|A financial perspective on tuberculosis treatment adherence|
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):1-2
|Stress among workers in diamond cutting and polishing occupations|
Girijesh Kumar Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Mahatam Mishra
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):3-6
This study was conducted to assess the level of stress among diamond workers with respect to their job task. Three hundred and forty-two diamond workers were enrolled from Ahmedabad, Gujarat, with age ranging between 18 and 60 years, belonging to five different job tasks – ghat tarasi (N = 37), table cutting (N = 35), talia bottom (N = 123), athpel (N = 78), and mathala (N = 69). Depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was used to assess the level of stress among diamond workers. Results showed a mild level of stress (M = 15.41, SD = 8.7) among diamond workers. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant difference in stress scores across different job tasks except ghat tarasi workers. Ghat tarasi workers did not exhibit stress. Hence, the level of stress among diamond workers have not been significantly influenced by their job task apart from ghat tarasi workers.
|Perceived and manifested health problems among informal e-waste handlers: A scoping review|
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):7-14
E-waste being hazardous in nature demands scientific management thereby protecting and safeguarding the health of the workers. A major chunk of e-waste ends up in informal sectors where crude methods are employed thereby risking the health of workers. The current scoping review, Based on Arksey and O'Malley's framework was done to explore the available literature to summarize the perceived and manifested health problems among informal e-waste workers. A literature search was done in three databases namely PubMed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect between 1/01/2010 and 1/01/2018. All the titles and abstracts were scrutinized to include only those studies on the basis of health symptoms/problems among workers. Health problems, thus explored, were categorized into five broad categories- physical injuries, respiratory, skin, musculoskeletal, and other general health problems. Major factors which could be related to health problems were job designation, age, non-usage of personal protective equipment, exposure to dust, and hazardous chemicals.
|How safe are industries in India? Ascertaining industrial injuries in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India by capture-recapture method|
Sajjan S Yadav
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):15-20
Context: Every year, more than 4 million people die from injuries worldwide. India reported 413,457 deaths due to unintentional injuries in 2015. Manufacturing industry is a major contributor to injury morbidity and mortality. Aims: This study aims to estimate the burden of industrial injuries in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India. Settings and Design: Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a small territory spread over 491 sq. km, having a population of 343,709 as per 2011 population census. Methods and Materials: The two-sample capture-recapture method was used for ascertainment of fatal and non-fatal injuries reported from 1st January to 31st December 2017. The first capture was data of injuries extracted from First Information Reports registered by the police. The recapture was data of injuries reported by the government health facilities. Statistical Analysis Used: Chapman estimator was used to derive total fatal and non-fatal injuries. An analysis was done using Microsoft Excel software. Results: According to police records, there were nine fatal and eight non-fatal injuries during the study period. Health facilities reported 21 fatal and 113 non-fatal injuries. Six cases of fatal and 3 cases of non-fatal injuries were found in both the data sources. The capture-recapture analysis estimated 30 fatal (95% CI: 20 to 40) and 225 non-fatal injuries (95% CI: 90 to 420). Conclusions: Both records of police and government health facilities underestimate fatal and non-fatal injuries with under-reporting more pronounced in police records.
