Τρίτη, 9 Ιανουαρίου 2018

Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma of the tongue: a report of two further cases and review of the literature.

Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): A. Wood, B.I. Conn
We present two further cases of sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma occurring in the tongue of two female patients; one aged 68 years old and the other 49 years old. Histopathologically, both tumours were characterized by a diffusely infiltrative lesion consisting of small cuboidal cells arranged in discrete, dispersed cords, isolated tubules and bilayered strands with intervening microcystic lumina set in a sclerotic background. Both lesions showed striking neurotopism with perineural and intraneural infiltration. Extensive invasion of adjacent skeletal muscle was also observed. The tumour cells showed diffuse staining with antibodies to CK7. A dual population of ductal and myoepithelial cells was identified, with antibodies to CAM5.2 & CK5/6 decorating the inner epithelial layer and antibodies to p63, p40 and S100 staining the outer myoepithelial cell layer. The Ki-67 proliferation index in both cases was <5%. An initial diagnosis of adenocarcinoma NOS of salivary gland origin was made on both incisional biopsies with a possible metastatic origin, particularly from breast, also raised. A local minor salivary gland origin was confirmed after staging investigations and surgical resection. Both patients were treated by surgery alone and remain well five years and one year and two months post treatment respectively.



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Analysis of the evolution of gross alpha and gross beta activities in airborne samples in Valencia (Spain)

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Publication date: March 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 183
Author(s): Marina Sáez-Muñoz, María del Carmen Bas, Josefina Ortiz, Sebastián Martorell
Gross alpha (Aα) and gross beta activities (Aβ) were measured weekly in the airborne of the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia campus (in the east of Spain) during the period 2009–2015 (7 years). The geometric mean values of weekly Aα and Aβ were 0.53·10−4 Bq m−3 and 5.77·10−4 Bq m−3, respectively; with an average ratio Aα/Aβ of 0.097. This study highlights the heterogeneity of gross alpha and gross beta activities depending on the different periods of the year. Data show seasonal variations with the highest activity in summer months and the lowest one in winter months. Several atmospheric factors were considered in order to explain this intra-annual variation (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, precipitations, dust content and prevailing wind directions). Multiple Linear Regression Analysis were performed in order to obtain information on significant atmospheric factors that affect gross α and gross β variability, which could be useful in identifying meteorological or atmospheric changes that could cause deviations in gross α and gross β activity depending on the seasons considered. Models obtained explain more than 60% of variability for global data, and also for winter and spring-autumn months. However, more research is needed to explain gross α and gross β variability in summer months, because the atmospheric factors considered in the MLR explain less than 35% of variability.



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Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma of the tongue: a report of two further cases and review of the literature.

We present two further cases of sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma occurring in the tongue of two female patients; one aged 68 years old and the other 49 years old. Histopathologically, both tumours were characterized by a diffusely infiltrative lesion consisting of small cuboidal cells arranged in discrete, dispersed cords, isolated tubules and bilayered strands with intervening microcystic lumina set in a sclerotic background. Both lesions showed striking neurotopism with perineural and intraneural infiltration.

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The Barrel Vascular Reconstruction Device

Abstract

Background and Purpose

The Barrel device is an electrolytically detachable laser cut, closed-cell microstent that is used for neck reconstruction in wide-necked bifurcation and branching aneurysms to support coiling. The key feature is a barrel section that herniates over the aneurysmal ostium. The objective was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and the immediate and mid-term occlusion results of this new device.

Material and Methods

The databases of two tertiary care centers were screened for all Barrel-based stent-assisted intracranial coil embolization of wide-necked aneurysms between June 2015 and September 2016. Case files and imaging data were retrospectively analyzed for angiographic and clinical outcome parameters, including immediate and mid-term modified Raymond-Roy aneurysm occlusion classification (RROC) rates and procedural complications.

Results

A total of 21 patients comprising 21 intracranial aneurysms (20 unruptured, 1 ruptured) were treated with the Barrel device and additional coiling of the aneurysm sac. All aneurysms were wide-necked, saccular bifurcation aneurysms defined by a dome/neck ratio ≤2. Immediate complete occlusion (RROC1) was observed in 19/21 (90%). An intra-interventional in-stent thrombus formation in two cases (10%) was medically resolved without neurological sequelae. A single case of symptomatic in-stent stenosis (5%) was cleared by balloon angioplasty. Follow-up (FU) was available in 20/21 cases (95%) after a median of 282 days (range: 17–591 days). At follow-up 19/20 aneurysms (95%) were completely occluded (RROC1).

Conclusion

The Barrel device showed a satisfactory safety profile and a promising rate of immediate and mid-term complete aneurysm occlusion for stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms, warranting further investigation of the device.



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Morphometry of the Hand Knob Region and Motor Function Change in Eloquent Area Glioma Patients

Abstract

Purpose

The hand knob area is the cortical representation of motor hand function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of eloquent area gliomas on the morphometry of the hand motor cortex and preoperative hand motor function.

Methods

A retrospective study of 320 glioma patients was conducted. Seventy-eight patients with gliomas involving motor functional area were finally enrolled. Using axial T2-weight magnetic resonance images, the width and height of the hand knob were measured in both hemispheres, and differences were compared between the affected and unaffected hemispheres. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to estimate the degree of correlation between distance measurements and motor impairment.

Results

The width and height of the hand knob in the affected and unaffected hemispheres were significantly different (p < 0.0001). The width, height and distance from the tumor to hand knob were reduced in the functionally impaired group compared to the unimpaired group (p = 0.0003, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0005, respectively). The three parameters were significantly correlated and remained significant in ROC and logistic regression analysis. The optimal cut-off value of width, height and distance for identifying preoperative hand muscle strength were 5.73 mm, 5.80 mm and 5.92 mm, respectively.

Conclusion

The morphometry of the hand knob is often changed by the infiltration or extrusion of the tumors that were located in or near the hand knob. The width, height of hand knob and the distance from tumor to hand knob could serve as anatomic biomarkers related to preoperative neurological motor deficits.



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Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Metastatic Neuroendocrine Liver Tumor: A Systematic Review

Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Zhongzhi Jia, Weiping Wang
ObjectiveTo evaluate the value of yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in the management of unresectable liver metastases secondary to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).Materials and MethodsPubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the "gray" literature (Google Scholar) were searched for all studies related to 90Y therapy for unresectable liver metastases of NETs.ResultsA total of 11 studies and 7 abstracts involving 870 patients were included in the final analysis. In 11 of these studies, 19.8% (77/388) of patients had undergone transarterial bland embolization (TABE) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before 90Y therapy. The median disease control rate among all patients was 86% at 3 months after 90Y therapy. The median survival was 28 months, with 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 72.5%, 57%, and 45%, respectively. The median survival values for patients who received resin- and glass-based 90Ytreatment were 27.6 and 31.7 months, respectively. The survival values for patients with carcinoid, pancreatic, and unclassified origin of NETs were 56, 31, and 28 months, respectively; the survival values for patients with grade I, II, and III NETs were 71, 56, and 28 months, respectively. Carcinoid syndrome was reported in 52.4% (55/105) of patients, and 69.1% of those with clinical symptoms demonstrated improvement in symptoms after 90Y radioembolization. Complications were reported in 9 studies, including radiation gastritis (n = 4), duodenal ulcer (n = 2), death due to liver failure (n = 1) and radiation cholecystitis (n = 1). The most common side effects were abdominal pain (median, 32.6%), nausea/vomiting (median, 32.5%), and fatigue (median, 30.4%).Conclusions90Y radioembolization can be used as an alternative therapy for unresectable liver metastases of NETs, with an improved survival rate and tumor response. This treatment is also effective for patients who have undergone unsuccessful TABE/TACE therapy and for the relief of symptoms in patients with carcinoid syndrome.



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Issue Information



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DVD Review



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2017-2020 Editorial Board



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NMR Concepts



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Monte Carlo calculation of photo-neutron dose produced by circular cones at 18MV photon beams

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Publication date: January–February 2018
Source:Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, Volume 23, Issue 1
Author(s): Elham Hosseinzadeh, Nooshin Banaee, Hassan Ali Nedaie
AimThe aim of this study is to calculate neutron contamination at the presence of circular cones irradiating by 18MV photons using Monte Carlo code.BackgroundSmall photon fields are one of the most useful methods in radiotherapy. One of the techniques for shaping small photon beams is applying circular cones made of lead. Using this method in high energy photon due to neutron contamination is a crucial issue.Materials and methodsInitially, Varian linac producing 18MV photons was simulated and after validating the code, various circular cones were also simulated. Then, the number of neutrons, neutron equivalent dose and absorbed dose per Gy of photon dose were calculated along the central axis.ResultsNumber of neutrons per Gy of photon dose had their maximum value at depth of 2cm and these values for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30mm circular cones were 9.02, 7.76, 7.61, 6.02 and 5.08 (ncm−2Gy−1), respectively. Neutron equivalent doses per Gy of photon dose had their maximum at the surface of the phantom and these values for mentioned collimators were 1.48, 1.33, 1.31, 1.12 and 1.08 (mSvGy−1), respectively. Neutron absorbed doses had their maximum at the surface of the phantom and these values for mentioned collimators sizes were 103.74, 99.71, 95.77, 81.46 and 78.20 (μGy/Gy), respectively.ConclusionsAs the field size gets smaller, number of neutrons, equivalent and absorbed dose per Gy of photon increase. Also, neutron equivalent dose and absorbed dose are maximum at the surface of phantom and then these values will be decreased.



