Δευτέρα, 15 Απριλίου 2019

Neurochemistry

Increased REDD1 facilitates neuronal damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 128

Author(s): Jianyou Su, Meng Wang, Yaohua Yan, Shaoqing Ju, Jian Chen, Xiaomei Wu

Abstract

Regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) is a highly conserved stress-response protein and can be induced by hypoxia/ischemia and DNA damage. However, it is not known whether REDD1 involves in neuronal damage caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that is known as one of the most important causes of disability and death worldwide. Here, we first found that SAH markedly induced the increase of REDD1 (35.467 ng/ml) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients at acute stage (within 24 h from bleeding) compared to that of control (0.644 ng/ml). And, REDD1 level was positively correlated with severity of brain injuries (Hunt-Hess grade of SAH), but it showed an obvious decline at recovery stage 6.201 ng/ml (before discharge from hospital) because of good recovery. Moreover, it was found that the expression of REDD1 was significantly induced by hemolysate in a dose-dependent way in neurons. Knockdown of REDD1 by lentivirus encoded REDD1-shRNA could inhibit the neuronal apoptosis and LDH leakage caused by hemolysate. Importantly, the level of REDD1 in peripheral blood of SAH patients was significantly higher (4.364 ng/ml) than that of healthy persons (1.317 ng/ml) and also was positively correlated with that in CSF. Taken together, our findings provide the novel and direct evidence that REDD1 could play a critical role of process of neuronal damage caused by SAH, suggesting a new molecular target to protect brain function from SAH injury.



Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 128

Author(s): Sukesh Kumar Gupta, Shishir Kumar Patel, Munendra Singh Tomar, Shio Kumar Singh, Manoj Kumar Mesharam, Sairam Krishnamurthy

Abstract

Long term exposure of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from cell phones and Wi-Fi hold greater propensity to cause anxiety disorders. However, the studies investigating the effects of repeated exposure of EMR are limited. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure of discrete frequencies of EMR in experimental animals. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) for 28 (1 h/day) days. Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats.

Graphical abstract

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Pharmacological HIF inhibition prevents retinal neovascularization with improved visual function in a murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 128

Author(s): Yukihiro Miwa, Yusuke Hoshino, Chiho Shoda, Xiaoyan Jiang, Kazuo Tsubota, Toshihide Kurihara

Abstract

Neovascular retinal diseases are the leading causes of blindness in advanced countries. To date, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) drugs are clinically effective and widely used for these diseases. However, recent animal and clinical studies reported that potent and long-term VEGF antagonism may induce chorioretinal atrophy. Thus, physiological amount of VEGF is required for the homeostasis in the retina. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors located upstream of VEGF. We hypothesized that ectopically stabilized HIFs induce pathological amount of VEGF involved with retinal neovascularization. Therefore, HIF inhibition could be an alternative therapeutic candidate targeting the pathological amount of VEGF while holding a physiological amount of VEGF. To test this hypothesis, topotecan and doxorubicin, HIF inhibitors with different mechanisms were administered to the murine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. We found that both topotecan and doxorubicin significantly prevented pathological but not physiological neovascularization in OIR. Furthermore, impaired visual function observed in OIR can also be suppressed by administering topotecan. These data suggested that HIF inhibition may be effective for pathological angiogenesis and neurodegeneration of the retina.

Graphical abstract

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Neuro-protective effect of monomethyl fumarate on ischemia reperfusion injury in rats: Role of Nrf2/HO1 pathway in peri-infarct region

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Devendra Singh, K.H. Reeta, Uma Sharma, N.R. Jagannathan, A.K. Dinda, Y.K. Gupta

