Πέμπτη, 27 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Chronic Subclinical Inflammation in Middle Aged Bangladeshi Population: Association with Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

2016-10-27T16-00-40Z
Source: Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology
Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique, Muhammad Saiedullah, Matiar Rahman, Liaquat Ali, Mohammad Amirul Islam.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of chronic subclinical inflammation as assessed by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in a middle aged Bangladeshi population. Materials and Methods: Total 348 adults (169 male, 179 female) were included and anthropometric data and clinical histories were recorded. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic endpoint technique and hsCRP was estimated by immunoturbidimetric method. Results: The mean of age and body mass index (BMI) of the total subjects were 50.5 ± 11.5 years and 26.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2 respectively. Substantial proportions (57.47%) of the subjects had low HDL cholesterol. Of the total subjects, 45.4% had hsCRP > 3.0 mg/l followed by 31.9% with hsCRP: 1.0-3.0 mg/l coupled with elevation of one or more traditional risk factors of CVDs. Lipid parameters showed no significant difference between subjects with low and moderate (hsCRP ≤3.0 mg/l) and high hsCRP (hsCRP > 3.0 mg/l). But BMI was significantly higher in high hsCRP group compared to low hsCRP group [25.4 (23.3-27.9) vs 27.3 (24.3-30.1) kg/m2, p


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Ethno-medicinal studies of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms, Detarium microcarpum Guill. and Perr and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC on Blood Glucose Levels, Liver Enzymes, and Lipid Profile of Female Wistar Rats

2016-10-27T16-00-40Z
Source: Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology
Godspower I. Onyeso, Kpobari W. Nkpaa, Uche P Wigwe.
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the ethno-medicinal effect of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms (B. eurycoma), Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr (D. microcarpum) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (M. pruriens) on blood glucose levels, liver enzymes, and lipid profile of female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: B. eurycoma, D. microcarpum and M. pruriens aqueous seeds extract were administered at a single dose of 200 mgkg-1 body weight to the experimental animals individually and in combination daily for three weeks. Results: The blood glucose level in group II, IV and V (94.5±3.09, 99.5±3.77 and 100.0±5.83 mg dL-1) were significant different (p0.05) compare to the control. AST and ALT level in group II and III were also significant different (p


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Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: A Case Report with Emphasis on Diagnosis and Treatment

2016-10-27T13-31-55Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Bhagyalaxmi Hongal, Priya Shirish Joshi, Appasaheb Sanadi.
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is characterized by development of multiple keratotic plaques with roughened surface projections. Since its introduction in 1985 by Hansen et al., PVL of the oral mucosa still remains an enigma and is difficult to define as a sub-entity of leukoplakia. Although the lesion typically begins as simple, flat hyperkeratosis indistinguishable from ordinary leukoplakic lesion, PVL exhibits persistent growth and eventually becomes exophytic and verrucous in nature. As the lesion progresses, they may go through a stage indistinguishable from verrucous carcinoma but may later develop dysplastic changes or transform into full-fledged squamous cell carcinoma usually within 8 years of initial PVL diagnosis. PVL is unusual among the leukoplakia variants in having a strong female predilection and minimal association with tobacco usage. Presenting here, a case of PVL transforming into verrucous carcinoma with areas of suspected malignancy in a 53-year-old male with habit of chewing tobacco quid and beedi smoking 4-6 times a day since 20 years, with a chief complaint of pain and burning sensation of the oral cavity and multiple oral lesions for 1 month. This paper will elaborate typical behavior pattern of the lesion and will discuss this rare entity in light of current information.


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A Comparative Evaluation Of Intravenous Ranitidine And Rabeprazole On Gastric Volume And Ph In Patients Undergoing Surgery Under General Anaesthesia

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Sumit Kumar Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Usha Suwalka.
Introduction: The morbidity and mortality associated with the complication of Acid aspiration syndrome increases with the volume and acidity of gastric aspirates. Objective: Routine practice often includes use of pharmacological agents to reduce gastric volume and increase gastric pH. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous Rabeprazole and intravenous Ranitidine on gastric fluid volume and pH in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. Material and Methods: This prospective randomised double blind study was conducted on 90 healthy adult patients of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia of age group 18-60 years and three groups were assigned with, Group 1 received intravenous Ranitidine 50 mg, Group 2 received intravenous Rabeprazole 20 mg, Group 3 received 5ml of normal saline(control group) before one hr, on the day of surgery and gastric volume and pH estimated just before induction of anaesthesia. Results: Volume of the gastric aspirates in preintubation was 15.8±2.73 ml in Group 1 (Ranitidine), 14.2±2.93 ml in Group 2 (Rabeprazole) and 20.8±2.81 ml in Group 3 (Control). There was significant (p=0.03) decrease in gastric volume with Rabeprazole compared to Ranitidine. The pH values determined in preintubation was 3.21±0.68 in Group 1 (Ranitidine), 3.66±0.79 in Group 2 (Rabeprazole) and 2.62±0.79 in Group 3 (Control). There was significant (p=0.018) increase in pH with Rabeprazole compared to Ranitidine. Conclusion: From present study it may be concluded that Ranitidine and Rabeprazole both are effective in reducing gastric volume and pH. As compared to Rabeprazole, Ranitidine is less effective in reducing gastric volume and pH but still more commonly used due to its cost effectiveness.


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Immune thrombocytopenia and its association with lymph node tuberculosis – A dilemma!

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Sangita Deepak Kamath, Neeraj Jain, Saurabh Pathak, Ballamudi Srinivas Rao.
Background: Although various hematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune mediated thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in TB is rare; only 27 cases have been reported so far. Case: We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis who presented with immune thrombocytopenia. An eighteen year old girl was admitted to our hospital with excessive vaginal bleed of one week duration followed by the development of petechial lesions and ecchymosis over legs, hands and mouth. She also had solitary, firm, left axillary lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of immune mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) was made from peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination. Intravenous methylprednisolone (30mg/kg body weight) followed by oral prednisolone (1mg/kg) failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the left axillary lymphadenopathy done later revealed tuberculosis. After two weeks of starting anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet count returned to normal and she was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the causal association between immune thrombocytopenia and tuberculosis.


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Pleural effusion in advanced liver disease

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Cyriac Abby Philips Lovkesh Anand and Apurva Pande.
We present the case of a decompensated cirrhotic in whom localized pleural effusion was managed on the lines of tubercular effusion inadvertently, with use of catheter drainage, leading to fatal complications. Pleural effusion in advanced cirrhosis must be evaluated in a step wise manner to minimize interventional treatments.


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Establishment of reference ranges for Serum Leptin and C-Peptide using enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay method: a preliminary report

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Mainasara Abdullah Sulaiman, Dahiru Shafiu Gumel, Umar Zayyanu Usman, Anaja Peter Ocheni, Yakubu Abdulmumini, Rosemary Nwaelugo Adanze and Yeldu Mohammed Haruna.
Reference ranges (RR) or Reference Intervals (RIs) are very important values for accurate interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. Any test result that is not accompanied by a valid RR value is less informative and may not be interpreted correctly. However, reference values of most analytes for Nigerian population are not readily available. The present study aims at establishing reference values of Serum Leptin and C-Peptide for Dutse, Jigawa State. In a cross sectional study, eighty (80) reference individuals were recruited. Serum Leptin and C-Peptide were analysed using ELISA methods. Following an accepted guideline, population specific reference intervals were established for these analytes and found to be 3.13ng/mL to 14.09ng/mL for Leptin and 0.56ng/mL to 5.64ng/mL for C-Peptide, respectively. Populations sharing similar physical and socio-economic characteristics may adapt these intervals if validated and considered suitable for their laboratory methods.


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Productive and reproductive performances of Brown Bengal goat (Hilly goat) at research farm level

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Azharul Islam Talukder, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Ashadul Alam and Md. Abu Hemayet.
A nucleus-breeding flock of selected Brown Bengal goat was established in the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Regional Station, Naikhongchari, Bandarban, with the objective of characterization, conservation and improvement of the breed. A total of 69 does of different generations (Foundation = 07, Generation one = 32, Generation two = 23 and Generation three = 07.) and 07 bucks (All were first generation) were used to study the genetic parameters of Brown Bengal goat on productive and reproductive traits. The studied Animals were bred naturally. Goats were reared under semi-intensive management system in which goats were browsing in nature and allowed to graze in field as well as mounting in hills. All goats were housed in a plastic made floor house and allowed to graze 6-8 hours in a day and concentrate was offered twice daily during morning and evening at the rate of 1% of their body weight per day. The adult body weight of hilly goat was 20.95 kg. The phenotypic characteristics like the face, horn, ear and udder length were 15.56, 7.18, 12.19 and 12.67 cm respectively. On the other hand the hearth girth, front leg, hind leg and body length were 61.51, 46.8, 49.48 and 55.24 cm respectively. The gestation length, kidding to first heat, kidding to conception and kidding interval were 148.52 ± 1.06, 33.48 ± 2.85, 33.40 ± 1.98 and 176.86 ± 1.98 days, respectively. According to parity the GL, AFH, KC and KI were not followed trends up to 3rd parity but kid birth weight was increasing trends with increasing parity up to fifth. The birth weight of male kid (1.25 ± 0.25 kg) was higher than that of female kid (1.13± 0.27 kg). The highest birth weight (1.24±0.02 kg) was found in single birth. According to litter size the birth weight of single kid (1.24 ± 0.01 kg) stood first followed by twine (1.20 ± 0.01), triplet (1.1±0.03 kg) and quadruplet kids (0.93±0.08 kg). . The productive and reproductive performances of brown Bengal goat were not affected by parity. Birth weights of kids were significantly varied with birth type.