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CAPTURE: Consistently Acquired Projections for Tuned and Robust EstimationA Self-Navigated Respiratory Motion Correction Approach

Objectives In this study, we present a fully automated and robust self-navigated approach to obtain 4-dimensional (4-D) motion-resolved images during free breathing. Materials and Methods The proposed method, Consistently Acquired Projections for Tuned and Robust Estimation (CAPTURE), is a variant of the stack-of-stars gradient-echo sequence. A 1-D navigator was consistently acquired at a fixed azimuthal angle for all stacks of spokes to reduce nonphysiological signal contamination due to system imperfections. The resulting projections were then "tuned" using complex phase rotation to adapt to scan-to-scan variations, followed by the detection of the respiratory curve. Four-dimensional motion-corrected and uncorrected images were then reconstructed via respiratory and temporal binning, respectively. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant study was performed with Institutional Review Board approval. A phantom experiment was performed using a custom-made deformable motion phantom with an adjustable frequency and amplitude. For in vivo experiments, 10 healthy participants and 12 liver tumor patients provided informed consent and were imaged with the CAPTURE sequence. Two radiologists, blinded to which images were motion-corrected and which were not, independently reviewed the images and scored the image quality using a 5-point Likert scale. Results In the respiratory motion phantom experiment, CAPTURE reversed the effects of motion blurring and restored edge sharpness from 36% to 78% of that observed in the images from the static scan. Despite large intra- and intersubject variability in respiration patterns, CAPTURE successfully detected the respiratory motion signal in all participants and significantly improved the image quality according to the subjective radiological assessments of 2 raters (P

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CAPTURE: Consistently Acquired Projections for Tuned and Robust EstimationA Self-Navigated Respiratory Motion Correction Approach

Objectives In this study, we present a fully automated and robust self-navigated approach to obtain 4-dimensional (4-D) motion-resolved images during free breathing. Materials and Methods The proposed method, Consistently Acquired Projections for Tuned and Robust Estimation (CAPTURE), is a variant of the stack-of-stars gradient-echo sequence. A 1-D navigator was consistently acquired at a fixed azimuthal angle for all stacks of spokes to reduce nonphysiological signal contamination due to system imperfections. The resulting projections were then "tuned" using complex phase rotation to adapt to scan-to-scan variations, followed by the detection of the respiratory curve. Four-dimensional motion-corrected and uncorrected images were then reconstructed via respiratory and temporal binning, respectively. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant study was performed with Institutional Review Board approval. A phantom experiment was performed using a custom-made deformable motion phantom with an adjustable frequency and amplitude. For in vivo experiments, 10 healthy participants and 12 liver tumor patients provided informed consent and were imaged with the CAPTURE sequence. Two radiologists, blinded to which images were motion-corrected and which were not, independently reviewed the images and scored the image quality using a 5-point Likert scale. Results In the respiratory motion phantom experiment, CAPTURE reversed the effects of motion blurring and restored edge sharpness from 36% to 78% of that observed in the images from the static scan. Despite large intra- and intersubject variability in respiration patterns, CAPTURE successfully detected the respiratory motion signal in all participants and significantly improved the image quality according to the subjective radiological assessments of 2 raters (P

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Correction to: MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy: performing exclusively targeted biopsies for the early detection of prostate cancer

Abstract

In the original publication of the article, the first and last names of the second author were interchanged.



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Correction to: Mechanical Thrombectomy in Basilar Artery Occlusion

Correction to:

Clin Neuroradiol 2017

http://ift.tt/2DfnSJr

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of Fig. 2 was incorrect. The corrected figure is given …



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In the Setting of Negative Mammogram, is Additional Breast Ultrasound Necessary for Evaluation of Breast Pain?

Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
Source:Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Author(s): Eralda Mema, Emma Cho, Yun-Kyoung Ryu, Priya Jadeja, Ralph Wynn, Brett Taback, Richard Ha
PurposeTo evaluate whether in the setting of negative diagnostic mammogram for breast pain additional ultrasound is necessary.MethodsRetrospective IRB approved review of our database identified 8085 women who underwent ultrasound evaluation for breast pain from 1/1/2013 to 12/31/2013. Of 8085 women, 559 women had mammogram evaluation preceding the ultrasound and these women comprise the basis of this study. The patient′s age, type of mammogram exam (screening or diagnostic), BIRADS breast density, type of breast pain (focal, diffuse, cyclical, unilateral, bilateral), additional breast symptoms (palpable concern, nipple discharge, skin changes, others), mammogram/ultrasound findings and final BIRADS assessment, follow-up imaging and follow-up biopsy results were reviewed and recorded.ResultsThe median age of patients was 46 years old (range 27–97). Patients recalled from negative screening mammogram were 29.8% (167/559). Patients with preceding negative diagnostic mammogram were 70.2% (392/559). The BIRADS breast density (BD) distribution was BD1: 5.5%, BD2: 39.9%, BD3: 46.0%, BD4: 8.6%. Final BIRADS assessments were BIRADS 1/2 (79%), BIRADS3 (12.9%), BIRADS 4 (8.1%), BIRADS 5 (0%). Majority (66.9%, 374/559) of the patient had breast pain alone. Additional breast symptoms were also noted as follows: palpable concern (24%), nipple discharge (3.9%), skin changes/other (5.2%). On follow-up evaluation, 26 findings were recommended for tissue sampling yielding 2 malignancies (0.4%, 2/559) in 2 patients. In the setting of negative mammogram and clinical symptom of breast pain alone yielded no malignances (NPV, 100%, 374/374) and was not impacted by breast density. In patients with additional symptoms accompanying pain, malignancies were present despite negative mammogram in 2 patients; nipple discharge (4.5%, 1/22) and palpable concern (0.7%, 1/134).ConclusionIn the setting of negative mammogram and breast pain alone, additional evaluation with ultrasound is likely low yield and may be unnecessary. However, with additional symptoms such as palpable concern or nipple discharge, ultrasound is likely an important adjunct modality for identifying mammographically occult tumors.



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Transportation in a 100% renewable energy system

Publication date: 15 February 2018
Source:Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 158
Author(s): Antonio García-Olivares, Jordi Solé, Oleg Osychenko
A 100% renewable economy would give a lasting solution to the challenges raised by climate change, energy security, sustainability, and pollution. The conversion of the present transport system appears to be one of the most difficult aspects of such renewable transition. This study reviews the technologies and systems that are being proposed or proven as alternative to fossil-fuel based transportation, and their prospects for their entry into the post-carbon era, from both technological and energetic viewpoints. The energetic cost of the transition from the current transportation system into global 100% renewable transportation is estimated, as well as the electrical energy required for the operation of the new renewable transportation sector. A 100% renewable transport providing the same service as global transport in 2014 would demand about 18% less energy. The main reduction is expected in road transport (69%), but the shipping and air sectors would notably increase their consumptions: 163% and 149%, respectively. The analysis concludes that a 100% renewable transportation is feasible, but not necessarily compatible with indefinite increase of resources consumption. The major material and energy limitations and obstacles of each transport sector for this transition are shown.



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Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fußes

Zusammenfassung

Klinisches/methodisches Problem

Schmerzsymptome im Bereich des Fußes sind bei langjährig bestehenden kongenitalen, erworbenen oder posttraumatischen Fußdeformitäten ein klinisch relevantes Problem.

Radiologische Standardverfahren

Anhand des klinischen Befunds und der orthopädischen Fragestellung werden zunächst Röntgenaufnahmen des Fußes im Stehen in 2 Ebenen, ergänzt durch eine anterior-posteriore Aufnahme des oberen Sprunggelenks durchgeführt. Die bildgebende Diagnostik des Fußes basiert auf der konventionellen Röntgendiagnostik und wird durch die Möglichkeit schnittbildgebender Verfahren noch präziser und differenzierter.

Leistungsfähigkeit

Die diagnostische Aussagekraft bildgebender Verfahren wird anhand klinischer Beispiele in dieser Übersicht diskutiert. Dabei können schnittbildgebende Verfahren dem Kliniker als weitere Entscheidungshilfe dienen und Fragen klären, ob eine operative Therapieoption wie beispielsweise bei degenerativen Veränderungen besteht.

Empfehlung für die Praxis

Primär sind vor jedem bildgebenden Verfahren die adäquate Anamnese, Inspektion, klinische Untersuchung und die Begutachtung des Gangbilds bei Patienten mit Fußschmerzen erforderlich. Die interdisziplinäre Kommunikation zwischen Orthopäden/Unfallchirurgen und Radiologen ist notwendig, um bei schwierigen Fragestellungen das passende bildgebende Verfahren auszuwählen und den resultierenden Bildbefund korrekt einzuordnen, um daraus eine therapeutische Konsequenz abzuleiten. Die Entscheidung, ob eine konservative Therapie oder ein operatives Verfahren empfohlen wird, wird in Abhängigkeit bisheriger Therapien und der Einschränkung der Lebensqualität gemeinsam mit dem Patienten getroffen.



