Πέμπτη, 26 Μαΐου 2016

Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic

Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education.

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Integrated whole-heart computational workflow for inverse potential mapping and personalized simulations

Integration of whole-heart activation simulations and inverse potential mapping (IPM) could benefit the guidance and planning of electrophysiological procedures. Routine clinical application requires a fast an...

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Miltefosine for mucosal and complicated cutaneous old world leishmaniasis : a case series and review of the literature

Complicated Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) and Old World mucosal leishmaniasis (OWML) constitute an indication for systemic treatment. To date, there no controlled clinical studies that compare treatment options for these diseases. We compiled a case series of 24 cases successfully treated with miltefosine. We conclude that oral miltefosine is an effective treatment option for both OWCL and OWML.

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DNA methylation in newborns and maternal smoking in pregnancy : genome-wide consortium meta-analysis

Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The mechanisms are largely unknown, but epigenetics most likely plays a role. We formed the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium and meta-analyzed, across 13 cohorts (n = 6,685), the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and newborn blood DNA methylation at over 450,000 CpG sites (CpGs) by using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Over 6,000 CpGs were differentially methylated in relation to maternal smoking at genome-wide statistical significance (false discovery rate, 5%), including 2,965 CpGs corresponding to 2,017 genes not previously related to smoking and methylation in either newborns or adults. Several genes are relevant to diseases that can be caused by maternal smoking (e.g., orofacial clefts and asthma) or adult smoking (e.g., certain cancers). A number of differentially methylated CpGs were associated with gene expression. We observed enrichment in pathways and processes critical to development. In older children (5 cohorts, n = 3,187), 100% of CpGs gave at least nominal levels of significance, far more than expected by chance (p value < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Results were robust to different normalization methods used across studies and cell type adjustment. In this large scale meta-analysis of methylation data, we identified numerous loci involved in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy with persistence into later childhood and provide insights into mechanisms underlying effects of this important exposure.

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Inclusion of children with airway disease for the development of spirometry reference data

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Strengthening post-graduate educational capacity for health policy and systems research and analysis : the strategy of the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa

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Global Allergy Forum and 3rd Davos Declaration 2015 : Atopic dermatitis/Eczema : challenges and opportunities toward precision medicine

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Associations between domains of physical activity, sitting time, and different measures of overweight and obesity

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Synthesis of novel amide and urea derivatives of thiazol-2-ethylamines and their activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

2-(2-Benzamido)ethyl-4-phenylthiazole (1) was one of 1035 molecules (grouped into 115 distinct scaffolds) found to be inhibitory to Trypanosoma brucei, the pathogen causing human African trypanosomiasis, at concentrations below 3.6μM and non-toxic to mammalian (Huh7) cells in a phenotypic high-throughput screen of a 700,000 compound library performed by the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF). Compound 1 and 72 analogues were synthesized in this lab by one of two general pathways. These plus 10 commercially available analogues were tested against T. brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and L6 rat myoblast cells (for cytotoxicity) in vitro. Forty-four derivatives were more potent than 1, including eight with IC50 values below 100nM. The most potent and most selective for the parasite was the urea analogue 2-(2-piperidin-1-ylamido)ethyl-4-(3-fluorophenyl)thiazole (70, IC50=9nM, SI>18,000). None of 33 compounds tested were able to cure mice infected with the parasite; however, seven compounds caused temporary reductions of parasitemia (⩾97%) but with subsequent relapses. The lack of in vivo efficacy was at least partially due to their poor metabolic stability, as demonstrated by the short half-lives of 15 analogues against mouse and human liver microsomes.

