Σάββατο, 16 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Multiparametric MR imaging of the Prostate

Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Stephen Thomas, Aytekin Oto

Teaser

Multiparametric MR imaging is widely embraced for the diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of prostate cancer. However, normal anatomic structures and many benign entities have overlapping imaging features with prostate cancer. Although some of these entities require biopsy and histopathologic diagnosis, some have characteristic imaging features that are suggestive of their diagnosis. Knowledge of these pitfalls is important in establishing a correct diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary biopsies, as these entities are encountered routinely in clinical practice.


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Prostate MR Imaging

Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Aytekin Oto




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Systematic intrafraction shifts of mediastinal lymph node targets between setup imaging and radiation treatment delivery in lung cancer patients

Internal target motion results in geometrical uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy. In this study, we determined the intrafraction motion and baseline shifts of mediastinal lymph node (LN) targets between setup imaging and treatment delivery.

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Nomogram to predict the benefit of additional induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Analysis of a multicenter, phase III randomized trial

Recent clinical trials and network meta-analysis have suggested that the addition of induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) could improve survival in locoregionally advanced NPC (LANPC). We aimed to develop a nomogram to estimate the benefit of IC for individual patients based on the data from a multicenter, randomized, phase III trial (NCT01245959) comparing IC plus CCRT with CCRT alone.

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Frequency of whole breast irradiation (WBRT) after intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is strongly influenced by institutional protocol qualification criteria

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Publication date: January–February 2018
Source:Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, Volume 23, Issue 1
Author(s): Michał Falco, Bartłomiej Masojć, Marta Milchert-Leszczyńska, Andrzej Kram
BackgroundAccelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a promising method of adjuvant radiotherapy for select patients. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a form of APBI, and appropriate patient selection is important.AimThe aim of our study was to analyse the influence of our protocol on the frequency of WBRT after IORT and our protocol's correlation with the reported use of WBRT according to TARGIT guidelines. We also aimed to verify how changes in our protocol influenced the frequency of WBRT.Material and methodsBetween April 20, 2010 and May 10, 2017, we identified 207 patients irradiated with IORT for APBI.ResultsNinety-one patients (44%) met the criteria for APBI only, while 116 (56%) should have been offered additional WBRT. Retrospective analysis showed that WBRT was applied statistically significantly less frequently compared with strict protocol indications: 99 patients (47.8%) received APBI only and 108 (51.2%) underwent adjuvant WBRT (p<0.0001). Applying the TARGIT trial guidelines, 69 patients (33.4%) should have been offered WBRT (p<0.0001), which is twice the number of patients treated with WBRT in our study. Changing the protocol to less restrictive criteria would have statistically significantly decreased the number of patients (95, 46%) offered WBRT (p<0.0001).ConclusionsFollowing international guidelines, 46% of patients should receive WBRT after IORT, which is 1.5–2 times more than for the TARGIT criteria. In our analysis, a high percentage of patients (19%) did not receive WBRT after IORT despite the protocol recommendations. The chosen protocol strongly influences the frequency of adjuvant WBRT.



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Nomogram to predict the benefit of additional induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Analysis of a multicenter, phase III randomized trial

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Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
Source:Radiotherapy and Oncology
Author(s): Yuan Zhang, Wen-Fei Li, Xu Liu, Lei Chen, Rui Sun, Ying Sun, Qing Liu, Jun Ma
Background and purposeRecent clinical trials and network meta-analysis have suggested that the addition of induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) could improve survival in locoregionally advanced NPC (LANPC). We aimed to develop a nomogram to estimate the benefit of IC for individual patients based on the data from a multicenter, randomized, phase III trial (NCT01245959) comparing IC plus CCRT with CCRT alone.Participants and methodsThis study analyzed all 480 patients enrolled in the original trial. A nomogram was developed to predict 3-year failure-free survival (FFS) with or without IC.ResultsWith a median follow-up of 45 months, the 3-year FFS rates were 80.3% and 72.4% in the IC plus CCRT group and CCRT group, respectively (P = 0.034). In multivariate analysis, T category, N category and treatment group were predictive of FFS and were incorporated into the nomogram. Gender was also included due to its clinical importance. This nomogram predicted that the magnitude of benefit from IC could vary significantly.ConclusionWe developed a convenient nomogram to estimate the benefit of IC for individual patients with LANPC. This tool can serve as a catalyst of individual treatment discussions and facilitator of informed decision-making.



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Calcified carotid artery atheromas in panoramic radiographs are associated with a first myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

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Calcified carotid artery atheromas in panoramic radiographs are associated with a first myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Gustafsson N, Ahlqvist JB, Näslund U, Wester P, Buhlin K, Gustafsson A, Levring Jäghagen E

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether patients with a first myocardial infarction (MI) had a higher prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAAs) on panoramic radiographs (PRs) than age-, gender-, and residential area-matched controls without MI.
STUDY DESIGN: Six hundred ninety-six cases with a first MI and 696 controls were included in this substudy of the Swedish multicentre PAROKRANK study. All participants underwent panoramic radiography, and the PRs were evaluated for CCAAs.
RESULTS: The prevalence of CCAAs detected by PR was 33.8% (235 of 696) in cases and 27.6% (192 of 696) in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.44; P = .012). Among males, 32.7% of cases (184 of 562) and 26.5% of controls (149 of 562) displayed CCAAs on PRs (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03-1.48; P = .022). Among both genders, bilateral CCAAs were significantly more common among cases than among controls (P = .002).
CONCLUSIONS: Cases with recent MIs had a significantly higher prevalence of CCAAs on PRs compared with controls without MIs. This difference between groups was more pronounced for bilateral CCAAs. These findings supported the hypothesis that CCAA detection could serve as a risk indicator for future MIs.

PMID: 29242130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Comparison between peri-implant bone level changes of implants placed during and 3 months after iliac bone grafting.

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Comparison between peri-implant bone level changes of implants placed during and 3 months after iliac bone grafting.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Tosun E, Avağ C, Başlarlı Ö, Kiriş S, Öztürk A, Akkocaoğlu M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the peri-implant bone level changes of implants placed during and 3 months after bone grafting from the iliac crest.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 103 implants were placed: 42 during the grafting and 61 at 3 months after the grafting procedure. All patients were grafted with iliac bone from the anterosuperior iliac crest. Bone resorption was evaluated with cone beam computed tomography in all patients at their last control visit. Periodontal health was assessed via the gingival and plaque indices and pocket depths around the dental implants.
RESULTS: Mean bone resorption values at the buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal sides of the implants were 1.08 mm, 0.36 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.25 mm, respectively, in the delayed group, and 1.87 mm, 1.25 mm, 0.92 mm, and 1.23 mm, respectively, in the simultaneous group; the differences between the groups were significant. There were no significant between-group differences in the gingival or plaque indices or pocket depths. The mean follow-up period was 29 months.
CONCLUSIONS: For reconstructing atrophic jaws, bone grafting from the iliac crest and implant placement after 3 months is a reliable technique with a high success rate and less bone resorption.

PMID: 29242129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Performance of 5 different displays in the detection of artificial incipient and recurrent caries-like lesions.

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Performance of 5 different displays in the detection of artificial incipient and recurrent caries-like lesions.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Countryman SC, Sousa Melo SL, Belem MDF, Haiter-Neto F, Vargas MA, Allareddy V

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether auto-calibrating medical-grade monitors perform better than off-the-shelf monitors and tablet computers in detecting artificial incipient and recurrent caries-like lesions.
STUDY DESIGN: Sixty extracted teeth (30 premolars and 30 molars) were selected. All molars received class II amalgam and composite restorations. A 7-mm2 area on the crowns of half of the teeth was demineralized. Phantoms consisting of 4 teeth were created. Three observers using a 5-point scale evaluated digital periapical radiographs for the presence of caries on 5 displays: 2 autocalibrating medical-grade monitors, 2 tablets, and 1 off-the-shelf monitor. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and receiver operating curve data were calculated and verified through analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Observer agreements were assessed using Cohen's κ test.
RESULTS: Intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.347 to 0.612 (molars) and 0.617 to 0.811 (premolars). Interobserver agreement ranged from 0.239 to 0.559 (molars) and 0.657 to 0.858 (premolars). The performances of tablets and the off-the-shelf monitor were similar to medical monitors when the same tooth groups were compared. Medical-grade monitors presented fewer statistically significant differences when different lesions where compared within the same display and restorative material.
CONCLUSIONS: Evaluations of similar lesions were not significantly different among the 3 types of displays. However, the autocalibrating medical-grade monitors performed better when incipient and recurrent lesions were compared.

