide a first assessment of wind erosion for Western Saxony by extending the existing DIN model to a multidirectional model on Soil Loss by Wind (SoLoWind) with new controlling factors (changing wind directions, soil cover, mean field length and mean protection zone) combined by fuzzy logic. SoLoWind is used for a local off-site effect evaluation in combination with high resolution wind speed and wind direction data at a section of the highway A72. The model attributes 3.6% of the arable fields in Western Saxony to the very high wind erosion risk class. A relationship between larger fields (greater than 116 ha) and higher proportions (51.7%) of very high wind erosion risk can be observed. Sections of the highway A72 might be under high risk according to the modeled off-site effects of wind erosion. The presented applications showed the potential of SoLoWind to support and consult management for protection measures on a regional scale.

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Effects of climate change on methane emissions from seafloor sediments in the Arctic Ocean: A review

Large quantities of methane are stored in hydrates and permafrost within shallow marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean. These reservoirs are highly sensitive to climate warming, but the fate of methane released from sediments is uncertain. Here, we review the principal physical and biogeochemical processes that regulate methane fluxes across the seabed, the fate of this methane in the water column, and potential for its release to the atmosphere. We find that, at present, fluxes of dissolved methane are significantly moderated by anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of methane. If methane fluxes increase then a greater proportion of methane will be transported by advection or in the gas phase, which reduces the efficiency of the methanotrophic sink. Higher freshwater discharge to Arctic shelf seas may increase stratification and inhibit transfer of methane gas to surface waters, although there is some evidence that increased stratification may lead to warming of sub-pycnocline waters, increasing the potential for hydrate dissociation. Loss of sea-ice is likely to increase wind speeds and sea-air exchange of methane will consequently increase. Studies of the distribution and cycling of methane beneath and within sea ice are limited, but it seems likely that the sea-air methane flux is higher during melting in seasonally ice-covered regions. Our review reveals that increased observations around especially the anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of methane, bubble transport, and the effects of ice cover, are required to fully understand the linkages and feedback pathways between climate warming and release of methane from marine sediments.

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The varied ways of being male and female

Our understanding of sexual reproduction is mainly informed by research on gonochorists (i.e. species with separate sexes), including insects, birds, and mammals. But the male and female sexes are not two types of individuals; they actually represent two different reproductive strategies, and in many organisms these two strategies are distributed among individuals in a population in a variety of ways. For example, sequential hermaphrodites (or sex-changers) exhibit one strategy early in life, and later switch to the other, while simultaneous hermaphrodites exhibit both strategies at the same time. There are also many intermediate sexual systems that mix gonochorists and hermaphrodites in the same species and within many organismal groups, shifts occur between these sexual systems. A fascinating collection of six articles in this special issue on Hermaphroditism & Sex Determination impressively documents some important challenges to our understanding of sex determination, and the specification of male and female reproductive function when these need to occur within the same individual rather than in two separate individuals. Moreover, hermaphroditism changes how we need to think about reproductive allocation to sexual functions, how such allocation can be specified, as well as how this sexual system affects sexual conflict and the resulting antagonistic coevolution. Our understanding of sexual reproduction will profit greatly from exploring the varied ways of being male and female.

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Palsa Uplift Identified by Stable Isotope Depth Profiles and Relation of δ15N to C/N Ratio

Palsas develop as permafrost aggradation uplifts peat out of the zone influenced by groundwater. Here we relate δ15N values to C/N ratios along depth profiles through palsas in two peatlands near Abisko, northern Sweden, to identify perturbation of the peat. The perturbation by uplift as well as the potential nutrient input from the adjacent hollows can be detected in soil δ15N values when related to the C/N ratio at the same depth. Nine out of ten profiles show a perturbation at the depth where peat was uplifted by permafrost. Palsa uplift could be detected by the δ15N depth pattern, with the highest δ15N values at the so-called turning point. The δ15N values increase above and decrease below the turning point, when permafrost initiated uplift. Onset of permafrost aggradation calculated from peat accumulation rates was between 80 and 545 years ago, with a mean of 242 ( ±66) years for Stordalen and 365 ( ±53) years for Storflaket peatland. The mean ages of permafrost aggradation are within the Little Ice Age. Depth profiles of δ15N, when related to C/N ratio, seem to be a suitable tool to detect perturbation and uplift of palsas.

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Photoactivatable RNAi for cancer gene therapy triggered by near-infrared-irradiated single-walled carbon nanotubes

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2279: PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2279: PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18112279

Authors: Wolfgang Blenau Sabine Balfanz Arnd Baumann

The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i) whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca2+ signals or both Ca2+ signals and effects on [cAMP]i. Here; we report that the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B) in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1). When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP]i. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.



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Telephone triage could further stress primary care

Telephone triage might seem an attractive way to ensure that valuable clinic time is prioritised for those who need face to face discussions and examinations and to enable more patient contacts in...
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Subsurface flow mixing in coarse, braided river deposits

Coarse, braided river deposits show a large hydraulic heterogeneity on the metre scale. One of the main depositional elements found in such deposits is a trough structure filled with layers of bimodal gravel and open-framework gravel, the latter being highly permeable. However, the impact of such trough fills on subsurface flow and advective mixing has not drawn much attention. A geologically realistic model of trough fills is proposed and fitted to a limited number of ground-penetrating radar records surveyed on the river bed of the Tagliamento River (northeast Italy). A steady-state, saturated subsurface flow simulation is performed on the small-scale, high-resolution, synthetic model (size: 75 m x 80 m x 9 m). Advective mixing (i.e. streamline intertwining) is visualised and quantified based on particle tracking. The results indicate strong advective mixing as well as a large flow deviation induced by the asymmetry of the trough fills with regard to the main flow direction. The flow deviation induces a partial, large-scale rotational effect. These findings depict possible advective mixing found in natural environments and can guide the interpretation of ecological processes such as in the hyporheic zone.