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Impact of stocking density on growth and production performance of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Mamunur Rahman, Debashis Kumar Mondal, Md. Rurul Amin and Mohammad Golam Muktadir.
Stocking density is considered one of the important factors affecting fish growth. The study was aimed to compare the growth parameters of monosex tilapia at various stocking densities. The experiment was carried out during the period from 06 August to 22 December 2014. Three stocking densities were used as 125, 250 and 375 fish/dec and designated as treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively each having two replicates. All the fishes were of same age group having average initial body weight of 1.34g. A commercial feed was supplied at the rate of 40% of the body weight and then gradually it was readjusted to 20%, 10%, 5% and 3% respectively and continued up to the end of the experiment. The water quality parameters were monitored at 14 days interval and the ranges were: temperature 19.34 to 31.40°C, pH 6.83 to 8.03, dissolved oxygen 4.78 to 6.82 mg/l and transparency 29.02 to 49.45cm.The result of the present study showed that the mean weight gain was significantly (P


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Investigation of health condition of small indigenous species Channa punctatus from Sherpur and Mymensingh areas

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Gias Uddin Ahmed, Sahara Khatun and Md. Mamunur Rahman.
Investigation on the health condition of small indigenous fish, Channa punctatus was carried out through clinical and histological observation from Jailka beel of Sherpur sadar, Sherpur district and Kailla beel of Ishargonj upazila, Mymensingh district for a period of six months from October 2014 to March 2015. Water quality parameters like water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate were recorded. Water temperature and total hardness were found at unfavorable level for fish in December and January. Clinical examinations of the fish were also carried out for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Clinically, it was observed that fish was affected with numerous red spots and patches in lateral and ventral regions, large deep whitish ulcers reached up to deep ulcers especially in December and January in both the beels. Samples of skin, muscle, gill, liver and kidney were collected and processed for histological observations. Major pathology in the skin and muscle were epidermis separated from dermis, presence of fungal granuloma, vacuums, hemorrhage and necrosis. Loss of primary and secondary gill lamellae, hypertrophy and primary gill lamellae separated, necrosis and hemorrhage were found in the gill. Large vacuums, necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in liver and kidney. Among the affected fish organs, skin and muscle, gills were found to be more affected than those of the internal organs like liver and kidney. Overall, under the clinical and histopathological observations the fish were found to be more affected in December and January. Whereas, in the months of February and March, the pathological condition of fish gradually healed up to normal except few vacuums and hemorrhage. Under histopathological observations, fish of Jailka beel were more affected than the fish of Kailla beel. In clinical and histopathological observation C. punctatus was more affected due to EUS.


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Management and treatment patterns of diabetes patients having blood pressure complications living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman, Lutful Haque Saran, Md. Mamun-Ur-Rashid and Adnan Taher.
A study way carried out in Dhaka city to find out the management and treatment patterns of diabetic patients those having blood pressure complications. It was a cross sectional study of 150 patients by using self administered survey questionnaire and founded data was analyzed and described. In this study, it is found that almost all of the patients (92%) were from Dhaka and just were a few those were outsider but came as referred patients. The male and female percentages were accordingly 64.67% and 35.33% and among those diabetes patients 47.33% had hypertension and 10.66% had hypotension and most of them (74%) check their diabetes monthly. Among those patients 79.33% patients were prescribed only drugs while 17% patients were prescribed to change their routine only and 4% were prescribed both (drug and routine). Most of the diabetes patients having blood pressure complicacy were prescribed only drugs which is very significant and those are going to do further research in this aspect will be benefited by getting this information.


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Growth performance and survival of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): different formulated diets effect

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Ishrat Zahan Anka, Jakia Sultana Jothi, Joyshri Sarker, Avijit Talukder and Md. Sadrul Islam.
Growth performance of guppy fries was assessed by providing four different types of formulated diets comprised of some available ingredients (fish meal (FM), prawn meal (PM), meat and bone meal (MBM), wheat flour (WF), corn flour (CF), starch (S) and soya bean oil) and the result was compared with supplied commercial diet as control. After 30 days experimental period, diet 1 (FM: PM=6:1) showed the best result in case of length gain (0.48 cm) in guppies whereas lowest (0.01 cm) was reported from diet 2 (PM: MBM= 4:3). The body weight gain in guppies was also found higher (0.004 g) in diet 1 than other diets. Specific growth rate (SGR) of all formulated diets was between 1.03% to 4.8% while 0.7% was found in commercial diet. Maximum survival rate (95%) was recorded in formulated diet 1 whereas 80% was investigated in control .Growth trend of guppies from all the supplied formulated diets resulted better rather than the imported commercial diets. So, Commercial diets might be replaced by experimental diets for the better production of guppy.


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Yield and grain dimensions of T. Aman rice varieties as influenced by date of transplanting

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Syeda Nuzhat Reza, Nahid Nadia Tani, Muhammad Salim, Ahmed Khairul Hasan and Mst. Arjina Akter.
A field experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during June 2013 to December 2013 to study the yield and grain dimensions of transplant aman rice varieties as influenced by date of transplanting. The experimental factors comprised of two factors namely, date of transplanting and variety. Date of transplanting comprised of 18 July, 19 August and 18 September. The variety comprised of Binadhan-7, BRRI dhan57, BR11 and Bashiraj. The experimental field was laid out in a split plot design. Most of the yield parameters were significantly affected by the date of transplanting. The yield and yield contributing characters were highest at 19 August transplanting and lowest at 18 September transplanting. Variety had significant effect on most of the yield and yield contributing characters. BR11 gave the highest grain yield (4.47 t ha-1) and the lowest value was obtained in BRRI dhan57. Among the grain dimensions, Binadhan-7 with 18 July transplanting gave the highest grain length (9.64 mm) whereas BR11 with 18 September transplanting gave the lowest value (7.82mm). Results showed that yield components were highest at 19 August transplanting and after that the reduction occurred at 18 September may be due to low temperature and short day length at flowering stage.


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Economic analysis of the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor at Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district of Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Yousuf Ali, Manos Kumar Saha, Md. Anam Ahmad, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
The study was conducted on Bergobindapur baor at Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district. The study period was February to June, 2015. Data were collected by using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal observation. Net return was loss in 2013-2014 and the loss amount was BDT 254200. Cost benefitratio in 2013-2014 was 0.99. Major income (83.30%) of the fishermen community was drawn from the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor. In 2014-2015, average income of fishermen was BDT 25250 during the fishing period. Within the household of fishermen community, the expenditure for food was 19%, clothing, 3%, childrens education, 19%, medical, 3%, dowry and religion, 33%, agriculture, 13% and others, such as business, accommodation, sanitation etc. 10%, which came from baor activities. The findings of this study indicated that Bergobindapur baor plays a vital role for the support of livelihood of fishermen and net profit from baor was not satisfactory. A long-term strategy should be developed to make the baor profitable. The developed strategic plans should be initiated immediately for the profitability of the baor as well as improving the livelihood conditions of the fishermen engaged with the boar fishery activities.


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Effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Abdus Samad, Aliza Khatun, Md. Selim Reza, Md. Asrafuzzaman and Most. Habiba Ferdaushy.
The research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond for a period of 35 days. Three treatments differing in stocking density of hatchling viz., T1:172900 individuals/ha, T2:148200 individuals/ha and T3:123500 individuals/ha were employed each having three replicates. Fries were fed same diet in three different treatments consisting of (28.5%) at the rate of 6-10% of body weight. The Physico-chemical characteristics of pond water were measured weekly. The mean values of some water quality parameters such as temperature (°C) were 30.41 1.15 (T1), 30.381.08 (T2), 30.451.10 (T3); transparency (cm) 40.000.90 (T1), 39.740.51 (T2), 39.930.70 (T3); dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6.790.45 (T1), 6.710.38 (T2), 7.020.29 (T3); pH 7.550.18 (T1), 7.670.16 (T2), 7.620.20 (T3) and alkalinity (mg/l) 116.200.64 (T1), 99.360.45 (T2), 96.470.93 (T3) from 35 days respectively. Except alkalinity no significant value were found for parameters. Sampling was also done weekly. The mean value of final weight (g) was 0.350.004 (T1), 0.420.008 (T2), 0.590.006 (T3). The survival rate of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 54.20% (T1), 62.90% (T2) and 74.56% (T3) respectively. The highest survivability was found in T3. The production (kg/ha) of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 76.324.96 (T1), 77.605.19 (T2), 91.046.02 (T3) respectively. Significantly (p

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Arsenic deposition in different organs or tissues in an experimental toxicosis of White Newzealand Rabbit

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Shaifuddin Ahmed, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui, Kamrul Islam, Md. Nazrul Islam, Mohammad Usman Gani, Sharifunnessa Moonmoon, Md. Harun-or-Rashid and Md. Abdul Awal.
The present study was undertaken for the detection of arsenic in different organs or tissues in an experimentally induced arsenicosis affected adult Newzealand white rabbits. The experiment was carried out on a total of 30 (01 month old) adult Newzealand white rabbits. Experimental arsenicosis were developed in rabbits by oral administration of arsenic trioxide alone and along with tannic acid, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP), alum and As contaminated water after filtration using SCIF bed along with alum. For this, the rabbits were randomly divided in to six (6) equal groups (A,B,C,D,E & F) at the ratio of three males and two females in each group, rats of group A was kept as control without giving any treatment, rabbits of group B received arsenic trioxide@100ppm, group C received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus tannic acid @100ppm, group D received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) @100ppm, group E received arsenic trioxide @100ppm plus alum @100ppm orally daily for 60 days in all cases and group F received alum@100ppm in SCIF-bed filtrated water orally daily for 60 days. The different organs and tissues of both dead and sacrificed rabbits (Liver, kidney, heart, Lungs spleen, stomach, muscle and skin) were collected for detection of arsenic. Arsenic was detected qualitatively by Reinsch test, semiquantitatively by Merck Arsen test kit. The distribution of arsenic concentration was highest in liver and lowest in skin. It has been concluded that arsenic were deposited in different organs or tissues of rabbit in an experimentally induced arsenicosis as like as natural occurrence.