|Risk assessment in mining-based industrial workers by immunological parameters as copper toxicity markers|
Rajani Ganpatrao Tumane, Nirmalendu Nath, Aqueel Khan
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):21-27
Background: Manifestation of certain health morbidity in copper dust–exposed subjects impels us to obtain a cogent view regarding the implicate relationship of immunoglobulin on health risk assessment in them. We present here immunological profile of copper pit worker and office employees residing in the vicinity. Rationale of this study is to delineate the risk factors involved for copper toxicity. Materials and Methods: Copper mine workers (n = 87) were selected from a copper mine at Malanjkhand. Blood metal concentration and immunological profile such as IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE were analyzed from these subjects. Data analysis was carried out using proper statistical tools. Results: Chronically copper dust–exposed miners (N = 71) and office employees (N = 47) exhibited significantly higher contents of copper (P < 0.0001) when compared with normal control. Serum IgG and IgA were found to be elevated significantly (P < 0.0001) in them when compared with both office employees and normal control. Contrarily, significant decrease in serum IgM was observed in both the groups when compared with normal control (P < 0.0001). Serum IgE was found to be elevated more significantly only in miner when compared with normal control. Copper exhibited significant positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with IgE, IgG, and IgA (r = 0.39; r = 0.28; r = 0.21) but negative correlation (r = −0.39) with IgM. Odds ratio analysis validated that elevated levels of IgE in miner and decrease in levels of IgM in both groups were truly affected by increase in copper levels from normal to abnormal. Conclusion: Miners are prone to morbidity such as type 2 diabetes and respiratory discomfort (asthma and hypersensitivity) since imbalance in both IgM and IgE is known to be associated with such morbidity. Immunopathy observed in chronically exposed miners could be attributed to copper toxicity in them.
|Blood pressure and lipid profile in automechanics in relation to lead exposure|
Chikaodili Nwando Obi-Ezeani, Chudi Emmanuel Dioka, Samuel Chukwuemeka Meludu, Ifeoma Joy Onuora, Saheed Opeyemi Usman, Obiageli Bridget Onyema-Iloh
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):28-31
Context: Elevated blood pressure and alterations in lipid and lipoproteins play a major role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Aim: This study is aimed at determining the blood pressure and lipid profile in automechanics. Settings and Design: A total of 120 male subjects between 18 and 55 years of age comprised 60 automechanics and 60 age-matched occupationally unexposed control subjects in Emene, Enugu State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Four milliliters of fasting blood samples was collected from all subjects, 2 mL of blood was dispensed into K2-EDTA vacutainer tube for blood lead analysis, while the other 2 mL was dispensed into plain vacutainer tube, allowed to retract, centrifuged, and the serum used for serum lipid profile analysis. Blood pressure was measured using aneroid sphygmomanometer. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Automechanics had significantly higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with the controls. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were also significantly higher in the automechanics compared with the controls (P < 0.05); serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, however, did not differ significantly between the two groups (P > 0.05). Blood lead level showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG, with no significant correlation with serum HDL-C (P > 0.05) in the automechanics and no correlation in the controls. Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that blood pressure is elevated and lipid profile altered in automechanics which suggests that these groups of workers are prone to increased risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disorders due to occupational exposure to lead.
|Knowledge and perception of farmers regarding pesticide usage in a rural farming village, Southern India|
Minnikanti Venkata Satya Sai, G Devi Revati, R Ramya, Ann Mary Swaroop, Eswaran Maheswari, Mudigubba Manoj Kumar
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):32-36
Background: Farmers are extensively using pesticides for pest control in agriculture. Their precarious handling practices may lead to higher exposure resulting in adverse health effects. Aim: Current study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding pesticide usage and its toxic effects by farmers. Settings and Design: Cross sectional, Study Setting: Rural village in south Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Sample size: 171 farmers, Data collection: face to face standardized validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test. Results: A total of 118 males and 53 females participated in this study with median age of 40 years. About 61% of the farmers knew the harmful effects of pesticides. However, 22% of them were mixing the pesticides using their bare hands and 26% were not wearing any protective clothing during spraying pesticides. Around 67% were carelessly disposing the leftover pesticides in the open fields. Skin problems and neurological system disturbances were the most common pesticide related health symptoms. Equipment washing practices (P < 0.05) and protective clothing (P < 0.03) were significant predictors of health related problems. Significant associations were found between the occurrence of headache and equipment washing practices (P < 0.03), storage of pesticide remains (P < 0.02) and protective clothing (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These findings showed that knowledge level is adequate among farmers but this did not reflect in their practice. There is a need for continuous pesticide safety education along with training to the farmers regarding use of personal protective devices, personal hygiene and sanitation practices during and after application of pesticides.