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Benigne mesenchymale Tumoren des Abdomens

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Benigne mesenchymale Tumoren des Abdomens sind, abgesehen von Hämangiomen, seltene Neoplasien, die mit vital bedrohlichen Komplikationen einhergehen können. Daher sind für den Radiologen die Kenntnis der wichtigsten Entitäten und das Wissen um deren Charakteristika in der Bildgebung fundamental.

Zielsetzung

Es wird ein Überblick über die häufigsten benignen Weichteiltumoren des Abdomens und deren bildmorphologische Kriterien gegeben. Weitere, für die radiologische Praxis relevante Fakten zu den einzelnen Entitäten werden umrissen.

Material und Methoden

Eine Literaturrecherche sowie eine Auswertung der institutsinternen Bilddatenbank wurden durchgeführt.

Ergebnisse

Hämangiome, Desmoidtumoren sowie Lipome und deren Varianten werden vorgestellt. Typische Charakteristika und bildmorphologische Zeichen der einzelnen Entitäten (z. B. Irisblendenphänomen, „band sign", India-ink-Artefakt) werden erläutert und anhand von Bildbeispielen illustriert.

Schlussfolgerung

Auch wenn spezifische diagnostische Merkmale für die meisten der vorgestellten Entitäten fehlen, gibt es wegweisende Kriterien, die in vielen Fällen eine korrekte Diagnosestellung erlauben. In Zweifelsfällen ist zur Differenzierung von malignen Neoplasien eine histologische Sicherung anzustreben.



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Medizin im digitalen Zeitalter

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die zunehmende Digitalisierung unserer Lebens- und Arbeitswelt hat auch die Medizin erreicht und verändert den Beruf des Arztes. Die modernen Kommunikations- und Kooperationsformen des medizinischen Alltags verlangen neue Kompetenzen und Qualifikationen.

Ziel der Arbeit

Damit zukünftige Ärzte diesem digital-kompetenten Profil entsprechen können, wurde ein innovatives Blended-Learning-Curriculum entwickelt, das zum Sommersemester 2017 an der Universitätsmedizin Mainz implementiert wurde – Medizin im digitalen Zeitalter.

Material und Methoden

Das Unterrichtskonzept setzt sich aus 5 Lernmodulen zusammen, die jeweils aus einer E‑Learning-Einheit und einem 3‑stündigen Präsenzunterricht bestehen. Diese Publikation stellt das Lehrkonzept, die erstmalige Implementierung und die Evaluation zum Modul „Telemedizin" dar.

Ergebnisse

Die Kompetenzentwicklung zum Themengebiet Telemedizin zeigte sowohl für die Teilkomponente Wissen als auch für die Komponente Fertigkeiten einen deutlichen Anstieg. Die zu Beginn des Unterrichts vorhandene neutrale Haltung gegenüber der Telemedizin konnte nach dem Unterricht in eine positive Meinung gewandelt werden.

Diskussion

Die didaktische Vermittlung digitaler Kompetenzen ist ein relevanter Bestandteil der curricularen Weiterentwicklung des Medizinstudiums und darüber hinaus eine Herausforderung für die ärztliche Fort- und Weiterbildung.



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An Excel-Based System to Manage Radiation Safety for the Family of Patients Undergoing 131I Therapy.

http:--highwire.stanford.edu-icons-exter Related Articles

An Excel-Based System to Manage Radiation Safety for the Family of Patients Undergoing 131I Therapy.

J Nucl Med Technol. 2017 Jun;45(2):102-110

Authors: Steward PG

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop spreadsheet workbooks that assist in the radiation safety counseling of 131I therapy patients and their families, providing individualized guidelines that avoid imposing overly conservative restrictions on family members and others. Methods: The mathematic model included biphasic patient radionuclide retention. The extrathyroidal component was a cylindric volume with a diameter corresponding to the patient's size and included patient self-absorption, whereas the thyroidal component was a point source whose transmission was reduced by self-absorption. A separate model in which the thyroid, extrathyroid, and bladder compartments fed serially from one to the next was developed to depict the radionuclide levels within the patient and to estimate the activity entering the environment at each urination. Results: The system was organized into a set of 4 workbooks: the first to be used with ablation patients prepared using thyrogen, the second with ablation patients prepared by deprivation, the third with hyperthyroid patients, and the fourth with the unusual hyperthyroid patient who finds the restrictions to be oppressive and returns 5-10 d after administration for a measurement and reassessment. The workbooks evaluated the radiation field strength external to the patient and indicated restrictions based on selected dose limits. To assist physicians in suggesting contamination precautions, the workbooks also evaluated the radioactivity present within the patient and the estimated discharge into the environment as a function of time. Conclusion: The workbooks that were developed assist the radiation safety counselor in individualizing radiation protection procedures for the family of patients undergoing 131I therapy. The workbook system avoids overly conservative assumptions while permitting selection of appropriate dose limits for each individual.

PMID: 28280126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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High-affinity von Willebrand factor binding does not affect the anatomical or hepatocellular distribution of factor VIII in rats.

http:--media.wiley.com-assets-7315-19-Wi Related Articles

High-affinity von Willebrand factor binding does not affect the anatomical or hepatocellular distribution of factor VIII in rats.

J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Sep;14(9):1803-13

Authors: Øie CI, Roepstorff K, Behrens C, Bøggild Kristensen J, Karpf DM, Bolt G, Gudme CN, Kjalke M, Smedsrød B, Appa RS

Abstract
UNLABELLED: Essentials Von Willebrand factor (VWF) stabilizes factor VIII (FVIII) and prevents its premature clearance. Rat anatomical and hepatocellular distribution studies assessed the VWF effect on FVIII clearance. Hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells play a key role in FVIII clearance. Anatomical and hepatocellular distribution of FVIII is independent of high-affinity VWF binding.
ABSTRACT: Background Von Willebrand factor (VWF) stabilizes factor VIII in the circulation and prevents its premature clearance. Objective To study the effects of VWF on FVIII clearance in rats with endogenous VWF. Methods Anatomical and hepatocellular distribution studies were performed in rats following intravenous administration of glycoiodinated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) and a FVIII variant, FVIII-Y1680F, lacking high-affinity VWF binding. Radioactivity was quantified in organs, and in distinct liver cell populations. The role of VWF binding was also studied by immunohistochemical staining of rat livers perfused ex vivo with rFVIII alone or with a FVIII-binding VWF fragment. Results The liver was the predominant organ of rFVIII distribution, and a radioactivity peak was also observed in the intestines, suggesting FVIII secretion to the bile by hepatocytes. In the liver, ~60% of recovered radioactivity was associated with hepatocytes, 32% with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and 9% with Kupffer cells (KCs). When calculated per cell, 1.5-fold to 3-fold more radioactivity was associated with LSECs than with hepatocytes. The importance of hepatocytes and LSECs was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining; strong staining was seen in LSECs, and less intense, punctate staining in hepatocytes. Minor staining in KCs was observed. Comparable anatomical and hepatocellular distributions were observed with rFVIII and FVIII-Y1680F, and the presence of the VWF fragment, D'D3A1, did not change the FVIII staining pattern in intact livers. Conclusions The present data support FVIII clearance via the liver, with hepatocytes and LSECs playing a key role. High-affinity VWF binding did not alter the anatomical or hepatocellular distribution of FVIII.

PMID: 27378673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Cervical mass in a 3-year-old child: raising awareness of an unusual diagnosis.

Related Articles

Cervical mass in a 3-year-old child: raising awareness of an unusual diagnosis.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017 Oct 18;:

Authors: Ma C, Fu S, Jiang J, He Y

PMID: 29307462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Diagnostic Accuracy of Simulated Low-Dose Perfusion CT to Detect Cerebral Perfusion Impairment after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Analysis.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Simulated Low-Dose Perfusion CT to Detect Cerebral Perfusion Impairment after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Analysis.

Radiology. 2018 Jan 08;:162707

Authors: Afat S, Brockmann C, Nikoubashman O, Müller M, Thierfelder KM, Brockmann MA, Nikolaou K, Wiesmann M, Kim JH, Othman AE

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of low-dose volume perfusion (VP) computed tomography (CT) compared with original VP CT regarding the detection of cerebral perfusion impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 85 patients (mean age, 59.6 years; 62 women) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and who were suspected of having cerebral vasospasm at unenhanced CT and VP CT (tube voltage, 80 kVp; tube current-time product, 180 mAs) were included, 37 of whom underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within 6 hours. Low-dose VP CT data sets at tube current-time product of 72 mAs were retrospectively generated by validated realistic simulation. Perfusion maps were generated from both data sets and reviewed by two neuroradiologists for overall image quality, diagnostic confidence and presence and/or severity of perfusion impairment indicating vasospasm. An interventional neuroradiologist evaluated 16 vascular segments at DSA. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose VP CT was calculated with original VP CT as reference standard. Agreement between findings of both data sets was assessed by using weighted Cohen κ and findings were correlated with DSA by using Spearman correlation. After quantitative volumetric analysis, lesion volumes were compared on both VP CT data sets. Results Low-dose VP CT yielded good ratings of image quality and diagnostic confidence and classified all patients correctly with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, 99.0%; specificity, 99.5%) without significant differences regarding presence and/or severity of perfusion impairment between original and low-dose data sets (Z = -0.447; P = .655). Findings of both data sets correlated significantly with DSA (original, r = 0.671; low dose, r = 0.667). Lesion volume was comparable for both data sets (relative difference, 5.9% ± 5.1 [range, 0.2%-25.0%; median, 4.0%]) with strong correlation (r = 0.955). Conclusion The results suggest that radiation dose reduction to 40% of original dose levels (tube current-time product, 72 mAs) may be performed in VP CT imaging of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage without compromising the diagnostic accuracy regarding detection of cerebral perfusion impairment indicating vasospasm. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29309735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Methodologic Guide for Evaluating Clinical Performance and Effect of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Medical Diagnosis and Prediction.