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Efficacy of an extract of the medulla of Juncus effusus on grapevine and apple plants against Plasmopara viticola and Venturia inaequalis, and identification of the main active compound

BACKGROUND There is growing demand to replace chemical pesticides with alternatives owing to concerns related to impacts on human health and the environment. Plant-derived plant protection products could provide sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical products. The aim of this study was to identify plant and fungal extracts with so far unknown activity against important plant pathogens by in vitro screening of a library of more than 3000 extracts. RESULTS Several plant extracts with promising in vitro fungicidal activity (MIC100 ≤ 50 µg mL−1) towards one or several of the investigated pathogens (Venturia ineaqualis, Phytophthora infestans, Plasmopara viticola) were identified by the screening. One of the hits, an ethyl acetate extract of Juncus effusus L. medulla, was further investigated, and dehydroeffusol (DHEF) was identified as its main active constituent. On susceptible grapevine and apple seedlings, efficacies of up to 100% were reached with the extract (EC50 123 or 156 µg mL−1) and with DHEF (EC50 18 or 21 µg mL−1) against P. viticola and V. inaequalis respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that plants can provide promising alternatives for integrated and organic farming. J. effusus shows high efficacy at low concentrations and, as an abundant perennial species, is an interesting candidate for the development of a novel plant protection product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry

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Critically low soil temperatures for root growth and root morphology in three alpine plant species

Limited rates of tissue formation most likely constrain plant growth at low temperatures. Yet, temperature thresholds and growth dynamics under critically cold conditions have still to be identified. We utilized microhabitat contrasts in soil temperature along glacial and melt water streams to study temperature effects on root extension growth and root morphology of Ranunculus glacialis, Homogyne alpina and Poa alpina at ca. 2500 m elevation in the Swiss Alps. Plants were grown in containers filled with glacial silt, embedded in stream water, with root windows allowing the monitoring of root development for 41 days in naturally ‘cold’ substrate temperatures (hardly ever exceeding 5 °C), and 5–8 K warmer substrates. Plants grown in the cold substrate had significantly less roots and roots were pale and unbranched. Under cold conditions, total root length was 83 % shorter and total root dry mass was 67 % lower than in warm substrate. In contrast, aboveground biomass was hardly affected. Mean root elongation rates were 47 % lower under cold substrate conditions. The frequency distribution of root temperatures and root elongation rates showed a substantial reduction of apical root growth below 3–5 °C, with growth approaching zero at ca. 2 °C. A thermal sum of ca. 20°h > 2 °C per four-day interval is at least required for detectable root elongation, At a 5 °C threshold, thermal sums of ca. 40°h > 5 °C within 4 days allowed the formation of a fully developed root system during the short alpine summer. Substrate temperatures above 10 °C exerted no further stimulation in root growth.

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Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signals for an entire alpine flora, based on herbarium samples

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes provide time-integrated signals of plant carbon and nitrogen relations. We assessed an entire alpine flora in the Swiss Alps at ca. 2400 m elevation, using year 2007 herbarium samples of 245 species, 141 genera and 42 families to explore functional trait diversity. Despite overall similar macro-environmental conditions (moisture, soils, elevation), signal variation covered the full spectrum known for C3 plants. Variation among means for plant families for both δ13C and δ15N was smaller than variation among species within families. Species identity was of far greater importance than family affiliation. Similarly, tissue nitrogen and carbon concentrations varied in a rather species-specific manner, not permitting any a priori plant functional group definition based on such traits. The study also yielded tissue-type specificity of isotope signals. The elevation signal in δ13C (known to be less negative at high elevation) was much less pronounced than observed previously in con-generic comparisons. Thus, elevational δ13C trends are hard to distinguish from species effects in mixed populations over narrow ranges of elevation. δ15N data offer more space for ecological interpretation and show family specificity of signals in few cases. Cyperaceae, the most prominent family in this region, show no discrimination against 15N (like Fabaceae) and must have access to N sources different from most other families. This deserves experimental clarification, given the significance of Cyperaceae in cold environments. Overall, our study evidenced very high functional diversity among alpine plant species, as captured by these isotope signals.

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Plasticity of flower longevity in alpine plants is increased in populations from high elevation compared to low elevation populations

Flower longevity is an adaptive trait, optimized to balance reproductive success against the costs of flower maintenance. The trait is highly plastic in response to pollination success, and numerous studies report increased flower longevity in high elevation environments, where diversity, abundance, and activity of pollinators are low. However, few studies have experimentally investigated how flower longevity varies with pollination intensity within and among populations. We studied flower longevity of six alpine species under three pollination intensity treatments (hand-pollination, natural pollination, pollinator exclusion) at 1600 m vs. 2600 m a.s.l. at the Furka Pass, Central Swiss Alps. We hypothesized, (1) that flower longevity is generally increased in population at high elevation, and (2) that the increase in flower longevity when pollination fails is stronger in populations at high elevation compared to low elevation. Hand-pollination did not decrease flower longevity in any of the studied populations and rarely increased natural seed production suggesting no pollination limitation at both elevations. This was supported by similar pollinator visitation rates, pollinator efficiency, and pollination effectivity. Pollinator exclusion significantly increased flower longevity, but only in populations of three species at low elevation, whereby in all populations of the six species at high elevation, indicating a higher plasticity of flowers in populations at high elevation compared to populations from lower elevation. We suggest that the higher plasticity of flower longevity in alpine populations is of advantage in their unpredictable pollination environment: Increased flower longevity compensates for low pollination in unsuitable periods guaranteeing a minimum reproduction, while the capacity to senescence rapidly after successful pollination saves redundant floral costs in suitable periods.

