Πέμπτη, 12 Απριλίου 2018

Increasing the Accuracy of Optic Nerve Measurement Using 3D Volumetry [LETTERS]



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REPLY: [LETTERS]



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Association of Quantified Location-Specific Blood Volumes with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Delayed cerebral ischemia is a severe complication of aneurysmal SAH and is associated with a high case morbidity and fatality. The total blood volume and the presence of intraventricular blood on CT after aneurysmal SAH are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia. Whether quantified location-specific (cisternal, intraventricular, parenchymal, and subdural) blood volumes are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia has been infrequently researched. This study aimed to associate quantified location-specific blood volumes with delayed cerebral ischemia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Clinical and radiologic data were collected retrospectively from consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH with available CT scans within 24 hours after ictus admitted to 2 academic centers between January 2009 and December 2011. Total blood volume was quantified using an automatic hemorrhage-segmentation algorithm. Segmented blood was manually classified as cisternal, intraventricular, intraparenchymal, or subdural. Adjusted ORs with 95% confidence intervals for delayed cerebral ischemia per milliliter of location-specific blood were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS:

We included 282 patients. Per milliliter increase in blood volume, the adjusted OR for delayed cerebral ischemia was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01–1.04) for cisternal, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.04) for intraventricular, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97–1.02) for intraparenchymal, and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.86–1.07) for subdural blood.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the cisternal blood volume has a stronger relation with delayed cerebral ischemia than the blood volumes at other locations in the brain.



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Management of Small Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Survey of Neuroradiologists [INTERVENTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The long-term history and management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is not well understood. Our aim was to determine current practice patterns in the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, especially regarding imaging surveillance for conservatively managed aneurysms of this type.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

An on-line survey was designed to examine physician practice and preference regarding the management of small unruptured intracranial aneurysms (≤7 mm in diameter). The survey was circulated to members of the American Society of Neuroradiology. Participation was voluntary, and all responses were anonymous.

RESULTS:

A total of 227 individual survey responses were obtained and included in the analysis with 54.6% (124/227) from diagnostic neuroradiologists (practicing >50% neuroradiology) and one-third (29%) from neurointerventional radiologists. One hundred seventy-three of 227 responded that routine, periodic imaging surveillance would be appropriate for conservatively managed unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and 84% of respondents recommended surveillance frequency of at least once a year. Fifty-nine percent favored indefinite, life-long follow-up for small unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and a similar number of respondents favored noncontrast MR angiography for aneurysm follow-up. Significant heterogeneity was found in size measurements used to assess aneurysms and criteria used to define growth on surveillance imaging.

CONCLUSIONS:

The natural history of intracranial aneurysms is not well-understood. A large proportion of incidentally detected, unruptured aneurysms are small (<7 mm). The survey results show significant heterogeneity in practice even among neuroradiologists and underlies the need to standardize imaging practice. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal frequency and duration of surveillance imaging for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The criteria used to measure aneurysms and define growth on imaging also need to be standardized.



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Surpass Streamline Flow-Diverter Embolization Device for Treatment of Iatrogenic and Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Injuries [INTERVENTIONAL]

SUMMARY:

Iatrogenic and traumatic cerebral internal carotid artery injuries are uncommon but potentially lethal complications. Direct surgical repair of ICA injuries may be difficult in an acute setting. However, endovascular treatment with a flow-diverter embolization device is a feasible alternative technique that we experienced. In this clinical report, we describe demographic data, radiographic images, lesion characteristics, endovascular procedure notes, postprocedural hospital course, and follow-up digital subtraction angiography of 5 patients. At least 6-month follow-up was available in all patients without occurrence of rebleeding and other complications.



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Under Pressure: Comparison of Aspiration Techniques for Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy [INTERVENTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Blood flow should be interrupted during mechanical thrombectomy to prevent embolization of clot fragments. The purpose of our study was to provide a handy overview of the most common aspiration devices and to quantify their flow characteristics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We assessed volumetric flow rates generated by a 60-mL VacLok vacuum pressure syringe, a Pump MAX aspiration pump, and a Dominant Flex suction pump connected to the following: 1) an 8F long sheath, 2) an 8F balloon-guide catheter, 3) an ACE 64 distal aspiration catheter, and 4) an AXS Catalyst 6 Distal Access Catheter. We used a water/glycerol solution, which was kept at a constant temperature of 20°C (viscosity, 3.7 mPa · s).