|Contact sensitization to formaldehyde in veterinary medicine – An unexplored field in occupational health|
Maya G Lyapina, Vasil K Manov, Mariana P Cekova
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):37-41
Background: Veterinary staff and students could be exposed to formaldehyde – a ubiquitous agent, common cause of contact allergy. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to formaldehyde in exposures in veterinary medicine. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted during July–December 2017. Materials and Methods: A total of 206 individuals were included, patch tested with formaldehyde 1.0%/aq – 36 veterinary medicine students, 20 veterinarians, 47 students and 28 trainees of dental medicine, 41 dental professionals, and 35 non-occupationally exposed individuals. Results: The incidence of contact sensitization to formaldehyde among the whole studied population was 48.1%, highest being among the students of veterinary medicine (94.4%) and the veterinarians (85%). With very high significance, the sensitization incidence was higher in the groups of students of veterinary medicine and veterinarians, if compared to the control group (P < 0.001); (P = 0.004), dental professionals (P < 0.001); (P = 0.001), trainees of dental medicine (P < 0.001); (P = 0.005), and students of dental medicine three-fourth year of education (P < 0.001); (P = 0.001). Significantly, higher was the incidence of contact allergy in the control group if compared to those of dental professionals (P = 0.033) and dental students three-fourth year of education (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The exposure to formaldehyde during the education in veterinary medicine and practice could be an important risk factor for the onset of contact sensitization. Stricter preventive measures are needed to reduce veterinary student's and lecturer's exposures. Equipment of dissection tables with local exhaust ventilation system could reduce the concentration of formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory.
|Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pesticides use among agricultural workers|
Fatemeh Rostami, Maryam Afshari, Masomeh Rostami-Moez, Mohammad Javad Assari, Ali Reza Soltanian
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):42-47
Background: Pesticides have critical effects on human health. Because of the high amount of pesticides used, individual exposure is almost inevitable. According to the above-mentioned issues, few studies have been done in this area in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pesticides use among farmers in Kabudrahang County, Hamadan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kabudrahang County. Data were collected from 262 farmer's sprayer, during April to July 2016. Data were collected, using convenience sampling through interviews with the farmers who had spryer during period spraying. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire that included three sections. Content validity ratio and content validity index indicators were used to measure the validity of questionnaire used from. Data were recorded in SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois) and were analyzed using frequency analysis and Pearson correlation test. Results: Burning eyes and dizziness were the greater symptoms of poisoning with pesticides. Overall, most of them did not have proper knowledge. Many farmers had proper attitudes toward the use of personal protective equipment. However, 37.4% of them reported that the use of personal protective equipment is not easy. The farmers' practice toward the use of the personal protective equipment correlated with their knowledge and attitude (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It is proposed that educational sets consisted of acquaintance with poisons and their applications, storage, and carrying the pesticides, the methods for effective of different individual protection facilities, and utilizing the behavior to reduce the exposure to poisons should be developed and be available to farmers.
|A cross-sectional study of prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among professional cab drivers in New Delhi|
Akanksha Rathi, Vikas Kumar, Amrita Singh, Panna Lal
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2019 23(1):48-53
Background: The profession of drivers is one of the occupational groups exposed to very poor working conditions. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among cab drivers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 134 cab drivers. Their mental health status was assessed with the help of a screening tool – Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Their demographic details, working conditions, lifestyle factors and use of habit-forming substances were also assessed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: It was revealed that all cab drivers were male and between 20 to 64 years of age. Eighty two (62%) drivers said they are sometimes irritated at work, 29 (21.5%) said they feel irritated daily and rest 23 (17.2%) said that they were never irritated at work. When screened for depression, anxiety and stress, it was found out that 81 (60.5%) were suffering from depression, 63 (47%) from anxiety and 49 (36.5%) had variable degree of stress. Conclusion: Cab drivers are at high risk of acquiring mental health diseases, yet the mental health of this large workforce is ignored.
