Τρίτη, 28 Μαΐου 2019

Reproduction

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Current trends and future perspectives
Diego Rossetti, Silvia Di Angelo Antonio, David Lukanović, Tina Kunic, Camilla Certelli, Carmine Vascone, Zaki Sleiman

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):93-101

Among resources of mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord appears to be a rising source capable of differentiating into all germ layers, reaching and repairing lesion areas, and promoting wound repair, and it has also the capacity to influence the immune response. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be an optimal resource compared with other mesenchymal stem cells sources because they require a noninvasive recovery. All these characteristics allow their use in heterogeneous applications. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate tissues, stimulate angiogenesis, modulate inflammatory pathway signals and recruit endogenous stem cell. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress mitogen-induced signals and modulate the activation and proliferation of several immune cells, modifying lymphocyte phenotypes activity. In culture, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cellss show the capacity to create several tissues such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the different compartments of umbilical cord and processed by using different techniques. Clinical applications of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells include graft-versus-host disease, autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, gynecological disorders like endometriosis. Recent studies have shown possible application on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and neuronal degenerative diseases. This review is focused on the resources, molecular profiles, propriety, in vitro characterizations, clinical applications and possible future usage of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. 


Effect of preparation program on maternal anxiety of mothers fertilized through in vitro fertilization
Atefe Salimi Akin Abadi, Mitra Zandi, Marzieh Shiva, Azita Pourshirvani, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):102-111

Objective: To determine the effect of preparation to play a maternal role in mothers fertilized through in vitro fertilization on maternal anxiety. Methods: A total of 60 mothers undergoing in vitro fertilization were assigned into intervention group and control group. Pregnancy concerns and stress questionnaires were research tools. Questionnaires were completed in both groups before organizing preparation program. Then, the preparation program was held for four sessions for the mothers in the intervention group, and the subjects in both groups were immediately investigated again after completion of preparation program and one month later. Data analyses about pregnancy stress and concerns of mothers and its dimensions were performed by repeated measure (analysis of variance), Mann-Whitney, Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. Analysis of demographic variables was performed by using independent t-test and Chi-square test in SPSS 21. Results: The score of pregnancy stress and concerns before the intervention was not significantly different between the two groups. There was a significant difference in the intervention group in the score of pregnancy stress and concerns before and after the intervention (P<0.001), before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001), immediately after and one month after the intervention (P<0.001) which was not significant in the control group. Conclusions: Maternal preparation program can be effective in reducing maternal stress and concerns. 


Prolactin and risk of preeclampsia: A single institution, cross-sectional study
Thabat J Al-Maiahy, Ali I Al-Gareeb, Hayder M Al-kuraishy

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):112-117

Objective: To illustrate the association between prolactin serum level and severity of preeclampsia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 31 pregnant women with preeclampsia were enrolled as Group I and 20 healthy pregnant women as Group II. Routine investigations and prolactin serum levels were assessed together with blood pressure changes. The unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences and correlation coefficient for the evaluation of correlation. Results: Prolactin serum levels were higher in preeclampsia patients compared with those of the healthy pregnant women (P<0.001). The severity of preeclampsia was linked with prolactin serum levels since 20 patients with preeclampsia showed mild preeclampsia that illustrated relatively lower prolactin serum levels compared with 11 patients with severe preeclampsia (P<0.001). The severity of mean arterial blood pressure was significantly correlated with prolactin serum levels (r=0.78, P<0.001). Conclusions: Prolactin serum levels are elevated in patients with preeclampsia and correlated with the severity of preeclampsia. High but not normal prolactin might be implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.


Relationship between heart girth, serum progesterone and superovulation response of donor Holstein cows
Abdel-Tawab A. Y. Khalil, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab, Rabie L Abdel Aziz

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):118-123

Objective: To determine effects of variations of heart girth, volume trait on embryo quality grade, and to explore the relationship between heart girth and circulating progesterone and correlations of circulating progesterone with embryo quality grade in superstimulated donor Holstein cows. Methods: Nineteen cows were subjected to a standard superstimulation protocol using follicle stimulating hormone. Blood samples were collected before superovulation, at insemination and at collection of embryos for progesterone analysis. Embryo quality grades were compared between high and low heart girth donors. Moreover, Pearson's correlations were determined between heart girth, progesterone and embryo quality. Results: Variation of heart girth was not associated with significant differences in embryo quality grade between high and low heart girth donor cows (P>0.05). However, we observed a significantly higher percentage of the third-grade embryo (24.09%) in low heart girth donors compared to 9.64% in high heart girth donors. Moreover, the percentage of the transferable embryo was numerically higher and that of the degenerated embryo was numerically lower in low heart girth cows. Donor cows with low response to superovulation (total structures ≤ 3) expressed numerically higher mean heart girth, compared to donors with high (total structures >15) and medium (total structures = 4-15) superovulation. Heart girth and body weight of donor cows were moderately correlated (r=0.45, P<0.05), but none was correlated with circulating progesterone at different sampling times except for a moderate correlation between body weight and progesterone at embryo collection (r=0.54, P=0.02). Circulating progesterone before superovulation was moderately correlated to the second-grade embryo (r=0.46, P<0.05) and to the third grade (r=0.52, P<0.05) embryo. Conclusions: Volume traits heart girth may influence the response of Holstein cows to superovulation; however, future studies with a higher number of cows are warranted to clarify significant influences.


Follicular fluid composition of ovulatory follicles in repeat breeder Holstein dairy cows
Asghar Mogheiseh, Mojtaba Kafi, Navid Golestani, Abbas Roshan-Ghasrodashti, Saeed Nazifi, Abdollah Mirzaei

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):124-131

Objective: To examine differences in the metabolite, steroid and lipopolysaccharide of follicular fluid collected from the ovulatory follicle of Holstein repeat breeding cows, lactating cows, and virgin fertile heifers. Methods: Estrus was induced in animals possessing functional corpus luteum by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 α. Six to twelve hours after detection of the standing estrus, cervical samples were collected to detect subclinical endometritis via counting neutrophils on stained smears of cervical swabs. Then, follicular fluid of ovulatory follicles and serum samples were collected from repeat breeding cows (n=11), lactating cows (n=8) and virgin fertile heifers (n=10). Sodium and potassium were measured with a flame photometer method. Urea, total protein, glucose, cholesterol and β -hydroxybutyric acid were assayed with commercial spectrophotometry kits. Chloride concentration was also measured with titration of samples against silver nitrate. Progesterone, estradiol-17 β and lipopolysaccharide concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay kits. Results: All analysis of follicular fluid samples showed that repeat breeding and lactating cows had a mean higher lipopolysaccharide concentration than that of the virgin fertile heifers (P<0.05). But concentration of serum estradiol-17 β in repeat breeding and lactating cows was lower than that of virgin fertile heifers (P<0.05). In addition, the mean percentage of neutrophils in the cervical secretion of repeat breeding cows was higher than that of lactating cows (P<0.05). Conclusions: High follicular fluid concentration of lipopolysaccharide in ovulatory follicles results in the occurrence of repeat breeding syndrome in dairy cows. Further, a lower serum estradiol-17 β concentration and a higher percentage of neutrophil in the cervical secretion on the day of artificial insemination may have resulted in the occurrence of repeat breeding syndrome in dairy cows. 