RESULTS:

Aspiration with the syringe and the Dominant Flex suction pump achieved the highest flows, whereas aspiration with the Pump MAX was significantly lower (P < .001). Resistors in the aspiration system (tubing, connectors, and so forth) restricted flows, especially when the resistance of the catheter was small (due to its large diameter) and the connected resistors became the predominant resistance (P < .001). The syringe achieved an average vacuum pressure of –90 kPa, and the resulting flow was constant during almost the entire procedure of filling the syringe.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sixty-milliliter VacLok vacuum pressure syringes and the Dominant Flex suction pump achieved high and constant flows likely sufficient to reverse blood flow during thrombectomy with an 8F sheath or balloon-guide catheter in the ICA and modern distal aspiration catheters in the MCA. The Pump MAX aspiration pump is dedicated for use with distal aspiration catheters and is unlikely to reverse blood flow in the ICA and MCA without balloon protection.



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Treatment of Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms with Flow-Diverter Stents: A Single-Center Experience [INTERVENTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Flow diversion for aneurysms beyond the circle of Willis is still debated. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of flow diversion treatment of distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Consecutive patients with distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms treated from January 2014 to October 2017 were evaluated retrospectively with prospectively maintained data. Treatment was performed only for unruptured or recanalized aneurysms after coiling. Technical feasibility, procedural complications, aneurysm occlusion (O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale), and clinical outcome were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Fifteen patients were included in the study, with 17 distal anterior cerebral artery saccular aneurysms treated with flow-diverter stents. Mean aneurysm size was 4.25 ± 3.9 mm; range, 2–9 mm. Flow diversion was used as retreatment among 6 previously coiled aneurysms (5 ruptured and coiled in the acute phase, and 1 unruptured and recanalized). Stent deployment was technically successful in all cases. During the perioperative period, 1 patient experienced a transient minor stroke (6%), whereas 2 patients reported acute in-stent thrombosis with disabling ischemic complications (13%). Fourteen patients and 16 aneurysms were available during a mean radiologic follow-up of 12 months (range, 3–24 months). Overall, 12 (75%) aneurysms were completely occluded (O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale score D), 1 aneurysm (6%) showed near-complete occlusion (O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale score C), and 3 aneurysms (19%) were incompletely occluded (O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale, score B). All 6 aneurysms previously coiled were completely occluded after flow diversion, whereas 70% of aneurysms treated with flow diverters alone showed complete/near-complete occlusion (O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale C–D). There were no cases of aneurysm rupture, in-stent occlusion, or retreatment during long-term follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Treatment of distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms with flow-diverter stents is feasible and effective, with high rates of aneurysm occlusion. Flow diversion plus coiling, in the retreatment of lesions previously coiled, allowed higher rates of occlusion compared with flow diverters alone. However, the risk of ischemic complications is not negligible, and flow-diversion treatment should be evaluated only for aneurysms not amenable to simple coil embolization.



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Differentiating Atypical Hemangiomas and Metastatic Vertebral Lesions: The Role of T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions that are almost always incidentally found in the spine. Their classic typical hyperintense appearance on T1- and T2-weighted MR images is diagnostic. Unfortunately, not all hemangiomas have the typical appearance, and they can mimic metastases on routine MR imaging. These are generally referred to as atypical hemangiomas and can result in misdiagnosis and ultimately additional imaging, biopsy, and unnecessary costs. Our objective was to assess the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging perfusion in distinguishing vertebral atypical hemangiomas and malignant vertebral metastases. We hypothesized that permeability and vascular density will be increased in metastases compared with atypical hemangiomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Consecutive patients from 2011 to 2015 with confirmed diagnoses of atypical hemangiomas and spinal metastases from breast and lung carcinomas with available dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Time-intensity curves were qualitatively compared among the groups. Perfusion parameters, plasma volume, and permeability constant were quantified using an extended Tofts 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Statistical significance was tested using the Mann-Whitney U test.

RESULTS:

Qualitative inspection of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging time-intensity curves demonstrated differences in signal intensity and morphology between metastases and atypical hemangiomas. Quantitative analysis of plasma volume and permeability constant perfusion parameters showed significantly higher values in metastatic lesions compared with atypical hemangiomas (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data demonstrate that plasma volume and permeability constant perfusion parameters and qualitative inspection of contrast-enhancement curves can be used to differentiate atypical hemangiomas from vertebral metastatic lesions. This work highlights the benefits of adding perfusion maps to conventional sequences to improve diagnostic accuracy.