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Water quality, feeding management and cost-benefit analysis of a fish hatchery in Jessore district of Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Monirul Islam, Rashidul Hassan, B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Mostafizur Rahaman, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
The study was conducted at Ma-Fatema Fish Hatchery in Jessore from January to March, 2016. The present study was emphasized on water quality parameters, feeding management and cost- benefit analysis. The water quality parameters temperature (0C), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) (mg/l) and transparency (cm) were measured by Celsius thermometer, pH meter, DO meter and secchi disk, respectively. The proximate composition of feed ingredients was determined by the Association of Analytical Chemists, 1980. Brood fishes were reared all year round in the brood ponds by supplying formulated feeds. Temperature was 19oC -26°C in brood ponds and 18oC-24oC in hatching jars; pH was 6.937.87 in brood ponds and 6.79-7.54 in the hatching jars; dissolved oxygen was 4.8-6.3 mg/l in brood ponds and 4.8-6.7 mg/l in hatching jars; transparency was 1418 cm in the brood ponds. The percentage of farm made feed was protein (27.76%), lipid (4.9%), CHO (18.62%), ash (11.31%), fiber (6.4%), moisture (31.01%). The cost benefit ratios were 1.54, 1.32 and 1.23 and net profits were BDT 49911.67, BDT 24816.67and BDT 16366.67 respectively in January, February and March. Management of brood fish by providing quality feed and physico-chemical parameters of water were maintained in according to scientific procedure. Cost-benefit ratio of the hatchery in common carp production was satisfactory.


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Antidiabetogenic impact of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and garlic (Allium sativum) on alloxan induced diabetic rabbit model

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Ambiara, Fahima Binthe Aziz, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Misrat Masuma Parvez, Kishor Kumar Roy and Md. Anowarul Haque.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the Bitter melon and Garlic on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental rabbits. At 2 to 3 months of age, rabbits were assigned into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) and each group was remained 4 rabbits. Group A was kept for control, Group B was treated with Alloxanintramuscullarly at a dose of 75mg /kg body weight, Group C was treated with bitter melon 250gm/kg body weight orally, Group D was treated with garlic 750mg/kg body weight orally, Group E treated with combined at previous dose. After acclimatization, diabetes was induced in four groups of rabbits (B, C, D and E) by administering Alloxan injection in a dose of 75mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) intramuscularlly. There was significant decreased in blood glucose level in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and lowest glucose was recorded in E group when treated with combined medicinal herbs and body weight was increased in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and highest was recorded in Dgroup while treated with those.% of PCV level and Hb gm/dl concentration was the highest in group E which was treated with both garlic and bitter melon compare to the A group. ESR was highest in group B treated with Alloxan and lowest in group E. The present study reveals that combined treatment increases body weight and decreases glucose level without affecting health of rabbits.


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Effects of periparturient anthelmintic treatment on milk yield and quality in dairy cows

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Adil Borman, Md. Faruk Islam, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Md. Fazlul Hoque, Sandip Kispotta and Md. Anowarul Haque.
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal parasite in periparturient dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and quality. Sixty mixed breed pregnant cows were selected divided into four groups, A (n=18), B (n=14), C (n=16) and D (n=12) and group D kept as control. Cows of group A were treated with Nitroxynilat the rate of 10 mg/kg bwt. s/c, 30 days before parturition and average feacal egg per gram(EPG) was reduced from 506.1 ± 172.3 to 157.8 ± 24.9 within 14 days.Group B were treated with combined triclabendazole and levamisoleat the rate of19.5 mg/kg bwt. orally at calving. The average EPG was reduced from 967.7 ± 237.1 to 172.0 ± 25.9. Group C were treated with same as group B at calving and 42 days after. The mean EPG fall from 794.6 ± 310.5 to 166.7 ± 26.2.In group D average EPG increased from 791.7 ± 268.5 to 864.2 ± 290.7. The mean change in EPG 14 days after treatment was significantly higher (p


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Determination of antibiotics sensitivity profiles of bacteria isolated from raw milk

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
MuktaTalukder and H. M. Manir Ahmed.
The extensive progress of dairy sectors in a developing country like Bangladesh, led to widespread use of antibiotics to improve the health and productivity of animals. Prolonged usage may lead to antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin; hence, the emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Accurate data on the antibiotic usage in livestock treatment, antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances in raw milk in Bangladesh are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the types and usages of antibiotics in cattle, their potential microbial resistances in raw milk samples. To do so, a total of 54 raw milk samples were evaluated and the bacterial isolates were identified and measured for resistance to 4 antibiotics most commonly used during bacterial infection Bangladesh. Amongst all 54 (100%) isolates were positive to S. aureus and 36 (66.67%) isolates were positive to E coli. Determination of the antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates showed that all isolates of S. aureus were resistant to cefoxitin (81.48%), ampicillin (64.81%), ciprofloxacin (51.85%), and gentamycin (70.37%). E. coli showed resistance to cefoxitin (69.44%), ampicillin (83.33%), ciprofloxacin (77.78%), and gentamycin (86.11%). However multidrug resistance pattern was also found. The obtained results provide evidence that antimicrobial resistant strains of the above pathogens have become remarkably widespread in raw milk. This requires better management for antibiotic usages among livestock farmers to control sources of food contamination and reduce the health risks associated with the development of resistant microbial strains.


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Tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Northern Sabah

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Swe, Than Myint and Mon Mon Yee.
Tobacco smoking in adolescent age group has become a major public health concern as it is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases leading to burden of adverse health effects in their later life. Those who start smoking tobacco at an early age are more likely to develop nicotine addiction and continue smoking throughout their adulthood. The general objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking, their initiation and perception towards tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Kudat District, Sabah State, Malaysia. It was a school based cross sectional descriptive study which employed a twostaged stratified random sampling method and used self-administered structured questionnaire for data collection. A total of 257 students aged between 15 to 19 years old from two upper secondary schools participated in the study. This study revealed that (26.6%) were ever smokers and (8.6%) were current smokers. The earliest age of started smoking was 7 years old and 9 years old among male and female ever smokers respectively. Majority of the respondents perceived that smoking was a bad habit which would cause environmental pollution and harmful effects on health. The most common reasons to start smoking among ever smokers were peer pressures, curiosity and experimenting and to relieve the feeling of pressured and stress. Among the current smokers, 86.4%had ever attempted to quit smoking but they failed to stop smoking because they thought smoking could give feeling pleasure (50%), relieve their anxiety or craving (27.3%) and because of peer pressures (22.7%). The findings suggested that although tobacco smoking prevalence among school adolescents in Kudat was comparatively lower than that of national prevalence reported by GYTS, there is still need for early interventions with holistic approach to prevent them from initiation and to help them for cessation of tobacco smoking.


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Quality control and interest of the determination of anti-CCP antibodies and rheumatoid factor in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Amoussou Nathalie Gisèle, Gounongbé Marcelle, Dougnon Tamègnon Victorien, Zomalheto Zavier, Loko Frédéric and Bigot André.
The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune, rheumatic and chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by joints damage. The early diagnosis of RA allows the initiation of a treatment which offers to the patients more chance of remission and avoids the evolution towards the unrecoverable deformity of joints. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of recent tests for the determination of anti -CCP antibodies and FR by ELISA in Benin Republic. This analytical, retrospective (2 years 6 months) and prospective (7 months) study allowed us to collect 36 patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA and 24 controls. A comparison was made with the latex agglutination test for rheumatoid factors and a search of rheumatoid factors (RF) on the one hand and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. In our study, the specificity of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA (91.7%). The sensitivity of RF-ELISA assay is higher (77.8 %) than that of anti-CCP assay (66.7%). The latex test for rheumatoid factors has a sensitivity of 33.3 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA assay (93.33 %). The positive-likelihood ratio (LR+) of anti-CCP assay is higher than the LR+ of RF-ELISA assay (4.96). The negative-likelihood ratio (LR-) of anti-CCP assay (0.33) is higher than the LR- of RF-ELISA assay (0.24). In conclusion, the anti-CCP assay has the highest specificity and RF-ELISA assay shows the highest sensitivity. In conclusion, the association of the two assays enhances a better diagnosis value for RA.