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Giant host red blood cell membrane mimicking polymersomes bind parasite proteins and malaria parasites

Malaria is an infectious disease that needs to be addressed using innovative approaches to counteract spread of drug resistance and to establish or optimize vaccination strategies. With our approach, we aim for a dual action with drug- and 'vaccine-like' activity against malaria. By inhibiting entry of malaria parasites into host red blood cells (RBCs) - using polymer vesicle-based (polymersome) nanomimics of RBC membranes - the life cycle of the parasite is interrupted and the exposed parasites are accessible to the host immune system. Here, we describe how host cell-sized RBC membrane mimics, formed with the same block copolymers as nanomimics, also bind the corresponding malaria parasite ligand and whole malaria parasites, similar to nanomimics. This was demonstrated using fluorescence imaging techniques and confirms the suitability of giant polymersomes (GUVs) as simple mimics for RBC membranes.

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Burden and historical trend of Buruli Ulcer prevalence in selected communities along the Offin River of Ghana

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans with more than two thirds of the global cases reported in West Africa. A nationwide active BU case search conducted in 1999 identified two health districts along the Offin River as two of the three most endemic districts in Ghana. Based on recent anecdotal accounts that transmission is unstable along the Offin River, we conducted from March to June 2013 an exhaustive household survey and active case search in 13 selected communities within a five-kilometer radius along the Offin River. The overall prevalence of BU was 2.3% among the surveyed population of 20,390 inhabitants and 477 of the total 480 cases detected (99.4%) were historical (healed) cases. By estimating the year of occurrence for each case per community and taking into account available passive surveillance records of health facilities and the District Health Directorate, we observed a general trend of continuous emergence of cases in communities located midstream the Offin River whereas downstream communities showed more sporadic patterns. We monitored the incidence of cases after the survey and recorded a cumulative incidence rate of 0.04% for the 13 communities over a 17-month active surveillance period from August 2013 to December 2014. Our data reveal an overall decline in BU incidence along the Offin River similar to the general decline in BU incidence in recent years reported by the World Health Organization for West Africa.

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Genes, Vol. 7, Pages 22: Telomere and Telomerase Therapeutics in Cancer

Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase capable of utilizing an integrated RNA component as a template to add protective tandem telomeric single strand DNA repeats, TTAGGG, to the ends of chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction and telomerase reactivation are observed in approximately 90% of human cancers; hence, telomerase activation plays a unique role as a nearly universal step on the path to malignancy. In the past two decades, multiple telomerase targeting therapeutic strategies have been pursued, including direct telomerase inhibition, telomerase interference, hTERT or hTERC promoter driven therapy, telomere-based approaches, and telomerase vaccines. Many of these strategies have entered clinical development, and some have now advanced to phase III clinical trials. In the coming years, one or more of these new telomerase-targeting drugs may be expected to enter the pharmacopeia of standard care. Here, we briefly review the molecular functions of telomerase in cancer and provide an update about the preclinical and clinical development of telomerase targeting therapeutics.

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Reply: Dynamics of Gluteal Cleft Morphology in Lower Body Lift: Predictors of Unfavorable Outcomes

No abstract available

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Discussion: Bacterial Biofilm Infection Detected in Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma

No abstract available

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Unnecessary Emergency Transfers for Evaluation by a Plastic Surgeon: A Burden to Patients and the Health Care System

imageBackground: Plastic surgeons are frequently consulted for hand and facial injuries, and patients are often transferred to trauma centers for evaluation of these problems. The authors sought to identify the frequency and impact of “unnecessary” transfers for emergency evaluation by a plastic surgeon at a Level I trauma center. Methods: The authors reviewed more than 32,000 consecutive emergency department encounters at their institution between April of 2009 and April of 2013 and found 1181 patients transferred for evaluation by plastic surgery. Using a retrospective chart review, necessity of transfer was determined based on the intervention performed at the authors’ institution and the availability of resources at the transferring site. Results: Of all the patients referred for “emergency” evaluation, 860 (74.1 percent) were unnecessary. Transfers for hand-related issues were more likely to be coded as unnecessary compared with referrals for facial trauma and infection (76 percent versus 66 percent; p