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"Slash and burn" or "weed and manure"? A modelling approach to explore hypotheses of late Neolithic crop cultivation in pre-alpine wetland sites

The record of prehistoric crop cultivation in central Europe dates as far back as 5500 BC. In the piledwellings of the north-western pre-alpine forelands, dating roughly from 4300 to 800 BC, favourable taphonomic conditions provide evidence for the ways of cereal cultivation and consumption in unmatched detail. Based on different sets of (bio-) archaeological and palynological evidence, different hypotheses of crop husbandry methods have been developed for the wetland settlements. During the late Neolithic, two partly antithetic ideas are discussed: On one hand Shifting Cultivation assumes frequently shifted crop fields and the use of fire to provide nitrogen for plant uptake; On the other hand Permanent Cultivation reconstructs longer-ranging use of the fields, to which nitrogen may have been provided by various means. From the Bronze Age onwards, most probably some form of extensive ard cultivation was applied. In this article, we explore the implications of the different hypotheses for the socio-ecological system of the wetland sites. We combine the capability of agent-based modelling to simulate dynamic processes with the benefits provided by geographical information systems and the possibilities provided by the use of modern agro-ecosystem modelling tools. First, we used a mechanistic crop growth model, MONICA, to evaluate the influence of important factors of prehistoric crop yield formation: the climatic conditions, the soil texture and the degree of nitrogen availability. Second, we applied an agent-based model (WELASSIMO_crops) to simulate the spatial and economic implications related to the different crop husbandry methods. Our results provide quantitative information on the extent of crop husbandry activities in the wetland sites and on the effect of natural and anthropogenic factors on prehistoric crop yields. Without manure application, initial average yields of 1.0 t ha-1 a-1 are shown to decrease rapidly to only 50 %after 10 years. A manuring rate of 10 t ha-1 a-1 allows for higher yields of 1.7 t ha-1 a-1 and a slower rate of fertility decrease, but requires high numbers of livestock per capita. In shifting cultivation, high yields of 2.7 t ha-1 a-1 are reasonable, while necessitating a very large area and high labour input. Using the model results and a case study, we argue that permanent cultivation is more likely to have been the standard method, while burning of the landscape may have had different objectives than crop husbandry. We find that the combination of agent-based social and process-based biophysical modelling is a powerful tool to study the complex interdependencies in human-environment systems in the past.

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Long-term treatment of chronic migraine with OnabotulinumtoxinA: efficacy, quality of life and tolerability in a real-life setting

Botulinum toxin was shown to be effective in treatment of chronic migraine. We wanted to explore its efficacy and tolerability in chronic application under real-life conditions. For this, 27 consecutive patients (age 45.6 ± 10.8 years, 25 females, 2 males) received altogether 176 injection series (IS) with 189.7 ± 45.8MU onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) according to the PREEMPT scheme. During the study period altogether 6.5 ± 2.9 (min 4, max 13) IS were applied per patient (total treatment time of 73.1 ± 36.9 weeks). 96 % of the patients reported benefit. Monthly headache days were reduced from 18.9 ± 3.9 to 8.7 ± 4.5 (p < 0.001, -53.7 %), migraine days from 16.8 ± 4.9 to 7.4 ± 4.6 (p < 0.001, -55.1 %), autonomic days from 8.6 ± 7.5 to 2.7 ± 4.2 (p < 0.001, -71.9 %) and medication days from 14.2 ± 4.6 to 8.3 ± 4.2 (p < 0.001, -71.1 %). Health-related quality of life improved by 0.6-1.5 standard deviations (SD) (Short Form Health Survey), migraine-related quality of life by 1.4-2.0 SD (Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire) and by 1.9 SD (Headache Impact Test), depression by 1.1 SD (Beck Depression Inventory). Subjective global clinical improvement was 2.6 ± 0.6 (Global Clinical Improvement Scale). All improvements were stable throughout the entire study period. Adverse effects were infrequent, mild and transient. Botulinum toxin provides highly effective and safe long-term treatment of chronic migraine.

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Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults

We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

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Shrub Expansion of Alnus viridis Drives Former Montane Grassland into Nitrogen Saturation

The N2-fixing shrub Alnus viridis is currently encroaching on montane grasslands in the Alps as a result of reduced land management and complete abandonment. Alnus introduces large amounts of nitrogen (N) into these formerly N-poor grasslands and restricts the succession to montane forests. We studied pools and fluxes of N and the associated C pools in pastures (controls) and adjacent Alnus shrublands at two elevations (1650 versus 1950 m a.s.l.) in three valleys in the Swiss central Alps. The total N and C pools stored in 50-year-old Alnus shrubland did not exceed those in adjacent pastures with a total of approximately 610 g N m-2 in phytomass plus soil (down to 30 cm) at both elevations. In Alnus stands, reduced soil N pools balanced the gain in phytomass N pools, a likely result of a faster turnover of soil N. The soil solution under Alnus was continuously enriched with nitrate, with a total N leaching of 0.79 g N m-2 season -1 (June–October) under 50-year-old stands at both elevations and the highest flux of 1.76 g N m-2 season-1 in 25-year-old shrubland at low elevation, clearly indicating an excess of available N in Alnus shrubland. In contrast, N leaching across all pastures was close to zero (0.08 g N m-2) throughout the season. At the catchment scale, streamlet water showed increased nitrate concentrations with typical flushing peaks in spring and autumn, provided more than one fifth of the catchment area was covered by Alnus shrubs. We conclude that the expansion of Alnus rapidly converts centuries-old, N-poor grassland into N saturated shrubland, irrespective of elevation, and it reduces the C storage potential of the landscape because the Alnus dominance constrains re-establishment of a natural montane forest.