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Changes in hematological parameters and gill morphology in common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Malathion

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Sadia Sharmin, Md. Abdus Salam, Farhana Haque, Md. Sadiqul Islam and Md. Shahjahan.
Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in the agricultural field in Bangladesh and reach in the aquatic environment through rain wash. In the present study, we examined the effects of Malathion on hematological parameters and gills morphology in common carp exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (1.5 and 3.0 mg/L) for a period of 192h (8 days). For hematological parameters fish were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72, and 96h after start of exposure. Gills were collected at 192h after start of exposure. The blood glucose level was significantly elevated with increasing the concentration of Malathion. Red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were significantly decreased after the exposure of Malathion. Significant increments were observed in case of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), while no distinct changes were noted for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Interestingly, white blood cells (WBCs) count was significantly increased with toxicity of Malathion. Several morphological changes, such as telangiectasia, blood lamellar congestion, hypertrophy of filaments, lamellar fusion were observed in the gills of fish exposed to Malathion. The present study revealed that the insecticide had adverse effects on various blood parameters and gills morphology in common carp. Thus, the use of insecticide in the agriculture field may be a threat to fauna and flora of the aquatic environment.


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Modalities of treatment for sleep disordered breathing

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Win Tin and Khin Maung Ohn.
Sleep disordered breathing is a spectrum of diseases that includes snoring, upperairway resistance syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It occurs more in obese males, resulting in hypertension and cardiac complications if untreated. There are various treatments, conservatively and surgically, starting from simple tonsillectomy to multi-level surgeries and multi discipline. Literature review was carried out on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, diagnosis and various treatments, using internet Google, search PubMed. Additional information was obtained by cross referencing, using text and journals in the medical libraries.


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Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities in Astragalus angulosus

2016-10-27T05-19-23Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Hussein Kanaan, Majid El-Mestrah, Alaa Sweidan, Falah As-sadi, Ali Al Bazzal, Ali Chokr.
Aim: in a search for finding novel therapeutic agents, extracts from an endemic Lebanese plant, Astragalus angulosus, were evaluated for their potential in-vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against three Gram positive bacterial strains; Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIP444), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212);.in addition to two Gram negative strains, Escherichia coli (ATCC35218) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853). Methods: the plant was collected in April of 2013 and it was divided into several different portions, then its extracts were obtained by maceration using two different solvents. Extract analysis followed directly, where microtiter broth dilution method was employed to assess antibacterial activity, while antibiofilm potential was tested using colorimetric method. Results: whole plant ethanolic extract showed the highest bacteriostatic effect at a concentration of 12.78 mg ml-1 and also was the most versatile exerting its effect against 3 different strains. Other extracts also exhibited an effect but at higher concentrations and each against a single strain. Regarding antibiofilm activity, the majority of the extracts were able to eradicate >50% of Staphylococcus epidermidis preformed biofilm, where the highest activity was obtained with flower fraction extracted in water, achieving 67.7% biofilm eradication at 0.2 mg ml-1. Conclusions: This plant possesses a promising potential in regard to eradicating bacteria and their biofilms, and it is the first contributing step of establishing a library for the endemic Lebanese plants in this domain.


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Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Regulates Inflammation in a Rabbit Model of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

Objective: It is well known that inflammation plays key roles in the development of atherosclerosis and that the transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) can suppress inflammation in rodent models of ischemic diseases. Here, we explored whether transplantation of autologous BMMNCs could prevent the progression of atherosclerosis by the alleviation of inflammatory responses in a rabbit model of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: The atherosclerotic rabbit model was established by air desiccation followed by a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Then, 1 × 107 BMMNCs labeled with BrdU or an equal volume of vehicle were injected into the rabbits via the ear vein. Using an ultrasonographic imaging method, we found that autologous BMMNC treatment significantly decreased the area of atherosclerotic plaques compared to the vehicle-treated group (p 0.05), which was consistent with Western blot results. Conclusions: Transplantation of autologous BMMNCs delays the development of atherosclerosis, most probably via the attenuation of inflammatory responses, which could be a new approach for treating carotid atherosclerosis.
J Vasc Res 2016;53:196-205

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 1050: Identification of Vape Shops in Two North Carolina Counties: An Approach for States without Retailer Licensing

Stores that sell electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) as their primary product are a new phenomenon and often termed “vape shops”. While vape shops are now regulated by state and federal agencies, not all states maintain lists of vape shops in operation. Standard ways of identifying tobacco retailers through off-premise alcohol permits and business listing services may not identify vape shops. We used four online business listing services (i.e., Google Maps, ReferenceUSA, YellowPages.com, Yelp) to identify vape shops in two counties in North Carolina (NC). In one county, we also assessed four vaping web sites. We drove primary and secondary roads to physically validate the identified stores and attempt to identify stores not listed online. To assess the accuracy of the online searches, we calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPVs). This research was conducted in spring and summer 2016 and identified 28 vape shops online. We confirmed 16 vape shops (seven in Pitt County, NC, USA, and nine in Durham County, NC, USA). Online searches ranged in sensitivity, 62.5%–81.3%, and PPVs ranged from 73.3% to 92.3%. Because of the range of sensitivity found among the business listing services, state policymakers should consider uniform licensing requirements for vape and tobacco retailers to more easily track retailers and ensure compliance with regulations.

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Two energy balance closure approaches: applications and comparisons over an oasis-desert ecotone

Abstract

Studies of energy balance that rely on eddy covariance (EC) are always challenged by energy balance closure, which is mainly caused by the underestimations of latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (Hs). The Bowen ratio (BR) and energy balance residual (ER) approaches are two widely-used methods to correct the LE. A comprehensive comparison of those two approaches in different land-use types is essential to accurately correcting the LE and thus improving the EC experiments. In this study, two energy balance approaches (i.e., BR and ER) were compared to correct the LE measured at six EC sites (i.e., three vegetated, one mixed and two non-vegetated sites) in an oasis-desert ecotone of the Heihe River Basin, China. The influences of meteorological factors on those two approaches were also quantitatively assessed. Our results demonstrated that the average energy closure ratio ((LE+Hs)/(Rn–Gs); where Rn is the surface net radiation and Gs is the surface soil heat flux) was approximately close to 1.0 at wetland, maize and village sites, but far from 1.0 at orchard, Gobi and desert sites, indicating a significant energy imbalance at those three latter sites. After the corrections of BR and ER approaches that took into account of soil heat storage, the corrected LE was considerably larger than the EC-measured LE at five of six EC sites with an exception at Gobi site. The BR and ER approaches yielded approximately similar corrected LE at vegetated and mixed sites, but they generated dissimilar results at non-vegetated sites, especially at non-vegetated sites with low relative humidity, strong wind, and large surface-air temperature difference. Our findings provide insight into the applicability of BR and ER approaches to correcting EC-based LE measurements in different land-use types. We recommend that the BR-corrected and ER-corrected LE could be seriously reconsidered as validation references in dry and windy areas.



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The Preventive Effect of the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Hochuekkito, against Influenza A Virus via Autophagy in vitro

Background: Hochuekkito (HKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, enhances the immunity of elderly or weak individuals. It is also known to have preventive effects against influenza clinically. However, the detailed mechanisms of the preventive effects have not been clarified. We examined the relationship between the preventive effects of HKT and autophagy, a known stress response and quality control mechanism, using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. Methods: The effect of HKT on autophagy in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells was assessed by Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy using an RFP-GFP-LC3B sensor kit. Results: In Western blotting, treatment with HKT before IAV infection (pre-HKT) tended to induce autophagy in IAV-infected cells at an early stage of infection, eventually suppressing IAV-induced autophagy. Moreover, several autolysosomes, indicative of normal autophagosome-lysosome fusion, were observed in Pre-HKT cells transduced with RFP-GFP-LC3B but not in untreated IAV-infected cells. Conclusions: These findings indicated that IAV-mediated inhibition of the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes was prevented by HKT treatment before infection. According to these results, we propose that this phenomenon is one of the preventive effects of HKT against IAV.
Pharmacology 2017;99:99-105

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Alcohol consumption and accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania: a cross-sectional study

Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to ...

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Follow-up on Programmed Cell Death 1 Inhibitor for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Follow-up on Programmed Cell Death 1 Inhibitor for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

JAMA Dermatol. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Tran DC, Colevas AD, Chang AL

PMID: 27784038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Next generation sequencing and its applications in HPV-associated cancers.

Next generation sequencing and its applications in HPV-associated cancers.

Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 23;:

Authors: Tuna M, Amos CI

Abstract
Approximately 18% of all human cancers have a viral etiology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as one of the most prevalent viruses that plays causative role in nearly all cervical cancers and, in addition, in subset of head and neck, anal, penile and vulvar cancers. The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) and other 'omics' approaches have resulted in comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of HPV-driven tumors. Specifically, these approaches have provided detailed information on genomic HPV integration sites, disrupted genes and pathways, and common and distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations in different human HPV-associated cancers. This review focuses on HPV integration sites, its concomitantly disrupted genes and pathways and its functional consequences in both cervical and head and neck cancers. Integration of NGS data with other 'omics' and clinical data is crucial to better understand the pathophysiology of each individual malignancy and, based on this, to select targets and to design effective personalized treatment options.