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Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema: Quality of Life after Lymph Node Transfer

imageBackground: Breast cancer–related lymphedema affects multiple aspects of patients’ daily lives. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of vascularized lymph node transfer on the quality of life in patients with lymphedema. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, 25 female patients with breast cancer–related lymphedema underwent vascularized lymph node transfer. In 22 cases, the patients underwent a simultaneous deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap breast reconstruction based on the superficial circumflex iliac artery. The influence on quality of life was evaluated using the Upper Limb Lymphedema-27 questionnaire, which includes physical, psychological, and social dimensions. The authors also investigated risk factors for lymphedema, such as body mass index, smoking, age, and time between start of lymphedema and vascularized lymph node transfer, and their impact on quality of life. Results: Twenty-one patients (84 percent) had an improvement of quality of life after vascularized lymph node transfer. The mean physical, psychological, and social scores were significantly improved postoperatively (p

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Effect of Cooling on Free Flap Ischemia

imageNo abstract available

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Clinical Significance of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Biopsy during Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction: Review of 264 Cases

imageBackground: Despite the knowledge of alternate lymphatic draining patterns of the breast, routine evaluation of the internal mammary lymph node basin is still not considered standard of care. The advent of microsurgical breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels as recipients, however, has allowed sampling of internal mammary lymph nodes with technical ease, thus revisiting their role in breast cancer management. In the present study, the authors reviewed their experience with this practice. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent internal mammary lymph node biopsy at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels between 2004 and 2012 was performed. Parameters of interest included patient age, timing of reconstruction (immediate versus delayed), disease stage, and pathologic findings of internal mammary lymph nodes. Results: A total of 264 autologous breast reconstructions using the internal mammary vessels were performed in 204 patients with a median age of 44.5 years. The majority of reconstructions were immediate [n = 211 (79.9 percent)]. Seventy-two percent of patients had either stage I [72 patients (35.3 percent)] or stage II disease [75 patients (36.8 percent)]. Six patients were found to have internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Stage migration and alteration in adjuvant therapy occurred in all patients. Conclusion: Internal mammary lymph node sampling at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary system should become routine practice, as the morbidity associated with internal mammary lymph node harvest is low and the impact in cases of nodal involvement is quite substantial. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.

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Explore a map of London’s extraordinary archaeological finds

From the grisly aftermath of a distant volcanic eruption, to the huge amphitheatre where criminals met their deaths, dig into one of the world's greatest cities

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Social perception of morbidity in facial nerve paralysis




There are many patient-based and clinician-based scales measuring the severity of facial nerve paralysis and the impact on quality of life, however, the social perception of facial palsy has received little attention. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure the consequences of facial paralysis on selected domains of social perception and compare the social impact of paralysis of the different components.


Four patients with typical facial palsies (global, marginal mandibular, zygomatic/buccal, and frontal) and 1 control were photographed. These images were each shown to 100 participants who subsequently rated variables of normality, perceived distress, trustworthiness, intelligence, interaction, symmetry, and disability. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the results among each palsy.


Paralyzed faces were considered less normal compared to the control on a scale of 0 to 10 (mean, 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.30–8.86) with global paralysis (mean, 3.4; 95% CI = 3.08–3.80) rated as the most disfiguring, followed by the zygomatic/buccal (mean, 6.0; 95% CI = 5.68–6.37), marginal (mean, 6.5; 95% CI = 6.08–6.86), and then temporal palsies (mean, 6.9; 95% CI = 6.57–7.21). Similar trends were seen when analyzing these palsies for perceived distress, intelligence, and trustworthiness, using a random effects regression model.


Our sample suggests that society views paralyzed faces as less normal, less trustworthy, and more distressed. Different components of facial paralysis are worse than others and surgical correction may need to be prioritized in an evidence-based manner with social morbidity in mind. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2016

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Utility of up-front transoral robotic surgery in tailoring adjuvant therapy




The purpose of this study was to describe how the up-front transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach could be used to individually tailor adjuvant therapy based on surgical pathology.