PMID: 29242128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Differentiation of High-Grade from Low-Grade Astrocytoma: Improvement in Diagnostic Accuracy and Reliability of Pharmacokinetic Parameters from DCE MR Imaging by Using Arterial Input Functions Obtained from DSC MR Imaging.

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Differentiation of High-Grade from Low-Grade Astrocytoma: Improvement in Diagnostic Accuracy and Reliability of Pharmacokinetic Parameters from DCE MR Imaging by Using Arterial Input Functions Obtained from DSC MR Imaging.

Radiology. 2017 Dec 15;:170764

Authors: You SH, Choi SH, Kim TM, Park CK, Park SH, Won JK, Kim IH, Lee ST, Choi HJ, Yoo RE, Kang KM, Yun TJ, Kim JH, Sohn CH

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate whether arterial input functions (AIFs) derived from dynamic susceptibility-contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or AIFDSC values, improve diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas, compared with AIFs obtained from DCE MR imaging (AIFDCE). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 226 patients (138 men, 88 women; mean age, 52.27 years ± 15.17; range, 24-84 years) with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II = 21, III = 53, IV = 152; isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant, 11.95% [27 of 226]; 1p19q codeletion 0% [0 of 226]). All patients underwent both DSC and DCE MR imaging before surgery, and AIFDSC and AIFDCE were obtained from each image. Volume transfer constant (Ktrans), volume of vascular plasma space (vp), and volume of extravascular extracellular space (ve) were processed by using postprocessing software with two AIFs. The diagnostic accuracies of individual parameters were compared by using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the Bland-Altman method were used to assess reliability. Results The AIFDSC-driven mean Ktrans and ve were more accurate for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytoma than those derived by using AIFDCE (area under the ROC curve: mean Ktrans, 0.796 vs 0.645, P = .038; mean ve, 0.794 vs 0.658, P = .020). All three parameters had better ICCs with AIFDSC than with AIFDCE (Ktrans, 0.737 vs 0.095; vp, 0.848 vs 0.728; ve, 0.875 vs 0.581, respectively). In AIF analysis, maximal signal intensity (0.837 vs 0.524) and wash-in slope (0.800 vs 0.432) demonstrated better ICCs with AIFDSC than AIFDCE. Conclusion AIFDSC-driven DCE MR imaging PK parameters showed better diagnostic accuracy and reliability for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytoma than those derived from AIFDCE. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29244617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Improved Precision of Automatic Brain Volume Measurements in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis Using Edema Correction.

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Improved Precision of Automatic Brain Volume Measurements in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis Using Edema Correction.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Warntjes JBM, Tisell A, Håkansson I, Lundberg P, Ernerudh J

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of edema will result in increased brain volume, which may obscure progressing brain atrophy. Similarly, treatment-induced edema reduction may appear as accelerated brain tissue loss (pseudoatrophy). The purpose of this study was to correlate brain tissue properties to brain volume, to investigate the possibilities for edema correction and the resulting improvement of the precision of automated brain volume measurements.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 38 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or newly diagnosed MS were imaged at inclusion and after 1, 2, and 4 years using an MR quantification sequence. Brain volume, relaxation rates (R1 and R2), and proton density were measured by automated software.
RESULTS: The reduction of normalized brain volume with time after inclusion was 0.273%/year. The mean SDs were 0.508%, 0.526%, 0.454%, and 0.687% at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 years. Linear regression of the relative change of normalized brain volume and the relative change of R1, R2, and proton density showed slopes of -0.198 (P < .001), 0.156 (P = .04), and 0.488 (P < .001), respectively. After we applied the measured proton density as a correction factor, the mean SDs decreased to 24.2%, 4.8%, 33.3%, and 17.4%, respectively. The observed atrophy rate reduced from 0.273%/year to 0.238%/year.
CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between volume and R1, R2, and proton density were observed in the brain, suggesting that a change of brain tissue properties can affect brain volume. Correction using these parameters decreased the variation of brain volume measurements and may have reduced the effect of pseudoatrophy.

PMID: 29242365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Optimal Fat Suppression in Head and Neck MRI: Comparison of Multipoint Dixon with 2 Different Fat-Suppression Techniques, Spectral Presaturation and Inversion Recovery, and STIR.

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Optimal Fat Suppression in Head and Neck MRI: Comparison of Multipoint Dixon with 2 Different Fat-Suppression Techniques, Spectral Presaturation and Inversion Recovery, and STIR.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Gaddikeri S, Mossa-Basha M, Andre JB, Hippe DS, Anzai Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Uniform complete fat suppression is essential for identification and characterization of most head and pathology. Our aim was to compare the multipoint Dixon turbo spin-echo fat-suppression technique with 2 different fat-suppression techniques, including a hybrid spectral presaturation with inversion recovery technique and an inversion recovery STIR technique, in head and neck fat-suppression MR imaging.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Head and neck MR imaging datasets of 72 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into 2 groups based on the type of fat-suppression techniques used (group A: STIR and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery gadolinium-T1WI; group B: multipoint Dixon T2 TSE and multipoint Dixon gadolinium-T1WI TSE). Objective and subjective image quality and scan acquisition times were assessed and compared between multipoint Dixon T2 TSE versus STIR and multipoint Dixon gadolinium-T1WI TSE versus spectral presaturation with inversion recovery gadolinium-T1WI using the Mann-Whitney U test.
RESULTS: A total of 64 patients were enrolled in the study (group A, n = 33 and group B, n = 31). Signal intensity ratios were significantly higher for multipoint Dixon T2 and gadolinium-T1WI techniques compared with STIR (P < .001) and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery gadolinium-T1WI (P < .001), respectively. Two independent blinded readers revealed that multipoint Dixon T2 and gadolinium-T1WI techniques had significantly higher overall image quality (P = .022 and P < .001) and fat-suppression grades (P < .013 and P < .001 across 3 different regions) than STIR and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery gadolinium-T1WI, respectively. The scan acquisition time was relatively short for the multipoint Dixon technique (2 minutes versus 4 minutes 56 seconds for the T2-weighted sequence and 2 minutes versus 3 minutes for the gadolinium-T1WI sequence).
CONCLUSIONS: The multipoint Dixon technique offers better image quality and uniform fat suppression at a shorter scan time compared with STIR and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery gadolinium-T1WI techniques.

PMID: 29242364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Diagnostic Accuracy of Amino Acid and FDG-PET in Differentiating Brain Metastasis Recurrence from Radionecrosis after Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Amino Acid and FDG-PET in Differentiating Brain Metastasis Recurrence from Radionecrosis after Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Li H, Deng L, Bai HX, Sun J, Cao Y, Tao Y, States LJ, Farwell MD, Zhang P, Xiao B, Yang L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Current studies that analyze the usefulness of amino acid and FDG-PET in distinguishing brain metastasis recurrence and radionecrosis after radiation therapy are limited by small cohort size.
PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of amino acid and FDG-PET in differentiating brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis after radiation therapy.
DATA SOURCES: Studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library.
STUDY SELECTION: Fifteen studies were included from the literature. Each study used PET to differentiate radiation necrosis from tumor recurrence in contrast-enhancing lesions on follow-up brain MR imaging after treating brain metastasis with radiation therapy.
DATA ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed with a bivariate random-effects model. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were pooled, and a summary receiver operating characteristic curve was fit to the data.
DATA SYNTHESIS: The overall pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of PET were 0.85, 0.88, 7.0, 0.17, and 40, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93. On subgroup analysis of different tracers, amino acid and FDG-PET had similar diagnostic accuracy. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that the method of quantification based on patient, lesion, or PET scan (based on lesion versus not, P = .07) contributed to the heterogeneity.
LIMITATIONS: Our study was limited by small sample size, and 60% of the included studies were of retrospective design.
CONCLUSIONS: Amino acid and FDG-PET had good diagnostic accuracy in differentiating brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis after radiation therapy.

PMID: 29242363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Feasibility of Permanent Stenting with Solitaire FR as a Rescue Treatment for the Reperfusion of Acute Intracranial Artery Occlusion.