PMID: 27784002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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SATB1 promotes tumor metastasis and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

SATB1 promotes tumor metastasis and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Dis. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Li YC, Bu LL, Mao L, Ma SR, Liu JF, Yu GT, Deng WW, Zhang WF, Sun ZJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to evaluate the expression of SATB1 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and its role in the invasiveness and metastasis of OSCC.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A human OSCC tissue microarray was used to evaluate the expression pattern of SATB1. SATB1 mRNA knockdown was performed in human OSCC cell lines SCC25 and Cal27 to assess the function of SATB1 in the invasiveness and metastasis of OSCC.
RESULTS: SATB1 is highly expressed in human OSCC determined by immunohistochemistry and its nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of histoscore is significantly correlated with patients' prognosis. Reduced cell motility, invasiveness, expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin and β-catenin) and elevated expression of epithelial markers were observed in SATB1-knockdown cells in in vitro studies. Depletion of SATB1 also restored a cobblestone-like morphology in TGF-β1 treated cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest SATB1 may play an important role in OSCC invasiveness and metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27783844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Clinical features and treatment outcomes of Japanese head and neck cancer patients with a second primary cancer.

Clinical features and treatment outcomes of Japanese head and neck cancer patients with a second primary cancer.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Yamashita T, Araki K, Tomifuji M, Tanaka Y, Harada E, Suzuki T, Miyamoto S, Shiotani A

Abstract
AIM: It has been well established that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have an elevated risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC), owing to the common carcinogenic risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol consumption, and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype. Here we investigated the current state of SPC in Japanese HNC patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and treatment outcomes of synchronous and metachronous SPCs among 434 newly diagnosed HNC patients. Moreover, the associations between various carcinogenic risk factors and SPC were also assessed.
RESULTS: Fifty-two (12.0%) and 104 patients (24.0%) had synchronous and metachronous SPCs, respectively. The cases with SPC were associated with high rates of smoking and alcohol histories (81.1% and 74.6%, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 47.5% of all oropharyngeal cancer cases showed positive p16 expression, and there was no significant difference between p16-positive and -negative cases in terms of the proportions of patients with SPC. The 3-year overall survival rates were 78.8%, 75.3% and 75.9% in patients without, with synchronous, and with metachronous SPC, respectively (P = 0.4048).
CONCLUSION: Given the distinct features of the carcinogenic risk factors for HNC in Japan, care should be taken not to underestimate the frequency of SPC, even for human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer patients. Considering the high incidence of SPC associated with HNC, the appropriate diagnostic strategy to allow for early detection of SPC and a treatment strategy aimed at avoiding unnecessary radiotherapy for the index tumor would contribute to improving the prognosis for HNC.

PMID: 27783469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A european multicenter study evaluating the flex robotic system in transoral robotic surgery.

A european multicenter study evaluating the flex robotic system in transoral robotic surgery.

Laryngoscope. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Lang S, Mattheis S, Hasskamp P, Lawson G, Güldner C, Mandapathil M, Schuler P, Hoffmann T, Scheithauer M, Remacle M

Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the application of the Flex Robotic System in transoral robotic surgery (TORS).
STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-armed clinical study.
METHODS: A prospective clinical follow-up multicenter study was performed from July 2014 to October 2015 assessing the safety and efficacy of the Medrobotics Flex Robotic System for access and visualization of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx as well as for resection of benign and malignant lesions. A total of 80 patients were enrolled. Access and visualization of five anatomic subsites (base of tongue, palatine tonsil area, epiglottis, posterior pharyngeal wall, and false vocal cords) were individually graded by the surgeon. Setup times, access and visualization times, surgical results, and adverse events were documented.
RESULTS: The relevant anatomic structures could be exposed and visualized properly in 75 patients, who went on to have a surgical procedure performed with the Flex Robotic System. Access and visualization of the palatine tonsil area, posterior pharyngeal wall, epiglottis, and posterior pharyngeal wall were excellent. However, false vocal cords and vocal cords were more difficult to expose. Seventy-two patients were treated successfully with the Flex Robotic System. There were no serious or unanticipated device-related adverse events caused by the Flex Robotic System.
CONCLUSIONS: Lesions in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx could be successfully resected with the Flex Robotic System, specifically developed for TORS. Our study provides evidence that the Flex Robotic System is a safe and effective tool in TORS. Laryngoscope, 2016.

PMID: 27783427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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What Role Does Allergy Play in Chronic Ear Disease and Laryngitis?

What Role Does Allergy Play in Chronic Ear Disease and Laryngitis?

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Oct;16(10):76

Authors: Platt MP, Brook CD, Kuperstock J, Krouse JH

Abstract
IgE-mediated allergy plays a well-established role in both nasal and pulmonary diseases due to the common epithelium and shared mediator responses of the upper and lower airways. This "unified airway" concept has also been described in other sites within the head and neck that contain similar respiratory mucosa: the middle ear and the larynx. This review will highlight the data suggesting a role for IgE-mediated allergic disease in chronic laryngopharyngeal and middle ear disease and the role for allergy testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

PMID: 27783318 [PubMed - in process]



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Practical Guidelines for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Free Tissue Transfer.

Practical Guidelines for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Free Tissue Transfer.

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Nov;138(5):1120-1131

Authors: Ricci JA, Crawford K, Ho OA, Lee BT, Patel KM, Iorio ML

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism encompasses a spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis to fatal pulmonary embolism. As microsurgical techniques increase in complexity, the overriding benefit from a microsurgical versus a venous thromboembolism prophylactic regimen remains unclear. This study evaluated the current recommendations and procedure-specific strategies for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with a focus on the utility of prophylaxis in microsurgical procedures.
METHODS: A review was performed to identify all articles discussing the rates of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing microsurgical procedures. Data were summarized based on body area, including hand, breast, lower extremity, and head and neck. Guidelines for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in microsurgical cases were established.
RESULTS: The available studies demonstrate a reduction in postoperative venous thromboembolism. Unfortunately, chemoprophylaxis continues to be underused throughout plastic surgery, amid concern over the risk of bleeding complications. Based on the best available data, the use of mechanical and chemoprophylaxis should be strongly considered in all microsurgical cases. A preoperative screening algorithm based on a risk-assessment model should be used in all cases to preoperatively characterize and modify risk factors when possible, and plan for perioperative prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS: Although not completely preventable, venous thromboembolism risks can be reduced with careful preoperative planning and medical history and the judicious use of chemoprophylaxis. Because there does not appear to be an increase in the rate of postoperative bleeding when prophylaxis is administered appropriately, the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis should be considered in all microsurgery patients except those at extremely high risk of bleeding.

PMID: 27783014 [PubMed - in process]



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Modification of the Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Flap in Partial Pharyngolaryngeal Reconstruction to Minimize Fistula Formation.

Modification of the Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Flap in Partial Pharyngolaryngeal Reconstruction to Minimize Fistula Formation.

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Nov;138(5):903e-907e

Authors: Ooi AS, Butz DR, Gooi Z, Chang DW

Abstract
Reconstruction of pharyngolaryngoesophageal defects following salvage surgery in patients with a history of chemoradiation is a challenging problem with a high incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The authors describe three cases of successful reconstruction of partial pharyngolaryngoesophageal defects using a modified radial forearm free flap with additional dermal reinforcement and review the literature for innovations in the use of radial forearm free flap for reconstruction of these difficult cases. Modification of the radial forearm free flap makes it a versatile, reliable flap that has become the "go-to" flap for partial pharyngolaryngoesophageal reconstruction.

PMID: 27783007 [PubMed - in process]



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Effects of Obesity and Leptin Deficiency on Morphine Pharmacokinetics in a Mouse Model.

Effects of Obesity and Leptin Deficiency on Morphine Pharmacokinetics in a Mouse Model.

Anesth Analg. 2016 Oct 24;

Authors: Dalesio NM, Hendrix CW, McMichael DH, Thompson CB, Lee CK, Pho H, Arias RS, Lynn RR, Galinkin J, Yaster M, Brown RH, Schwartz AR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes multiorgan dysfunction, specifically metabolic abnormalities in the liver. Obese patients are opioid-sensitive and have high rates of respiratory complications after surgery. Obesity also has been shown to cause resistance to leptin, an adipose-derived hormone that is key in regulating hunger, metabolism, and respiratory stimulation. We hypothesized that obesity and leptin deficiency impair opioid pharmacokinetics (PK) independently of one another.
METHODS: Morphine PK were characterized in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), diet-induced obese (DIO), and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, and in ob/ob mice given leptin-replacement (LR) therapy. WT mice received several dosing regimens of morphine. Obese mice (30 g) received one 80 mg/kg bolus of morphine. Blood was collected at fixed times after morphine injection for quantification of plasma morphine and morphine 3-glucuronide (M3G) levels. PK parameters used to evaluate morphine metabolism included area-under the curve (AUC150), maximal morphine concentration (CMAX), and M3G-to-morphine ratio, and drug elimination was determined by clearance (Cl/F), volume of distribution, and half-life (T1/2). PK parameters were compared between mouse groups by the use of 1-way analysis of variance, with P values less than .05 considered significant.
RESULTS: DIO compared with WT mice had significantly decreased morphine metabolism with lower M3G-to-morphine ratio (mean difference [MD]: -4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.8 to -0.9) as well as a decreased Cl/F (MD: -4.0; 95% CI: -8.9 to -0.03) Ob/ob compared with WT mice had a large increase in morphine exposure with a greater AUC150 (MD: 980.4; 95% CI: 630.1-1330.6), CMAX (MD: 6.8; 95% CI: 2.7-10.9), and longer T1/2 (MD: 23.1; 95% CI: 10.5-35.6), as well as a decreased Cl/F (MD: -7.0; 95% CI: -11.6 to -2.7). Several PK parameters were significantly greater in ob/ob compared with DIO mice, including AUC150 (MD: 636.4; 95% CI: 207.4-1065.4), CMAX (MD: 5.3; 95% CI: 3.2-10.3), and T1/2 (MD: 18.3; 95% CI: 2.8-33.7). When leptin was replaced in ob/ob mice, PK parameters began to approach DIO and WT levels. LR compared with ob/ob mice had significant decreases in AUC150 (MD: -779.9; 95% CI: -1229.8 to -330), CMAX (MD: -6.1; 95% CI: -11.4 to -0.9), and T1/2 (MD: -19; 95% CI: -35.1 to -2.8). Metabolism increased with LR, with LR mice having a greater M3G-to-morphine ratio compared with DIO (MD: 5.3; 95% CI: 0.3-10.4).
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic effects associated with obesity decrease morphine metabolism and excretion. A previous study from our laboratory demonstrated that obesity and leptin deficiency decrease the sensitivity of central respiratory control centers to carbon dioxide. Obesity and leptin deficiency substantially decreased morphine metabolism and clearance, and replacing leptin attenuated the PK changes associated with leptin deficiency, suggesting leptin has a direct role in morphine metabolism.