Tinospora cordifolia attenuates antipsychotic drug induced hyperprolactinemia in Wistar rats
Prashant Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Pratap Kumar Sahu

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 2019 8(3):132-140

Objective: To evaluate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia against antipsychotic/neuroleptic drug induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: A total of 48 Wistar albino rats were chosen in the study. To induce hyperprolactinemia, haloperidol at 5 mg/kg/day was intraperitoneally administered for 16 continuous days and sulpiride at 20 mg/kg/day was administered intraperitoneally for 28 continuous days. Methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia at 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally 30 min before administration of haloperidol and sulpiride for 16 and 28 days, respectively. Then, we had evaluated prolactin, dopamine and antioxidant status in the treatment group as compared to haloperidol and sulpiride. Results: There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum prolactin level and decrease in dopamine level in the haloperidol and sulpiride treated animals. However, methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia significantly (P<0.05) decreased serum prolactin level and increased brain dopamine level. Further, superoxide dismutase and catalase level were also decreased significantly in the haloperidol and sulpiride treated groups as compared to those of the control group and the antioxidant status was restored significantly on treatment with methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia. Furthermore, methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia also reduced total leukocyte count, and increased red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration. In addition, the spleen did not show signs of infection or inflammation in the experiments. Conclusions: Methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia has a significant anti-hyperprolactinemic effect which may be attributed to neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of its signature constituents like stepharanine. 


Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Virus Diseases

Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus from Nepal, 2005 to 2016

Abstract

Outbreaks of peste-des-petits ruminants (PPR) has been reported regularly in Nepal since 1994. Despite this, there has been limited molecular characterization of circulating virus in the country. In this study a 351 bp segment of the nucleoprotein gene of the PPR virus (PPRV) was amplified and sequenced from ten samples collected between 2005 and 2016. Phylogenetic trees were estimated from these sequences using the maximum likelihood method confirming that all of the PPRV from the samples analysed belonged to the sub-clade IV of clade I of lineage IV and that they shared a common origin with other PPRV isolates in the region.



A mini outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection with severe acute respiratory symptoms in a selected group of children presented to a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka

Abstract

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) of the family Paramyxoviridae is a relatively new virus causing severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARI) in children. Data on hMPV infection in Asia including Sri Lanka is limited. We aimed to detect respiratory viruses including hMPV in a selected group of children affected by a small outbreak of SARI presented to the Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya (THP), Sri Lanka in 2014. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were obtained from 21 children with SARI and tested for hMPV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3 (PIV 1–3), adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigens using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). In addition, a one step RT-PCR was done for the detection of hMPV from the viral RNA extracts. Of the 21 NPA samples tested for respiratory viral antigens by IFA, two were positive for RSV (9.5%), one was positive for influenza A (4.8%) and one was positive for both adenovirus and PIV-2 (4.8%). Of the 21 NPA viral RNA extracts tested by RT-PCR, 18 (86%) were positive for hMPV, in which 2 were co-infected with RSV and influenza A virus, respectively. hMPV was the predominant cause of SARI outbreak (2014) in children presented to the THP, Sri Lanka.



First report of cucumber mosaic virus infecting antamul vine ( Tylophora indica ) in India

Abstract

Tylophora indica (Burm f.) Merrill; commonly known as antamul, is an important medicinal herb. Typical yellow rings or irregular yellow spot and in severe condition necrotic rings were observed on the leaves of the crop. The examination of symptomatic leaf samples under transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical virions confirmed the association of cucumo like virus group. A novel degenerate primers pair was designed by multiple sequence alignment of RdRP region and used in RT-PCR to amplify a ~ 410 bp genomic fragment. The sequence of the amplified fragment shared 97–98% sequence identity with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). This study is the first report of the association of CMV with the yellow ring symptom of antamul in India.



Human papillomavirus in Ethiopia

Abstract

Over 99% of cervical cancer cases are associated with genital infection by certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). To outline optimal vaccination strategies and HPV based cervical cancer screening, synthesized data on the genotype distribution of HPV is fundamental that is otherwise missed in Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to compile the findings on HPV genotyping in Ethiopia. Published articles were systematically searched using comprehensive search strings from PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS. Further, Google Scholar and the Google databases were also searched manually for grey literature. The included studies in the review employed 859 women (age range 15–85 years) with different kinds of cervical abnormalities. A total of 534 HPV sequences were reported; the proportion of high risk HPVs was varied 80.4–100%. The top five identified genotypes were HPV 16 (45.3%; 95% CI 41.1–49.6%), HPV 52 (9.4%; 95% CI 7.2–12.1%), HPV 18 (8.2%; 95% CI 6.2–10.9%), HPV 58 (6.9%; 95% CI 5.1–9.4%) and HPV 45 (5.2%; 95% CI 3.7–7.5%). The combined prevalence of HPV 16/18 was at 53.6% (95% CI 49.3–57.8%). In this review, HPV 16 in particular, but also HPV 52 and 18, warrant exceptional consideration in vaccination and HPV based screening programs in Ethiopia. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first of its kind to establish the genotype distribution of HPV from different kinds of cervical lesions in Ethiopia although it was synthesized out of few studies. Hence, additional nationwide data are needed to strengthen our finding.



Prevalence of poliovirus vaccine strains in randomized stool samples from 2010 to 2018: encompassing transition from the trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine

Abstract

Global eradication of poliovirus (PV) has previously relied on the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, in order to eliminate the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the use of OPV will soon be discontinued. Thailand has introduced inactivated polio vaccine since December 2015 and replaced trivalent with bivalent OPV since April 2016. To provide crucial surveillance data during this polio vaccine transition period, poliovirus shedding in stool was performed. A total of 7446 stool samples between 2010 and September 2018 were tested for poliovirus using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Approximately 0.44% (33/7446) of the samples tested were positive for PV. All positive specimens had more than 99% homology with the Sabin vaccine strain, based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences. Although trivalent OPV use has been discontinued in Thailand since April 2016, PV type 2 could be detected in stool samples collected in May 2016 but has not been found afterwards. The use of bivalent OPV was able to reduce PV type 2 shedding in stools and could contribute to the reduction of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Thai children.



Performance evaluation of TRUPCR ® HBV Real-time PCR assay for Hepatitis B virus DNA quantification in clinical samples: report from a tertiary care liver centre

Abstract

Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) based Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load estimation is crucial for the initiation of treatment and serves as a strong predictor of liver disease progression in HBV infected individuals. HBV DNA quantification has been ever evolving with the addition of new qPCR based kits on a regular basis. The study was carried with an objective to evaluate the performance characteristics of a commercially available qPCR kit (TRUPCR®, 3B Black Bio Biotech, India Ltd.) and compare with CE approved qPCR kit (Artus HBV Real-time PCR, Qiagen, Germany). 121 HBV infected patients were prospectively enrolled from July to December 2016. Aliquots of serum samples were tested in parallel by TRUPCR® and Artus for HBV DNA levels. Genotype D was most predominant genotype in 36.9% (38/121) of patients followed by genotype A in 14.6% (15/121) patients. Median viral load as seen by Artus was log10IU/ml 3.37 (interquartile range log10IU/ml 2.10–10.89) as compared to TRUPCR® where it was log10IU/ml 3.54 (interquartile range log10IU/ml 2.67–11.52). A very good correlation was seen between the two assays (R2 = 0.964) with a concordance rate of 92.6% (112/121). The TRUPCR® qPCR HBV kit is capable of providing reliable and rapid HBV DNA quantitation and together with its much lower costs, presents itself as a good alternative.