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Feasibility of Permanent Stenting with Solitaire FR as a Rescue Treatment for the Reperfusion of Acute Intracranial Artery Occlusion.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Woo HG, Sunwoo L, Jung C, Kim BJ, Han MK, Bae HJ, Bae YJ, Choi BS, Kim JH

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Solitaire FR can be used not only as a tool for mechanical thrombectomy but also as a detachable permanent stent. Our aim was to assess the feasibility and safety of permanent stent placement with the Solitaire FR compared with other self-expanding stents for intracranial artery recanalization for acute ischemic stroke.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 through January 2016, we retrospectively selected 2979 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Among them, 27 patients who underwent permanent stent placement (13 patients with the Solitaire FR [Solitaire group] and 14 patients with other self-expanding stents [other stent group]) were enrolled. The postprocedural modified TICI grade and angiographic and clinical outcomes were assessed. The safety and efficacy of permanent stent placement of the Solitaire FR for acute large-artery occlusion were evaluated.
RESULTS: Stent placement was successful in all cases. Modified TICI 2b-3 reperfusion was noted in 84.6% of the Solitaire group and in 78.6% of the other stent group. Procedural time was significantly shorter in the Solitaire group than in the other stent group (P = .022). Shorter procedural time was correlated with favorable outcome (ρ = 0.46, P = .035). No significant differences were found in the modified TICI grade, NIHSS score, mRS, and hemorrhagic transformation rate between the 2 groups. The acute in-stent thrombosis rate at discharge was significantly lower when a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was injected during the procedure (P = .013).
CONCLUSIONS: Permanent stent placement with the Solitaire FR compared with other self-expanding stents appears to be feasible and safe as a rescue tool for refractory intra-arterial therapy.

PMID: 29242362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Measuring Cerebral and Cerebellar Glutathione in Children Using 1H MEGA-PRESS MRS.

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Measuring Cerebral and Cerebellar Glutathione in Children Using 1H MEGA-PRESS MRS.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Raschke F, Noeske R, Dineen RA, Auer DP

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glutathione is an important antioxidant in the human brain and therefore of interest in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring glutathione in healthy nonsedated children by using the 1H Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence at 3T and to compare glutathione levels between the medial parietal gray matter and the cerebellum.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glutathione was measured using MEGA-PRESS MRS (TR = 1.8 seconds, TE = 131 ms) in the parietal gray matter (35 × 25 × 20 mm3) of 6 healthy children (10.0 ± 2.4 years of age; range, 7-14 years; 3 males) and in the cerebellum of 11 healthy children (12.0 ± 2.7 years of age; range, 7-16 years; 6 males). A postprocessing pipeline was developed to account for frequency and phase variations in the edited ON and nonedited OFF spectra. Metabolites were quantified with LCModel and reported both as ratios and water-scaled values. Glutathione was quantified in the ON-OFF spectra, whereas total NAA, total Cho, total Cr, mIns, Glx, and taurine were quantified in the OFF spectra.
RESULTS: We found significantly higher glutathione, total Cho, total Cr, mIns, and taurine in the cerebellum (P < .01). Glx and total NAA were significantly higher in the parietal gray matter (P < .01). There was no significant difference in glutathione/total Cr (P = .93) between parietal gray matter and cerebellum.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that glutathione measurement in nonsedated children is feasible. We found significantly higher glutathione in the cerebellum compared with the parietal gray matter. Metabolite differences between the parietal gray matter and cerebellum agree with published MRS data in adults.

PMID: 29242361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Imaging of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

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Imaging of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Ahmed S, Ghazarian MP, Cabanillas ME, Zafereo ME, Williams MD, Vu T, Schomer DF, Debnam JM

Abstract
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is fatal if unresectable. However, improved survival has been reported after gross total resection and multimodality therapy. In this report, we describe the contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in 57 patients. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presented as a large neck mass with necrosis in 82% of cases. The tumors demonstrated common extrathyroidal extension (91%). Sixty-two percent of tumors demonstrated calcification. Visceral space invasion involved the esophagus (62%), trachea (57%), and larynx (29%). Carotid artery encasement was present in 42%, and 43% involved the internal jugular vein. Sixty-three percent had lateral compartment lymphadenopathy; 58% of these nodes were necrotic, and 11% were cystic. No metastatic nodes had calcification. Central compartment lymphadenopathy was seen in 56% of cases, and lateral retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy was detected in 12%. Knowledge of these imaging features aids in guiding the approach to the initial tissue diagnosis with either fine-needle aspiration or core biopsy, assessing the feasibility of surgical resection, and determining prognosis.

PMID: 29242360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping with Automatic Zero Reference (QSM0) and Myelin Water Fraction Imaging to Quantify Iron-Related Myelin Damage in Chronic Active MS Lesions.

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Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping with Automatic Zero Reference (QSM0) and Myelin Water Fraction Imaging to Quantify Iron-Related Myelin Damage in Chronic Active MS Lesions.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Yao Y, Nguyen TD, Pandya S, Zhang Y, Hurtado Rúa S, Kovanlikaya I, Kuceyeski A, Liu Z, Wang Y, Gauthier SA

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A hyperintense rim on susceptibility in chronic MS lesions is consistent with iron deposition, and the purpose of this study was to quantify iron-related myelin damage within these lesions as compared with those without rim.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients had 2 longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping with automatic zero reference scans with a mean interval of 28.9 ± 11.4 months. Myelin water fraction mapping by using fast acquisition with spiral trajectory and T2 prep was obtained at the second time point to measure myelin damage. Mixed-effects models were used to assess lesion quantitative susceptibility mapping and myelin water fraction values.
RESULTS: Quantitative susceptibility mapping scans were on average 6.8 parts per billion higher in 116 rim-positive lesions compared with 441 rim-negative lesions (P < .001). All rim-positive lesions retained a hyperintense rim over time, with increasing quantitative susceptibility mapping values of both the rim and core regions (P < .001). Quantitative susceptibility mapping scans and myelin water fraction in rim-positive lesions decreased from rim to core, which is consistent with rim iron deposition. Whole lesion myelin water fractions for rim-positive and rim-negative lesions were 0.055 ± 0.07 and 0.066 ± 0.04, respectively. In the mixed-effects model, rim-positive lesions had on average 0.01 lower myelin water fraction compared with rim-negative lesions (P < .001). The volume of the rim at the initial quantitative susceptibility mapping scan was negatively associated with follow-up myelin water fraction (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative susceptibility mapping rim-positive lesions maintained a hyperintense rim, increased in susceptibility, and had more myelin damage compared with rim-negative lesions. Our results are consistent with the identification of chronic active MS lesions and may provide a target for therapeutic interventions to reduce myelin damage.

PMID: 29242359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Beware of Multiphase CTA Interpretation.

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Beware of Multiphase CTA Interpretation.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Raz E, Shapiro M

PMID: 29242358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Reply.

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Reply.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: MacMahon BD

PMID: 29242357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Signaling Cascades in Thyroid Cancer: Increasing the Armory of Archers to Hit Bullseye.

Signaling Cascades in Thyroid Cancer: Increasing the Armory of Archers to Hit Bullseye.

J Cell Biochem. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Rashid FA, Mansoor Q, Aziz H, Tabassum S, Arfat WO, Naoum GE, Ismail M, Farooqi AA

Abstract
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer. In-vitro assays and xenografted mice based studies have helped us to identify drug targets and different synthetic and natural products are currently being tested to effectively treat thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib and vandetanib have been approved to treat medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and two agents (lenvatinib and sorafenib) are also being used to treat radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. This review comprehensively summarizes most recent advancements in our knowledge related to dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades in thyroid cancer and how different proteins can be therapeutically exploited. (1) We discuss how loss of TRAIL mediated apoptosis occurred in thyroid cancer cells and how different strategies can be used to restore apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. (2) We provide detailed account of seemingly opposite roles of NOTCH signaling in thyroid cancers. (3) TGF/SMAD mediated signaling also needs detailed research because of context dependent role in thyroid cancer. Researchers have only begun to scratch the surface of how TGF signaling works in thyroid cancer and metastasis. (4) Role of SHH signaling in thyroid cancer stem cells is also well appreciated and targeting of SHH pathway will be an important aspect in treatment of thyroid cancer. Better concepts and improved knowledge will be helpful for clinicians in getting a step closer to individualized medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29243843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Measurement of 131I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment.

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Measurement of 131I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment.

Radiat Environ Biophys. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Brudecki K, Szczodry A, Mróz T, Kowalska A, Mietelski JW

Abstract
This paper presents results of 131I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of 131I ("hot room") and at a nurse station. 131I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the "hot room" and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement. The activities in the gaseous fraction ranged from (28 ± 1 Bq m-3) to (492 ± 4) Bq m-3. At both sampling sites, the activity of the gaseous iodine fraction trapped on activated charcoal was significantly higher than that of the aerosol fraction captured on Petrianov filter cloth. Based on these results, an attempt has been made to estimate annual inhalation effective doses, which were found to range from 0.47 mSv (nurse female) to 1.3 mSv (technician male). The highest annual inhalation equivalent doses have been found for thyroid as 32, 27, 13, and 11 mSv, respectively, for technician male, technical female, nurse male, and nurse female. The method presented here allows to fill the gaps in internal doses measurements. Moreover, because method has been successful used for many years in radioactive contamination monitoring of air in cases of serious nuclear accidents, it should also be used in nuclear medicine.