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Hit-to-lead optimization of a novel class of potent, broad-spectrum trypanosomacides

The parasitic trypanosomes Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi are responsible for significant human suffering in the form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease. Drugs currently available to treat these neglected diseases leave much to be desired. Herein we report optimization of a novel class of N-(2-(2-phenylthiazol-4-yl)ethyl)amides, carbamates, and ureas, which rapidly, selectively, and potently kill both species of trypanosome. The mode of action of these compounds is unknown but does not involve CYP51 inhibition. They do, however, exhibit clear structure-activity relationships, consistent across both trypanosome species. Favorable physicochemical parameters place the best compounds in CNS drug-like chemical space but, as a class, they exhibit poor metabolic stability. One of the best compounds (64a) cleared all signs of T. cruzi infection in mice when CYP metabolism was inhibited, with sterile cure achieved in one mouse. This family of compounds thus shows significant promise for trypanosomiasis drug discovery.

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Business Actors in Mediation Processes

Even though the relevance of business actors in peace processes is increasingly acknowledged, analysis of their particular roles and contributions remain sparse in peace mediation literature. This is despite the fact that such knowledge would be highly relevant for supporting mediation processes such as those ongoing in Colombia or the Philippines. This article looks at the involvement of business actors in mediation processes by tracing analysis along the entry points for involvement, the different roles that business actors can play and the limitations they face. The empirical data shows that business actors mainly play a role during the pre- and mediation phase and therein often as a support-giver to the mediation process. Furthermore, most of the involvement does not take place at track-1 level but rather at track-2 mediation processes, where mainly local business play an important role. In contrary to what is postulated by some of the literature, the relevance of utilitaristic motives is not problematic; rather a monetary motivation can also foster the credibility in a political process where a lot is at stake.

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Governments’ Interventions into the Real Economy under WTO Law Revisited: New Tendencies of Governmental Support of the Automobile Industry

The automobile industry has received unprecedented governmental support during the ongoing economic crisis. Rescue packages have been provided to sustain the significant market branch and asserted key driver of growth, export, innovation, and jobs particularly in the EU and the United States and to avoid further downward spirals, which risk affecting the national economies on a wider scale. Since such tendencies can have trade distorting effects, however, the question arises whether the increased governmental interventions are compatible with the World Trade Organization (WTO) legal framework, which arguably enshrines free trade theory in international law. By adopting a legal perspective, this contribution shall address the state’s role in global markets and examine the degree of policy space that is conferred to WTO Member States in support of real economy sectors.

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Corruption and the WTO Legal System

The World Trade Organization (WTO) has no substantive rules directly addressing corruption in trade relations. There are, however, numerous legal provisions in the various WTO texts that offer indirect support to traders facing corrupt trade administrators. Whether these provisions are sufficient to address the bulk of trade-related corruption is questionable, given the narrow range of corrupt practices that are affected by these, mainly procedural, obligations. This article sets out a framework for further research into the question of how corruption affects trade liberalization, and puts forth a suggestion for how the WTO could take a step towards remedying its avoidance of the topic of corruption while not exceeding its functional scope of regulating trade relations among Members.

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Case C-236/09, Association belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats ASBL, Yann van Vugt, Charles Basselier v. Conseil des ministres



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Effect of Filler Shape on the Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Functional Composites

With the rapid development of electronic industry, heat dissipation issue becomes more and more important. Thermal functional composites (TFCs) are usually binary composites, filled with thermal conductive additives (nanomaterials) in matrix, and the composites show good thermal performance. The theoretical and experimental results show that the filler shape is one of the most important but easily overlooked factors. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the effect of the filler shape on the thermal conductivity of TFCs, and the heat transfer enhancement based on synergistic effect is also summed up. Finally, the future trends of further improving thermal properties of TFCs are predicted.

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Comparison of US Strain Elastography and Entero-MRI to Typify the Mesenteric and Bowel Wall Changes during Crohn’s Disease: A Pilot Study

Purpose. To evaluate and compare the mesenteric and bowel wall changes during Crohn’s disease (CD) on ultrasonography (US) Strain Elastography (SE) and Enterography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (E-MRI). Methods. From July 2014 to September 2016, 35 patients with ileocolonoscopy diagnosis of CD were prospectively examined with E-MRI and in the same time with US and SE. Results. A total of 41 affected bowel segments and 35 unaffected bowel segments in 35 patients were evaluated. US-SE color-scale coding showed a blue color pattern in the fibrotic mesentery and bowel wall in 15 patients and a green color pattern in the edematous ones in 20 patients. The signal of the bowel wall and mesenteric fat was iso/hypointense on T2-weighted sequence in the fibrotic pattern (23/35 and 12/35 patients) and hyperintense in the edematous pattern (12/35 and 23/35 patients). Mean ADC values were, respectively, 2,,33 × 10−3 for the fibrotic mesentery and 2,,28 × 10−3 for edematous one. There was a statistical correlation between US-SE color-scale and T2 signal intensity and between the US-SE color-scale and ADC maps. Conclusions. US-SE, ADC, and signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences on MR prove to be useful tools for the evaluation of CD pattern.