Abstract

Post stroke recanalization has been associated with increased risk of oxidative stress. Stimulating endogenous antioxidant pathway by activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in neuronal defense against inflammation and oxidative stress in penumbra. Here, we explored whether monomethyl fumarate (MMF) could produce neuro-protection after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via Nrf2/HO1 activation. In male SD rats, middle cerebral artery was occluded for 90 min and confirmed using Laser Doppler flowmeter. MMF (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) was administered in two divided doses at 30 min post ischemia and 5–10 min after reperfusion. After 24 h, effect on neurobehavioral parameters, infarct damage by TTC staining and MRI, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Expression studies of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO1 were performed in peri-infarct cortex and striatum; followed by dual immunofluorescence study to check the specific cell type. I/R induced neurobehavioral deficits and infarct damage were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by MMF (20 and 40 mg/kg). MMF, 20 mg/kg, significantly normalized I/R induced altered redox status and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β in the ipsilateral cortex. MRI data showed significantly reduced infarct in cortex but not in striatum after MMF treatment. Expression of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO1 were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in peri-infarct cortex after treatment with MMF. Additionally, dual immunofluorescence showed increased Nrf2 expression in neurons and HO1 expression in neurons as well as astrocytes in peri-infarct cortex after MMF treatment. Our results show the neuro-protective potential of MMF probably by restricting the progression of damage from striatum to cortex through activation of Nrf2/HO1 pathway in peri-infarct cortex.

Graphical abstract

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Cerebrovascular inflammation: A critical trigger for neurovascular injury?

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Muhammad Naveed, Qi-Gang Zhou, Feng Han

Abstract

The cerebrovascular system is not only inert bystandard that support the metabolic demands of the brain but also elicit the barrier functions against risk factors mediated neurovascular injury. The onsets of cerebrovascular inflammation are considered as stimuli that can provoke the host defense system and trigger the development of neurological disorders. Homeostasis of the brain function is regulated by the movement of endothelial, glial, and neuronal cells within the neurovascular unit (NVU), which acts as a "platform" for the coordinated action of anti- and pro-inflammatory mechanisms. The cerebrovascular system plays an integral role in the inflammatory response by either producing or expressing a variety of cytokines, adhesion molecules, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases. Excessive inflammatory cytokine production can further be affecting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and lead to brain tissue damage. In this review, we summarize the more recent evidence highlighting the importance of cerebrovascular injury in terms of risk prediction, and the mechanisms mediating the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in cerebrovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration.



Defective vascular signaling & prospective therapeutic targets in brain arteriovenous malformations

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Ethan A. Winkler, Alex Y. Lu, Kunal P. Raygor, Joseph R. Linzey, Soren Jonzzon, Brian V. Lien, W. Caleb Rutledge, Adib A. Abla

Abstract

The neurovascular unit is composed of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, astrocytes and neurons. Through tightly regulated multi-directional cell signaling, the neurovascular unit is responsible for the numerous functionalities of the cerebrovasculature – including the regulation of molecular and cellular transport across the blood-brain barrier, angiogenesis, blood flow responses to brain activation and neuroinflammation. Historically, the study of the brain vasculature focused on endothelial cells; however, recent work has demonstrated that pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells – collectively known as mural cells – play critical roles in many of these functions. Given this emerging data, a more complete mechanistic understanding of the cellular basis of brain vascular malformations is needed. In this review, we examine the integrated functions and signaling within the neurovascular unit necessary for normal cerebrovascular structure and function. We then describe the role of aberrant cell signaling within the neurovascular unit in brain arteriovenous malformations and identify how these pathways may be targeted therapeutically to eradicate or stabilize these lesions.



Blood vessels as a scaffold for neuronal migration

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Teppei Fujioka, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto

Abstract

Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share regulatory factors that contribute to the formation of vascular networks and neuronal circuits in the brain. While crosstalk mechanisms between neural stem cells (NSCs) and the vasculature have been extensively investigated, recent studies have provided evidence that blood vessels also play an essential role in neuronal migration in the brain during development and regeneration. The mechanisms of the neuronal migration along blood vessels, referred to as "vascular-guided migration," are now being elucidated. The vascular endothelial cells secrete soluble factors that attract and promote neuronal migration in collaboration with astrocytes that enwrap the blood vessels. In addition, especially in the adult brain, the blood vessels serve as a migration scaffold for adult-born immature neurons generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), a germinal zone surrounding the lateral ventricles. The V-SVZ-derived immature neurons use the vascular scaffold to assist their migration toward an injured area after ischemic stroke, and contribute to neuronal regeneration. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of vasculature in neuronal migration and the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. While most of this research has been done in rodents, a comprehensive understanding of vasculature-guided neuronal migration could contribute to new therapeutic approaches for increasing new neurons in the brain after injury.