Methodologic Guide for Evaluating Clinical Performance and Effect of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Medical Diagnosis and Prediction.

Radiology. 2018 Jan 08;:171920

Authors: Park SH, Han K

Abstract
The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is currently an issue of great interest, especially with regard to the diagnostic or predictive analysis of medical images. Adoption of an artificial intelligence tool in clinical practice requires careful confirmation of its clinical utility. Herein, the authors explain key methodology points involved in a clinical evaluation of artificial intelligence technology for use in medicine, especially high-dimensional or overparameterized diagnostic or predictive models in which artificial deep neural networks are used, mainly from the standpoints of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. First, statistical methods for assessing the discrimination and calibration performances of a diagnostic or predictive model are summarized. Next, the effects of disease manifestation spectrum and disease prevalence on the performance results are explained, followed by a discussion of the difference between evaluating the performance with use of internal and external datasets, the importance of using an adequate external dataset obtained from a well-defined clinical cohort to avoid overestimating the clinical performance as a result of overfitting in high-dimensional or overparameterized classification model and spectrum bias, and the essentials for achieving a more robust clinical evaluation. Finally, the authors review the role of clinical trials and observational outcome studies for ultimate clinical verification of diagnostic or predictive artificial intelligence tools through patient outcomes, beyond performance metrics, and how to design such studies. © RSNA, 2018.

PMID: 29309734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Selection of X-chromosome Inactivation Model.

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Selection of X-chromosome Inactivation Model.

Cancer Inform. 2017;16:1176935117747272

Authors: Wang J, Talluri R, Shete S

Abstract
To address the complexity of the X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) process, we previously developed a unified approach for the association test for X-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the disease of interest, accounting for different biological possibilities of XCI: random, skewed, and escaping XCI. In the original study, we focused on the SNP-disease association test but did not provide knowledge regarding the underlying XCI models. One can use the highest likelihood ratio (LLR) to select XCI models (max-LLR approach). However, that approach does not formally compare the LLRs corresponding to different XCI models to assess whether the models are distinguishable. Therefore, we propose an LLR comparison procedure (comp-LLR approach), inspired by the Cox test, to formally compare the LLRs of different XCI models to select the most likely XCI model that describes the underlying XCI process. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the max-LLR and comp-LLR approaches. The simulation results show that compared with the max-LLR, the comp-LLR approach has higher probability of identifying the correct underlying XCI model for the scenarios when the underlying XCI process is random XCI, escaping XCI, or skewed XCI to the deleterious allele. We applied both approaches to a head and neck cancer genetic study to investigate the underlying XCI processes for the X-chromosomal genetic variants.

PMID: 29308008 [PubMed]



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Upfront vs. no upfront neck dissection in primary head and neck cancer radio(chemo)therapy: Reply to Elicin et al.

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Upfront vs. no upfront neck dissection in primary head and neck cancer radio(chemo)therapy: Reply to Elicin et al.

Radiother Oncol. 2018 Jan 04;:

Authors: Nevens D, Duprez F, Bonte K, Deron P, Huvenne W, Laenen A, De Neve W, Nuyts S

PMID: 29307729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Augmentation surgery on the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold in a patient with cricoarytenoid joint ankylosis.

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Augmentation surgery on the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold in a patient with cricoarytenoid joint ankylosis.

Auris Nasus Larynx. 2018 Jan 04;:

Authors: Fukahori M, Chitose SI, Sato K, Kamimura H, Sato K, On R, Umeno H

Abstract
Surgical management of cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) ankylosis is challenging and has the risk of worsening voice quality. In the present case, augmentation surgery was performed on the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold in a patient with CAJ ankylosis. A 24-year-old man sustained blunt trauma to the anterior neck three years prior to developing severe breathiness. Posterior glottal insufficiency resulting from lateral fixation of the right vocal fold was observed during phonation under laryngoscopy. In addition, electromyography and CT scan revealed severe ankylosis of the right CAJ. Type I thyroplasty performed on the right vocal fold did not improve postoperative vocal function. Therefore, augmentation surgery on the cartilaginous portion of the right vocal fold was performed via endolaryngeal microsurgery under general anesthesia with jet ventilation. A piece of temporalis fascia was autotransplanted into the submucosal space created at the posterior cartilaginous portion of the right vocal fold. This resulted in the narrowing of the posterior glottal gap during phonation, leading to improvement in hoarseness. Microsurgical management with autologous fascia augmentation of the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold can be effective in patients with lateral vocal fold fixation due to CAJ ankylosis.

PMID: 29307442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Expression of miR-373 and its predicted target genes E-cadherin and CD44 in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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Expression of miR-373 and its predicted target genes E-cadherin and CD44 in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017 Dec 30;63(12):29-33

Authors: Timirci-Kahraman Ö, Verim A, Farooqi AA, Turan S, Özkan-Küçük NE, Yaylim İ

Abstract
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a genomically complex disease that is difficult to target, and efforts have been made to identify new treatment strategies and   molecular markers that might stratify patients and individualize options for treatment. miR-373 has diametrically opposed roles in different stages and types of cancers. miR-373 has been suggested to quantitatively control E-cadherin and CD44 expression. We studied the expression of miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and evaluated the association between the disease and clinical characteristics of patients. Tumor tissues were collected from 24 laryngeal cancer patients. Adjacent normal tissue samples were also obtained as controls. After RNA isolation, we assessed the miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 levels. As endogenous controls, we used the small RNA U6 and GAPDH TaqMan® to normalize the levels of expression of miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44. The fold change in the expression of the genes in larynx tumor and control tissues was calculated using the 2-ΔΔCT method. miR-373 was significantly upregulated in seventeen tumor samples compared to controls. However, the expression levels of both E-cadherin and CD44 mRNA were found to be significantly downregulated in tumor versus control regions (p=0.026 and p=0.005, respectively). We did not find any significant difference in the expression levels of miR-373, E-cadherin or CD44 and cancer risk factors. miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. It can be suggested that E-cadherin and CD44 are functional targets of miR-373, but we need further studies to investigate this hypothesis.

PMID: 29307338 [PubMed - in process]



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Impact of Nicotine Exposure on Hair Cell Toxicity and Embryotoxicity During Zebrafish Development.

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Impact of Nicotine Exposure on Hair Cell Toxicity and Embryotoxicity During Zebrafish Development.

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Jan 06;:

Authors: Yoo MH, Rah YC, Park S, Goun S, Im GJ, Chae SW, Jung HH, Choi J

Abstract
Objectives: Nicotine has various adverse effects including negative impacts associated with maternal exposure. In the current study, we examined nicotine-induced damage of hair cells and embryotoxicity during zebrafish development.
Methods: Zebrafish embryos were exposed to nicotine at several concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40 μM) and embryotoxicity were evaluated at 72 hours, including hatching rate, mortality, teratogenicity rate, and heart rate. Hair cells within the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) neuromasts were identified at 120 hours. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage of hair cells were analyzed using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) and DASPEI (2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-N-ethylpyridinium iodide) assays, respectively, and changes of ultrastructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy.
Results: The control group without nicotine appeared normal with overall mortality and teratogenicity rate <5%. The hatching rate and mortality rate was not significantly different according to nicotine concentration (n=400 each). The abnormal morphology rate (n=400) increased and heart rate (n=150) decreased with increasing nicotine concentration (P<0.05). Nicotine-induced hair cell damage significantly increased as nicotine concentration increased. A significantly greater number of TUNEL-positive cells (P<0.01) and markedly smaller DASPEI area (P<0.01) were shown as nicotine concentration increased.
Conclusion: The current Results suggest that nicotine induces dose-dependent hair cell toxicity in embryos by promoting apoptosis and mitochondrial and structural damage.

PMID: 29307133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Staphylococcus Aureus V8 protease disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier and impairs IL-6 production in vitro.

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Staphylococcus Aureus V8 protease disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier and impairs IL-6 production in vitro.