Isolation and recombinant analysis of variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains from Beijing, China

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly infectious virus infecting pigs with high morbidity, especially for newborn piglets. Several PEDV strains were isolated from the intestinal tracts of diarrheic piglets from the Beijing area, China. Sequencing of the whole-genome of the PEDV isolates (GenBank numbers MG546687-MG546690) yielded sequences of 28033–28038 nt. The phylogenetic tree revealed that these strains from the Beijing area belonged to group II, while the vaccine strain, CV777, belonged to group I. We also determined the genetic correlation between these strains and CV777 strain. However, it showed that these strains in the Beijing area had unique mutations. The sequence identity of PEDV strains showed that these strains are most similar to these strains LZW, CH/JX-1/2013, USAIllinois972013, USAKansas1252014, CH/GDZQ/2014, SHQPYM2013, AJ1102, CHZMDZY11, KoreaK14JB01, and CHYJ130330, respectively. The possible recombination events indicate that PEDV in this studies were possibly recombinant strain formed by parent strains USAIllinois972013, KoreaK14JB01, CHYJ130330, and CHZMDZY11. These PEDV strains has been genetic recombination and mutations. The variant strains characterized in this study help to the evolutionary analysis of PEDV.



siRNA intervention inhibiting viral replication and delivery strategies for treating herpes simplex viral infection

Abstract

The effective treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections generally involves the use of antiviral nucleoside drugs, but with increasing reports of antiviral resistance, the use of these drugs is challenged. Hence, a need arises to explore alternate treatment options. In this review we have discussed various targets that have been explored to control the HSV replication using siRNA therapeutics. We have also discussed the advantages of targeting a less explored UL10 gene to develop an alternate therapeutic intervention. Gene silencing can induce an inhibitory activity to virus spread and infection. The capacity and suitability of UL10 gene as siRNA induced silencing target in eliciting the desired antiviral effect in patients is identified and particularly discussed. The major challenge associated with the siRNA therapeutics is their delivery. The various viable delivery options, that are being explored in the recent times is summarized and different delivery pathways and strategies are reviewed as a part of the study.



Dicer 1 of Candida albicans cleaves plant viral dsRNA in vitro and provides tolerance in plants against virus infection

Abstract

Most of the viral diseases of plants are caused by RNA viruses which drastically reduce crop yield. In order to generate resistance against RNA viruses infecting plants, we isolated the dicer 1 protein (CaDcr1), a member of RNAse III family (enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA) from an opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. In vitro analysis revealed that the CaDcr1 cleaved dsRNA of the coat protein gene of cucumber mosaic virus (genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae). Furthermore, we developed transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) over-expressing expressing CaDcr1 by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco lines were able to suppress infection of an Indian isolate of potato virus X (genus Potexvirus, family Alphaflexiviridae). The present study demonstrates that CaDcr1 can cleave double stranded replicative intermediate and provide tolerance to plant against RNA viruses.



Hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase polymorphisms between treated and treatment-naïve chronically infected patients

Abstract

The aim of this study was investigation of variation(s) in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase domain. 120 patients with chronic HBV infection recruited. 104 patients were received nucleos(t)ide analogs treatments. DNA extractions were done from plasma samples. Direct sequencing and alignment of Polymerase Chain Reaction products were applied for further analysis. HBV genotypes determined by NCBI's Genotyping Tool. Polymorphism(s) were detected by using DnaSP software. Of 120 samples, 98 were sequenced. All of products were HBV genotype D. 13/98 (13.27%) of patients had M539I/V substitutions corresponding to YMDD motif. FLLAQ to FLMAQ was observed among 22/98 (22.98) patients. Two substitutions N459Y and L515M were significantly correlated (R2 = 0.486 and R2 = 0.941 respectively) with FLLAQ motif variation. Mutation ratio among treatment-received patients to treatment-naïve patients was 0.2–0.6. Drug resistance conferring substitutions (DRCSs) were rtL180M (22/98), rtA194V (11/98), rtM204V (1/98), and rtM204I (11/98). Furthermore, six variants were observed among all patients. Appearance of DRCSs in HBV polymerase is a major obstacle to the virus treatments. In the present study, it was shown that DRCSs are more prevalent among treated patients. Therefore, replacement of current anti-viral regimen with novel anti-HBV drugs is warranted in the future.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Microbiology

Phage Particles in Ground Arctic Ice

Abstract

This is the first report on investigation of bacteriophages in ancient Arctic ground ice of various genesis and geological age. Electron microscopy revealed phage particles in all ice samples. Tailed bacteriophages were the dominant morphotype. A correlation was found between abundances of intact microbial cells and phage particles. Direct microscopic counts revealed the highest phage abundance melted native samples of ice wedge. Dependence of occurrence and abundance of phage particles on genesis of ground ice was observed. The phages, as an integral component of microbial communities, were found to be preserved in extreme low-temperature conditions of ground ancient ice.



Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation in the Presence of Chitosan and Its Derivatives

Abstract

The effect of chitosan and its derivatives on adhesion and biofilm formation by bacteria with diametrically opposite properties of cell surfaces was studied. Treatment of polystyrene surface with chitosan or its quaternized derivatives was shown to decrease its hydrophobicity significantly, resulting with an over fourfold inhibition of M. smegmatis adhesion. On the contrary, E. coli with hydrophilic cell surface showed higher affinity to the polystyrene surface in the presence of chitosan. The possibility of inhibiting formation of M. smegmatis biofilms by chitosan, which increases its antimycobacterial properties after its quaternization, has not been demonstrated previously. At the same time, the increase in the hydrophobicity of quaternized chitosan resulted in its decreased efficiency against E. coli cells with a relatively hydrophilic surface. The succinylated form of chitosan with negatively charged sites in the structure had practically no antibacterial properties due its decreased ability to bind with the target cells.



Phototrophic Communities of the Berikei Highly Mineralized Mesothermal Sulfide Springs (Dagestan, Russia)

Abstract

Phototrophic communities forming in the bottom of the Berikei highly mineralized mesothermal sulfide springs (Kayakent region, Dagestan, Russia) were investigated. The Berikei springs are an interesting example of combined effect of such factors as temperature, salinity, pH, and sulfide of occurrence and structure of phototrophic microbial communities. The water was of the sodium chloride type with salinity of 48‒97 g/L, near-neutral brine pH, and sulfide concentration of ~1 mM. The temperature at the stream bottom was as high as 60°C. Elevated temperature and high salinity limited the development of phototrophic communities. Formation of cyanobacterial mats occurred at temperatures below 54°C. Phormidium-like cyanobacteria and unicellular Synechocystis sp. predominated in the mats. The number of cyanobacterial species increased at desalination to 48‒57 g/L with emergence of the species morphologically resembling Spirulina sp., Leptolyngbya sp., and Oscillatoria sp. Among anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, halophilic purple bacteria Ectothiorhodospira sp., Marichromatium sp., and Rhodovulum sp., green sulfur bacteria Prosthecochloris sp., and unidentified Chloroflexi were present. Oxygenic photosynthesis in the mats was not inhibited by sulfide. Production of cyanobacterial mats was up to 4.7‒53.8 µg/(cm2 h). The contribution of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria to photosynthetic production varied from 0 to 100%. The composition of this microbial community was compared to those of the phototrophic microbial communities of the mesothermal springs of the Dead Sea coast (Israel), the Washington warm lake (United States), and the Paoha Island hot springs (Mono Lake, United States.