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Δευτέρα, 15 Απριλίου 2019
|From boom to bust: a typology of real commodity prices in the long run|
This paper considers the evidence on real commodity prices from 1900 to 2015 for 40 commodities, representing 8.72 trillion US dollars of production in 2011. In doing so, it suggests and documents a comprehensive typology of real commodity prices, comprising long-run trends, medium-run cycles, and short-run boom/bust episodes. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1) real commodity prices have been on the rise—albeit modestly—from 1950; (2) there is a pattern—in both past and present—of commodity price cycles, entailing large and long-lived deviations from underlying trends; (3) these commodity price cycles are themselves punctuated by boom/bust episodes which are historically pervasive.
|The impact of labour policies on Canadian gold mines in World War II|
This paper uses a financial and operational data set of Canadian gold mines between 1939 and 1945 to analyse the efficacy of two government labour market policies implemented in World War II. An early war policy designated the gold mining industry as vital for the war effort to boost gold output in order to purchase foreign reserves. The late war policy resulted in restrictions that prevented labour movement into and between the mines. We find that the first policy is largely ineffective in its goal. Although the market allocated labour to the lowest cost producers, the policy caused only a modest increase in gold output. To evaluate the second policy, we estimate the cost curves of the individual mines. The results indicate an inefficient allocation of labour across mines. The gold mining industry experiences operating costs 22% higher than with efficient labour allocation during this late war period. The estimated efficiency loss to the industry is nearly $58.4 million 1940 Canadian dollars.
|Welfare reform, 1834: Did the New Poor Law in England produce significant economic gains?|
The English Old Poor Law, which before 1834 provided welfare to the elderly, children, the improvident, and the unfortunate, was a bête noire of the new discipline of Political Economy. Smith, Bentham, Malthus, and Ricardo all claimed it created significant social costs and increased rather than reduced poverty. The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, drafted by Political Economists, cuts payments sharply. Because local rules on eligibility and provision varied greatly before the 1834 reform, we can estimate the social costs of the extensive welfare provision of the Old Poor Law. Surprisingly there is no evidence of any of the alleged social costs that prompted the harsh treatment of the poor after 1834. Political economy, it seems, was born in sin.
|Distinct within North America: living standards in French Canada, 1688–1775|
I use a novel dataset of prices and wages from the French colony of Quebec (Canada's second largest province today) to measure colonial-era living standards. Following Allen's (Explor Econ Hist 38(4):411–447, 2001; The British industrial revolution in global perspective, Cambridge University, Cambridge, 2009; Econ Hist Rev 68(1):1–22, 2015) welfare-ratios approach, I find that Quebec was poorer than the American colonies and London, but somewhat richer than Paris and Southern England. The Quebec–Paris comparison is sensitive to changes in the basket used to compare wages. Shifting from a bare bones basket to a respectable basket, Quebec loses its advantage over Paris, but remains poorer than the American colonies and London.
|Regional prices in early twentieth-century Spain: a country-product-dummy approach|
This paper explores regional price variation in early twentieth-century Spain. Using consumer price information from the bulletins published by the Instituto de Reformas Sociales between 1910 and 1920, we build a dataset with a total of 40,581 quotes covering 22 items for each of the 49 provinces. We then estimate provincial price levels following a country-product-dummy (CPD) approach. Our findings suggest that spatial price variation existed across Spanish provinces. In line with the Balassa–Samuelson conjecture, consumer prices and productivity levels were somewhat related. Additionally, it is shown that prices rose in all provinces after the outbreak of World War I. Even more, it appears that this demand-shock brought about spatial asymmetries in price growth.