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Subthreshold Psychiatric Psychopathology in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Can It Be the Bridge between Gastroenterology and Psychiatry?

Background and Aims. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are multifactorial disorders of the gut-brain interaction. This study investigated the prevalence of Axis I and spectrum disorders in patients with FGD and established the link between FGDs and psychopathological dimensions. Methods. A total of 135 consecutive patients with FGD were enrolled. The symptoms’ severity was evaluated using questionnaires, while the psychiatric evaluation by clinical interviews established the presence/absence of mental (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual—4th edition, Axis I Diagnosis) or spectrum disorders. Results. Of the 135 patients, 42 (32.3%) had functional dyspepsia, 52 (40.0%) had irritable bowel syndrome, 21 (16.2%) had functional bloating, and 20 (15.4%) had functional constipation. At least one psychiatric disorder was present in 46.9% of the patients, while a suprathreshold panic spectrum was present in 26.2%. Functional constipation was associated with depressive disorders (), while functional dyspepsia was related to the current major depressive episode (). Obsessive-compulsive spectrum was correlated with the presence of functional constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (). Conclusion. The high prevalence of subthreshold psychiatric symptomatology in patients with FGD, which is likely to influence the expression of gastrointestinal symptoms, suggested the usefulness of psychological evaluation in patients with FGDs.

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Migraine and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case-Referent Clinical Study

We studied clinical phenotype differences between migraineurs with CRPS (Mig + CRPS) and those without (Mig − CRPS). Mig + CRPS cases and Mig − CRPS referents aged ≥18 years were enrolled. Diagnosis was made in accordance with International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) for migraine and Budapest Criteria for CRPS. Migraines both with and without aura were included. A total of 70 Mig + CRPS cases (13% males, mean age 48 years) and 80 Mig − CRPS referents (17% males, mean age 51 years) were included. 33% of Mig + CRPS and 38% of Mig − CRPS exhibited episodic migraine (EM) while 66% of Mig + CRPS and 62% of Mig − CRPS had chronic migraine (CM) (OR = 0.98, CI 0.36, 2.67). Median duration of CRPS was 3 years among EM + CRPS and 6 years among CM + CRPS cohort (). Mig + CRPS (57%) carried higher psychological and medical comorbidities compared to Mig − CRPS (6%) (OR 16.7, CI 10.2, 23.6). Higher migraine frequency was associated with longer CRPS duration. Migraineurs who developed CRPS had higher prevalence of psychological and medical disorders. Alleviating migraineurs’ psychological and medical comorbidities may help lower CRPS occurrence.

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A Novel Method to Investigate the Effect of Social Network “Hook” Images on Purchasing Prospects in E-Commerce

Background. Social network visual shopping trends are growing e-commerce at unprecedented levels. Images are used as product marketing material; however, image posts are triggering very low consumer behavior and low sales conversion. Objective. To explore how online stores can increase the purchasing prospects of their products using images on social networks. Methods. We introduce a theoretical probabilistic model to estimate consumer behavioral intention and purchasing prospect on social networks, outline parameters that can be exploited to increase click-rate and conversion, and motivate a new strategy to market products online. The model explores increasing online stores’ sales conversion by utilizing a product collection landing page that is marketed to consumers through a single “Hook” image. To implement the model, we developed a novel technological method that enabled online stores to post different “Hook” images on social networks and hyperlink them to the product collection landing pages they created. Results. Stores and marketers developed four types of “Hook” images: themed-collaged product images, single product images, lifestyle images, and model images. Themed-collaged product images accounted for 60% of consumer traffic from social network sites. Moreover, consumer purchasing click rate increased at least twofold (4.94%) with the use of product collection landing pages.

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HINT1 in Neuropsychiatric Diseases: A Potential Neuroplastic Mediator

Although many studies have investigated the functions of histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), its roles in neurobiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. As a member of the histidine triad (HIT) enzyme superfamily, HINT1 is distributed in almost every organ and has both enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity. Accumulating clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that HINT1 may play an important role as a neuroplastic mediator in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, inherited peripheral neuropathies, mood disorders, and drug addiction. Though our knowledge of HINT1 is limited, it is believed that further research on the neuropathological functions of HINT1 would eventually benefit patients with neuropsychiatric and even psychosomatic diseases.

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A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis

Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs) to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.

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Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 149: Novel Mechanisms of ALK Activation Revealed by Analysis of the Y1278S Neuroblastoma Mutation

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 149: Novel Mechanisms of ALK Activation Revealed by Analysis of the Y1278S Neuroblastoma Mutation

Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9110149

Authors: Jikui Guan Yasuo Yamazaki Damini Chand Jesper van Dijk Kristina Ruuth Ruth Palmer Bengt Hallberg

Numerous mutations have been observed in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in both germline and sporadic neuroblastoma. Here, we have investigated the Y1278S mutation, observed in four patient cases, and its potential importance in the activation of the full length ALK receptor. Y1278S is located in the 1278-YRASYY-1283 motif of the ALK activation loop, which has previously been reported to be important in the activation of the ALK kinase domain. In this study, we have characterized activation loop mutations within the context of the full length ALK employing cell culture and Drosophila melanogaster model systems. Our results show that the Y1278S mutant observed in patients with neuroblastoma harbors gain-of-function activity. Secondly, we show that the suggested interaction between Y1278 and other amino acids might be of less importance in the activation process of the ALK kinase than previously proposed. Thirdly, of the three individual tyrosines in the 1278-YRASYY-1283 activation loop, we find that Y1283 is the critical tyrosine in the activation process. Taken together, our observations employing different model systems reveal new mechanistic insights on how the full length ALK receptor is activated and highlight differences with earlier described activation mechanisms observed in the NPM-ALK fusion protein, supporting a mechanism of activation more in line with those observed for the Insulin Receptor (InR).