Rhizobacteria Strain from a Hypersaline Environment Promotes Plant Growth of Kengyilia thoroldiana

Abstract

Kengyilia thoroldiana is a nutritionally rich grass species of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Here, to improve its quality and biomass via biological fertilization, we sought out plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. Our screening found one Bacillus species capable of nitrogen fixation, indole-3-acetic acid production, and tolerating the extreme saline-alkali soil of Qinghai Province. We determined the strain's growth performance and antagonistic effects with pathogens (Fusarium graminearumF. acuminatum) and evaluated its impact on K. thoroldiana. The test strain KKLW1 was identified as Bacillusamyloliquefaciens by morphology, adversity culture, and 16S rDNA and gyrB partial sequence analyses. KKLW1 strongly tolerates saline conditions (11% salt, pH 11), and showed stable nitrogen fixation activity and IAA production capacity; its Phl gene, which we amplified, was significant antagonistic to pathogenic pasture fungi. Furthermore, compared with the control, the strain showed clear germination and growth-promoting activity after soaking grass seeds and root-irrigating with the Bacillussuspension, increasing each by 8 and 10–12%, respectively. In sum, the strain KKLW1 has excellent biological properties and stable physiological characteristics in this extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We propose KKLW1 for use as a functional strain of microbial fertilizer to increase production and restore vegetation coverage of the Plateau's grassland.



Optimized Fractioning and Structure Analysis of the Reactivating Factor from Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei

Abstract

The chemical structure of the extracellular reactivating factor (RF) from Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei was determined; this factor promotes survival of a small subpopulation of the producer cells under lethal stress impact. For the isolation and purification of this RF, the previously developed method for RF isolation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was optimized. A total of 15 fractions were obtained from the culture liquid of Luteococcus casei, two of which (I and IV) exhibited reactivation activity against the cells subjected to a lethal stress impact (UV irradiation). The method included solid-phase extraction of the peptides on a hydrophobic sorbent with the C8 phase and subsequent multistage separation using RP-HPLC. Mass spectral analysis (MALDI-TOF) was used to determine the molecular characteristics of fraction IV. Efficient ionization was not achieved for fraction I. Mass charges for fraction IV were 773.394 and 788.102 Da. Edman automatic sequencing was used to identify these components as peptides: Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu-Asn-Gln-Gly and Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu-Glu-Gln-Gly. No similarity to any known full-size functional peptide molecules in the databases on polypeptide primary structures was revealed. Formation of biologically active peptides by L. casei may be associated with non-template synthesis and probably involves proteolysis of a large protein.



Iron-Reducing Microbial Communities of the Lake Baikal Low-Temperature Bottom Sediments

Abstract

Psychroactive enrichment cultures reducing anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and soluble complexes of ferric iron at 5–20°C were isolated from the samples of Lake Baikal bottom sediments collected at the depths of 404 to 1396 m. Cultivation resulted in production of up to 6 mM Fe(II), which was over 50% of the initial Fe(III) concentration in the medium, and of 5.5 mM AH2QDS (~30% of the initial quinone concentration). The enrichment culture of iron-reducing bacteria St3 used Fe(III) citrate as the terminal electron acceptor, oxidizing formate from 6.5 to 2.0 g L–1 at 15°C. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the initial samples of the Lake Baikal bottom sediments and the enrichments obtained from these samples contained the taxa of classes Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, which were closely related to bacteria capable of oxidizing aromatic compounds using inorganic electron acceptors, including ferric iron.



Ability of the Dietzia , Gordonia and Rhodococcus Actinobacteria to Accumulate Nickel Ions

Abstract

Accumulation of nickel ions by actinobacterial strains of DietziaGordonia, and Rhodococcus from the Regional Specialized Collection of Alkanotrophic Microorganisms (IEGM; http://www.iegm.ru/iegmcol) was studied. The major physicochemical factors underlying the accumulation of nickel ions are discussed. The strains characterized by high (up to 95%) accumulation of and resistance to increased (up to 10.0 mM) nickel ion concentrations were selected.



Methacrylate-Reducing Activity of Anaerobic Bacteria Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and Denitrovibrio acetiphilus

Abstract

Periplasmic methacrylate-reducing activity was shown for anaerobic acetate-oxidizing gram-negative bacteria Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1Т (class Deltaproteobacteria) and Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809Т (class Deferribacteres), both possessing homologous genes for methacrylate redox system components. No acrylate reductase activity was revealed in these bacteria. A. dehalogenans and D. acetiphilus were also found to reduce fumarate, exhibiting periplasmic and intracellular fumarate reductase activity, respectively. D. acetiphilus was found to possess nitrate reductase activity of periplasmic and intracellular localization. The possible correspondence between reductase activities and the hypothetical proteins genes in the known genomes of A. dehalogenans and D. acetiphilus are discussed.



Biofilm Formation by Monocultures and Mixed Cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis 2 and Rhodococcus ruber gt 1

Abstract

Biofilm formation by monocultures and mixed cultures of nitrile-hydrolyzing bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis 2 and Rhodococcus ruber gt 1 was studied. Biofilm formation was assessed by staining with Crystal violet, by the energy state of the cells, and by the output of the polymer matrix. A quantitative method for assessment of the output of the polymer matrix by the fluorescence of konA-tetramethylrhodamine was developed. The medium used for obtaining mixed biofilms of Al. faecalis 2 and R. ruber gt 1 contained acetamide and glucose as carbon sources. In mixed biofilms Al. faecalis 2 was shown to act as a primary colonizer, while R. ruber gt 1 was a satellite microorganism. Compared to monoculture biofilms, mixed biofilms exhibited higher output of the polymer matrix and increased biofilm formation by Al. faecalis 2 and R. ruber gt 1 on addition of the culture liquid of the second strain. Daily addition of the toxic substrate acetonitrile to planktonic and biofilm cultures resulted in bacterial adaptation, as was indicated by higher numbers of surviving cells compared to the variants with acetonitrile addition every 10 min, mainly due to nitrile hydratase activity of R. ruber gt 1, which transformed acetonitrile into nontoxic acetamide. Our results show that binary biofilms of amidase-containing Al. faecalis 2 and R. ruber gt 1, a strain with high nitrile hydratase activity, are promising as biocatalysts for acrylic acid production and as the basis for a biofilter for nitrile removal from wastewater.