PMID: 29243128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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SPECT/CT in the Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

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SPECT/CT in the Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 Dec;51(4):297-303

Authors: Lee SW

Abstract
Single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems has been applied in a wide range of clinical circumstances, and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is one of the most important indications of SPECT/CT imaging. In the treatment of DTC, SPECT/CT images have been reported to have many advantages over conventional planar whole-body scintigraphy based on its precise localization and characterization of abnormal foci of radioactive iodine (RAI) accumulation, influencing the staging, risk stratification, and clinical management as well as reader confidence. On the other hand, SPECT/CT has limitations including additional radiation exposure from the CT component, additional imaging time, and cost-related issues. Each SPECT/CT image acquired at different time points throughout the management of DTC may have a different clinical meaning and significance. This review article addresses the clinical usefulness of RAI SPECT/CT images acquired during the pre-ablation period, post-therapy period, and long-term follow-up period, respectively.

PMID: 29242723 [PubMed]



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Transoral robotic surgery for residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancers: Exploratory study of surgical innovation using the IDEAL framework for early-phase surgical studies.

Transoral robotic surgery for residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancers: Exploratory study of surgical innovation using the IDEAL framework for early-phase surgical studies.

Head Neck. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Paleri V, Fox H, Coward S, Ragbir M, McQueen A, Ahmed O, Meikle D, Saleh D, O'Hara J, Robinson M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer.
METHODS: IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term Follow-up) 2a framework.
RESULTS: Of 26 patients assessed for TORS, 21 underwent the procedure, 5 underwent open resection (4 due to unsuitable anatomy/tumor extent and 1 on the basis of patient choice). Three patients underwent intraoperative ultrasound-assisted robotic resection, and 3 received robotic-assisted free flap inset. A technical refinement for TORS of residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer of the tongue base is described. Actuarial plots showed estimated overall survival of 48.2%, local control of 76.6%, and disease-specific survival of 77.1% at 42.6 months.
CONCLUSION: TORS is a valid management option for residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer. Oncologic outcomes are comparable to open surgery and transoral laser microsurgery, with the added advantages of en bloc resections, facility for intraoperative ultrasound imaging, and inset of free flaps without mandibular split.

PMID: 29244229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Risk and prognostic factors for multiple primary carcinomas in patients with head and neck cancer.

Risk and prognostic factors for multiple primary carcinomas in patients with head and neck cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 13;:

Authors: Hosokawa S, Takahashi G, Okamura J, Imai A, Mochizuki D, Takizawa Y, Yamatodani T, Misawa K, Mineta H

Abstract
Background: Unexpected multiple primary carcinomas (MPCs) that develop in patients with head and neck carcinomas complicate approaches to their management. We therefore investigated the clinical factors associated with survival outcomes after the treatment of MPCs.
Methods: We performed a retrospective review of records of 1104 patients who underwent treatment for primary head and neck carcinoma at Hamamatsu University Hospital. We evaluated clinical staging, age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, the primary tumor site (particularly the involvement of the mucosal epithelial lining of the aerodigestive tract), and overall survival (OS) as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Information on patients' survival status was obtained after a mean follow-up period of 43.8 months (range, 1-144 months).
Results: Among 566 patients with mucosa-associated carcinoma arising in the epithelial lining, the 5- and 10-year OS rates (68.49% and 58.96%, respectively) were significantly shorter than those of patients with mucosa non-associated carcinoma (74.22%, and 66.76%, respectively) (log-rank P = 0.0219). Older age (P = 0.016) and male sex (P < 0.001) were likely independent risk factors for developing MPCs; smoking (P < 0.001) and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) were also significant risk factors.
Conclusion: Mucosa-associated carcinomas arising in the epithelial lining of the aerodigestive tract in the head and neck are a significant risk factor for developing MPC and are a poor prognostic factor. Careful follow-up and more frequent examinations of the aerodigestive tracts of these patients are recommended.

PMID: 29244150 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach: anatomical study from a neurosurgical perspective.

Endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach: anatomical study from a neurosurgical perspective.

J Neurosurg. 2017 Dec 15;:1-14

Authors: Di Somma A, Andaluz N, Cavallo LM, de Notaris M, Dallan I, Solari D, Zimmer LA, Keller JT, Zuccarello M, Prats-Galino A, Cappabianca P

Abstract
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes. A step-by-step description of the superior eyelid transorbital endoscopic route and surgically oriented classification are provided. RESULTS The authors' cadaveric prosection of this approach defined 3 modular routes that could be combined. Two corridors using bone removal lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures exposed the middle and anterior cranial fossa (lateral orbital corridors to the anterior and middle cranial base) to unveil the temporal pole region, lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, middle cranial fossa floor, and frontobasal area (i.e., orbital and recti gyri of the frontal lobe). Combined, these 2 corridors exposed the lateral aspect of the lesser sphenoid wing with the Sylvian region (combined lateral orbital corridor to the anterior and middle cranial fossa, with lesser sphenoid wing removal). The medial corridor, with extension of bone removal medially to the superior and inferior orbital fissure, afforded exposure of the opticocarotid area (medial orbital corridor to the opticocarotid area). CONCLUSIONS Along with its minimally invasive nature, the superior eyelid transorbital approach allows good visualization and manipulation of anatomical structures mainly located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae (i.e., lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures). The visualization and management of the opticocarotid region medial to the superior orbital fissure are more complex. Further studies are needed to prove clinical applications of this relatively novel surgical pathway.

PMID: 29243982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Biomedical device innovation methodology: applications in biophotonics.

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Biomedical device innovation methodology: applications in biophotonics.

J Biomed Opt. 2017 Dec;23(2):1-7

Authors: Beswick DM, Kaushik A, Beinart D, McGarry S, Yew MK, Kennedy BF, Maria PLS

Abstract
The process of medical device innovation involves an iterative method that focuses on designing innovative, device-oriented solutions that address unmet clinical needs. This process has been applied to the field of biophotonics with many notable successes. Device innovation begins with identifying an unmet clinical need and evaluating this need through a variety of lenses, including currently existing solutions for the need, stakeholders who are interested in the need, and the market that will support an innovative solution. Only once the clinical need is understood in detail can the invention process begin. The ideation phase often involves multiple levels of brainstorming and prototyping with the aim of addressing technical and clinical questions early and in a cost-efficient manner. Once potential solutions are found, they are tested against a number of known translational factors, including intellectual property, regulatory, and reimbursement landscapes. Only when the solution matches the clinical need, the next phase of building a "to market" strategy should begin. Most aspects of the innovation process can be conducted relatively quickly and without significant capital expense. This white paper focuses on key points of the medical device innovation method and how the field of biophotonics has been applied within this framework to generate clinical and commercial success.

PMID: 29243414 [PubMed - in process]



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Quality indicators of oropharyngeal cancer care in the elderly.

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Quality indicators of oropharyngeal cancer care in the elderly.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Gourin CG, Herbert RJ, Fakhry C, Quon H, Kang H, Kiess AP, Koch WM, Eisele DW, Frick KD

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between quality of care, survival, and costs in elderly patients treated for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC).
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data.
METHODS: We evaluated 666 patients diagnosed with OPSCC from 2004 to 2007 using multivariate regression and survival analysis. Using quality indicators derived from guidelines for recommended care, summary measures of quality were calculated for diagnosis, initial treatment, surveillance, treatment for recurrence, end-of-life care, performance, and an overall summary measure of quality.
RESULTS: Higher-quality care was associated with significant differences in survival for initial treatment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55 [0.41 to 0.73]), surveillance (HR = 0.32 [0.22 to 0.48]), treatment of recurrence (HR = 2.37 [1.56 to 3.60]), performance measures (HR = 0.50 [0.36 to 0.69]), and the overall summary measure of quality (HR = 0.53 [0.39 to 0.71]). Higher-quality salvage surgery was associated with improved survival (HR = 0.16 [0.04 to 0.54]), whereas higher-quality chemotherapy given for recurrence was associated with worse survival (HR = 5.70 [1.92 to 16.94]). Overall, higher-quality care was not associated with differences in costs. Higher-quality care was associated with significantly lower mean incremental costs for treatment of recurrence and end-of-life care, and higher costs for diagnosis and surveillance.
CONCLUSION: Higher-quality OPSCC care in elderly patients was associated with improved survival; however, higher-quality care was not associated with reduced costs, and higher-quality care for treatment of recurrence was associated with poorer survival, primarily due to poorer survival in patients treated with palliative chemotherapy. These data demonstrate a complex relationship between quality and costs in elderly OPSCC patients, which can be used to frame discussions of value and guide disease-specific quality-measure development.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2c. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 29243261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Multimodal treatment in difficult sialolithiasis: Role of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and intraductal pneumatic lithotripsy.