Laryngoscope. 2018 Jan;128(1):E8-E15

Authors: Murphy J, Ramezanpour M, Stach N, Dubin G, Psaltis AJ, Wormald PJ, Vreugde S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection is known to contribute to the severity and recalcitrance of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and its secreted products have been shown to alter the airway barrier. Extracellular proteases secreted by S. aureus are thought to be important in epithelial infection and immune evasion; however, their effect on airway mucosal barrier function is not known.
METHODS: To investigate the impact of extracellular proteases on airway epithelial integrity, the purified S. aureus proteases V8 protease, Staphopain A, Staphopain B, Exfoliative toxin A, and serine protease-like A-F were applied to human nasal epithelial cell air-liquid interface (HNEC-ALI) cultures. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), permeability (Papp) measurements, and immuno-localization of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and ZO-1 were used to assess barrier integrity. Effects of the proteases on inflammation and cell viability were measured using interleukin-6 (IL-6) ELISA and a lactate dehydrogenase assay.
RESULTS: Application of V8 protease to HNEC-ALI cultures caused a significant concentration and time-dependent decrease in TEER (22.67%, P < 0.0001), a reciprocal Papp increase (20.14-fold, P < 0.05), and a discontinuous ZO-1 immuno-localization compared to control. IL-6 production was significantly reduced in V8 protease-treated cells (153.5 pg/mL, P = 0.0069) compared to control (548.3 pg/mL), whereas no difference in cell viability was observed.
CONCLUSION: S. aureus V8 protease causes dysfunction of mucosal barrier structure and function indicative of a leaky barrier. A reduction in IL-6 levels suggests that the mucosal immunity is impaired by this protease and thus has the potential to contribute to CRS recalcitrance.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E8-E15, 2018.

PMID: 28994126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Shared Humanity.

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Shared Humanity.

Ann Intern Med. 2017 Sep 05;167(5):359

Authors: Goshua G

PMID: 28869981 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

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Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

Laryngoscope. 2018 Jan;128(1):153-159

Authors: Long JL

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration.
STUDY DESIGN: Translational research.
METHODS: Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation.
RESULTS: Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits.
CONCLUSION: Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018.

PMID: 28771731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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We're looking forward to attending 10th BGIICC in Egypt this month to film. https://t.co/z8TxEVJaoA https://t.co/vLEWScxuLU

We're looking forward to attending 10th BGIICC in Egypt this month to film. https://t.co/z8TxEVJaoA https://t.co/vLEWScxuLU

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Innovationen in der chirurgischen Behandlung solider Tumoren im Kindesalter

Zusammenfassung

Die Gesamtüberlebensrate von Kindern mit einem soliden Tumor hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten dank des Fortschritts in allen an der Therapie beteiligten Fachdisziplinen deutlich verbessert. Eine Herausforderung sind weiterhin eine schlechte Prognose im fortgeschrittenen Erkrankungsstadium und die mit dem therapeutischen Vorgehen verbundene Morbidität. Innovationen in der chirurgischen Behandlung solider Tumoren können dazu beitragen, die Überlebensrate betroffener Kinder zu erhöhen und die therapiebedingte Morbidität zu verringern. Anhand von vier Beispielen wird die erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Innovationen unter diesen Aspekten aufgezeigt. (1) Die Tumornephrektomie war lange Zeit der Standardeingriff beim Wilms-Tumor (Nephroblastom). Modifikationen der Operationstechniken ermöglichen eine nierenerhaltende Tumorresektion und Verminderung der Langzeitfolgen nach Nephrektomie. (2) Die Therapie von Hochrisiko-Hepatoblastomen sieht in den aktuellen Protokollen der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie (SIOP) eine Lebertransplantation vor. Mithilfe neuer Softwareprozessoren ist mittels virtueller Bildgebungsmethoden eine exaktere und individuelle Operationsplanung möglich, die eine organerhaltende Tumorresektion erlaubt und so eine Transplantation vermeidet. (3) Zur kurativen Therapie von Rhabdomyosarkomen sind zum Teil mutilierende Operationen notwendig. Durch eine Kombination von Chirurgie und Brachytherapie, können mutilierende Eingriffe im Urogenitalbereich vermieden werden. (4) Durch die CT-gesteuerte präoperative Markierung von Lungenmetastasen mittels „Coils“ werden diese der minimalinvasiven Resektion zugänglich. Dies spart in ausgesuchten Fällen eine Thorakotomie ein und verringert durch den kürzeren postoperativen Verlauf die Zeit bis zur anschließenden adjuvanten Therapie.



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Chirurgische Innovationen in der Therapie des metastasierten kolorektalen Karzinoms

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Kolorektale Lebermetastasen (KLM) mit extensivem, bilobärem Verteilungsmuster bzw. kritischer intrahepatischer Lage benötigen für eine kurative Zielsetzung komplexe chirurgische Resektionstechniken.

Ziel der Arbeit

In der vorliegenden Arbeit beschreiben wir aktuelle Techniken der hepatoonkologischen Chirurgie, mit denen auch bei vermeintlich grenzwertig kleinem gesundem Leberrest eine kurative Resektionsstrategie verfolgt werden kann. Es werden die Methoden der Pfortaderembolisation/-ligatur, der Kombination aus Resektion und Ablation, der zweizeitigen Resektionsstrategie und der „In-situ-split“-Resektion, auch unter „ALPPS“ („associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy“) bekannt, diskutiert. Kurz wird auch auf die extrahepatische oligometastasierte Situation eingegangen.

Material und Methoden

Revision aktueller Literatur und Diskussion des an unserer Klinik entwickelten Verfahrens des „in situ split“.

Ergebnisse

In den letzten Jahren wurden die chirurgischen Techniken, kolorektale Metastasen kurativ zu resezieren, signifikant erweitert, wodurch auch bei extensiver Metastasierung kurative Resektionen möglich wurden.

Diskussion

Eingebettet in ein multimodales Therapiekonzept ist es essenziell, dass die Resektabilität kolorektaler Metastasen auch in vermeintlich „aussichtslosen“ Fällen durch einen erfahrenen, hepatobiliären Chirurgen beurteilt wird.



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Scientists identify breast cancer patients who may develop incurable secondary cancers

Scientists from King's College London, funded by Breast Cancer Now, believe they have found a way to identify lymph-node positive breast cancer patients who are most likely to develop incurable secondary tumours (metastases) and those who are less at...

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New biomarkers predict outcome of cancer immunotherapy

Nowadays, melanoma and lung cancer can be combatted effectively through immunotherapy, which makes targeted use of the immune system's normal function of regularly examining the body's tissue for pathogens and damages. Specific inhibitors are used to...

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Modified nanoscale virus to delivers peptide drugs to cells and tissues

By chipping away at a viral protein, Rice University scientists have discovered a path toward virus-like, nanoscale devices that may be able to deliver drugs to cells. The protein is one of three that make up the protective shell, called the capsid, of...

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Die Auswirkungen des Brexit auf den Europäischen Pass für CRR-Kreditinstitute und Wertpapierhandelsunternehmen



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Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide) against Man-Biting Mosquitoes

A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique. During the night, the repellents were applied on arms and legs and mosquitoes landing on these areas were collected. In laboratory tests, TRIG provided complete protection (100%) against Anopheles gambiae when applied at 1.25 g, while DEET provided this at 0.75 g. When tested on Aedes aegypti, TRIG provided complete protection when applied at 1 g, compared to 0.5 g for DEET. In the field, when applied at a recommended dose, both TRIG and DEET achieved above 90% protection against both An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus and a Complete Protection Time of about 6 hrs against both species of mosquitoes. The performances of the two products were found to be comparable and TRIG was recommended for use as repellent against mosquito bites.

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The Efficacy of Conventionally Fractionated Radiation in the Management of Osseous Metastases from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Background. There is little data regarding the effectiveness of palliative radiation with conventional fractionation for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been described as radioresistant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic bony disease from RCC treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Methods. Forty patients with histologically confirmed RCC with a total of 53 treatment courses were included. Pain response after radiotherapy was recorded and freedom from progression was generated using posttreatment radiographs. Patient data was analyzed to assess influence on local control. Results. Patients had a median age of 63. Median follow-up was 9.3 months. The most common radiation dose was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Pain control after radiotherapy was achieved in 73.6% of patients. Increasing age was associated with nonresponse at the initial pain assessment post-RT . In lesions with initial pain response, nonclear cell histology was associated with increased pain recurrence and a shorter duration to pain recurrence . Radiographic control at 1 year was 62%. Conclusions. Pain response and control rates for osseous metastatic disease in RCC are comparable to other histologies when treated with conventional fractionation. These appear to be inferior to reported control rates from stereotactic treatments.

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Impact of Fitness Status on the Optically Measured Hemodynamic Indexes

The physiological characteristics of skin blood flow can be described in terms of the hemodynamic indices (HI). The HI is derived from the laser speckle characteristics, which are governed by the cutaneous blood flow. A miniaturized dynamic light-scattering sensor was used to measure the speckle pattern from the finger root. Three groups of subjects from 15 to 25 years of age were tested. The first group included subjects who are actively engaged in sport activities; the second group included subjects with low level of physical activity; and the third group included healthy controls with moderate physical activity. The HI parameters were measured prior to and after the performance of a determined physical load. As a marker of cardiovascular fitness (CVF), we used the postload decay rate of HI. We found that the hemodynamic response to the physical load provides a statistically significant correlation with the postload heart rate decay. It was also found that postocclusion increase of the arterial HI is more prominent in the group with higher physical activity. These results indicate that hemodynamic indices can be used as an additional marker for cardiovascular fitness level.