Between January 2009 and December 2013, 76 patients received TORS for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Clinical predictors of adjuvant therapy were analyzed and comparisons were made between recommended treatment guidelines for up-front surgery versus definitive nonsurgical approaches.


Advanced N classification, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tumor, extracapsular spread (ECS; 26 of 76), perineural invasion (PNI; 14 of 76), and positive margins (7 of 76) were significant predictors of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (p < .05). Up-front TORS deintensified adjuvant therapy; 76% of stage I/II and 46% of stage III/IV patients avoided CRT. Conversely, pathologic staging resulted in 33% of patients who would have received radiotherapy (RT) alone based on clinical staging, to be intensified to receive adjuvant CRT.


The TORS approach deintensifies adjuvant therapy and provides valuable pathologic information to intensify treatment in select patients. TORS may be less effective in deintensification of adjuvant therapy in patients with clinically advanced N classification disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2016

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 378: A Theoretical Study of the Hydration of Methane, from the Aqueous Solution to the sI Hydrate-Liquid Water-Gas Coexistence

Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were done with three recent water models TIP4P/2005 (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/2005), TIP4P/Ice (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/ Ice) and TIP4Q (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 charges) combined with two models for methane: an all-atom one OPLS-AA (Optimal Parametrization for the Liquid State) and a united-atom one (UA); a correction for the C–O interaction was applied to the latter and used in a third set of simulations. The models were validated by comparison to experimental values of the free energy of hydration at 280, 300, 330 and 370 K, all under a pressure of 1 bar, and to the experimental radial distribution functions at 277, 283 and 291 K, under a pressure of 145 bar. Regardless of the combination rules used for σC,O, good agreement was found, except when the correction to the UA model was applied. Thus, further simulations of the sI hydrate were performed with the united-atom model to compare the thermal expansivity to the experiment. A final set of simulations was done with the UA methane model and the three water models, to study the sI hydrate-liquid water-gas coexistence at 80, 230 and 400 bar. The melting temperatures were compared to the experimental values. The results show the need to perform simulations with various different models to attain a reliable and robust molecular image of the systems of interest.

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Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients

Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
Source:Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Author(s): Viktorija Igumnova, Valentina Capligina, Alvils Krams, Andra Cirule, Didzis Elferts, Ilva Pole, Inta Jansone, Dace Bandere, Renate Ranka
Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future.

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Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores

Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
Source:Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Author(s): Teppei Sasahara, Ryusuke Ae, Michiyo Watanabe, Yumiko Kimura, Chikara Yonekawa, Shunji Hayashi, Yuji Morisawa
Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = −0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care.

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Old-and With Severe Heart Failure: Telemonitoring by Using Digital Pen Technology in Specialized Homecare: System Description, Implementation, and Early Results.

Telehealth programs for heart failure have been studied using a variety of techniques. Because currently a majority of the elderly are nonusers of computers and Internet, we developed a home telehealth system based on digital pen technology. Fourteen patients (mean age, 84 years [median, 83 years]) with severe heart failure participated in a 13-month pilot study in specialized homecare. Participants communicated patient-reported outcome measures daily using the digital pen and health diary forms, submitting a total of 3 520 reports. The reports generated a total of 632 notifications when reports indicated worsening health. Healthcare professionals reviewed reports frequently, more than 4700 times throughout the study, and acted on the information provided. Patients answered questionnaires and were observed in their home environment when using the system. Results showed that the technology was accepted by participants: patients experienced an improved contact with clinicians; they felt more compliant with healthcare professionals' advice, and they felt more secure and more involved in their own care. Via the system, the healthcare professionals detected heart failure-related deteriorations at an earlier stage, and as a consequence, none of the patients were admitted into hospital care during the study. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Metformin, other antidiabetic drugs, and endometrial cancer risk: a nested case-control study within Italian healthcare utilization databases.