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Survival in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Report from a large Norwegian Population-based Study

Abstract

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are heterogeneous tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells. Their malignant potential varies from indolence to high-grade malignancy (carcinomas). We studied the survival of all NENs in Norway according to malignant potential and different primary sites. We identified all NEN cases diagnosed in 1993-2015 and reported to the national population-based Cancer Registry of Norway. We included 62 morphological types. According to morphological characteristics and known disease behavior, we stratified the tumors into two different groups: low/intermediate aggressiveness and high aggressiveness. A total of 17,128 NENs were analyzed. Median age was 67 years and 47.6% were females. The most common primary sites were in the lungs and the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system. The 5-year relative survival in patients with low/intermediate aggressive NENs was 64.8% (95% CI, 63.3-66.2) and high aggressive NENs 8.4% (95% CI, 7.8-9.1). Females had higher survival rates than males (p <0.001). The relative 5-year survival rate in patients younger than 50 years was 89.1% (95% CI, 87.4-90.7) vs 41.0% (95% CI, 34.9-46.9) in patients ≥ 80 years. In multivariable analysis gender, age at diagnosis, time of diagnosis, stage and primary sites were all predictors of outcome both in patients with low/intermediate tumors and high aggressive tumors. Survival improved significantly over time, regardless of sex, age and tumor stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Determinants of physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue: During breast cancer therapy and 12 months follow-up

Abstract

Fatigue is common in cancer survivors but often insufficiently treated. Due to its complexity a one-size-fits-all treatment seems not appropriate. To gain more information on influencing factors and sub-dimensions of fatigue we investigated potential determinants and correlates of physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue in breast cancer survivors during and after adjuvant therapy. Within the follow-up of two randomized controlled trials physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue were repeatedly assessed during and up to 12 months after cancer therapy with the 20-item Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire in 255 breast cancer survivors. Determinants of the different fatigue dimensions over time were explored with linear mixed models. Chemotherapy appeared as significant precipitating factor for physical fatigue. However, type of cancer therapy had no impact on fatigue one year post-treatment. Obesity was significantly associated with increased physical fatigue throughout all time points (Δ=15.5 at 12 months) whereas exercise appeared to be beneficial (Δ=-6.3). In contrast, affective fatigue was significantly associated with poor social support and worries about the future. In addition, poor sleep quality and previous use of psychopharmaceuticals were significantly associated with physical, affective, as well as cognitive fatigue. Further, hot flashes were associated with increased physical and cognitive fatigue. In conclusion, the broad diagnosis “fatigue” in cancer survivors needs to be recognized as a diversity of symptoms determined by specific characteristics and likely different etiologies. Taking potential influencing factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, sleep problems, hot flashes, lack of social support, or psychological disorders into consideration might enable a better, individually-tailored fatigue treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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The (Uncertain) Impact of Brexit on the United Kingdom’s Membership in the European Economic Area



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Overview of the Most Important Changes in the Revised ICC Arbitration Rules



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New Rules on Domestic Arbitration in Switzerland: Overview of Most Important Changes to the Concordat and Comparison with Chapter 12 PILA

Until 2000, the competence for procedural laws in Switzerland had been vested with the cantons and not with the Swiss Federation. For domestic arbitration, a unification of the cantonal provisions had taken place through a Concordat, which is an agreement between cantons. The Concordat regarding domestic arbitration was concluded in 1969 (“Concordat”). On 1 January 2011, the new Swiss Code on Civil Procedure (“CCP”) will enter into force. It regulates and unifies the civil procedure before State Courts throughout Switzerland. In its Part 3, it provides for a new set of rules for domestic arbitration. The present article discusses the main principles and goals of the revised rules on domestic arbitration in Switzerland. Although the new rules are based on the Concordat, some changes have been introduced. The present article highlights the most important ones. The drafters of the CCP provisions on domestic arbitration have not limited themselves to amending the Concordat but have taken the opportunity to modernize the current regime of domestic arbitration and have thus introduced new provisions regulating the issues which have not been explicitly provided for under the old regime. Some of these provisions are specifically noteworthy also from the point of view of international arbitration practitioners because these provisions are also new in comparison to Chapter 12 of the Swiss Private International Law Act (“PILA”), which forms the Swiss lex arbitrii for international arbitration. The article therefore also briefly highlights the main differences of the revised rules on domestic arbitration as compared to Chapter 12 PILA. Finally, as a concluding remark, the author addresses the question of whether, in light of the newly introduced rules on domestic arbitration, the PILA is in need of a revision as well.

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Recent Developments on the Doctrine of Res Judicata in International Arbitration from a Swiss Perspective: A Call for a Harmonized Solution

The Swiss Federal Tribunal has recently rendered three decisions addressing the issue of res judicata in the context of international arbitration, opening the door to possible developments of the doctrine of res judicata as applied in international arbitrations seated in Switzerland. This article elaborates on the Swiss Federal Tribunal's latest decisions on the topic and endeavors to challenge some of the core principles of the doctrine of res judicata as developed in the Swiss practice. The authors propose that arbitral tribunals apply the provisions of the lex arbitri (instead of Article II(3) New York Convention) when examining the requirement of recognition of a foreign state court judgment where an exceptio arbitri was raised in the first proceedings. The article also puts in question one of the key holdings of the Swiss Federal Tribunal, i.e. the application of the Swiss lex fori to the issue of res judicata by an arbitral tribunal seated in Switzerland. Rather than the strict principles of res judicata as developed by the Swiss Federal Tribunal, the authors suggest that arbitral tribunals seated in Switzerland should use their procedural discretion and develop autonomous rules which are more generally recognized and thereby seek to define the core content of the principle of res judicata. In doing so, and in the absence of internationally applicable rules, arbitral tribunals can promote harmonized principles of res judicata better designed for international arbitration than particular national rules.