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Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Identify Quadratic Nonlinearities in Fluid-Structure Interaction

Hydrodynamic forces on a structure are the manifestation of fluid-structure interaction. Since this interaction is nonlinear, these forces consist of various frequencies: fundamental, harmonics, excitation, sum, and difference of these frequencies. To analyze this phenomenon, we perform numerical simulations of the flow past stationary and oscillating cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. We compute the pressure, integrate it over the surface, and obtain the lift and drag coefficients for the two configurations: stationary and transversely oscillating cylinders. Higher-order spectral analysis is performed to investigate the nonlinear interaction between the forces. We confirmed and investigated the quadratic coupling between the lift and drag coefficients and their phase relationship. We identify additional frequencies and their corresponding energy present in the flow field that appear as the manifestation of quadratic nonlinear interaction.

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Corrigendum to “A New Neurocognitive Interpretation of Shoulder Position Sense during Reaching: Unexpected Competence in the Measurement of Extracorporeal Space”



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Uniform Local Binary Pattern for Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Gaussian Pyramid

Fingerprint recognition schemas are widely used in our daily life, such as Door Security, Identification, and Phone Verification. However, the existing problem is that fingerprint recognition systems are easily tricked by fake fingerprints for collaboration. Therefore, designing a fingerprint liveness detection module in fingerprint recognition systems is necessary. To solve the above problem and discriminate true fingerprint from fake ones, a novel software-based liveness detection approach using uniform local binary pattern (ULBP) in spatial pyramid is applied to recognize fingerprint liveness in this paper. Firstly, preprocessing operation for each fingerprint is necessary. Then, to solve image rotation and scale invariance, three-layer spatial pyramids of fingerprints are introduced in this paper. Next, texture information for three layers spatial pyramids is described by using uniform local binary pattern to extract features of given fingerprints. The accuracy of our proposed method has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in fingerprint liveness detection. Experiments based on standard databases, taken from Liveness Detection Competition 2013 composed of four different fingerprint sensors, have been carried out. Finally, classifier model based on extracted features is trained using SVM classifier. Experimental results present that our proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy compared with other methods.

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Robust Command Filtered Adaptive Backstepping Control for a Quadrotor Aircraft

This paper addresses a robust trajectory tracking controller for an underactuated quadrotor with external bounded disturbances and unknown inertia parameters. Different from most of the existing control algorithms, the proposed method does not adopt the dual-loop scheme in which the design is divided into position control and attitude control. Instead, command filter backstepping is employed to design the controller based on the integrated motion model such that the stability can be guaranteed strictly for the flight control system. Furthermore, adaptive compensation and robust compensation are introduced to deal with the uncertainty of the inertia parameters and the external bounded disturbances, respectively. Finally, a similar skew symmetric structure is chosen as the desired structure of the closed-loop system to facilitate the analysis of the stability of the integrated system. Stability and robust performance of the designed controller are verified by Lyapunov stability theorem. Simulations are provided to validate the proposed controller.

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Integrative Analysis of Surface Runoff and Macropore Flow for Slopes under Rainfall Conditions

Estimating runoff and infiltration in slopes is essential to predict flooding and landslide triggering. An approach jointly using a dual-permeability model and a kinematic wave model was proposed for integrative analyses of infiltration and surface runoff of rainwater for slopes with macropores in soils subjected to rainfalls. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Analyses showed that the presence of macropores greatly facilitates rainwater movement in the slope and the maximum depth of wetting front could be one order of magnitude larger than in cases without macropores. The influence of rainfall intensity, initial pore water pressure, coefficient of permeability of soil matrix, and slope angle was also examined.

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Stereological analysis of individual lung lobes during normal and aberrant mouse lung alveolarisation

Abstract

The quantitative assessment of the lung architecture forms the foundation of many studies on lung development and lung diseases, where parameters such as alveoli number, alveolar size, and septal thickness are quantitatively influenced by developmental or pathological processes. Given the pressing need for robust data that describe the lung structure, there is currently much enthusiasm for the development and refinement of methodological approaches for the unbiased assessment of lung structure with improved precision. The advent of stereological methods highlights one such approach. However, design-based stereology is both expensive and time-demanding. The objective of this study was to examine whether ‘limited’ stereological analysis, such as the stereological analysis of a single mouse lung lobe, may serve as a surrogate for studies on whole, intact mouse lungs; both in healthy lungs and in diseased lungs, using an experimental animal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This served the dual-function of exploring BPD pathobiology, asking whether there are regional (lobar) differences in the responses of developing mouse lungs to oxygen injury, by examining each mouse lung lobe separately in the BPD model. Hyperoxia exposure resulted in decreased alveolar density, alveoli number, and gas-exchange surface area in all five mouse lung lobes, and increased the arithmetic mean septal thickness in all mouse lung lobes except the lobus cardialis. The data presented here suggest that – in healthy developing mice – a single mouse lung lobe might serve as a surrogate for studies on whole, intact mouse lungs. This is not the case for oxygen-injured developing mouse lungs, where a single lobe would not be suitable as a surrogate for the whole, intact lung. Furthermore, as the total number of alveoli can only be determined by an analysis of the entire lung, and given regional differences in lung structure, particularly under pathological conditions, the stereological assessment of the whole, intact lung remains desirable.



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Arguments against prolonged training placements

Although I agree with Baddeley that a “residency model” has many upsides and that the proposal “warrants a debate,”1 there are far more than the two arguments given (of being stuck in a “failing”...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=sy-7hyPIX8E:PKxrnrJEFDQ:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=sy-7hyPIX8E:PKxrnrJEFDQ:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=sy-7hyPIX8E:PKxrnrJEFDQ:F7zBnMy recent?i=sy-7hyPIX8E:PKxrnrJEFDQ:-BTjWOF


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“Revise before review; Reject without review; Reject after review”: why manuscripts are rejected



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New WHO classification of pituitary adenomas (4th edition): assessment of pituitary transcription factors and the prognostic histological factors

Abstract

WHO classification of pituitary adenomas was revised in 2017. The two major and significant changes are discussed. (1) The new classification focuses on adenohypophysial-cell lineage for the designation of adenomas, and thus, assessment of pituitary transcription factors is recommended. Its appropriate use has a complementary role in obtaining an accurate diagnosis, particularly in hormone-negative adenomas. Subclassification of nonfunctioning adenomas was revised accordingly and, consequently, null cell adenomas became quite rare. (2) “Atypical adenoma”, a previous category, was eliminated due to the poor reproducibility and predictive value. Assessment of tumor proliferation marker and other clinical parameters such as invasion are recommended to predict aggressiveness. “High-risk adenomas” are those with rapid growth, radiological invasion, and a high Ki-67 proliferation index, whereas some special adenoma subtypes commonly show aggressive behavior.



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Bericht zur Sitzung der AG Neolithikum im Rahmen des 6. deutschen Archäologenkongresses in Mannheim



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Bericht über die gemeinsame Sitzung von AG Neolithikum und AG Bronzezeit im Rahmen der Jahrestagung des Mittel- und Ostdeutschen Verbandes für Altertumsforschung e. V. in Greifswald (23.-25.03.2009)



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Interaction of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein with microtubules during the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells

Cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) involves the interaction of virus-encoded 30-kDa movement protein (MP) with microtubules. In cells behind the infection front that accumulate high levels of MP, this activity is reflected by the formation of stabilized MP/microtubule complexes. The ability of MP to bind along and stabilize microtubules is conserved upon expression in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the protein also leads to inhibition of mitosis and cell division through a microtubule-independent process correlated with the loss of centrosomal !-tubulin and of centrosomal microtubulenucleation activity. Since MP has the capacity to interact with plant factors involved in microtubule nucleation and dynamics, we used inducible expression in BY-2 cells to test whether MP expression inhibits mitosis and cell division also in plants. We demonstrate that MP:GFP associates with all plant microtubule arrays and, unlike in mammalian cells, does not interfere with mitosis. Thus, MP function and the interaction of MP with factors of the cytoskeleton do not entail an inhibition of mitosis in plants. We also report that the protein targets primary plasmodesmata in BY-2 cells immediately upon or during cytokinesis and that the accumulation of MP in plasmodesmata occurs in the presence of inhibitors of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway.

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Structural variability of edge dislocations in a SrTiO3 low-angle [001] tilt grain boundary

Using a spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), we investigated a 6° low-angle [001] tilt grain boundary in SrTiO3. The enhanced spatial resolution of the aberration corrector leads to the observation of a number of structural variations in the edge dislocations along the grain boundary that neither resemble the standard edge dislocations nor partial dislocations for SrTiO3. Although there appear to be many variants in the structure that can be interpreted as compositional effects, three main classes of core structure are found to be prominent. From EELS analysis, these classifications seem to be related to Sr deficiencies, with the final variety of the cores being consistent with an embedded TiOx rocksalt-like structure.

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PASA - Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal - Ein Fragebogen zur Erfassung von situationsbezogenen kognitiven Bewertungen



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Correction: Der physiologische und der pathologische Schluckvorgang

Correction:

HNO 2017 65:261–270

http://ift.tt/2Fko9en

Im o. g. CME-Beitrag wurden leider zwei Literaturangaben falsch zitiert, die Artikel sind hier mit der korrekten Autorenschaft nochmals …



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IARC Monographs Volume 113: DDT, Lindane, and 2,4-D

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on the insecticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is now available online.