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Multimodal treatment in difficult sialolithiasis: Role of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and intraductal pneumatic lithotripsy.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Koch M, Schapher M, Mantsopoulos K, von Scotti F, Goncalves M, Iro H

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess results after treatment of difficult/complex sialolithiasis with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and intraductal pneumatic lithotripsy (IPL).
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study in a tertiary referral center.
METHODS: Altogether, 63 stones were diagnosed in 38 patients with difficult/complex sialolithiasis. Forty-nine stones were treated with fragmentation using both ESWL and IPL. Stones accessible with the sialendoscope were treated primarily with IPL in multiple sialolithiasis.
RESULTS: Seventy-one ESWL procedures and 57 IPL were performed in our patients. Forty-nine stones were treated by 67 ESWL procedures and 52 IPL. ESWL converted sialoliths from sialendoscopically untreatable into sialendoscopically treatable cases in 94.7%; the treatment then was completed by a total of 52 IPL procedures. ESWL was performed before IPL (81.6%), in combination with IPL (7.9%) and after (10.5%). Complete fragmentation was achieved in 97.9%. Four stones each were treated with ESWL and IPL alone in multiple sialolithiasis. Altogether, 53 stones were treated by 57 IPL procedures. Complete fragmentation was achieved in 98.1% of the 53 stones. ESWL and IPL were the dominant treatment modalities in 84.1% of all 63 stones treated. Of all 38 patients, 92.1% became stone-free and all became symptom-free. All the glands were preserved. Multiple stones were treated in 34.2% of the patients; of these, 92.3% became stone-free.
CONCLUSION: These results show that patients with difficult and complex sialolithiasis can be treated with high success rates of > 90% using a multimodal, minimally invasive, and gland-preserving treatment approach. ESWL and IPL played a key role in this multimodal treatment regime in > 80% of stones.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 29243260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The diagnostic pathway of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a large U.S. healthcare system.

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The diagnostic pathway of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a large U.S. healthcare system.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Gilde J, Song B, Masroor F, Darbinian JA, Ritterman Weintraub ML, Salazar J, Yang E, Gurushanthaiah D, Wang KH

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current diagnostic pathway of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and identify factors associated with time to diagnosis.
METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with OPSCC in an integrated healthcare system from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013. Patient demographics, tobacco and alcohol use, chief complaint, tumor stage, human papilloma virus (HPV) status, physician factors (diagnosis, antibiotic prescription, performance of endoscopic exam, biopsy), and time intervals were examined. Time variations by patient characteristics and physician practice were assessed.
RESULTS: We identified 152 patients with OPSCC. Of those, 90% had stage III to IV disease. The cohort was largely male (85%), white (79%), with HPV-positive tumors (84%). Most common chief complaints were neck mass (52%) and sore throat (20%). Among those with neck a mass, 94% had HPV-positive tumors. Prescription of antibiotics was associated with longer time to first otolaryngology evaluation. Median time from symptom onset to first primary care physician (PCP) contact was 3.0 weeks; from PCP to otolaryngologist was 1.1 weeks, and from otolaryngologist to tissue diagnosis was 0.4 weeks. At the first otolaryngology visit, 82% underwent in-office flexible endoscopy and 58% had same-day biopsy, resulting in rapid time to tissue diagnosis. Diagnostic time intervals did not differ by HPV status.
CONCLUSION: The overall diagnostic process was efficient, although initial antibiotic treatment resulted in longer time to first otolaryngology visit. Tumor HPV status was associated with presenting findings but not time to diagnosis. The variation in diagnostic delay time and impact on survival outcomes is unknown and merits further investigation.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 29243258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in an anosmia-induced mice model.

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The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in an anosmia-induced mice model.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Yasak AG, Yigit O, Araz Server E, Durna Dastan S, Gul M

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to functionally and morphologically demonstrate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on anosmia in a mouse model of anosmia.
STUDY DESIGN: Animal study.
METHODS: A total of 16 male mice were included. When selecting the mice, the food-finding test (FFT) was used to make sure that the animals could smell, and anosmia was induced by administration of intraperitoneal 3-methylindole. The mice were randomly divided into two groups of eight (groups A and B). After 1 week, topical PRP was administered to the mice in group A and topical saline was administered to the mice in group B. The FFT was again administered at 7, 14, and 21 days. The mice were sacrificed on day 21, the olfactory neuroepithelium was histopathologically examined, and the epithelial damage scores and epithelial thickness were measured.
RESULTS: After topical administration of PRP and saline, the difference in the average FFT values of the groups was statistically significant at 7, 14, and 21 days (P < 0,005). During the histopathological examination, the epithelial damage score was statistically significantly lower in the PRP group (P = 0.001) than in the saline group, and epithelial thickness was statistically significantly greater in the PRP group compared to the saline group (P = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: We showed that PRP administration has a curative effect on olfactory functions in an anosmia-induced mice model. However, there is a need for further research before PRP can be considered for use in patients with anosmia in clinical practice.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 29243256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Viscoelastic properties of human aryepiglottic fold and ventricular fold tissues at phonatory frequencies.

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Viscoelastic properties of human aryepiglottic fold and ventricular fold tissues at phonatory frequencies.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Kimura M, Chan RW

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the viscoelastic shear properties of the human ventricular fold (or false vocal fold) mucosa and aryepiglottic fold mucosa at frequencies of phonation.
METHODS: Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the mucosa of false vocal fold and aryepiglottic fold specimens from seven cadaveric subjects were determined as functions of frequency (5-250 Hz) and compared to those of the true vocal fold cover. Measurements of elastic shear modulus (G') and dynamic viscosity (η') were made with a controlled-strain simple-shear rheometer. Linear least-squares regression was conducted to curve-fit log G' and log η' versus log frequency, and statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: All specimens showed similar frequency dependence of the viscoelastic functions G' and η', with G' gradually increasing with frequency and η' monotonically decreasing with frequency. The magnitudes of G' and η' of the false fold mucosa were generally higher than those of the aryepiglottic fold mucosa and true vocal fold cover, but there were no significant differences in G' and η' among the false fold, aryepiglottic fold, and true vocal fold.
CONCLUSION: The false vocal fold and aryepiglottic fold mucosa showed similar frequency dependence and a similar range of tissue viscoelastic behavior as the true vocal fold. These preliminary findings suggested that such tissues could become candidates for the replacement of the true vocal fold lamina propria in patients with significant tissue loss and deficiencies, for those requiring laryngeal reconstruction following partial laryngectomy or airway reconstruction.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 29243255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Precision Oncology: East Meets West.

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Precision Oncology: East Meets West.

Int J Cancer. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Subbiah V, Rodon J, Yap TA

PMID: 29243227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Traction haemostasis.

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Traction haemostasis.

Australas J Dermatol. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: English CA, Chen L, Migden MR

PMID: 29243226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Why is a prone sleeping position dangerous for certain infants?

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Why is a prone sleeping position dangerous for certain infants?

Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Byard RW, Bright F, Vink R

Abstract
The prone (face down) sleeping position is known to be associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy (sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), however, the reasons for this are unclear. Suggested mechanisms have involved suffocation from occlusion of the external airways by soft bedding/pillows or from flattening of the nose with backward displacement of the tongue, rebreathing of carbon dioxide, blunting of arousal responses with decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation, diaphragmatic splinting or fatigue, lowering of vasomotor tone with tachycardia, nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, overheating, alteration of sleep patterns, compromise of cerebral blood flow and upper airway obstruction from distortion of nasal cartilages. Recent studies have, however, shown a significant reduction in substance P in the inferior portion of the olivo-cerebellar complex in SIDS infants which is crucial for the integration of motor and sensory information for the control of head and neck movement. This deficit may explain why some infants are not able to move their faces away from potentially dangerous sleeping environments.

PMID: 29243157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Identification of a Novel High Yielding Source of Multipotent Adult Human Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells.

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Identification of a Novel High Yielding Source of Multipotent Adult Human Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells.