Preproenkephalin-expressing ventral pallidal neurons control inhibitory avoidance learning

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Tom Macpherson, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Akihiro Yamanaka, Takatoshi Hikida

Abstract

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a critical component of the basal ganglia neurocircuitry regulating learning and decision making; however, its precise role in controlling associative learning of environmental stimuli conditioned to appetitive or aversive outcomes is still unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of preproenkephalin, a polypeptide hormone previously shown to be expressed in nucleus accumbens neurons controlling aversive learning, within GABAergic and glutamatergic VP neurons. Next, we explored the behavioral consequences of chemicogenetic inhibition or excitation of preproenkephalin-expressing VP neurons on associative learning of reward- or aversion-paired stimuli in autoshaping and inhibitory avoidance tasks, respectively. We reveal for the first time that preproenkephalin is expressed predominantly in GABAergic rather than glutamatergic VP neurons, and that excitation of these preproenkephalin-expressing VP neurons was sufficient to impair inhibitory avoidance learning. These findings indicate the necessity for inhibition of preproenkephalin-expressing VP neurons for avoidance learning, and suggest these neurons as a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders associated with maladaptive aversive learning.



Contribution of cholinergic interneurons to striatal pathophysiology in Parkinson's disease

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Samira Ztaou, Marianne Amalric

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum, the main input structure of the basal ganglia. This creates an imbalance between dopaminergic inputs and cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) within the striatum. The efficacy of anticholinergic drugs, one of the earliest therapy for PD before the discovery of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) suggests an increased cholinergic tone in this disease. The dopamine (DA)-acetylcholine (ACh) balance hypothesis is now revisited with the use of novel cutting-edge techniques (optogenetics, pharmacogenetics, new electrophysiological recordings). This review will provide the background of the specific contribution of ChIs to striatal microcircuit organization in physiological and pathological conditions. The second goal of this review is to delve into the respective contributions of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor cholinergic subunits to the control of striatal afferent and efferent neuronal systems. Special attention will be given to the role played by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the regulation of striatal network which may have important implications in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for motor and cognitive impairment in PD.



PPAR-γ agonist GL516 reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis occurrence in a rat astrocyte cell line

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 126

Author(s): Letizia Giampietro, Marialucia Gallorini, Barbara De Filippis, Rosa Amoroso, Amelia Cataldi, Viviana di Giacomo

Abstract
Aims

The worldwide increase in aging population is prevalently associated with the increase of neurodegenerative diseases. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are ligand-modulated transcriptional factors which belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily which regulates peroxisome proliferation. The PPAR-γ is the most extensively studied among the three isoforms and the neuroprotective effects of PPAR-γ agonists have been recently demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models of neurological disorders. The aim of the study is to biologically evaluate the neuroprotective effects of new PPAR-γ selective agonists in an in vitro model.

Main methods

CTX-TNA2 rat astrocytes were treated with G3335, a PPAR-γ antagonist, to simulate the conditions of a neurological disorder. Newly synthetized PPAR-γ selective agonists were added to the cell culture. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay, catalase activity was investigated by a colorimetric assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and apoptosis occurrence were measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting were performed to measure the levels of protein involved in the apoptotic pathway.

Key findings

Four PPAR-γ agonists were selected. Among them, the GL516, a fibrate derivative, showed low cytotoxicity and proved effective in restoring the catalase activity, reducing ROS production and decreasing the apoptosis occurrence triggered by the G3335 administration. The effects of this molecule appear to be comparable to the reference compound rosiglitazone, a potent and selective PPAR-γ agonist, mainly at prolonged exposure times (96 h).

Significance

Based on recent evidence, hypofunctionality of the PPAR-γ in glial cells could be present in neurodegenerative diseases and could participate in pathological mechanisms through peroxisomal damage. The fibrate derivative PPAR-γ agonist GL516 emerged as the most promising molecule of the series and could have a role in preventing the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders.

Graphical abstract

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