PMID: 27782940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Smart Extraction and Analysis System for Clinical Research.

Smart Extraction and Analysis System for Clinical Research.

Telemed J E Health. 2016 Oct 26;

Authors: Afzal M, Hussain M, Khan WA, Ali T, Jamshed A, Lee S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs), there is a growing need to expand the utilization of EHR data to support clinical research. The key challenge in achieving this goal is the unavailability of smart systems and methods to overcome the issue of data preparation, structuring, and sharing for smooth clinical research.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a robust analysis system called the smart extraction and analysis system (SEAS) that consists of two subsystems: (1) the information extraction system (IES), for extracting information from clinical documents, and (2) the survival analysis system (SAS), for a descriptive and predictive analysis to compile the survival statistics and predict the future chance of survivability. The IES subsystem is based on a novel permutation-based pattern recognition method that extracts information from unstructured clinical documents. Similarly, the SAS subsystem is based on a classification and regression tree (CART)-based prediction model for survival analysis.
RESULTS: SEAS is evaluated and validated on a real-world case study of head and neck cancer. The overall information extraction accuracy of the system for semistructured text is recorded at 99%, while that for unstructured text is 97%. Furthermore, the automated, unstructured information extraction has reduced the average time spent on manual data entry by 75%, without compromising the accuracy of the system. Moreover, around 88% of patients are found in a terminal or dead state for the highest clinical stage of disease (level IV). Similarly, there is an ∼36% probability of a patient being alive if at least one of the lifestyle risk factors was positive.
CONCLUSION: We presented our work on the development of SEAS to replace costly and time-consuming manual methods with smart automatic extraction of information and survival prediction methods. SEAS has reduced the time and energy of human resources spent unnecessarily on manual tasks.

PMID: 27782787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Flexible radioluminescence imaging for FDG-guided surgery.

Flexible radioluminescence imaging for FDG-guided surgery.

Med Phys. 2016 Oct;43(10):5298

Authors: King MT, Jenkins CH, Sun C, Carpenter CM, Ma X, Cheng K, Le QT, Sunwoo JB, Cheng Z, Pratx G, Xing L

Abstract
PURPOSE: Flexible radioluminescence imaging (Flex-RLI) is an optical method for imaging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid tumors. The authors hypothesize that a gadolinium oxysulfide: terbium (GOS:Tb) flexible scintillator, which loosely conforms to the body contour, can enhance tumor signal-to-background ratio (SBR) compared with RLI, which utilizes a flat scintillator. The purpose of this paper is to characterize flex-RLI with respect to alternative modalities including RLI, beta-RLI (RLI with gamma rejection), and Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI).
METHODS: The photon sensitivity, spatial resolution, and signal linearity of flex-RLI were characterized with in vitro phantoms. In vivo experiments utilizing 13 nude mice inoculated with the head and neck (UMSCC1-Luc) cell line were then conducted in accordance with the institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. After intravenous injection of (18)F-FDG, the tumor SBR values for flex-RLI were compared to those for RLI, beta-RLI, and CLI using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
RESULTS: With respect to photon sensitivity, RLI, beta-RLI, and flex-RLI produced 1216.2, 407.0, and 98.6 times more radiance per second than CLI. Respective full-width half maximum values across a 0.5 mm capillary tube were 6.9, 6.4, 2.2, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Flex-RLI demonstrated a near perfect correlation with (18)F activity (r = 0.99). Signal uniformity for flex-RLI improved after more aggressive homogenization of the GOS powder with the silicone elastomer during formulation. In vivo, the SBR value for flex-RLI (median 1.29; interquartile range 1.18-1.36) was statistically greater than that for RLI (1.08; 1.02-1.14; p < 0.01) by 26%. However, there was no statistically significant difference in SBR values between flex-RLI and beta-RLI (p = 0.92). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in SBR values between flex-RLI and CLI (p = 0.11) in a more limited dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: Flex-RLI provides high quality images with SBRs comparable to those from CLI and beta-RLI in a single 10 s acquisition.

PMID: 27782732 [PubMed - in process]



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Computerized triplet beam orientation optimization for MRI-guided Co-60 radiotherapy.

Computerized triplet beam orientation optimization for MRI-guided Co-60 radiotherapy.

Med Phys. 2016 Oct;43(10):5667

Authors: Nguyen D, Thomas D, Cao M, O'Connor D, Lamb J, Sheng K

Abstract
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target and critical organ tracking. To increase delivery efficiency, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, allowing up to 600 cGy combined dose rate at isocenter. Despite the potential tripling in output, creating a delivery plan that uses all three sources is considerably unintuitive. Here, the authors computerize the triplet orientation optimization using column generation, an approach that was demonstrated effective in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for noncoplanar therapies. To achieve a better plan quality without increasing the treatment time, the authors then solve a fluence map optimization (FMO) problem while regularizing the fluence maps to reduce the number of deliverable MLC segments.
METHODS: Three patients-one prostate, one lung, and one head and neck boost plan (H&NBoost)-were evaluated in this study. For each patient, the beamlet doses were calculated using Monte Carlo, under a 0.35 T magnetic field, for 180 equally spaced coplanar beams grouped into 60 triplets. The beamlet size is 1.05 × 0.5 cm determined by the MLC leaf thickness and step size. The triplets were selected using the column generation algorithm. The FMO problem was formulated using an L2-norm dose fidelity term and an L1-norm anisotropic total variation regularization term, which allows controlling the number of MLC segments, and hence the treatment time, with minimal degradation to the dose. The authors' Fluence Regularization and Optimized Selection of Triplets (FROST) plans were compared against the clinical treatment plans (CLNs) produced by an experienced dosimetrist. PTV homogeneity, max dose, mean dose, D95, D98, and D99 were evaluated. OAR max and mean doses, as well as R50, defined as the ratio of the 50% isodose volume over the planning target volume were investigated.
RESULTS: The mean PTV D95, D98, and D99 differ by +0.04%, +0.07%, and +0.25% of the prescription dose between planning methods. The mean PTV homogeneity was virtually same with values at 0.8788 (FROST) and 0.8812 (CLN). R50 decreased by 0.67 comparing FROST to CLN. On average, FROST reduced Dmax and Dmean of OARs by 7.30% and 6.08% of the prescription dose, respectively. The manual CLN planning processes required numerous trial and error runs. The FROST plans on the other hand required minimal human intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: Efficient delivery of MRI-guided Co-60 therapy needs the output of multiple sources yet suffers from unintuitive and laborious manual beam selection processes. Computerized triplet orientation optimization improves both planning efficiency and plan dosimetry. The novel fluence map regularization provides additional controls over the number of MLC segments and treatment time.

PMID: 27782726 [PubMed - in process]



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Use of regularized principal component analysis to model anatomical changes during head and neck radiation therapy for treatment adaptation and response assessment.

Use of regularized principal component analysis to model anatomical changes during head and neck radiation therapy for treatment adaptation and response assessment.

Med Phys. 2016 Oct;43(10):5307

Authors: Chetvertkov MA, Siddiqui F, Kim J, Chetty I, Kumarasiri A, Liu C, Gordon JJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop standard (SPCA) and regularized (RPCA) principal component analysis models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients and assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy, and for extracting quantitative information for treatment response assessment.
METHODS: Planning CT images of ten H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during radiation therapy. Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms) and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific SPCA and RPCA models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. EigenDVFs (EDVFs) having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment.
RESULTS: Principal component analysis (PCA) models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade PCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion.
CONCLUSIONS: Leading EDVFs from the both PCA approaches have the potential to capture systematic anatomical change during H&N radiotherapy when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the RPCA approach appears to be more reliable at capturing systematic changes, enabling dosimetric consequences to be projected once trends are established early in a treatment course, or based on population models.

PMID: 27782712 [PubMed - in process]



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Investigating deformable image registration and scatter correction for CBCT-based dose calculation in adaptive IMPT.

Investigating deformable image registration and scatter correction for CBCT-based dose calculation in adaptive IMPT.