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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 96: The Zika Virus Epidemic in Brazil: From Discovery to Future Implications

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 96: The Zika Virus Epidemic in Brazil: From Discovery to Future Implications

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010096

Authors: Rachel Lowe Christovam Barcellos Patrícia Brasil Oswaldo Cruz Nildimar Honório Hannah Kuper Marilia Carvalho

The first confirmed case of Zika virus infection in the Americas was reported in Northeast Brazil in May 2015, although phylogenetic studies indicate virus introduction as early as 2013. Zika rapidly spread across Brazil and to more than 50 other countries and territories on the American continent. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is thought to be the principal vector responsible for the widespread transmission of the virus. However, sexual transmission has also been reported. The explosively emerging epidemic has had diverse impacts on population health, coinciding with cases of Guillain–Barré Syndrome and an unexpected epidemic of newborns with microcephaly and other neurological impairments. This led to Brazil declaring a national public health emergency in November 2015, followed by a similar decision by the World Health Organization three months later. While dengue virus serotypes took several decades to spread across Brazil, the Zika virus epidemic diffused within months, extending beyond the area of permanent dengue transmission, which is bound by a climatic barrier in the south and low population density areas in the north. This rapid spread was probably due to a combination of factors, including a massive susceptible population, climatic conditions conducive for the mosquito vector, alternative non-vector transmission, and a highly mobile population. The epidemic has since subsided, but many unanswered questions remain. In this article, we provide an overview of the discovery of Zika virus in Brazil, including its emergence and spread, epidemiological surveillance, vector and non-vector transmission routes, clinical complications, and socio-economic impacts. We discuss gaps in the knowledge and the challenges ahead to anticipate, prevent, and control emerging and re-emerging epidemics of arboviruses in Brazil and worldwide.



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Fixed Point Theorems for Generalized -Contractions in -Metric Spaces

We introduce the notion of generalized contraction and establish some new fixed point theorems for this contraction in the setting of complete -metric spaces. The results presented in the paper improve, extend, and unify some known results. Finally, we give an example to illustrate them.

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Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Objective. This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. Results. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was −1.00, (95% CI: −1.56, −0.44; ). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (−21.24; 95% CI: −33.21, −9.26; ). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Conclusion. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.

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Low Birth Weight, Cumulative Obesity Dose, and the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes

Background. Obesity history may provide a better understanding of the contribution of obesity to T2DM risk. Methods. 17,634 participants from the 1958 National Child Development Study were followed from birth to 50 years. Cumulative obesity dose, a measure of obesity history, was calculated by subtracting the upper cut-off of the normal BMI from the actual BMI at each follow-up and summing the areas under the obesity dose curve. Hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Three separate models compared the predictive ability of cumulative obesity dose on diabetes risk with the time-varying BMI and last BMI. Results. In final models, 341 of 15,043 (2.27%) participants developed diabetes; male sex and low birth weight were significant confounding variables. Adjusted HRs were 1.080 (95% CI: 1.071, 1.088) per 10-unit cumulative obesity dose, 1.098 (95% CI: 1.080, 1.117) per unit of the time-varying BMI, and 1.146 (95% CI: 1.084, 1.212) per unit of the last BMI. Cumulative obesity dose provided the best predictive ability for diabetes. Conclusions. Cumulative obesity dose is an improved method for evaluating the impact of obesity history on diabetes risk. The link between low birth weight and T2DM is strengthened by adjusting for cumulative obesity dose.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Honey Produced in Benin

Honey is a very complex biological product. It has great diversity, giving it a multitude of properties, both nutritionally and therapeutically. This study aimed to study the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of honeys collected during the dry and rainy seasons in the different phytogeographical areas of Benin. The study revealed that all honeys had pH, water content, electrical conductivity, ash content, free acidity, total sugars, and reducing sugars, respectively, ranging within 3.65–4.09; 12.07–13.16%; 530.25–698.50 μs/cm; 0.42–0.53%; 35.67–40.52 meq/kg; 60–70%; and 58–70%. Moisture content, total sugars, and reducing sugars varied very significantly ( to ) from one area to another and from one season to another. However, only the production season has a significant influence () on the pH of the honey. With regard to the ash content, free acidity, and electrical conduction, no significant difference () between the zones or between the seasons was observed. The results of the microbiological characterization showed that there is heterogeneity in the microbial load. These results have shown that these honeys meet international standards and their characterization will make it possible to obtain Beninese quality labels.

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Natural Products Targeting on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: Mechanisms, Therapies, and Safety Assessment



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LSTM-Based Hierarchical Denoising Network for Android Malware Detection

Mobile security is an important issue on Android platform. Most malware detection methods based on machine learning models heavily rely on expert knowledge for manual feature engineering, which are still difficult to fully describe malwares. In this paper, we present LSTM-based hierarchical denoise network (HDN), a novel static Android malware detection method which uses LSTM to directly learn from the raw opcode sequences extracted from decompiled Android files. However, most opcode sequences are too long for LSTM to train due to the gradient vanishing problem. Hence, HDN uses a hierarchical structure, whose first-level LSTM parallelly computes on opcode subsequences (we called them method blocks) to learn the dense representations; then the second-level LSTM can learn and detect malware through method block sequences. Considering that malicious behavior only appears in partial sequence segments, HDN uses method block denoise module (MBDM) for data denoising by adaptive gradient scaling strategy based on loss cache. We evaluate and compare HDN with the latest mainstream researches on three datasets. The results show that HDN outperforms these Android malware detection methods,and it is able to capture longer sequence features and has better detection efficiency than -gram-based malware detection which is similar to our method.

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The Protective Effect of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Its Underlying Mechanism

Objectives. Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. (TFR) are the effective part extracted from the flowers of Rhododendron simsii Planch. and have obvious protective effects against cerebral ischemic or myocardial injuries in rabbits and rats. However, their mechanism of cardioprotection is still unrevealed. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of TFR on myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods. TFR groups were treated by gavage once a day for 3 days at a dose of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively, and then the model of myocardial I/R injury was established. Myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation, and the expression of UTR, ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein in rat myocardium were determined at 90 min after reperfusion. UTR siRNA in vivo transfection and competition binding assay method were used to study the relationship between the protective effect of TFR and UTR. Results. The expression of UTR protein markedly decreased in myocardium of UTR siRNA transfection group rats. TFR could significantly reduce the infarct size and inhibit the increase of RhoA activity and ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein expressions both in WT and UTR knockdown rats. The reducing rate of TFR in myocardial infarction area, RhoA activity, and ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein expressions in UTR knockdown rats decreased markedly compared with that in WT rats. In addition, TFR had no obvious effect on the increase of ΣST in UTR knockdown rats in comparison with that in model group. In particular, TFR could significantly inhibit the combination of []-hu-II and UTR, and IC50 was 0.854 mg/l. Conclusions. The results indicate that the protective effect of TFR on I/R injury may be correlated with its blocking UTR and the subsequent inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

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Strain and Vibration in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate. Here we present an overview of the response of MSCs to vibration and cyclic tension, focusing on the effect of various culture conditions and strain or vibration parameters. Our review reveals that scaffold type (e.g., natural versus synthetic; 2D versus 3D) can influence cell response to vibration and strain to the same degree as loading parameters. Hence, in the efforts to use mechanical loading as a reliable method to differentiate cells, scaffold selection is as important as method of loading.

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Adsorption Mechanism of Typical Gases Exhaled by Lung Cancer Patients on the Anatase TiO2 (101) Surface

Considerable researches have proved that, to a great extent, high death rate of lung cancer is on account of its crypticity in the early stage, and detection of typical exhaled gases of possible patients has emerged as an effective and workable method to realize the prognosis of lung cancer. In this paper, the adsorption of the three typical exhaled components, namely, C6H6, C8H8, and C5H8, of lung cancer patients on the anatase TiO2 (101) surface was simulated based on the density functional theory method in order to recommend TiO2 nanotube arrays as sensing materials to fulfill this aim. Analysis based on adsorbing parameters, frontier molecular orbital theory, and density of states congruously implies that the anatase TiO2 (101) surface possesses certain sensitivity to these three gases, especially to C8H8 which possesses the best activity to be adsorbed on the proposed surface. Our experimental study showed great consensus with the theoretical calculations. Therefore, TiO2 nanotube arrays can be applied as proper gas-sensing material for the preparation of lung cancer prognosis sensors as a family device to realize the simple and convenient detection of lung cancer in our daily life.