Metformin may reduce the risk of endometrial cancer whereas other drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus appear to increase it, although the evidence is still limited. We investigated this issue using data from a nested case-control study within the healthcare utilization databases of the Lombardy Region, Italy. This study included 376 diabetic women with endometrial cancer and 7485 diabetic controls matched for cases on age, date at cohort entry, and duration of follow-up. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of endometrial cancer in relation to use of antidiabetic drugs, adjusted for the Charlson's comorbidity index, selected medical conditions, prescription of selected drugs, and concomitant use of other antidiabetic drugs. At cohort entry, no significant associations were observed for metformin [OR=0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.23], sulfonylureas (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.42), insulin (OR=0.72, 95% CI 0.34-1.56), and other antidiabetic drugs (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75-1.95). When we considered use during follow-up, a borderline significant excess risk was found for metformin (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.70). However, this estimate decreased to 1.07 (95% CI 0.82-1.41) when taking into account BMI using a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. No significant associations were found for sulfonylureas (OR=1.16, 95% CI 0.91-1.47), thiazolidinediones (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.48-1.24), repaglinide (OR=1.32, 95% CI 0.94-1.87), incretins (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.63-2.32), and insulin (OR=1.19, 95% CI 0.82-1.71). Our data indicate that metformin, insulin, and other antidiabetic drugs did not meaningfully affect the risk of endometrial cancer. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography: evidence from a pooled analysis of two Italian randomized trials.

The benefits and harms of lung cancer (LC) screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) are debatable. Positive results from the US National Lung Screening Trial were not evident in the European trials, possibly due to their smaller sample sizes. To address this issue, we conducted a patient-level pooled analysis of two Italian randomized controlled trials. Data from DANTE and MILD trials were combined for a total of 3640 individuals in the LDCT arm and 2909 in the control arm. LC and overall mortality were analyzed using multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and log-rank tests stratified by study. The median follow-up was 8.2 years, with a total of 30 480 person-years in the LDCT arm and 22 157 in the control arm. A total of 192 patients developed LC in the LDCT arm and 105 in the control arm. Half of the LC cases in the LDCT arm had stage IA or IB cancer, as compared with 21% in the control arm. Overall mortality rates/100 000 person-years were 925 in the LDCT arm and 1074 in the control arm, and LC mortality rates were 299 and 357, respectively. The multivariate pooled overall mortality HR was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.06) and the LC mortality HR was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.12) for the LDCT arm as compared with the control arm. The present pooled analysis shows a nonsignificant 11% reduction in overall mortality in individuals undergoing LDCT screening as compared with the control arm. A pooled analysis of all European trials would be a useful contribution to assess the real benefit of LDCT screening. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Determination of amino acids in urine of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate growth.

Prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer diagnosed in men. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels and digital rectal exam are far from perfect when it comes to differentiation of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we attempt to determine whether amino acids can be used as prostate cancer biomarkers. Concentrations of derivatized amino acids and amines were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 100 urine samples from the two groups including samples provided before and after prostate massage were examined quantitatively for amino acid and amine concentrations with 50 urine samples collected from cancer patients and 50 samples from patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Arginine, homoserine, and proline were more abundant in urine samples of cancer patients compared with arginine, homoserine, and proline levels determined in urine collected from patients with benign growth. We also show that sarcosine is not a definitive indicator of prostate cancer when analyzed in urine samples collected either before or after prostate massage. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Analysis of Different Series-Parallel Connection Modules for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

The internal impedances of different dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) models were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) with an equivalent circuit model. The Nyquist plot was built to simulate the redox reaction of internal device at the heterojunction. It was useful to analyze the component structure and promote photovoltaic conversion efficiency of DSSC. The impedance of DSSC was investigated and the externally connected module assembly was constructed utilizing single cells on the scaled-up module. According to the experiment results, the impedance was increased with increasing cells connected in series. On the contrary, the impedance was decreased with increasing cells connected in parallel.