Med Phys. 2016 Oct;43(10):5635

Authors: Kurz C, Kamp F, Park YK, Zöllner C, Rit S, Hansen D, Podesta M, Sharp GC, Li M, Reiner M, Hofmaier J, Neppl S, Thieke C, Nijhuis R, Ganswindt U, Belka C, Winey BA, Parodi K, Landry G

Abstract
PURPOSE: This work aims at investigating intensity corrected cone-beam x-ray computed tomography (CBCT) images for accurate dose calculation in adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer. A deformable image registration (DIR)-based method and a scatter correction approach using the image data obtained from DIR as prior are characterized and compared on the basis of the same clinical patient cohort for the first time.
METHODS: Planning CT (pCT) and daily CBCT data (reconstructed images and measured projections) of four H&N and four prostate cancer patients have been considered in this study. A previously validated Morphons algorithm was used for DIR of the planning CT to the current CBCT image, yielding a so-called virtual CT (vCT). For the first time, this approach was translated from H&N to prostate cancer cases in the scope of proton therapy. The warped pCT images were also used as prior for scatter correction of the CBCT projections for both tumor sites. Single field uniform dose and IMPT (only for H&N cases) treatment plans have been generated with a research version of a commercial planning system. Dose calculations on vCT and scatter corrected CBCT (CBCTcor) were compared by means of the proton range and a gamma-index analysis. For the H&N cases, an additional diagnostic replanning CT (rpCT) acquired within three days of the CBCT served as additional reference. For the prostate patients, a comprehensive contour comparison of CBCT and vCT, using a trained physician's delineation, was performed.
RESULTS: A high agreement of vCT and CBCTcor was found in terms of the proton range and gamma-index analysis. For all patients and indications between 95% and 100% of the proton dose profiles in beam's eye view showed a range agreement of better than 3 mm. The pass rate in a (2%,2 mm) gamma-comparison was between 96% and 100%. For H&N patients, an equivalent agreement of vCT and CBCTcor to the reference rpCT was observed. However, for the prostate cases, an insufficient accuracy of the vCT contours retrieved from DIR was found, while the CBCTcor contours showed very high agreement to the contours delineated on the raw CBCT.
CONCLUSIONS: For H&N patients, no considerable differences of vCT and CBCTcor were found. For prostate cases, despite the high dosimetric agreement, the DIR yields incorrect contours, probably due to the more pronounced anatomical changes in the abdomen and the reduced soft-tissue contrast in the CBCT. Using the vCT as prior, these inaccuracies can be overcome and images suitable for accurate delineation and dose calculation in CBCT-based adaptive IMPT can be retrieved from scatter correction of the CBCT projections.

PMID: 27782706 [PubMed - in process]



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Technical Note: scuda: A software platform for cumulative dose assessment.

Technical Note: scuda: A software platform for cumulative dose assessment.

Med Phys. 2016 Oct;43(10):5339

Authors: Park S, McNutt T, Plishker W, Quon H, Wong J, Shekhar R, Lee J

Abstract
PURPOSE: Accurate tracking of anatomical changes and computation of actually delivered dose to the patient are critical for successful adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Additionally, efficient data management and fast processing are practically important for the adoption in clinic as ART involves a large amount of image and treatment data. The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate and efficient Software platform for CUmulative Dose Assessment (scuda) that can be seamlessly integrated into the clinical workflow.
METHODS: scuda consists of deformable image registration (DIR), segmentation, dose computation modules, and a graphical user interface. It is connected to our image PACS and radiotherapy informatics databases from which it automatically queries/retrieves patient images, radiotherapy plan, beam data, and daily treatment information, thus providing an efficient and unified workflow. For accurate registration of the planning CT and daily CBCTs, the authors iteratively correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms during the DIR process. Contours of the target tumor and critical structures are then propagated from the planning CT to daily CBCTs using the computed deformations. The actual delivered daily dose is computed using the registered CT and patient setup information by a superposition/convolution algorithm, and accumulated using the computed deformation fields. Both DIR and dose computation modules are accelerated by a graphics processing unit.
RESULTS: The cumulative dose computation process has been validated on 30 head and neck (HN) cancer cases, showing 3.5 ± 5.0 Gy (mean±STD) absolute mean dose differences between the planned and the actually delivered doses in the parotid glands. On average, DIR, dose computation, and segmentation take 20 s/fraction and 17 min for a 35-fraction treatment including additional computation for dose accumulation.
CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a unified software platform that provides accurate and efficient monitoring of anatomical changes and computation of actually delivered dose to the patient, thus realizing an efficient cumulative dose computation workflow. Evaluation on HN cases demonstrated the utility of our platform for monitoring the treatment quality and detecting significant dosimetric variations that are keys to successful ART.

PMID: 27782691 [PubMed - in process]



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Resident and student education in otolaryngology: A 10-year update on e-learning.

Resident and student education in otolaryngology: A 10-year update on e-learning.

Laryngoscope. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Tarpada SP, Hsueh WD, Gibber MJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: E-learning, in its most rudimentary form, is the use of Internet-based resources for teaching and learning purposes. In surgical specialties, this definition encompasses the use of virtual patient cases, digital modeling, and online tutorials, as well as standardized video and imaging. As new technological frontiers rapidly emerge within otolaryngology, e-learning may be an effective alternative to traditional teaching. Here we present a systematic review of the literature assessing the efficacy of e-learning for otolaryngology education and a discussion of the relevance of these programs for both medical students and residents within the field.
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.
METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was conducted according to the guidelines defined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement.
RESULTS: Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. These studies measured a range of outcomes from basic science anatomical knowledge to clinically relevant endpoints such as diagnostic accuracy. Nearly all of the studies reported greater satisfaction and/or significantly increased objective knowledge using the e-learning intervention compared to traditional techniques.
CONCLUSIONS: E-learning proves to be a powerful alternative to standard teaching techniques within otolaryngology education for both residents and medical students. Future work should focus on validating specific e-learning programs and accessing long-term knowledge retention using these innovative platforms.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 Laryngoscope, 2016.

PMID: 27782300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Folic acid-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer mediates selective uptake and high expression of genes in head and neck cancer cells.

Folic acid-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer mediates selective uptake and high expression of genes in head and neck cancer cells.

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2016 Oct 26;

Authors: Xu L, Kittrell S, Yeudall WA, Yang H

Abstract
AIM: Folic acid (FA)-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer G4 (G4-FA) was synthesized and studied for targeted delivery of genes to head and neck cancer cells expressing high levels of folate receptors (FRs).
METHODS: Cellular uptake, targeting specificity, cytocompatibility and transfection efficiency were evaluated.
RESULTS: G4-FA competes with free FA for the same binding site. G4-FA facilitates the cellular uptake of DNA plasmids in a FR-dependent manner and selectively delivers plasmids to FR-high cells, leading to enhanced gene expression.
CONCLUSION: G4-FA is a suitable vector to deliver genes selectively to head and neck cancer cells. The fundamental understandings of G4-FA as a vector and its encouraging transfection results for head and neck cancer cells provided support for its further testing in vivo.

PMID: 27781559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Functional Synergy Between Postural and Visual Behaviors When Performing a Difficult Precise Visual Task in Upright Stance.

Related Articles

Functional Synergy Between Postural and Visual Behaviors When Performing a Difficult Precise Visual Task in Upright Stance.

Cogn Sci. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Bonnet CT, Szaffarczyk S, Baudry S

Abstract
Previous works usually report greater postural stability in precise visual tasks (e.g., gaze-shift tasks) than in stationary-gaze tasks. However, existing cognitive models do not fully support these results as they assume that performing an attention-demanding task while standing would alter postural stability because of the competition of attention between the tasks. Contrary to these cognitive models, attentional resources may increase to create a synergy between visual and postural brain processes to perform precise oculomotor behaviors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a difficult searching task and a control free-viewing task. The precise visual task required the 16 young participants to find a target in densely furnished images. The free-viewing task consisted of looking at similar images without searching anything. As expected, the participants exhibited significantly lower body displacements (linear, angular) and a significantly higher cognitive workload in the precise visual task than in the free-viewing task. Most important, our exploration showed functional synergies between visual and postural processes in the searching task, that is, significant negative relationships showing lower head and neck displacements to reach more expended zones of fixation. These functional synergies seemed to involve a greater attentional demand because they were not significant anymore when the cognitive workload was controlled (partial correlations). In the free-viewing task, only significant positive relationships were found and they did not involve any change in cognitive workload. An alternative cognitive model and its potential subtended neuroscientific circuit are proposed to explain the supposedly cognitively grounded functional nature of vision-posture synergies in precise visual tasks.

PMID: 27781300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Modelling the Heating Process in Simultaneous Laser Transmission Welding of Semicrystalline Polymers

Laser transmission welding is an established joining process for thermoplastics. A close-to-reality simulation of the heating process would improve the understanding of the process, facilitate and shorten the process installation, and provide a significant contribution to the computer aided component design. For these reasons a thermal simulation model for simultaneous welding was developed which supports determining the size of the heat affected zone (HAZ). The determination of the intensity profile of the laser beam after the penetration of the laser transparent semicrystalline thermoplastic is decisive for the simulation. For the determination of the intensity profile two measurement systems are presented and compared. The calculated size of the HAZ shows a high concordance to the dimensions of the HAZ found using light microscopy. However, the calculated temperatures exceed the indicated decomposition temperatures of the particular thermoplastics. For the recording of the real temperatures during the welding process a measuring system is presented and discussed.