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The Revised IBA Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Arbitration

The present article analyzes the recent revision of the International Bar Association Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Arbitration, which were approved by the IBA in late October 2014. First introduced in 2004, the guidelines have become an essential tool relied upon by arbitration practitioners, institutions and courts when assessing questions of impartiality and independence of arbitrators and the extent of disclosure requirements. The goal of this paper is not only to highlight those aspects of the revised guidelines which are new or clarified, but also to provide a comprehensive analysis of the guidelines as a whole. To that end, the authors have identified a number of key topic areas relating to conflicts of interest in arbitration which have been the subject of recurring debate and were also to a considerable extent at the core of the discussion during the revision process. These topic areas serve as a framework to analyze and better comprehend the impact of the various provisions of the guidelines. In particular, the article addresses in detail the following specific subject matters: duties of disclosure and enquiry for arbitrators, administrative secretaries and parties, relationship-based conflicts (including third-party funding), issue conflicts, and waivers of conflicts of interest (including advance waivers).

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Agreement Between Parent- and Self-Reports of Psychopathic Traits and Externalizing Behaviors in a Clinical Sample

A number of studies have identified discrepancies in informant ratings of externalizing behaviors in youth, but it is unclear whether similar discrepancies exist between informants when rating psychopathic traits. In this study, we examined parent-child agreement on ratings of both psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors, and examined the factors that influence agreement in both of these domains. A total of 282 children between 7 and 16 years (M = 10.60 years, SD = 1.91) from an outpatient child psychiatric clinic participated in this study. Our findings revealed low levels of parent-child agreement on these measures (ICC values ranging from .02 to .30 for psychopathic traits; ICC values ranging from .09 to .30 for externalizing behaviors). In addition, our findings did not support the moderating effects of child's age, gender, clinical diagnosis, informant, and parental conflict on the relationship between parent- and child-ratings of psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors. Further research is needed to better understand how parents and child reports of child's externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits are similar and/or different from one another and factors that influence these agreements.

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Multi-taxa impacts of urban sprawl on species richness – not only the built-up area matters

Urban growth is a major factor of global environmental change and has important impacts on biodiversity, such as changes in species composition and biotic homogenization. Most previous studies have focused on effects of urban area as a general measure of urbanization, and on few or single taxa. Here, we analyzed the impacts of the different components of urban sprawl (i.e., scattered and widespread urban growth) on species richness of a variety of taxonomic groups covering mosses, vascular plants, gastropods, butterflies, and birds at the habitat and landscape scales. Besides urban area, we considered the average age, imperviousness, and dispersion degree of urban area, along with human population density, to disentangle the effects of the different components of urban sprawl on biodiversity. The study was carried out in the Swiss Plateau that has undergone substantial urban sprawl in recent decades. Vascular plants and birds showed the strongest responses to urban sprawl, especially at the landscape scale, with non-native and ruderal plants proliferating and common generalist birds increasing at the expense of specialist birds as urban sprawl grew. Overall, urban area had the greatest contribution on such impacts, but additional effects of urban dispersion (i.e., increase of non-native plants) and human population density (i.e., increases of ruderal plants and common generalist birds) were found. Our findings support the hypothesis that negative impacts of urban sprawl on biodiversity can be reduced by compacting urban growth while still avoiding the formation of very densely populated areas.

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What parents don't know: Disclosure and secrecy in a sample of urban adolescents

Research with two-parent European households has suggested that secrecy, and not disclosure of information per se, predicts adolescent adjustment difficulties. The present study attempted to replicate this finding using data from a 4-wave study of 358 poor, urban adolescents (47% male; M age = 12 yrs) in the United States, most of whom (>92%) were African American. Adolescents self-reported secrecy, disclosure, depressive symptoms, and delinquency at each wave. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model with secrecy and disclosure as separate, but correlated, factors was a better fit than a one-factor model. However, predictive models differed from previous research. Secrecy did not predict depressive symptoms, rather depressive symptoms predicted secrecy. For delinquency, there were significant paths from both secrecy to delinquency and delinquency to secrecy, as well as from delinquency to disclosure. These results did not differ by age or sex. Comparisons with previous findings are discussed.

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2275: Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2275: Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18112275

Authors: Beatrice Menicacci Caterina Cipriani Francesca Margheri Alessandra Mocali Lisa Giovannelli

Senescent cells display an increase in the secretion of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes, termed the “senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype” (SASP), playing a major role in many age-related diseases. The phenolic compounds present in extra-virgin olive oil are inhibitors of oxidative damage and have been reported to play a protective role in inflammation-related diseases. Particularly, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are the most abundant and more extensively studied. Pre-senescent human lung (MRC5) and neonatal human dermal (NHDF) fibroblasts were used as cellular model to evaluate the effect of chronic (4–6 weeks) treatment with 1 μM hydroxytyrosol (HT) or 10 μM oleuropein aglycone (OLE) on senescence/inflammation markers. Both phenols were effective in reducing β-galactosidase-positive cell number and p16 protein expression. In addition, senescence/inflammation markers such as IL-6 and metalloprotease secretion, and Ciclooxigenase type 2 (COX-2) and α-smooth-actin levels were reduced by phenol treatments. In NHDF, COX-2 expression, Nuclear Factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) protein level and nuclear localization were augmented with culture senescence and decreased by OLE and HT treatment. Furthermore, the inflammatory effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) exposure was almost completely abolished in OLE- and HT-pre-treated NHDF. Thus, the modulation of the senescence-associated inflammatory phenotype might be an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of olive oil phenols.