Stem Cell Rev. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Schürmann M, Brotzmann V, Bütow M, Greiner J, Höving A, Kaltschmidt C, Kaltschmidt B, Sudhoff H

Abstract
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity. From a surgical point of view, high amounts of tissue are routinely and easily removed during nasal biopsies. Investigating the presence of putative stem cells in obtained middle turbinate tissue by immunohistochemistry, we observed Nestin+/p75NTR+/S100+/α smooth muscle actin (αSMA)- cells, which we successfully isolated and cultivated in vitro. Cultivated middle turbinate stem cells (MTSCs) kept their expression of neural crest and stemness markers Nestin, p75 NTR and S100 and showed the capability of sphere formation and clonal growth, indicating their stem cell character. Application of directed in vitro differentiation assays resulted in successful differentiation of MTSCs into osteogenic and neuronal cell types. Regarding the high amount of tissue obtained during surgery as well as their broad differentiation capability, MTSCs seem to be a highly promising novel neural crest stem cell population for applications in cell replacement therapy and pharmacological research.

PMID: 29243108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Role of β-catenin in cisplatin resistance, relapse and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

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Role of β-catenin in cisplatin resistance, relapse and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Roy S, Kar M, Roy S, Saha A, Padhi S, Banerjee B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of cancer in India with high incidence and rapid recurrence rates. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of β-catenin, a developmental pathway gene, in HNSCC therapy resistance, DNA damage response, recurrence and prognosis.
METHODS: In total 80 HNSCC samples were included. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analyses were performed to assess β-catenin expression in the cut margin and tumor areas of each sample. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to correlate β-catenin expression with the survival and prognosis of HNSCC patients. In addition, chemo-resistance, DNA damage response and DNA repair capacities were evaluated in HNSCC-derived cell lines through LiCl-mediated up-regulation and siRNA-mediated silencing of β-catenin expression.
RESULTS: We observed β-catenin up-regulation in cut margin areas of recurrent patients compared to their corresponding tumor regions, which subsequently could be associated with poor prognosis. In addition, we found that LiCl-mediated up-regulation of β-catenin in HNSCC-derived cells led to cisplatin resistance, evasion of apoptosis, enhanced DNA repair and enhanced migration. The effects of β-catenin silencing correlated with its putative role in chemo-resistance and DNA damage response.
CONCLUSION: From our results we conclude that β-catenin may contribute to HNSCC therapy resistance and disease relapse. As such, β-catenin may be explored as a therapeutic target along with conventional therapeutics.

PMID: 29243047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The influence of cochlear morphology on the final electrode array position.

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The influence of cochlear morphology on the final electrode array position.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Dec 14;:

Authors: Ketterer MC, Aschendorff A, Arndt S, Hassepass F, Wesarg T, Laszig R, Beck R

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative information about cochlear morphology and size increasingly seems to be a defining factor of electrode choice in cochlear implant surgery. Different types of electrodes differ in length and diameter to accommodate individual cochlear anatomy. Smaller cochlear size results in increased insertion depth with a higher risk to dislocate and causes cochlear trauma with reduced postoperative outcome. The objective of the current study is to describe the three-dimensional size of the cochlea, to compare interindividual differences, to determine the relationship between cochlear size and insertion angle, and to define risk factors for dislocation during insertion.
DESIGN: Four hundred and three patients implanted between 2003 and 2010 inserted via cochleostomy with a perimodiolar electrode array (Cochlear™ Contour Advance® electrode array) have been compared. CBCT (Cone beam computed tomography) was used to determine electrode array position (scala tympani versus scala vestibuli insertion, intracochlear dislocation, and insertion angle) and cochlear size (diameters and height). The trajectory of the electrode array and the lateral wall have been measured, and the position of the electrode array has been estimated.
RESULTS: The mean value of the largest diameter was 9.95 mm and that of the perpendicular distance was 6.54 mm. There was a statistically significant correlation between those values. Mean height was 3.85 mm. The intracochlear relation of the electrode array and the modiolus showed a statistically significant relationship with the cochlear expanse. The electrode array was more likely to dislocate in cochleae with a smaller diameter and a lower height. Cochleae with insertions into scala vestibuli exhibited a smaller height compared to scala tympani insertions with statistical significance.
CONCLUSION: Cochlear size and shape is variable, and the measured data of this study confirm the finding of other researchers. This study established two heights by two different planes to achieve a three-dimensional understanding of the cochlea. The electrode array was more likely to dislocate in cochleae with smaller diameter and smaller height. It can be assumed that the height established in this study seems to be a new preoperative parameter to underline the risk of scalar dislocation and not favored scala vestibuli insertion if using a cochleostomy approach. In conclusion, cochlear size, especially the height, is influencing the final position of the electrode array. Using preoperative scans of the cochlear diameters and cochlear height, a next step to custom-sized arrays is available.

PMID: 29242990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Cluster ensemble based on Random Forests for genetic data

Clustering plays a crucial role in several application domains, such as bioinformatics. In bioinformatics, clustering has been extensively used as an approach for detecting interesting patterns in genetic data...

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Concordance between fine-needle aspiration and core biopsies for osseous lesions by lesion imaging appearance and CT attenuation

Abstract

Objectives

To compare the concordance between fine-needle aspiration and core biopsies for osseous lesions by lesion imaging appearance and CT attenuation.

Materials and methods

Retrospective review of 215 FNAs of osseous lesions performed in conjunction with core biopsy at our institution over a 6-year period (2011–2016). FNAs were interpreted independently of core biopsies. We assessed if FNA in conjunction with core biopsy increased diagnostic accuracy compared to core biopsy alone. We also calculated the concordance between FNA and core biopsy by lesion appearance, lesion CT attenuation, lesion histology, lesion location and FNA needle gauge size.

Results

Core biopsy alone provided the diagnosis in 207/215 cases (96.3%), however, the FNA provided the diagnosis in the remaining 8/215 cases (3.7%) where the core biopsy was non-diagnostic. There were 154 (71.6%) lytic lesions, 21 (9.8%) blastic lesions, 25 (11.6%) mixed lytic and blastic lesions and 15 (7.0%) lesions that were neither lytic nor blastic. The concordance between FNA and core biopsy for lytic osseous lesions (136/154 cases, 88.3%) was statistically significantly higher than that for blastic osseous lesions (13/21 cases, 61.9%) [P = 4.2 × 10−3; 95% CI (0.02, 0.50)]. The concordance between FNA and core biopsy was higher for low-attenuation- (110/126) than high-attenuation (58/77) lesions (P = 0.028). The concordance between FNA and core biopsy was also higher for metastases (102/119 cases, 85.7%) than non-metastases (78/96, 81.3%) [P = 0.487; 95% CI (− 0.15, 0.065)]. There was no difference in the rate of concordance between FNA and core biopsy by lesion location or FNA needle gauge size (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

FNA with core biopsy increases diagnostic rate compared to core biopsy alone or FNA alone. The concordance between FNA and core biopsy is higher for lytic lesions than for blastic lesions; and higher for low-attenuation lesions than for high-attenuation lesions.



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Interventional therapeutic procedures in the musculoskeletal system: an Italian Survey by the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology

Abstract

Purpose

To perform an online survey among all members of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology to understand how therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures are performed in daily practice in Italy.

Methods

We administered an online survey to all 2405 members about the use of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures in their institutions asking 16 different questions. Subgroup analysis was performed between general and orthopaedic hospitals with Mann–Whitney U and χ 2 statistics.

Results

A total of 129/2405 answers (5.4% of members) were included in our analysis. A median of 142.5 (25th–75th percentiles: 50–535.5; range 10–5000) therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures per single institution was performed in 2016. Arthropathic pain was the main indication. The most common procedures were joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy. Ultrasound-guided procedures were mainly performed in ultrasonography rooms (77.4%) rather than in dedicated interventional rooms (22.6%). Conversely, fluoroscopic procedures were performed almost with the same frequency in interventional radiology suites (52.4%) and in general radiology rooms (47.6%). In most institutions (72%), autologous blood or components were not used. The median number of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures performed in orthopaedic hospitals was significantly higher than in general hospitals (P = 0.002), as well as for the use of autologous preparations (P = 0.004).

Conclusion

Joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy were the most common therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures, being arthropathic pain the main indication. The percentage of procedures and the use of autologous preparations were significantly higher in orthopaedic hospitals than in general hospitals.



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Distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules using thyroid ultrasonography: utility of adding superb microvascular imaging and elastography

Abstract

Objective

Thyroid nodules are common; however, malignancy is less than 7%. Therefore, additional techniques such as Doppler ultrasonography or elastography are used to improve diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasonography. We want to prospectively investigate the use of additional superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and strain elastography to B-mode ultrasound in thyroid nodules in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules.