Characterization of Ultrasmall Chryseobacterium Strains FM1 and FM2 Isolated from Xenopus laevis Skin

Abstract

Two strains of ultrasmall gram-negative bacteria (USGNB), FM1 and FM2, were isolated from the skin of the smooth clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The cytological, physiological, biochemical, and genotypic characteristics of the isolates were studied. Based on the sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes and on their phenotypic properties, the isolates were assigned to the genus Chryseobacterium. The cells were extremely small, with cell volumes of ~0.06 and ~0.015 µm3 for developing cultures of strains FM1 and FM2, respectively. Since the USGNB cells were firmly attached to the skin surface and could not be removed by repeated washing with water, these bacteria may be classified as epibionts. Adhesive properties of the fimbria-like appendages revealed in strains FM1 and FM2 by electron microscopy could probably contribute to tight binding of USGNB cells to the skin. Localization of ultrasmall gram-negative bacteria on skin surface of the frogs may indicate their action as a protective bacterial filter; skin surface of Xenopus laevis is thus characterized for the first time as a specific habitat of ultrasmall Chryseobacterium strains. Isolation and characterization of two ultrasmall Chryseobacterium strains, FM1 and FM2, improves our understanding of diversity of the cellular structural and functional characteristics and of the ecological niches of this bacterial genus.





ALEXANDROS SFAKIANAKIS ANAPAFSEOS 5 AGIOS NIKOLAOS CRETE 72100 GREECE +306932607174 +302841026182

Preventive and Clinical Dental Research

Comparative study of remineralization potential of three different remineralizing agents on demineralized enamel using light fluorescence and confocal fluorescence microscope: An in vitro study
Trishagni Chaudhury, S Ananthakrishna, R Veena Kumari, Sukhbir Kour, Aswathi Syam

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):45-49

Aim and Objective: The main objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the comparative analysis of remineralization potential of three different materials – casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF), calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP), and bioactive glass on demineralized enamel using light fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 single-rooted maxillary and mandibular premolars were selected; 4 mm × 4 mm window was prepared on the buccal surfaces of the teeth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 96 h at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and divided into four study groups of 10 teeth each: Group 1 (artificial saliva), Group 2 (CPP-ACPF), Group 3 (bioactive glass), and Group 4 (CaSP). Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agents and sectioned with Struers Minitom diamond saw. Each section obtained was visualized under light fluorescence microscope for detection of remineralized and demineralized zones and also was visualized under confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscope for the quantification of demineralized and remineralized zones. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, followed by one-way ANOVA, where P ≤ 0.05. Results: All the groups showed better statistically significant remineralization potential when compared to the control group, but among them Group 4, that is, Toothmin group showed the highest mean remineralized value, followed by Groups 3, 2, and 1, though the values were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Light fluorescence microscopy was an efficient diagnostic aid in detecting remineralization and demineralization. Conclusion: CaSP (Toothmin) has got the best remineralization potential when compared to other groups. 


A clinical study of incidence, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in K. R. Hospital, Mysore
S Sandeep Tejaswi, TS Subash

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):50-52

Introduction: The mandible is the second-most common fractured part of the maxillofacial region after the nasal bone. The incidences, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures vary considerably among the different population; there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular fracture in Mysore. The main causes of mandible fractures in this study are road traffic accident (RTA), assault, fall, sports-related injuries, and industrial trauma. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients records were taken from MLC books who sustained mandibular fracture presenting to the Department of Dentistry, K.R. Hospital from January 2016 to December 2016. A standardized maxillofacial trauma pro forma was used to record the data in relation to age, gender, etiology, and anatomical site. The mandibular fractures were classified based on the anatomical sites such as symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, ramus, condyle, coronoid, and dentoalveolar process. Patients were divided into the following age group of <10 years, 11–20 years, 21–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years, and 50 years and above; data were obtained and analyzed using simple descriptive statistical analysis and Pearson's Chi-squared test. Results: A total of 50 patients with 70 fractures were analyzed for the study, in which 32 were male (64%) and 18 (36%) were female. The patients ranged from <10 years to 50 years. The highest prevalence of fracture occurred in the age group of 21–30 (33.3%) years followed by age group of 50 years and above (28.6%). Mandibular fractures are predominantly caused by RTA which consisted of (16/50, 32%). The second-most common was fall (13/50, 26%), followed by assault (10/50, 20%), sports (8/50, 16%), and industrial trauma (3/50, 6%). RTA was the main cause in the age group of 31–40 years. Fall was the second cause in the age group of 40–50 years and above. RTA remains the predominant cause of mandibular fracture in the age group of 31–40 years in this study. Conclusion: Among 70 fracture sites located in this study, sites which fracture were seen was parasymphysis 31.42%, followed by angle 20%, condyle 18.57%, symphysis and dentoalveolar 8.57%, body 7.14%, ramus 4.28%, and the least was coronoid 1.42%. The parasymphysis is the most common site of fracture in this study similar to the other previous studies. In cases with unilateral fractures, parasymphysis was the most common 33.33%, followed by the angle of 19.60%. The most common combination was parasymphysis and condyle. 


A comparative evaluation of plastic and metal impression trays on the accuracy of cast
Jiji M Edakkalathur, Kurien Varghese, Sony Sebastian, Bilaal Sidhique Abubacker

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):53-56

Background: Defects in making an impression could affect the accuracy and fit of the final prostheses. Aims and Objectives: The present study evaluates whether the rigidity of impression trays made out of two different materials affect the accuracy of cast poured out of same impression material. Materials and Methods: For the present study, metallic perforated rim-lock tray and disposable plastic tray were selected for making the impression. Alginate (Tropicalgin™) was used as the impression material of choice. A master model constructed with stainless steel abutments at 44 and 47 and 34 and 37 region was used for making impressions using metal and plastic impression trays respectively. The cast was poured with type III dental stone and the distance between the reference points were measured using CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). The results obtained were compared and statistical analysis done using one sample t – test. Results: The study came out with results showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between casts made out of these two different impression tray materials. Conclusions: The study concluded that rigidity of perforated metal stock trays ensured better results than perforated plastic stock trays for impressions using alginate impression material. 


A comparative evaluation of maxillary canine retraction using flap and flapless corticotomy: A clinical study
Sarvesh P Agrawal, Shreya Iyengar, Udita A Thakkar, Reema Agrawal, Syed Mohammed Ali, Vinod Sargaiyan

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):57-59

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of maxillary canine retraction using flap and flapless corticotomy. Materials and Methods: A sample of 10 adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment requiring therapeutic extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally were selected, compliant with the inclusion criteria. By random allocation, one site was selected for flap corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics (CFO) and opposite site for flapless CFO. After corticotomy procedure, maxillary canine retractions were done on both the sides using sliding mechanics. A paired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the difference in the amount of tooth movement between the flap and flapless sides. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) in the rates of anteroposterior movement of the canines between the flap and flapless sides at all measurement times, and the rates of canine retraction were consistently higher in the flap side than in the flapless side. Conclusions: Flap corticotomy technique is more effective as compared to that of flapless corticotomy technique. Clinical Relevance: Flap corticotomy will be more effective clinically; however, the histologic correlation in regard to the changes in both the technique would be more beneficial. 


Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among habitual gutkha and areca nut chewers in Dhanbad district
Animesh Kumar Shivam, Farrukh Azam, Heena Sadiq

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):60-62

Objectives: To assess the incidence rate of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and its etiology in patients attending outpatient department at Patliputra Medical College and Hospital (PMCH), Dhanbad. Methodology: The diagnosis of OSMF was based on clinical examination and evaluating patient's signs and symptoms. Results: The total number of patients affected by OSMF in this time duration was 270. Of these, 232 (86%) were male, while 38 were female (14%). The greatest proportion of OSMF patients (58.58%) had a habit of chewing areca nut alone or in the form of gutkha. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence rate of OSMF in patients visiting PMCH, Dhanbad was 1%. Males were more affected than females. It was seen that the major etiological factors in the development of OSMF was areca nut and gutkha usage by the patients. 


Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists toward patients with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infections in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Rajeev Ranjan, Rudra Joshi, Saurabh Pramanik, Chhaya Jha, Anirban Kundu, Diplina Barman

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):63-67

Background: During routine dental work, dentists and dental students can be exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the dentists toward HIV- and HBV-infected patients in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists practicing in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, from December 2016 to April 2017. A total of 200 practitioners (89 males and 111 females) participated in the study. A pretested validated questionnaire related to the knowledge, attitude, and practices (knowledge – 17, attitude – 13, and practice – 17) of the dentists toward HIV- and HBV-infected patients was distributed among dental practitioners. Results: Almost 80% of the dental practitioners had existing fear and concern of the infection transmission from HIV and HBV patients, and this was the primary cause of refusal to treat these infected patients. Conclusion: The dentists did not have proper knowledge in the field of transmission of HIV and HBV infections. Fear and concern of being infected make them to refuse treating these patients. Therefore, training dentists to improve their attitudes toward the treatment of these patients is necessary. 


Appraisal of orthodontic brackets for Adhesive Remnant Index with and without primer: In vitro study
Ayub Khan, Sri Sujan Suryadevaraya, B Vengal Rao, Sweta Kattimani, Shaik Kamal Sha, Bindu V Bhaskar

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):68-70

Introduction: The elementary function of the primer is to boost the efficiency of the final bond. The secondary function is to protect the enamel from the ensuing demineralization by the acid-etching and to reduce marginal leakage. Primer computing is a step in the bonding procedure which necessitates increased chair time risk of moisture contamination and an increased procedural cost. Hence, the present study is intended to evaluate the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) for the site of bond failure. Methodology: Eighty extracted premolars procured from the department of orthodontics and private clinics divided into two groups with and without primer, after debonding the enamel surfaces, were examined under stereomicroscope of ×20 magnification for ARI, using the 4-point scale described by Artun and Bergland. Results: The frequency distribution of ARI with primer application showed statistically significant results. There were significant differences in debonded locations, between enamel-adhesive with primer and without primer. Conclusions: A conventional adhesive system with primers showed low ARI scores in comparison to adhesive system without primer. 


Chitosan hydrogel: Its applications in medicine and dentistry
Guljot Singh, Umang Jamwal

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):71-76

Since times immemorial, there has been an interactive interdependence of man on nature. The world of technology has overpowered him, yet technology and nature go hand in hand to help mankind fulfill his day-to-day necessities. The developing civilization has once again led to a quest to turn to nature in search for materials that are ecofriendly and economical. Chitosan is one such polymer. The combination of properties of chitosan such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, and antibacterial properties open many possibilities for its application in medicine and dentistry. This article overviews the applications of chitosan in the form of hydrogels that can be applied effectively and give promising results for target delivery of drugs, the reduction of toxicity, and its uses focused towards the advancement of dentistry. 


Restoring biomechanics in immature young maxillary permanent central incisor
MR Amith, P Venugopal, CM Jayashankara, S Anil Kumar, P Sharath Kumar, SA Girish

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):77-80

Treatment of immature young permanent tooth is complex owing to the presence of open apex and thin fragile dentinal walls. To create an apical seal, the treatment of choice would be apexification. The present clinical case is a report of immature permanent young central incisor associated with the periapical lesion treated with single-visit Biodentine® apexification and restored with glass fiber post in the aid of dual-cured resin composite to achieve monobloc effect. The concept of accomplishing monobloc with root dentin is imperative for the durability of the foundation. 


Software-guided predictable endodontic management of three-rooted lower right second premolar
Purnil B Shah, Nili Shah, Pratik Kariya

International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research 2018 5(4):81-83

It is essential in endodontics to understand the morphological anatomy of the roots and root canal systems of the teeth to increase the success rate of root canal therapy. Advanced diagnostic imaging modalities like cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the assistive software like three-dimensional (3D) Endo Software (by Dentsply Sirona) are very helpful aids in understanding the anatomy of the teeth, especially the complicated premolars. Most commonly mandibular first and second premolars have a single root and root canal system. However, multiple roots and canals have also been reported in few cases which are considered as a challenging task for an endodontist. The present case report discusses the complete endodontic management of a three-rooted mandibular second premolar using CBCT imaging and assistive guidance by 3D Endo Software (by Dentsply Sirona). 




ALEXANDROS SFAKIANAKIS ANAPAFSEOS 5 AGIOS NIKOLAOS CRETE 72100 GREECE +306932607174 +302841026182

Ultrasounds

Transient periportal hyperechogenicity in feverish patients: a novel ultrasonographic finding

Abstract

Purpose

Periportal hyperechogenicity has been recorded in many inflammatory and infectious diseases, including viral hepatitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, toxic shock syndrome of staphylococcus infection, typhoid fever, and schistosomiasis. We aimed to evaluate the echogenicity of the portal tracts of the liver by abdominal ultrasound imaging in patients with fever irrespective of the cause.

Methods

Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed in 277 consecutive patients presented with fever at their first visit and repeated 2 weeks later after their recovery.

Results

Transient periportal hyperechogenicity was present in 39% (108 patients) of the feverish patients studied irrespective of the cause of the fever.

Conclusion

Transient periportal hyperechogenicity is a frequent ultrasonographic finding in feverish patients irrespective of the cause of fever, and hence should not be misdiagnosed as liver disease or chronic periportal fibrosis unless the hyperechogenicity persists after recovery from the febrile or inflammatory condition.



Paediatric neck ultrasonography: a pictorial essay

Abstract

The neck structures are located very superficially and are therefore easy to explore by ultrasound examination. Ultrasonography is crucial for the detection of neck pathologies in children. High-frequency probes (10–15 MHz) are used for the ultrasound examination on the patient lying in supine decubitus and with their neck stretched out. The outcome of the exam depends mainly on the child's cooperation—hence the need for warm sonographic gel and a comfortable cushion to place under the patient's shoulders. The complete scan of the neck includes the evaluation of the thyroid and salivary glands and the vascular structures as well as the lymph node analysis. In children and adolescents, the thymus is often visualised in the supraclavicular and jugular scans. It appears as a structure, usually hypoechoic, with thin hyperechoic straps, though echogenicity increases with age. In this pictorial essay, the main pathological conditions of the neck in paediatric age will be examined, such as thyroid dysgenesis, thyroiditis, thyroid nodules, lymphadenopathies, cystic lesions, haemangiomas and vascular malformation, cervical thymus, fibromatosis colli and pilomatrixoma.