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Simplified Finite Set Model Predictive Control Strategy of Grid-Connected Cascade H-Bridge Converter

Finite set model predictive control (FS-MPC) has become a promising control technology in power converter, because of the advantages of good dynamic response and accurate current tracking capability. In real-time control process, the conventional FS-MPC strategy requires more time for prediction and optimization. As a result, there will be a certain delay between sampling and output. In order to reduce the amount of calculation and overcome the adverse effect of the delay on the system performance, this paper presents a simplified FS-MPC method. Firstly, adjacent levels method is used to reduce the amount of the calculation, and then two-step FS-MPC is adopted to compensate the calculation delay. The control strategy is validated by the simulation and experimental results of a grid-connected cascaded H-bridge converter.

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Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment ) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment ). Experiment results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

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Message Passing Based Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Various protocols have been proposed in the area of wireless sensor networks in order to achieve network-wide time synchronization. A large number of proposed protocols in the literature employ a message passing mechanism to make sensor node clocks tick in unison. In this paper, we first classify Message Passing based Time Synchronization (MPTS) protocols and then analyze them based on different metrics. The classification is based on the following three criteria: structure formation of the network affected by the synchronization protocol, frequency of synchronization process (synchronization interval), and synchronization message overhead. Proposed protocols are analyzed and evaluated from different perspectives based on available data. A comparison table of the reviewed protocols is presented according to the evaluation metrics. Finally, some potential methods will be proposed to improve the synchronization process.

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A New Approach to Fuzzy Metric Spaces and Their Similarity-Based Construction

We introduce a space of functions which can be interpreted as a similarity-based approach to fuzzy metric spaces. The triangle inequality we propose is defined by means of a fuzzy ordering. We compare the introduced space with fuzzy metric spaces in the sense of Seikkala and Kaleva. Finally we complete the work discovering the corresponding classical as well as fuzzy topologies.

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Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein in patients under 18 years of age


Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): K. Kumar, M. Nagarjuna, R. Raut, H. Pipalia

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Home Opinions Tobacco isn't the most dangerous drug on campus, so why only target... - Concordiensis

Home Opinions Tobacco isn't the most dangerous drug on campus, so why only target...
Long term habitual alcohol use cause severe liver problems, brain damage, and, like long term tobacco use, increases the risk of developing mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, liver and breast cancers as well as cardiovascular diseases. Unlike smoking ...

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Monocyte exosomes induce adhesion molecules and cytokines via activation of NF-{kappa}B in endothelial cells [Research]

HIV-infected individuals have activated monocytes with an IFNα phenotype and elevated levels of circulating LPS. These individuals also have a risk of premature cardiovascular disease. The effect of activated monocyte exosomes (Exos) on endothelial cells is unknown. To determine whether Exos from immune-activated monocytes could alter endothelial cell expression and contribute to monocyte/macrophage transmigration and adhesion, we isolated Exos from monocytes stimulated with IFNα, LPS, or a combination of the two (I/L). We show that monocyte Exos contain different inflammatory microRNA cargo depending on stimulation. When LPS Exo or I/L Exo was added to HUVECs, we found a significant increase in adhesion molecule ICAM-1, chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, and cytokine IL-6 mRNAs and proteins compared with cells treated with IFNα Exo or Exos derived from unstimulated monocytes. Inhibition of transcription factor NF-B, a common inflammatory cytokine pathway, prevented induction of CCL2, IL6, and ICAM1. Inhibition of TLR4 resulted in differential blockage of the targets. Our results demonstrate for the first time that primary human monocyte Exos enter endothelial cells and cause dysfunction via the TLR4 and NF-B pathways, which may contribute to heart disease in HIV infection and other diseases involving chronic immune activation.—Tang, N., Sun, B., Gupta, A., Rempel, H., Pulliam, L. Monocyte exosomes induce adhesion molecules and cytokines via activation of NF-B in endothelial cells.

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