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Colorectal #cancer, which kills over 215,000 in Europe per year, could be caught with earlier screening #weekchat… https://t.co/Nr2RPXNxrN

Colorectal #cancer, which kills over 215,000 in Europe per year, could be caught with earlier screening #weekchat… https://t.co/Nr2RPXNxrN

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Polymerization shrinkage and porosity profile of dual cure dental resin cements with different adhesion to dentin mechanisms

Abstract

This research aims to probe the porosity profile and polymerization shrinkage of two different dual cure resin cements with different dentin bonding systems. The self-adhesive resin cement RelyX U200 (named RU) and the conventional Allcem Core (named AC) were analyzed by x-ray microtomography (μCT) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Each cement was divided into two groups (n = 5): dual-cured (RUD and ACD) and self-cured (RUC and ACC). μCT demonstrated that the method of polymerization does not influence the porosity profile but the polymerization shrinkage. Fewer concentration of pores was observed for the conventional resin cement (AC), independently the method used for curing the sample. In addition, SEM showed that AC has more uniform surface and smaller particle size. The method of polymerization influenced the polymerization shrinkage, since no contraction for both RUC and ACC was observed, in contrast with results from dual-cured samples. For RUD and ACD the polymerization shrinkage was greater in the lower third of the sample and minor in the upper third. This mechanical behavior is attributed to the polymerization toward the light. µCT showed to be a reliable technique to probe porosity and contraction due to polymerization of dental cements.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The µCT showed to be a useful technique to study the polymerization contraction of dental materials. The not self-adhesive cement showed mechanical properties that might be desirable for the use in indirect restoration procedures.



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Natural enamel caries in quinoline: Volumetric data and the pattern of infiltration

Abstract

This study aimed to test the hypotheses that (i) a parameter related to permeability, αd (ratio of squared water volume by the nonmineral volume) is, among all major component volumes (mineral, water, and organic volumes) the best predictor of quinoline infiltration in natural enamel caries (NEC), and (ii) the pore volume fraction infiltrated by quinoline (Vqui) in NEC is much lower than previous estimates that neglected water and organic enamel volumes. Mineral and nonmineral volumes and αd were measured at 341 histological points (from 20 approximal NEC lesions), and transport of quinoline was tracked by orientation-independent polarizing microscopy. R2 values of Vqui were 0.596 (αd), 0.033 (mineral volume), 0.474 (water volume), and 0.011 (organic volume). Vqui values were 23% (body of the lesion), 7% (dark zone), and 9% (translucent zone), lower than previous estimates (with high effect size). Transport of quinoline occurred both parallelly and perpendicularly to prism paths, and dark zones were seen where only transport parallel to prisms occurred. In conclusion, αd was the main predictor of quinoline infiltration, but it differed from the water volume with a small effect size, and the pore volume fraction with quinoline was much lower than previous estimates.

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  • Volume of oil infiltrated in enamel caries is presented for histological zones relevant for progress and reversal of caries.
  • Oil infiltrated < 50% of the enamel pore volume and it is well correlated with permeability but not with mineral content.


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Effects of EDTA gel and chlorhexidine gel on root dentin permeability

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) in dentin permeability and smear layer removal from root canals instrumented with NiTi rotary system using histochemical staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Overall, 43 premolars were classified into two experimental groups, EDTA (n = 20) and CHX (n = 20), and a negative control (NC) (n = 3). All specimens were instrumented and the irrigant solutions were used after each file change. The EDTA group received a final rinse with 5-ml 1% NaOCl followed by a 5-ml 0.9% saline solution; the CHX group received a final rinse with 10-ml 0.9% saline solution; and the negative control group received a final rinse with only 0.9% saline solution. Fifteen teeth from each group were prepared for histochemical staining and evaluation of dentin permeability using the image-scanning software Axion Vision (v.4.8.2). Five remaining teeth were prepared for analysis using SEM for morphological analysis. The study found that 24% EDTA gel increased the permeability of dentin in all thirds evaluated and also demonstrated an increased cleaning ability, with dentinal walls free of smear layer and open dentinal tubules, as compared to 2% CHX gel. It was concluded that EDTA was efficient in cleaning the dentinal tubules and increased dentin permeability.

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Best results occurred with 24% EDTA gel which increased dentin permeability in all thirds evaluated, and presented greater cleaning ability, with dentinal walls free of smear layer and open dentinal tubules, which did not occur with 2% CHX gel.



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Press Release : Global burden of cancer among young adults aged 20-39 years

Global burden of cancer among young adults aged 20-39 years

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Global burden of cancer among young adults aged 20-39 years

TLO-october2017.jpgA new study by researchers from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), published today in The Lancet Oncology, examines for the first time the global burden for cancer among young adults aged 20-39 years. The report provides critical evidence of the burden of the disease in this age group and highlights the urgent need for adequate prevention measures, timely diagnosis, and cancer care.

Fidler MM, Gupta S, Soerjomataram I, Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Bray F
Cancer incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study
Lancet Oncol, Published online 27 October 2017
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