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Percutaneous CT-Guided Biopsies of the Cervical Spine: Technique, Histopathologic and Microbiologic Yield, and Safety at a Single Academic Institution [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Cervical spine biopsies can be challenging due to the anatomy and the adjacent critical structures. Percutaneous image-guided biopsies can obviate the need for an open biopsy, however there have been few studies looking at the approaches, safety, and efficacy of percutaneous cervical spine biopsies. This retrospective study evaluated technical considerations, histopathologic and microbiologic yield, and safety in CT-guided cervical bone biopsies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective review of cervical bone and/or bone/disc biopsies performed from January 2010 to January 2017 was included in this study. Clinical diagnosis and indication, patient demographics, biopsy location, biopsy needle type, technical approach, lesion size, dose-length product, conscious sedation details, complications, and diagnostic histopathologic and/or microbiologic yield were recorded for each case and summarized.

RESULTS:

A total of 73 patients underwent CT-guided cervical bone biopsies. Fifty-three percent (39/73) were for clinical/imaging concern for infection and 47% (34/73) were for primary tumors or metastatic disease. Thirty-four percent (25/73) were of the inferior cervical spine (ie, C6 and C7). A sufficient sample was obtained for histopathologic and microbiologic analyses in 96% (70/73) of the biopsies. Forty-six percent (18/39) of those samples taken for infection had positive cultures. Two intraprocedural complications occurred in which the patients became hypotensive during the procedure without long-term complications.

CONCLUSIONS:

Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the cervical spine is an effective and safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and can obviate open procedures for histopathologic and microbiologic analyses of patients with clinical and imaging findings concerning for infection or primary and metastatic osseous lesions.



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Anatomic and Angiographic Analyses of Ophthalmic Artery Collaterals in Moyamoya Disease [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Moyamoya disease is a progressive neurovascular pathology defined by steno-occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid artery and associated with the development of compensatory vascular collaterals. The etiology and exact anatomy of vascular collaterals have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of collaterals developed between the ophthalmic artery and the anterior cerebral artery in a Moyamoya population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All patients treated for Moyamoya disease from 2004 to 2016 in 4 neurosurgical centers with available cerebral digital subtraction angiography were included. Sixty-three cases were evaluated, and only 38 met the inclusion criteria. Two patients had a unilateral cervical internal carotid occlusion that limited analysis of ophthalmic artery collaterals to one hemisphere. This study is consequently based on the analysis of 74 cerebral hemispheres.

RESULTS:

Thirty-eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most frequently encountered anastomosis between the ophthalmic artery and cerebral artery was a branch of the anterior ethmoidal artery (31.1%, 23 hemispheres). In case of proximal stenosis of the anterior cerebral artery, a collateral from the posterior ethmoidal artery could be visualized (16 hemispheres, 21.6%). One case (1.4%) of anastomosis between the lacrimal artery and the middle meningeal artery that permitted the vascularization of a middle cerebral artery territory was also noted.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collaterals from the ophthalmic artery are frequent in Moyamoya disease. Their development depends on the perfusion needs of the anterior cerebral artery territories. Three other systems of compensation could be present (callosal circle, leptomeningeal anastomosis, and duro-pial anastomoses).



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Correlation of listhesis on upright radiographs and central lumbar spinal canal stenosis on supine MRI: is it possible to predict lumbar spinal canal stenosis?

Abstract

Objective

To investigate whether upright radiographs can predict lumbar spinal canal stenosis using supine lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the detection performance for spondylolisthesis on upright radiographs compared with supine MRI in patients with suspected lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS).

Materials and Methods

In this retrospective study, conventional radiographs and MR images of 143 consecutive patients with suspected LSS (75 female, mean age 72 years) were evaluated. The presence and extent of listhesis (median ± interquartile range) were assessed on upright radiographs and supine MRI of L4/5. In addition, the grade of central spinal stenosis of the same level was evaluated on MRI according to the classification of Schizas and correlated with the severity/grading of anterolisthesis on radiographs.