Spinal cord ultrasonography of the newborn

Abstract

Ultrasound represents the first-line survey for the assessment of spinal cord development abnormalities. In fact, within 6 months of life, the non-ossification of neuronal arcs provides an excellent acoustic window that allows a detailed depiction of the spinal canal, its content and of the surrounding soft tissues. Nevertheless, an accurate ultrasound examination requires a complete knowledge of the anatomy, the condition of normality, the frequent anatomical variants and the main pathologies involved. This review is intended to briefly summarize the US technique, the main clinical indication and the key notions that could help to properly perform this type of ultrasound examination.



Treatment of thyroid nodules with radiofrequency: a 1-year follow-up experience

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in debulking benign solid thyroid nodules.

Materials and methods

This is a retrospective review of 77 patients with predominantly solid thyroid nodules treated with RFA in a single center between 2013 and 2016. All patients declined or were not eligible for surgery. Benign proven thyroid nodules causing compressive symptoms and cosmetic concerns were considered for treatment. Nodule volume, thyroid nodule related compressive symptoms, cosmetic concerns and thyroid function were evaluated.

Results

All patients underwent a single treatment session. Mean nodule volume decreased from 17.9 ± 15.6 mL at baseline to 5.2 ± 7.4 after 12 months with a volume reduction ratio (VRR) of 70.9% ± 20.8%. There were no identifiable factors predictive of response to RFA. Median cosmetic and symptom scores of the entire population decreased from 3 [2–4] and 3 [0–10] to 1 [1–3] (p < 0.001) and 0 [0–5] (p < 0.001), respectively. No major complications occurred and RFA did not affect thyroid function when normal.

Conclusion

RFA induces substantial volume reduction of predominantly solid thyroid nodules and improves compressive symptoms and cosmetic concerns. RFA does not impact normal thyroid function and has an acceptable safety profile.



Strain elastography in Crohn's disease: the role of visual observation and semiquantitative parameters

Abstract

Strain elastography is a recently developed ultrasound method that seems to contribute to the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases. This pictorial essay aims to present the feasibility of strain elastography in clinical practice by comparing visual observation and semiquantitative parameters with endoscopic or radiological images in some common cases of Crohn's disease. In our opinion, strain elastography with visual observation is easily performed in connection with B-mode ultrasound and color Doppler imaging and may provide relevant information. Strain elastography with the elaboration of semiquantitative parameters is not as immediate as the visual observation method, but it seems to provide more objective data and seems more appropriate for monitoring the evolution of the disease. However, for the elastographic method to extensively contribute in inflammatory bowel diseases, standardization and further studies are required to confirm the promising results already reported in the literature.



A role for ultrasound in the fabrication of carbohydrate-supported nanomaterials

Abstract

Nowadays, sonication is a well-known technique for the fabrication and surface modification of nanomaterials with various sizes, shapes, and chemical and physical properties. In addition to conducting catalyst-mediated chemical reactions and enhancing medicinal properties, such as antibacterial and antifungal activities, nanoparticles made from biodegradable and biocompatible carbohydrate coatings and glycosidic frameworks offer exciting opportunities for the development of biomaterials, optical sensors, packaging materials, agricultural products, and food. This review article discusses the synthesis of carbohydrate-coated nanoparticles by ultrasound radiation as well as the many applications of these nanoparticles.

Graphical abstract



Pancake kidney, a rare and often misdiagnosed malformation: a case report and radiological differential diagnosis

Abstract

Renal ectopia and fusion anomalies are Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and the Urinary Tract (CAKUT) that are usually incidentally detected and asymptomatic. Patients affected present a higher risk of complications like recurrent urinary tract infections or obstruction. Pancake kidney (PK) is one of the rarest types of renal anomaly with complete fusion of the superior, mild and inferior poles of both kidneys in the pelvic cavity. Each kidney has its own excretory system with two ureters that do not cross the midline. In the asymptomatic cases, a conservative approach should be performed. Surgical management may be needed when urological problems occur. PK is often associated with congenital anomalies of other organs. Ultrasound is the first line radiological examination for the diagnosis and the follow-up of kidney malformations. The main sonographic findings suggesting PK diagnosis are a large and lobulated renal mass consisting of two fused lateral lobes without an intervening septum located in the pelvic cavity. Each lobe usually has a separate pelvicalyceal system, the renal pelvis is anteriorly placed and the ureters are usually short and enter the bladder normally without crosses the midline. Ultrasonography gives useful information on the morphology and volume of the organ, and on its vascularization through the use of the Color- and Power-Doppler. Computer Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Urography are second level techniques used to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the presence of other abnormalities. The knowledge of the imaging findings and the anatomy of congenital renal malformations is important to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and misinterpretations. We report the case of a 14-years old female with PK who was misdiagnosed with a horseshoe kidney (HSK) during an abdominal ultrasound.



Increased renal cortical stiffness obtained by share-wave elastography imaging significantly predicts the contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with preserved renal function

Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to investigate the relation between renal cortical stiffness (CS) obtained by shear-wave elastography (SWE) and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) development in interventional treatment-planned acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.

Methods

Our study group consisted of 465 ACS patients. Routine laboratory assessments, B-mode, Doppler, and SWE renal ultrasonography (USG) evaluations were performed. Renal resistive index (RRI), renal pulsatility index (RPI), and acceleration time (AT) and CS were measured. Patients were grouped as with and without CIN.

Results

Among the study group, 55 patients (11.8%) had CIN. Age, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), basal creatinine, CK-MB and troponin I levels, contrast volume, contrast volume/weight ratio, SYNTAX score, RRI, RPI, AT, and CS values were significantly higher in patients with CIN. eGFR was lower in patients who developed CIN. Age, contrast volume/weight ratio, and CS were determined as independent predictors of CIN occurrence in logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, increase of age (each year), contrast volume/weight (each 0.2 mL/kg), and CS (each 1 kPa) were found to augment the development of CIN by 7.1, 59.5, and 62.3%, respectively. In the ROC analysis, CS had the highest AUROC value. The cutoff value of CS obtained by the ROC curve analysis was 7 kPa for the CIN development (sensitivity: 74.5%, specificity: 72.5%).

Conclusion

CS value is a simple, cheap, reproducible, noninvasive, and objective parameter for the detection of CIN development. ACS patients should be directed to renal USG, and routine CS value should be written besides USG measurements in reports.



Contrast-enhanced ultrasound patterns of hepatocellular adenoma: an Italian multicenter experience

Abstract

Purpose

Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign monoclonal neoplasm, recently categorized on genetic and histopathological basis into four subtypes with different biological behaviors. Since contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is nowadays a well-established technique for liver nodule characterization, the aim of our study was to assess CEUS features of HCAs to identify criteria that correlate with different HCA subtypes as compared to histopathologic examination and other imaging modalities.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with histology-proven HCA who underwent CEUS, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven different Italian ultrasound units.

Results

The study enrolled 19 patients (16 females; 69% with concomitant/prior use of oral contraceptives): the mean size of all HCAs was 4.2 cm (range 1.6–7.1 cm); 14/19 had inflammatory HCAs (I-HCA), 1/19 β-catenin-activated HCA, and the others unclassified HCAs. On CEUS, during the arterial phase, all but one HCA displayed a rapid enhancement, with 89% of these showing centripetal and 11% centrifugal filling pattern, whereas during the portal and late venous phase 58% of HCA showed washout and the remaining 42% displayed persistent enhancement. In particular, among I-HCAs 7/14 showed no washout, 3/14 and 4/14 showed washout in the portal or late phase, respectively.