|Human lifetime entropy in a historical perspective (1750–2014)|
This paper uses Shannon's entropy index to the base 2 to quantify the risk relative to the age at death in terms of bits (i.e. the amount of information revealed by tossing a fair coin). We first provide a simple decomposition of Shannon's lifetime entropy index that allows us to analyse the determinants of lifetime entropy (in particular its relation with Wiener's entropy of the event "death at a particular age conditional on survival to that age") and to study how the risk about the duration of life is resolved as the individual becomes older. Then, using data on 37 countries from the Human Mortality Database, we show that, over the last two centuries, (period) lifetime entropy at birth has exhibited, in all countries, an inverted-U shape pattern with a maximum in the first half of the twentieth century (at 6 bits), and reaches, in the early twenty-first century, 5.6 bits for men and 5.5 bits for women. It is also shown that the entropy age profile shifted from a non-monotonic profile (in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) to a strictly decreasing profile (in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries).
|The impact of the 1932 General Tariff: a difference-in-difference approach|
We evaluate the effect of the 1932 British General Tariff on the output, labour productivity and employment growth of British industries. We provide a new disaggregated data set that matches industry-level Census of Production data with industry-specific tariff rates to accurately isolate treatment and control groups and estimate the effect of the General Tariff using difference-in-difference regressions. We evaluate a two-group comparison, between newly and non-newly protected industries, and a three-group comparison, between non-newly protected industries and newly protected industries further divided into those given a baseline 10% tariff rate and those given additional tariffs. In the two-group comparison, we identify a tariff effect that is large and statistically significant on output and productivity. In the three-group comparison, we show that the positive output and productivity effects of the tariff arise from the additional tariff protection, over and above the 10% level. These effects are observed over the periods 1930–1935 and 1930–1948, suggesting both short-run and medium-term effects on output and productivity of UK industries protected by the 1932 General Tariff.
|The introduction of the reserve clause in Major League Baseball: evidence of its impact on select player salaries during the 1880s|
This paper investigates the impact of baseball's reserve clause as it evolved from a "gentleman's agreement" to a formal contract stipulation. Using data describing the salaries of 34 Major League Baseball players during the 1880s, we test whether average salaries, remuneration to marginal product, and the premium paid to a player for changing teams were materially impacted when the reserve clause became binding in 1887. The empirical results suggest that, controlling for player attributes and the overall macroeconomy, average real salaries in the sample fell by 6–9% after the binding reserve clause. We also find that the premium for moving to a new team was reduced by 70% after the binding reserve clause was implemented, supporting Rottenberg's invariance principle.
|Monetary and fiscal interactions in the USA during the 1940s|
It is generally assumed that the buildup of liquid assets in the USA during WWII played a large role in generating postwar economic activity. Contrary to this assumption, I establish that military contract spending during the war slowed down the growth of bank balance sheets at the state level during the period 1940–1955. State-level bank balance sheets are 10.8 cents smaller per $1 of total military spending by 1949 and 5.8 cents smaller by 1955. This is primarily driven by slower growth of demand deposits. The adjustment on the asset side is largely through reserves and Treasury holdings. Local lending also grows more slowly after the war, but this decrease is relatively small and temporary. This suggests that the local real economy was largely insulated from the slower growth in deposits by the wartime buildup of paper assets. Historical evidence points to the fact that slower growth of deposits is likely driven by a relative decline in demand for deposits by large corporations in war industries.
|Key forces behind the decline of fertility: lessons from childlessness in Rouen before the industrial revolution|
To better understand the forces underlying fertility decisions, we look at the forerunners of fertility decline. In Rouen, France, completed fertility dropped between 1640 and 1792 from 7.4 to 4.2 children. We review possible explanations and keep only three: increases in materialism, in women's empowerment, and in returns to education. The methodology is one of analytic narrative, bringing together descriptive evidence with a theoretical model. We accordingly propose a theory showing that we can discriminate between these explanations by looking at childlessness and its social gradient. An increase in materialism or, under certain conditions, in women's empowerment, leads to an increase in childlessness, while an increase in the return to education leads to a decrease in childlessness. Looking at the Rouen data, childlessness was clearly on the rise, from 4% in 1640 to 10% at the end of the eighteenth century, which appears to discredit the explanation based on increasing returns to education, at least for this period.