Methods

We analyzed 52 thyroid nodules (malignant = 26, benign = 26) and reviewers scored the likelihood of malignancy for three data sets (i.e., B-mode ultrasonography alone, B-mode ultrasonography + SMI, and B-mode ultrasonography + strain elastography). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (Az) values, sensitivities, and specificities were compared.

Results

A comparison of the data sets revealed that area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values were similar without statistical difference. However, on comparing sensitivity and specificity based on the management decision of whether to conduct fine-needle aspiration (FNA) after combining information from all three types of imaging (B-mode ultrasonography + SMI + strain elastography), specificity was significantly higher for the combined technique (34.6%) than for B-mode ultrasonography alone (11.5%), without decrease in sensitivity (P = 0.032).

Conclusion

Additional use of SMI and strain elastography could potentially lead to increase in specificity in thyroid ultrasonography.



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Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 172: PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246): From Mutant/Wild Type p53 Reactivation to Unexpected Mechanisms Underlying Their Potent Anti-Tumor Effect in Combinatorial Therapies

Cancers, Vol. 9, Pages 172: PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246): From Mutant/Wild Type p53 Reactivation to Unexpected Mechanisms Underlying Their Potent Anti-Tumor Effect in Combinatorial Therapies

Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers9120172

Authors: Anne Perdrix Ahmad Najem Sven Saussez Ahmad Awada Fabrice Journe Ghanem Ghanem Mohammad Krayem

p53 protects cells from genetic assaults by triggering cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Inactivation of p53 pathway is found in the vast majority of human cancers often due to somatic missense mutations in TP53 or to an excessive degradation of the protein. Accordingly, reactivation of p53 appears as a quite promising pharmacological approach and, effectively, several attempts have been made in that sense. The most widely investigated compounds for this purpose are PRIMA-1 (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis )and PRIMA-1Met (APR-246), that are at an advanced stage of development, with several clinical trials in progress. Based on publications referenced in PubMed since 2002, here we review the reported effects of these compounds on cancer cells, with a specific focus on their ability of p53 reactivation, an overview of their unexpected anti-cancer effects, and a presentation of the investigated drug combinations.



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Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis) extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cell line

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Investigation of the effects of carbon-based nanomaterials on A53T alpha-synuclein aggregation using a whole-cell recombinant biosensor

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2729: Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2729: Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122729

Authors: Li Yang

The tumor microenvironment has profound effects on cancer development, progression, and therapeutic response. [...]



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2730: Lysophospholipid-Related Diseases and PPARγ Signaling Pathway

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2730: Lysophospholipid-Related Diseases and PPARγ Signaling Pathway

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122730

Authors: Tamotsu Tsukahara Yoshikazu Matsuda Hisao Haniu

The nuclear receptor superfamily includes ligand-inducible transcription factors that play diverse roles in cell metabolism and are associated with pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) belongs to a family of lipid mediators. LPA and its naturally occurring analogues interact with G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface and an intracellular nuclear hormone receptor. In addition, several enzymes that utilize LPA as a substrate or generate it as a product are under its regulatory control. Recent studies have demonstrated that the endogenously produced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), which is structurally similar to LPA, inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. We recently observed that cPA negatively regulates PPARγ function by stabilizing the binding of the co-repressor protein, a silencing mediator of retinoic acid, and the thyroid hormone receptor. We also showed that cPA prevents neointima formation, adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, and upregulation of PPARγ target gene transcription. The present review discusses the arbitrary aspects of the physiological and pathophysiological actions of lysophospholipids in vascular and nervous system biology.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2728: Identification of Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) Exposed to Imidacloprid

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2728: Identification of Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Colorado Potato Beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) Exposed to Imidacloprid

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122728

Authors: Mathieu Morin Pierre Lyons Nicolas Crapoulet Sébastien Boquel Pier Morin

The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) is a significant pest of potato plants that has been controlled for more than two decades by neonicotinoid imidacloprid. L. decemlineata can develop resistance to this agent even though the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ribonucleic acids that have been linked to response to various insecticides in several insect models. Unfortunately, the information is lacking regarding differentially expressed miRNAs following imidacloprid treatment in L. decemlineata. In this study, next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to identify modulated miRNAs in imidacloprid-treated versus untreated L. decemlineata. This approach identified 33 differentially expressed miRNAs between the two experimental conditions. Of interest, miR-282 and miR-989, miRNAs previously shown to be modulated by imidacloprid in other insects, and miR-100, a miRNA associated with regulation of cytochrome P450 expression, were significantly modulated in imidacloprid-treated beetles. Overall, this work presents the first report of a miRNA signature associated with imidacloprid exposure in L. decemlineata using a high-throughput approach. It also reveals interesting miRNA candidates that potentially underly imidacloprid response in this insect pest.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2727: Usefulness of Amino Acid Profiling in Ovarian Cancer Screening with Special Emphasis on Their Role in Cancerogenesis

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2727: Usefulness of Amino Acid Profiling in Ovarian Cancer Screening with Special Emphasis on Their Role in Cancerogenesis

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122727

Authors: Szymon Plewa Agnieszka Horała Paweł Dereziński Agnieszka Klupczynska Ewa Nowak-Markwitz Jan Matysiak Zenon Kokot

The aim of this study was to quantitate 42 serum-free amino acids, propose the biochemical explanation of their role in tumor development, and identify new ovarian cancer (OC) biomarkers for potential use in OC screening. The additional value of this work is the schematic presentation of the interrelationship between metabolites which were identified as significant for OC development and progression. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique using highly-selective multiple reaction monitoring mode and labeled internal standards for each analyzed compound was applied. Performed statistical analyses showed that amino acids are potentially useful as OC biomarkers, especially as variables in multi-marker models. For the distinguishing metabolites the following metabolic pathways involved in cancer growth and development were proposed: histidine metabolism; tryptophan metabolism; arginine biosynthesis; arginine and proline metabolism; and alanine, aspartate and glutamine metabolism. The presented research identifies histidine and citrulline as potential new OC biomarkers. Furthermore, it provides evidence that amino acids are involved in metabolic pathways related to tumor growth and play an important role in cancerogenesis.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2731: Preclinical Imaging for the Study of Mouse Models of Thyroid Cancer

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2731: Preclinical Imaging for the Study of Mouse Models of Thyroid Cancer

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122731

Authors: Adelaide Greco Luigi Auletta Francesca Orlandella Paola Iervolino Michele Klain Giuliana Salvatore Marcello Mancini

Thyroid cancer, which represents the most common tumors among endocrine malignancies, comprises a wide range of neoplasms with different clinical aggressiveness. One of the most important challenges in research is to identify mouse models that most closely resemble human pathology; other goals include finding a way to detect markers of disease that common to humans and mice and to identify the most appropriate and least invasive therapeutic strategies for specific tumor types. Preclinical thyroid imaging includes a wide range of techniques that allow for morphological and functional characterization of thyroid disease as well as targeting and in most cases, this imaging allows quantitative analysis of the molecular pattern of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of all of the imaging techniques used to date both for diagnosis and theranostic purposes in mouse models of thyroid cancer.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2735: The Lung Microbiome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Promising Approach for Targeted Therapies

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2735: The Lung Microbiome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Promising Approach for Targeted Therapies

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122735

Authors: Fastrès Aline Felice Florence Roels Elodie Moermans Catherine Corhay Jean-Louis Bureau Fabrice Louis Renaud Clercx Cécile Guiot Julien

This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in healthy and pathological conditions. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis. Existing published data suggesting that the lung microbiome may represent a therapeutic target, via antibiotic administration, immunization against pathogenic organisms, or treatment directed at gastroesophageal reflux. Taken altogether, published literature suggests that the lung microbiome might serve in the future as a prognostic biomarker, a therapeutic target, and/or provide an explanation for disease pathogenesis in IPF.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2732: Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2732: Major Challenges and Potential Microenvironment-Targeted Therapies in Glioblastoma

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122732

Authors: Ali Arbab Mohammad Rashid Kartik Angara Thaiz Borin Ping-Chang Lin Meenu Jain Bhagelu Achyut

Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered one of the most malignant, genetically heterogeneous, and therapy-resistant solid tumor. Therapeutic options are limited in GBM and involve surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Adjuvant therapies, including antiangiogenic treatments (AATs) targeting the VEGF–VEGFR pathway, have witnessed enhanced infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, causing therapy resistance and tumor relapse in clinics and in preclinical models of GBM. This review article is focused on gathering previous clinical and preclinical reports featuring major challenges and lessons in GBM. Potential combination therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME) to overcome the myeloid cell-mediated resistance problem in GBM are discussed. Future directions are focused on the use of TME-directed therapies in combination with standard therapy in clinical trials, and the exploration of novel therapies and GBM models for preclinical studies. We believe this review will guide the future of GBM research and therapy.