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Issue Information



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The trouble with public health: HIV/AIDS in Canada as a case in point



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 196: Dissecting Time- from Tumor-Related Gene Expression Variability in Bilateral Breast Cancer

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 196: Dissecting Time- from Tumor-Related Gene Expression Variability in Bilateral Breast Cancer

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19010196

Authors: Maurizio Callari Matteo Dugo Patrizia Miodini Silvia Veneroni Giampaolo Bianchini Maria Daidone Vera Cappelletti

Metachronous (MBC) and synchronous bilateral breast tumors (SBC) are mostly distinct primaries, whereas paired primaries and their local recurrences (LRC) share a common origin. Intra-pair gene expression variability in MBC, SBC, and LRC derives from time/tumor microenvironment-related and tumor genetic background-related factors and pairs represents an ideal model for trying to dissect tumor-related from microenvironment-related variability. Pairs of tumors derived from women with SBC (n = 18), MBC (n = 11), and LRC (n = 10) undergoing local-regional treatment were profiled for gene expression; similarity between pairs was measured using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) computed for each gene and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). When considering biologically unselected genes, the highest correlations were found for primaries and paired LRC, and the lowest for MBC pairs. By instead limiting the analysis to the breast cancer intrinsic genes, correlations between primaries and paired LRC were enhanced, while lower similarities were observed for SBC and MBC. Focusing on stromal-related genes, the ICC values decreased for MBC and were significantly different from SBC. These findings indicate that it is possible to dissect intra-pair gene expression variability into components that are associated with genetic origin or with time and microenvironment by using specific gene subsets.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 198: Understanding the Role of Intrinsic Disorder of Viral Proteins in the Oncogenicity of Different Types of HPV

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 198: Understanding the Role of Intrinsic Disorder of Viral Proteins in the Oncogenicity of Different Types of HPV

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19010198

Authors: Elvira Tamarozzi Silvana Giuliatti

Intrinsic disorder is very important in the biological function of several proteins, and is directly linked to their foldability during interaction with their targets. There is a close relationship between the intrinsically disordered proteins and the process of carcinogenesis involving viral pathogens. Among these pathogens, we have highlighted the human papillomavirus (HPV) in this study. HPV is currently among the most common sexually transmitted infections, besides being the cause of several types of cancer. HPVs are divided into two groups, called high- and low-risk, based on their oncogenic potential. The high-risk HPV E6 protein has been the target of much research, in seeking treatments against HPV, due to its direct involvement in the process of cell cycle control. To understand the role of intrinsic disorder of the viral proteins in the oncogenic potential of different HPV types, the structural characteristics of intrinsically disordered regions of high and low-risk HPV E6 proteins were analyzed. In silico analyses of primary sequences, prediction of tertiary structures, and analyses of molecular dynamics allowed the observation of the behavior of such disordered regions in these proteins, thereby proving a direct relationship of structural variation with the degree of oncogenicity of HPVs. The results obtained may contribute to the development of new therapies, targeting the E6 oncoprotein, for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases.



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Editorial


Dermatology 2017;233:259

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Sagen dysfunktionale Kognitionen den Therapieerfolg voraus?

Dysfunktionale Kognitionen stellen den Kern des kognitiv-behavioralen Modells zur Erklärung psychischer Störungen dar. Fragestellung: In einer Längsschnittstudie wird geprüft, ob die Reduktion von Angst- und depressiver Symptomatik mit dem Ausmaß und der Reduktion dysfunktionaler Kognitionen zusammenhängt. Methode: N = 87 Patienten mit den Diagnosen Zwangsstörung, Major Depression und Panikstörung bzw. Agoraphobie beantworteten vor und nach einer kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie Fragebögen zu Symptomatik, dysfunktionalen Einstellungen, Sorgen und Grübeln. Ergebnisse: Die Patienten verbessern sich im Therapieverlauf hinsichtlich kognitiver Inhalte und Prozesse sowie der Belastung. Ausgeprägte Sorgen zu Therapiebeginn korrelieren mit weniger Besserung ängstlicher Symptomatik, Reflektion ist dagegen ein protektiver Faktor. Die Abnahme dysfunktionaler Einstellungen sagt die Reduktion der Ängstlichkeit, die Abnahme des Sorgens die Reduktion der Depressivität vorher. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Annahmen des kognitiv-behavioralen Modells werden gestützt.

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Martyrium für die Nation. Der slawische Balkan in der ostmitteleuropäischen Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts

Am Anfang stand Delacroix. Er gab dem Unabhängigkeitsstreben der Griechen künstlerischen Ausdruck. Danach richteten Künstler aus Ostmitteleuropa ihr Interesse auf den Balkan. Sie widmeten den antiosmanischen Aufständen der südslawischen Völker zahlreiche Bilder und machten deren Sache bekannt. Dabei griffen sie auf archetypische Motive der abendländischen Bildtradition zurück, schufen so das Narrativ des nationalen Martyriums und Stereotypen über den Balkan. Mit ihrem Oeuvre beeinflussten sie die Selbstwahrnehmung der Slawen und förderten deren Nationsbildung. Gleichzeitig kritisierten die Künstler implizit die politischen Verhätnisse in der Heimat und brachten ihre eigenen nationalen Ambitionen zum Ausdruck.

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Concentration-compactness phenomena in the higher order Liouville's equation

We investigate different concentration–compactness and blow-up phenomena related to the Q-curvature in arbitrary even dimension. We first treat the case of an open domain in {R^2}, then that of a closed manifold and, finally, the particular case of the sphere {S^2m}. In all cases we allow the sign of the Q-curvature to vary, and show that in the case of a closed manifold, contrary to the case of open domains in {R^2m}, blow-up phenomena can occur only at points of positive Q-curvature. As a consequence, on a locally conformally flat manifold of non-positive Euler characteristic we always have compactness.

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A threshold phenomenon for embeddings of {H^m_0} into Orlicz spaces

Given an open bounded domain {\Omega\subset\mathbb {R}^{2m}} with smooth boundary, we consider a sequence {(u_k)_{k\in\mathbb{N}}} of positive smooth solutions to \left\{\begin{array}{ll} (-\Delta)^m u_k=\lambda_k u_k e^{mu_k^2} \quad\quad\quad\quad\quad {\rm in}\,\Omega\\ u_k=\partial_\nu u_k=\cdots =\partial_\nu^{m-1} u_k=0 \quad {\rm on }\, \partial \Omega, \end{array}\right. where λk → 0+. Assuming that the sequence is bounded in {H^m_0(\Omega)} , we study its blow-up behavior. We show that if the sequence is not precompact, then \liminf_{k\to\infty}\|u_k\|^2_{H^m_0}:=\liminf_{k\to\infty}\int\limits_\Omega u_k(-\Delta)^m u_k dx\geq \Lambda_1, where Λ1 = (2m − 1)!vol(S2m) is the total Q-curvature of S2m.

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An application of Q-curvature to an embedding of critical type



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La intervenció arqueològica al jaciment del neolític final de l’Espina C (Tàrrega, l’Urgell)

La realización de una intervención arqueológica de urgencia en el yacimiento de la Espina C (Tàrrega, Urgell) ha permitido conocer y documentar de forma sistemática una gran cantidad de estructuras y de restos materiales que atestiguan la utilización de este lugar en distintos momentos de la Historia. De todos estos hallazgos, cabe des-tacar especialmente los datos y materiales arqueológicos que han aportado una importante cantidad de fosas y cubetas de tipología y funcionalidad diferente que permiten conocer la ocupación de este lugar al menos durante el IIIer milenio BC. El amplio estudio interdisciplinar realizado ha hecho posible profundizar en las características especificas de las gentes que ocuparon este lugar, hasta el momento el más antiguo de la comarca documentado de forma extensa y rigurosa, y contribuye a empezar a rellenar el vació de conocimiento que hay de las primeras etapas de la Prehistoria Reciente en esta zona de Catalunya. An urgent intervention in the site of La Espina C (Tàrrega, Urgell) has allowed a large number of structures and material remains to be studied and documented systematically. These show the use of this place at different times in its history. Among the findings, special mention can be made of the archaeological data and materials from a large number of pits and pans of different typology and functionality that supply information about the occupation at least during the 3rd mi-llennium BC. The wide interdisciplinary study carried out has made it possible to go into detail about the specific cha-racteristics of the peoples who occupied the area, to date the oldest in the district documented extensively and in detail, and contribute to filling the void in knowledge about the early stages of the Recent Prehistory in this part of Catalonia.

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Diagnostic accuracy of level IV portable sleep monitors versus polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Purpose

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. In-laboratory, overnight type I polysomnography (PSG) is the current “gold standard” for diagnosing OSA. Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) using portable monitors (PMs) is an alternative testing method offering better comfort and lower costs. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on diagnostic ability of type IV PMs compared to PSG in diagnosing OSA.

Methods

Participants: patients ≥16 years old with symptoms suggestive of OSA;intervention: type IV PMs (devices with < 2 respiratory channels); comparator: in-laboratory PSG; outcomes: diagnostic accuracy measures;studies: cross-sectional, prospective observational/experimental/quasi-experimental studies; information sources: MEDLINE and Cochrane Library from January 1, 2010 to May 10, 2016. All stages of review were conducted independently by two investigators.

Results

We screened 6054 abstracts and 117 full-text articles to select 24 full-text articles for final review. These 24 studies enrolled a total of 2068 patients with suspected OSA and evaluated 10 different PMs with one to six channels. Only seven (29%) studies tested PMs in the home setting. The mean difference (bias) between PSG-measured and PM-measured apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ranged from − 14.8 to 10.6 events/h. At AHI ≥ 5 events/h, the sensitivity of type IV PMs ranged from 67.5–100% and specificity ranged from 25 to 100%.

Conclusion

While current evidence is not very strong for the stand-alone use of level IV PMs in clinical practice, they can potentially widen access to diagnosis and treatment of OSA. Policy recommendations regarding HSAT use should also consider the health and broader social implications of false positive and false negative diagnoses.



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