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Central Retinal Artery Occlusion in Takayasu’s Arteritis as the First Presentation of the Disease

Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous vasculitis which affects large and medium arterial vessels. The disease involves especially subclavian arteries and aortic branches but it can consist of any arteries. The major pathology is granulomatous panarteritis with intima proliferation and defects of the elastic lamina of the vessels. We present a case of central retinal artery occlusion in TA as the first presentation of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first case that demonstrates central retinal artery occlusion as an initial manifestation in TA. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of sudden and painless vision loss in her right eye for one day. Although retinal artery involvement is a very rare presentation in TA, it is important to recall TA particularly in young patients with retinal artery occlusion.

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Climate Change Impact: The Experience of the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh Affected by Cyclones Sidr and Aila

Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most at risk to the effects of climate change and its coastal area is most vulnerable. This study tries to explore the experiences of cyclones Sidr and Aila affected people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in the cyclone Sidr affected Amtali Upazila of Barguna District and in the cyclone Aila affected Koyra Upazila of Khulna District. Primary data collection was done using Focus Group Interview and then a thematic analysis approach was used for analysis. Three core themes emerged from the analysis and they are, firstly, impacts of climate change on the socioeconomic condition of the people, secondly, the impact on the health status of the population, and finally the impact on vulnerable people. Findings show that the effects of climate change have serious consequences on the livelihood patterns of the affected population and on their overall health status. As a result, the unfavorable health condition of these affected people makes them more vulnerable to various emerging diseases.

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Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 Conjugation Stimulates Hepatitis B Virus Production Independent of Type I Interferon Signaling Pathway In Vitro

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important account of infectious hepatitis and interferon (IFN) remains one of the best treatment options. Activation of type I IFN signaling pathway leads to expressions of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) which play important roles in antiviral and immunomodulatory responses to HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our previous studies indicated that ISG15 and its conjugation (ISGylation) were exploited by HCV to benefit its replication and persistent infection. This study was designed to assess the role of ISG15 and ISGylation in HBV infection in vitro. The levels of ISG15 and ISGylation were upregulated by ISG15 plasmid transfection into HepG2.2.15 cells. Decreased ISGylation was achieved by siRNA targeting UBE1L, the only E1 activating enzyme for ISGylation. Overexpression of ISG15 and subsequent ISGylation significantly increased the levels of HBV DNA in the culture supernatants although the intracellular viral replication remained unaffected. Silencing UBE1L, with decreased ISGylation achieved, abrogated this ISGylation-mediated promoting effect. Our data indicated that overexpression of ISG15 stimulated HBV production in an ISGylation-dependent manner. Identification of ISG15-conjugated proteins (either HBV viral or host proteins) may reveal promising candidates for further antiviral drug development.

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A Model for Analyzing a Five-Phase Fractional-Slot Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Motor with Modified Winding Function Approach

This paper presents a model for analyzing a five-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet tubular linear motor (FSPMTLM) with the modified winding function approach (MWFA). MWFA is a fast modeling method and it gives deep insight into the calculations of the following parameters: air-gap magnetic field, inductances, flux linkages, and detent force, which are essential in modeling the motor. First, using a magnetic circuit model, the air-gap magnetic density is computed from stator magnetomotive force (MMF), flux barrier, and mover geometry. Second, the inductances, flux linkages, and detent force are analytically calculated using modified winding function and the air-gap magnetic density. Finally, a model has been established with the five-phase Park transformation and simulated. The calculations of detent force reveal that the end-effect force is the main component of the detent force. This is also proven by finite element analysis on the motor. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparing with the results obtained using semianalytical method (SAM) and measurements to analyze the motor’s transient characteristics. In addition, the proposed method requires less computation time.

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Radioactive Iodine Administration Is Associated with Persistent Related Symptoms in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Context. Radioiodine (RAI) administration has adverse effects in patients treated for thyroid cancer (DTC), but there is scarce information regarding their intensity and duration. Objective. To evaluate frequency and intensity of early and late RAI-related symptoms in patients with DTC. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients. DTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy, with or without RAI. Measurements. Patients answered 2 surveys: (1) from 0 to 6 months and (2) between 6 and 18 months after initial treatment. Results. 110 patients answered the first survey and 61 both. Nearly 80 percent received RAI. Among early symptoms, periorbital edema, excessive tearing, salivary gland disturbances, dry mouth, taste disorders, and nausea were more frequent and intense among RAI patients. Regarding late symptoms, periorbital edema, salivary gland pain and swelling, and dry mouth were more frequent and intense in RAI patients. Frequency and intensity of adverse effects were not different between low and high RAI doses (50 versus ≥100 mCi). Conclusion. RAI-related symptoms are frequent and usually persist after 6 months of administration, even when low doses are given. This finding must be considered when deciding RAI administration, especially in low risk patients, among whom RAI benefit is controversial.

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Relativistic Hydrodynamics in Heavy-Ion Collisions: General Aspects and Recent Developments

Relativistic hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the collective behaviour of the QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We briefly review the latest developments in the hydrodynamical modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Essential ingredients of the model such as the hydrodynamic evolution equations, dissipation, initial conditions, equation of state, and freeze-out process are reviewed. We discuss observable quantities such as particle spectra and anisotropic flow and effect of viscosity on these observables. Recent developments such as event-by-event fluctuations, flow in small systems (proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions), flow in ultracentral collisions, longitudinal fluctuations, and correlations and flow in intense magnetic field are also discussed.

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Physics tweak solves five of the biggest problems in one go

Adding six particles to the standard model of particle physics explains dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, inflation and the strong CP problem

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The webcast of our #ESMO16 CDK 4/6 symposium is now live! Thanks to Dr Giuseppe Curigliano for chairing the session https://t.co/XbLbTMdJP3

The webcast of our #ESMO16 CDK 4/6 symposium is now live! Thanks to Dr Giuseppe Curigliano for chairing the session https://t.co/XbLbTMdJP3

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RT @deborahcollyar : Glad to see "more" is not always better when it comes to #cancers & #treatment https://t.co/bh029gquDM

RT @deborahcollyar : Glad to see "more" is not always better when it comes to #cancers & #treatment https://t.co/bh029gquDM

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Vigonza, muore ad appena sei anni per un tumore al cervello: addio, piccolo Riccardo

Vigonza, muore ad appena sei anni per un tumore al cervello: addio, piccolo Riccardo Aveva 6 anni, e da 4 combatteva contro un tumore al cervello che, purtroppo, mercoledì, se l'è portato via.  ADDIO, RICCARDO. Riccardo Seke - come riportano i quotidiani locali...

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Case of anti-RuvBL1/2 antibody-positive morphea and polymyositis



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Usefulness of serum 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa as a biomarker for predicting prognosis and detecting relapse in patients with advanced stage malignant melanoma

Abstract

With the recent development of novel molecular targeted drugs for advanced stage malignant melanoma (MM), including RAF and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockers, the early detection of relapse is important for managing patients with MM. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed two conventional serum biomarkers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa and lactate dehydrogenase, in patients with MM (n = 140) who were treated at a single Japanese institute from June 2007 to June 2015. At the initial hospital visit, serum 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa levels were significantly increased in patients with stages III (n = 38) and IV (n = 20) MM compared with patients with stages 0–II (n = 62) MM. In addition, in patients with stages III and IV MM, serum 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa levels of more than 15.0 nmol/L at initial hospital visit correlated with a poor prognosis. In 11 of 14 patients whose disease progressed during follow up (mostly from stages III–IV), serum 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa levels exceeded the normal limit of 10.0 nmol/L during the clinical detection of distant metastases. These results indicate the usefulness of measuring serum 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa levels at initial hospital visit and during follow up for early and effective therapeutic interventions using newly developed molecular targeted drugs.



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Case with cellulitis, lymphangitis and subcutaneous nodule suspected due to Rickettsia japonica carrying tick bite



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Comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with sarcoidosis: A nationwide case–control study in Taiwan

Abstract

The association between sarcoidosis and autoimmune comorbidities has been reported, however, it has seldom been confirmed by a large nationwide study. Our study aimed to clarify the association between sarcoidosis and autoimmune comorbidities in the Taiwanese. A total of 1237 patients with sarcoidosis and 4948 age- and sex-matched control subjects were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1997 to 2010. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to calculate the odds of comorbidities between the two groups. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was 2.17/100 000 individuals in Taiwan. Sarcoidosis patients tended to run a higher risk of autoimmune comorbidities than the control group (17.6% vs 9.4%, P < 0.05). Autoimmune thyroid disease (adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.64), Sjögren's syndrome (aOR, 11.6; 95% CI, 4.36–31.0) and ankylosing spondylitis (aOR, 3.80; 95% CI, 2.42–5.97) were significantly associated with sarcoidosis. The sex-stratified analyses were carried out to demonstrate a significant association of sarcoidosis with ankylosing spondylitis in both sexes, but with autoimmune thyroid disease in male patients and with Sjögren's syndrome female patients, respectively. Besides, the diagnosis of the autoimmune comorbidities strongly associated with sarcoidosis tended to be established after that of sarcoidosis. This study demonstrated that patients with sarcoidosis tended to have autoimmune thyroid disease, Sjögren's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis, and the diagnosis of sarcoidosis usually preceded that of associated comorbidities. Clinicians should be alert to autoimmune comorbidities in patients with sarcoidosis.



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