Results

Anterolisthesis was detected in significantly more patients on radiographs (n = 54; 38%) compared with MRI (n = 28; 20%), p < 0.001. Pairwise comparison demonstrated a significantly larger extent of anterolisthesis on radiographs (9 ± 5 mm) compared with MRI (5 ± 3 mm), p < 0.001. A positive correlation was found regarding the extent of anterolisthesis measured on radiographs and the grade of stenosis on MRI (r = 0.563, p < 0.001). Applying a cutoff value of ≥5 mm anterolisthesis on radiographs results in a specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 78% for the detection of patients with LSS, as defined by the Schizas classification.

Conclusion

Upright radiographs demonstrated more and larger extents of anterolisthesis compared with supine MRI. In addition, in patients with suspected LSS, the extent of anterolisthesis on radiographs (particularly ≥5 mm) is indicative of LSS and warrants lumbar spine MRI.



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FDA permits Artificial intelligence-based in diabetes-related eye problems


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has permitted marketing of the first medical device to use artificial intelligence to detect greater than a mild level of the eye disease diabetic retinopathy in adults who have diabetes. 

The device, called IDx-DR, is a software program that uses an artificial intelligence algorithm to analyze images of the eye taken with a retinal camera called the Topcon NW400. 

IDx-DR is the first device authorized for marketing that provides a screening decision without the need for a clinician to also interpret the image or results, which makes it usable by health care providers who may not normally be involved in eye care.

Is this the beginning of the new era of AI in healthcare?

FDA.png



Reference and Further Reading




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[68Ga]Ga-Pentixafor PET/MRI for CXCR4 Imaging of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Preliminary Results

Objectives This prospective proof-of-principle study aimed to determine whether [68Ga]Ga-Pentixafor uptake, which reflects CXCR4 expression, is higher in the bone marrow of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) than in other oncological diseases without bone marrow infiltration and can therefore be used for CLL imaging. Materials and Methods Thirteen CLL patients and 20 controls (10 with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 10 with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) with histologically proven cancer underwent [68Ga]Ga-Pentixafor positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Standardized [68Ga]Ga-Pentixafor uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) were measured in the bone marrow of the pelvis, the lumbar vertebra L4, and the bony structure with the visually highest tracer uptake ("hottest lesion"). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient values were also measured in the pelvis. Serum leukocyte count (gram per liter), lymphocyte percentage (percent), lactate dehydrogenase (unit per liter), β2-microglobulin (milligram per deciliter), and C-reactive protein (milligram per deciliter) were measured. Statistical analyses comprised analysis of variance with Games-Howell post hoc tests and Spearman correlation coefficients. Results SUVmax and SUVmean differed significantly between CLL and pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the pelvis (P = 0.032 and P = 0.008) and lumbar vertebra L4 (both P

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Revascularization Techniques for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the clinical and radiological characteristics, frequency, technical aspects and outcome of endovascular treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion (ABO) in the setting of vertebrobasilar steno-occlusive disease.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of databases of two universitary stroke centers including all consecutive patients from January 2013 until May 2017 undergoing thrombectomy for a) acute stroke due to basilar artery occlusion and either significant basilar artery stenosis or vertebral artery stenosis/occlusion as well as b) presumed embolic basilar artery occlusions. Demographics, stroke characteristics, time metrics, recanalization results and outcome were recorded. Interventional strategies were evaluated concerning the thrombectomy technique, additional angioplasty, type of approach with respect to lesion pattern (ipsilateral to steno-occlusive VA lesion: dirty road or contralateral: clean road) and sequence of actions.

Results

Out of 157 patients treated for ABO 38 (24.2%) had associated significant vertebrobasilar steno-occlusive lesions. An underlying significant basilar artery stenosis was present in 23.7% and additionally significant steno-occlusive vertebral lesions were present in 81.5%. Thrombectomy was performed with primary aspiration in 15.8% and with stent-retrievers in 84.2%. Successful revascularization (TICI 2b-3) was achieved in 86.8%. In 52.6% additional stent angioplasty was performed, in 7.9% balloon angioplasty only. The clean road approach was used in 22.5% of cases, the dirty road in 77.4%. Final modified Rankin scale (mRS) was 0–2 in 6 patients (15.8%) and 3–5 in 32 (84.2%). The in-hospital mortality was 36.8%. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome compared to presumed cases of embolisms.