Conclusions

This dataset represents one of the few published experiences on HCAs and CEUS in Italy and shows that HCAs are hypervascularized in the arterial phase usually with a centripetal flow pattern and have a heterogeneous behavior in portal and late phase. In particular, occurrence of delayed washout on CEUS but not on MRI is frequently observed in the subtype of I-HCA.



Neonatal and pediatric thoracic ultrasonography

Abstract

Ultrasound examination of the thorax (TUS) can be quite suitable for children because their unique thoracic anatomy provides many acoustic windows into the chest. This review article covers techniques, indications, and applications of TUS in neonates, infants, and children, including common aspects and applications, like pulmonary consolidation and atelectasis, pleural effusion and pneumothorax and main neonatal pathologies such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and transitory tachypnea of the newborn (TTN).





ALEXANDROS SFAKIANAKIS ANAPAFSEOS 5 AGIOS NIKOLAOS CRETE 72100 GREECE +306932607174 +302841026182

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

Directory: AAO Officers and Organizations

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s):



Leena Peck, 1945-2019

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Sheldon Peck



May 2019:155(5)

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Allen H. Moffitt



Searching the literature for studies for a systematic review. Part 4: Searching with the use of text words

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Anne Littlewood, Dimitrios Kloukos



Got milk?

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Laurance Jerrold



Precision of 3D-printed splints with different dental model offsets

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Niansong Ye, Tingting Wu, Ting Dong, Lingjun Yuan, Bing Fang, Luoguo Xia

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to assess the precision of 3D-printed splints generated from different dental model offsets.

Methods

Ten maxillary models were offset by given distances (0.05 mm, 0.1 mm, and 0.2 mm). Digital splints were created by means of the boolean operation. The physical splints were fabricated by means of digital light-processing (DLP) rapid prototyping technologies. A layer of impression material, which could be weighed by means of an electronic analytical balance, was placed in the airspace between the splint and the teeth. We also calculated the shell-to-shell deviations by measuring the 3-dimensional (3D) euclidean distances between the surface points of the scanned splints and the original digital splint and evaluating the results with color-mapping methods.

Results

There was a statistically significant difference in the amounts of impression material remaining in the airspace between the 0.0-mm group and the 0.05-mm, 0.1-mm, and 0.2-mm groups (P < 0.05), between the 0.05-mm and the 0.1-mm and 0.2-mm groups (P < 0.05), and between the 0.0-mm group and the 0.05-mm, 0.1-mm, and 0.2-mm groups (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in shell-to-shell deviations between the 0.05-mm and the 0.1-mm and 0.2-mm groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

3D-printed splints generated from offset dental models (offset 0.05 mm, 0.1 mm, and 0.2 mm) can fit better on the teeth than splints from no-offset dental models. An offset of 0.1 mm is the best choice of parameter for generating the splint.



Maxillary molar mesialization with the use of palatal mini-implants for direct anchorage in an adolescent patient

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Benedict Wilmes, Sivabalan Vasudavan, Dieter Drescher

A unique clinical challenge presents when dealing with a compromised first permanent molar. A compelling treatment option for consideration is the removal of a nonrestorable first permanent molar, with the subsequent "replacement" through controlled mesial tooth movement of viable second and third molars. To reinforce the anchorage support associated with such a planned movement, indirect or direct implant-supported mechanics may be used. With the use of direct anchorage, orthodontic brackets are not required and space closure can be commenced immediately. In this article, we report the clinical procedure and design of direct-anchorage mechanics used for the successful closure of a maxillary first permanent molar space with the use of an implant-supported appliance (Mesialslider). Treatment was completed in just under 12 months, with successful mesial movement of the maxillary second and third molars without the need for the bonding of orthodontic brackets on the anterior dentition. The result was determined to be stable over a 3-year period.



Hemimandibular hyperplasia treated with orthognathic surgery and mandibular body osteotomy

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Han-Lim Kim, Young-Jun Choi, Hyewon Kim

Surgical treatment of facial asymmetry usually involves 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. But when the size of the mandible differs a great deal between the right and left sides, as in hemimandibular hyperplasia, additional contouring surgery is required. A 20-year-old woman presented with facial asymmetry, showing marked mandibular hyperplasia of the right side. She was treated with the use of 2-jaw surgery with mandibular body osteotomy in conjunction with orthodontic intrusion. Good esthetic outcome and functional occlusion were achieved.



A complex orthognathic surgical approach correcting a Class III malocclusion involving traumatic dental injuries and a maxilla fracture

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Renato Barcellos Rédua, Robson Almeida de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de Almeida Ferreira, Márcio Rodrigues Bittencourt

This case report describes a complex approach to orthodontic preparation for surgical treatment of a Class III facial skeletal deformity in a patient who suffered a unilateral maxilla fracture that also featured maxillary left central incisor avulsion, maxillary right central incisor extrusion, and maxillary right lateral luxation. A 12-mm negative overjet was formed by extraction of the maxillary right lateral incisor and closure of the residual space by retraction of the maxillary right central incisor, maxillary left lateral incisors, and maxillary right and left canines. Forward and impaction movement of the maxilla and retrusion and a counterclockwise turning movement of the mandible were then performed. Maxillary first premolars were reshaped to establish a maxillary canine shape, maxillary canines were reshaped to be maxillary lateral incisors, and a maxillary left lateral incisor received a central incisor crown, with a Class II molar relationship with good occlusion after 2 years of follow-up. This case was a great challenge that included complex multidisciplinary procedures, and the results indicated successful treatment of an orthodontic preparation for surgical treatment in a patient after maxillary fracture associated with dental trauma.



3D stereophotogrammetry versus traditional craniofacial anthropometry: Comparing measurements from the 3D facial norms database to Farkas's North American norms

Publication date: May 2019

Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 5

Author(s): Seth M. Weinberg

Introduction

Datasets of soft-tissue craniofacial anthropometric norms collected with the use of different methods are available, but there is little understanding of how the measurements compare. Here we compare a set of standard facial measurements between 2 large datasets: the 3D Facial Norms (3DFN) dataset collected with the use of 3D stereophotogrammetry (n = 2454), and the Farkas craniofacial norms collected with the use of direct anthropometry (n = 2326).

Methods

A common set of 24 craniofacial linear distances were compared by computing standardized effect sizes (Cohen d) for each measurement to describe the overall direction and magnitude of the difference between the 2 datasets.

Results

Variables with higher mean d values (suggesting greater discrepancy across datasets) included measurements involving the ear landmark tragion, the landmark nasion, the width of nasolabial structures, the vermilion portion of the lips, and palpebral fissure length. Variables with lower mean d values included smaller midline measurements involving the lips and lower face and horizontal distance measures between the eyes. Eight measurements showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.05) between Cohen d and age, indicating greater similarity across the 2 datasets as age increased.

Conclusions

There are considerable differences between the 3DFN and Farkas norms. In addition to the measurement methods, other factors accounting for discrepancies may include secular trends in craniofacial morphology or differences in ethnic composition.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
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