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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2714: Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid) Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2714: Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid) Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18122714

Authors: Lin Wang Yi Yuan Ruo-Jun Mu Jingni Gong Yongsheng Ni Xin Hong Jie Pang Chunhua Wu

Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA) via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP) NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compressive and tensile test. The results showed that the hierarchical cellular structure and physicochemical properties of KPP NFCs were dependent on the incorporation of PDA content. Moreover, the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among KGM, PLA and PDA also gave KPP NFCs high thermostability and mechanically-robust properties. Thus, this study developed a simple approach to fabricate multifunctional NFCs with significant potential for biomedical or food application.



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Iatrogenic intratendinous ganglion cyst of the extensor digitorum tendon following intravenous cannulation

Abstract

Peripheral venous cannulation is one of the most commonly performed medical procedures in hospital medicine. The dorsal metacarpal veins are typically used for cannulation as they are easily accessible. We present the first case of an iatrogenic intratendinous ganglion cyst of the extensor digitorum tendon of the middle finger following intravenous cannulation.



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Troubling disease syndrome in endangered live Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) from the Protected Park Shoonem: unusually high prevalence of osteopathology

The last 1500 endangered Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) exist in > 100 groups which are not recovering. Prevalence of osteopathology in dead huemul was 57+% (Argentina), whereas similar cases in C...

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Microsatellite marker development from next-generation sequencing in the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) and cross-amplification in the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus)

The New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) is a species of high conservation priority in the Northeastern United States, and was a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act until ...

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ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution and frequency among blood donors at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania

This study aims to determine the distribution of blood groups and the demographic background of blood donors in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania.

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The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Asian Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer)

Borassus flabellifer or Asian Palmyra palm is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia and is horticultural and economic importance for its fruit and palm sugar production. Howev...

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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1584: Small Water Enterprise in Rural Rwanda: Business Development and Year-One Performance Evaluation of Nine Water Kiosks at Health Care Facilities

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1584: Small Water Enterprise in Rural Rwanda: Business Development and Year-One Performance Evaluation of Nine Water Kiosks at Health Care Facilities

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121584

Authors: Alexandra Huttinger Laura Brunson Christine Moe Kristin Roha Providence Ngirimpuhwe Leodomir Mfura Felix Kayigamba Philbert Ciza Robert Dreibelbis

Small water enterprises (SWEs) have lower capital expenditures than centralized systems, offering decentralized solutions for rural markets. This study evaluated SWEs in rural Rwanda, where nine health care facilities (HCF) owned and operated water kiosks supplying water from onsite water treatment systems (WTS). SWEs were monitored for 12 months. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs) was used to evaluate correlations between demand for kiosk water and community characteristics, and between kiosk profit and factors influencing the cost model. On average, SWEs distributed 15,300 L/month. One SWE ran at a loss, four had profit margins of ≤10% and four had profit margins of 45–75%. Factors influencing SWE performance were intermittent water supply (87% of SWE closures were due to water shortage), consumer demand (demand was high where populations already used improved water sources (rs = 0.81, p = 0.02)), price sensitivity (demand was lower where SWEs had high prices (rs = −0.65, p = 0.08)), and production cost (water utility tariffs negatively impacted SWE profits (rs = −0.52, p &lt; 0.01)). Sustainability was more favorable in circumstances where recovery of capital expenditures was not expected, and the demand for treated water was sufficient to fund operational expenditures. Future research is needed to assess the extent to which kiosk revenue can support ongoing operational costs of WTS and kiosks both at HCF and in other contexts.



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Are Covert Saccade Functionally Relevant in Vestibular Hypofunction?

Abstract

The vestibulo-ocular reflex maintains gaze stabilization during angular or linear head accelerations, allowing adequate dynamic visual acuity. In case of bilateral vestibular hypofunction, patients use saccades to compensate for the reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function, with covert saccades occurring even during the head displacement. In this study, we questioned whether covert saccades help maintain dynamic visual acuity, and evaluated which characteristic of these saccades are the most relevant to improve visual function. We prospectively included 18 patients with chronic bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Subjects underwent evaluation of dynamic visual acuity in the horizontal plane as well as video recording of their head and eye positions during horizontal head impulse tests in both directions (36 ears tested). Frequency, latency, consistency of covert saccade initiation, and gain of covert saccades as well as residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain were calculated. We found no correlation between residual vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and dynamic visual acuity. Dynamic visual acuity performance was however positively correlated with the frequency and gain of covert saccades and negatively correlated with covert saccade latency. There was no correlation between consistency of covert saccade initiation and dynamic visual acuity. Even though gaze stabilization in space during covert saccades might be of very short duration, these refixation saccades seem to improve vision in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction during angular head impulses. These findings emphasize the need for specific rehabilitation technics that favor the triggering of covert saccades. The physiological origin of covert saccades is discussed.



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Different Cerebellar Ataxia Phenotypes Associated with Mutations of the PNPLA6 Gene in Brazilian Patients with Recessive Ataxias

Abstract

Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs) represent a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders. The association of early-onset cerebellar ataxia with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is related to two syndromes, known as Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS—ataxia and pyramidal signs with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) and Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (BNS—ataxia with chorioretinal dystrophy). Mutations in the PNPLA6 gene have been identified as the cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia and complex forms of ataxia associated with retinal and endocrine manifestations. We reported two Brazilian patients with sporadic, progressive cerebellar ataxia, associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, in whom the GHS and BNS were confirmed by the demonstration of compound heterozygote mutations in the PNPLA6 gene. Genetic analysis of the patient 1 revealed compound heterozygous mutations, one allele in exon 34 and the other allele in exon 29. Genetic exam of the patient 2 also demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations. Three were novel mutations. The missense mutation c.3373G> A, found in the BNS patient, was previously related to Oliver-McFarlane syndrome. These different mutations in this gene suggest a complex phenotype associated disease spectrum.



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Human c-SRC kinase (CSK) overexpression makes T cells dummy

Abstract

Adoptive cell therapy with T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells represents a powerful method to redirect the immune system against tumours. However, although TCR recognition is restricted to a specific peptide–MHC (pMHC) complex, increasing numbers of reports have shown cross-reactivity and off-target effects with severe consequences for the patients. This demands further development of strategies to validate TCR safety prior to clinical use. We reasoned that the desired TCR signalling depends on correct pMHC recognition on the outside and a restricted clustering on the inside of the cell. Since the majority of the adverse events are due to TCR recognition of the wrong target, we tested if blocking the signalling would affect the binding. By over-expressing the c-SRC kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of LCK, in redirected T cells, we showed that peripheral blood T cells inhibited anti-CD3/anti-CD28-induced phosphorylation of ERK, whereas TCR proximal signalling was not affected. Similarly, overexpression of CSK together with a therapeutic TCR prevented pMHC-induced ERK phosphorylation. Downstream effector functions were also almost completely blocked, including pMHC-induced IL-2 release, degranulation and, most importantly, target cell killing. The lack of effector functions contrasted with the unaffected TCR expression, pMHC recognition, and membrane exchange activity (trogocytosis). Therefore, co-expression of CSK with a therapeutic TCR did not compromise target recognition and binding, but rendered T cells incapable of executing their effector functions. Consequently, we named these redirected T cells “dummy T cells” and propose to use them for safety validation of new TCRs prior to therapy.



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Immune-enhancement effects of tuna cooking drip and its enzymatic hydrolysate in Balb/c mice

Abstract

Tuna cooking drip (TCD) is a protein rich by-product of canned tuna processing that is typically discarded. In this study, the immune-enhancing activities of TCD and its enzymatic hydrolysate (EH-TCD) were investigated by intraperitoneally administering Balb/c male mice with TCD and EH-TCD for 2 weeks. This administration resulted in an increase in the weight of the spleen and thymus (200–800 mg/kg) and enhanced the proliferation rates of splenocytes (200–800 mg/kg). TCD and EH-TCD significantly increased the production of immunostimulatory cytokines (interleukin-10 and interleukin-2). In addition, TCD and EH-TCD increased serum IgG1 and IgG2a levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Particularly, EH-TCD had a greater immune-enhancing effect than TCD. These results suggest that TCD and EH-TCD exert immune-enhancing effects through an IgG antibody response and T cell activation, and EH-TCD can be used as an immunostimulatory agent.



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