Conclusion

Endovascular treatment of ABO with underlying significant vertebrobasilar steno-occlusive lesions is effective and reasonably safe. Specific procedural strategies apply depending on individual patient pathology and anatomy. Although high rates of recanalization can be achieved, outcomes tend to be poor.



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Outcome of endovascular treatment for acute basilar artery occlusion in the modern era: a single institution experience

Abstract

Purpose

The beneficial effect of endovascular treatment (EVT) for patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO) remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate clinical outcome of EVT for patients with ABAO and analyze prognostic factors of good outcome.

Methods

From our prospectively established database, we reviewed all patients with ABAO receiving EVT during January 2014 to December 2016. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. Favorable functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 3 assessed at 3-month follow-up. The association between clinical and procedural characteristics and functional outcome was assessed.

Results

Of the 68 patients included, 50 patients (73.5%) received mechanical thrombectomy with stent retriever device. Successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grades 2b–3) was achieved in 61 patients (89.7%). Overall favorable functional outcome was reached by 31 patients (45.6%). In univariate analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale sum score, baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale score (NIHSS), and baseline glycemia level were identified predicting good clinical outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that lower NIHSS was the only independent risk factor of favorable functional outcome (OR 0.832; 95% CI, 0.715–0.968; p = 0.018). No difference of favorable outcomes was observed between the subgroups of time to EVT < 6 h and ≽ 6 h.

Conclusions

Data in the present study suggests that EVT for ABAO patients should be reasonable within 24 h of symptom onset. The most important factor determining clinical outcome is initial stroke severity.



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Prognostic impact of nodal relapse in definitive prostate-only irradiation

Abstract

Background

Whole pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer patients might prevent metastatic spread of cancer cells through lymphatic drainages in patients eligible for definitive radiotherapy, but its use has declined in the last decades in favor of prostate-only irradiation (POI). The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of pelvic lymph nodal relapse and outcome in prostate cancer patients receiving POI.

Materials and methods

Data from 207 consecutive patients were collected. Clinical and treatment variables were collected. Biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), pelvic nodal relapse-free survival (PNRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated; analysis of prognostic variables was performed.

Results

Five-year BRFS, PNRFS, DMFS, DSS and OS were, respectively, 90, 98, 96, 97 and 91%. On multivariate analysis, independent negative predictors of BRFS were Gleason score ≥ 7 (HR: 3.25) and PSA nadir ≥ 0.08 (HR: 4.86). Pelvic nodal relapse was not correlated to impaired outcome.

Conclusions

Lymph nodal pelvic relapse occurs in 2% of patients at 5 years and does not correlate with impaired outcome, suggesting the lack of theoretical benefit of a prophylactic nodal irradiation. Tumor biology and response to treatment are the main determinants of outcome.



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Ruptured Fusiform Aneurysm of the Anterior Spinal Artery



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Clinical outcomes of low and intermediate risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with 30mCi for ablation or without radioactive iodine therapy.

Clinical outcomes of low and intermediate risk differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with 30mCi for ablation or without radioactive iodine therapy.

Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Apr 05;:

Authors: Súss SKA, Mesa CO, Carvalho GA, Miasaki FY, Chaves CP, Fuser DC, Corbo R, Momesso D, Bulzico DA, Graf H, Vaisman F

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients with low and intermediate risk thyroid carcinoma treated with total thyroidectomy (TT) and who did not undergo radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) and to compare them to patients receiving low dose of iodine (30 mCi).
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 189 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients treated with TT followed by 30mCi for RRA or not, followed in two referral centers in Brazil were analyzed.
RESULTS: From the 189 patients, 68.8% was ATA low-risk, 30.6% intermediate and 0.6% high risk. Eighty-seven patients underwent RRA and 102 did not. The RRA groups tended to be younger and had a higher frequency of extra-thyroidal extension (ETE). RRA did not have and impact on response to initial therapy neither in low (p = 0.24) nor in intermediate risk patients (p = 0.66). It also had no impact on final outcome and most patients had no evidence of disease (NED) at final follow-up. Recurrence/persistence of disease was found in 1.2% of RRA group and 2% in patients treated only with TT (p = 0.59).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that in low and intermediate-risk patients, RRA with 30 mCi seems to have no major advantage over patients who did not undergo RRA regarding response to initial therapy in each risk group and also in long term outcomes.

PMID: 29641738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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