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Η φωτογραφία μου
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/,

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Τρίτη, 7 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Cutaneous Apocrine Carcinoma With an In Situ Component and Histiocytoid and Signet-Ring Cells.

We present a case of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma arising in the axilla of a 71-year-old man. The tumor had a significant component of histiocytoid and signet-ring cells as well as in situ carcinoma within the apocrine glands. The cells expressed GATA3, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, androgen receptor, and E-cadherin. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 were negative. Clinical correlation was required to rule out a metastasis from the breast or the gastrointestinal tract. Although most cutaneous apocrine carcinomas do not behave aggressively, our patient developed bone metastases and eventually died of his disease. It is debated whether histiocytoid and signet-ring cell cutaneous carcinomas should be classified as apocrine neoplasm. The presence of in situ carcinoma associated with this kind of tumor has been reported only once in the literature. This characteristic and the immunohistochemical profile are in favor of apocrine differentiation. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Low-Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin (Primary Cutaneous Carcinoid Tumor) as a Distinctive Entity of Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Clinicopathologic Study of 3 Cases With Literature Review.

There is scarcity of information on primary cutaneous low-grade neoplasms commonly known as carcinoid tumors, owing to their rarity. The authors present 3 cases that were named "low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin" (LGNECS). These occurred in the dermis and subcutis of the anterior chest or the inguinal region in the elderly. Histologically, the tumors showed infiltrating proliferation of nests of various sizes, with low-grade neuroendocrine cytologic features but without mucin production. All cases exhibited varying degrees of intraductal tumor components. On immunohistochemical examination, these tumors expressed estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, mammaglobin, and GATA3 as well as neuroendocrine markers. Although a literature review revealed 8 additional possible cases with no evidence of other diseases, it was difficult to determine if these were true cases of LGNECS, because of the limited information available. Based on its characteristic histologic features and immunoprofile, it can be proposed designating LGNECS as a distinct entity among cutaneous neuroendocrine tumors. Otherwise, such tumors could be misdiagnosed as mammary carcinomas (particularly when involving the skin of the breast) or as metastatic visceral neuroendocrine tumors of the skin. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer: A malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a 'silent' disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause symptoms. If the tumor blocks the common bile duct, and bile cannot pass into the digestive system, the skin and whites of the eyes may become yellow (jaundiced), and the urine may become darker as a result of accumulated bile pigment (bilirubin).



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Vitiligo International Symposium 2016



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Chromophores in operative surgery: Current practice and rationalized development

Publication date: 10 March 2017
Source:Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 249
Author(s): Ernest A. Azzopardi, Siân-Eleri Owens, Maxwell Murison, Daniel Rees, M. Anne Sawhney, Lewis W. Francis, R. Sofia Rodrigues Teixeira, Marc Clement, R. Steven Conlan, Iain S. Whitaker
BackgroundChromophore-containing molecules feature extensively in surgical practice, with synthetic dyes gaining popularity over endogenous optical adjuncts. New applications for chromophores in diagnostics and operative treatment exploit unique chemical structures suited for illuminating target tissues beyond the visual spectrum, ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR). This review outlines the rationale for surgical chromophore application, the weaknesses and risks in each class of these compounds, and areas of foreseeable potential for employment of specialized contrast agents.MethodAn English-language literature search applied the following Boolean Search String: “dye OR Lake OR Stain OR chromophore” AND “tox$ OR terato* OR carcino$ OR Allerg$ OR surg$ OR clinic” using EMBASE, PUBMED, PUBMED central and OVIDSp, with back-referencing through Web of Knowledge™.ResultsBased on the primary literature, this study proposes a surgically relevant classification system of chromophores in current use, which facilitates risk/benefit consideration for the surgeon who employs them, and which facilitates clinically oriented development.ConclusionsThe next stage of development for optically active surgical adjuncts must address practical constraints whilst minimizing risks of adverse effects. Exploiting the technology's full potential also requires improvements in the usefulness of imagery equipment.

Graphical abstract

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Biochemical control and toxicity for favorable- and intermediate-risk patients using real-time intraoperative inverse optimization prostate seed implant: Less is more!

Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
Source:Brachytherapy
Author(s): G. Shukla, A. Sarkar, A. Hanlon, E. Crockett, H.C. Chen, J. Martelli-Raben, A. Glick, B. Benge, M. Lobis, S. Terranova, T. Desperito, D. Cozzolino, E. Kemmerer, F. Mourtada, A. Raben
PurposeTo report the biochemical control rate and clinical outcomes with real-time inverse planning (inverse optimization prostate seed implant [IO-PSI]) for favorable-risk (FR) and intermediate-risk (IR) prostate adenocarcinoma in a community practice setting. This analysis is an extended followup of our initial report, with favorable early biochemical control rate (biochemical nonevidence of disease) of 97% at 4 years.Methods and MaterialsThree hundred fifty-seven evaluable patients with FR and IR prostate cancer underwent real-time IO-PSI (iodine-125/145 Gy or palladium-103/120 Gy) between 2001 and 2013.ResultsWith a median followup of 54 months (range, 24–110 months), the absolute biochemical failure free survival of disease was 96%. The 8-year actuarial probability of prostate-specific antigen failure-free survival for FR and IR cohorts was 92.4% and 87%, respectively. Late genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity remained low. Late Grade 2 and Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was 19% and 1%, respectively. Late Grade 2 and 3 rectal bleeding rates were 1% and 0%, respectively. No difference in biochemical control was observed with preimplant short course androgen deprivation or between Gleason score 3 + 4 vs. 4 + 3 patients. No dosimetric parameter was predictive of biochemical failure. Patients with FR had a significantly decreased risk of failure (hazard ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.09–0.78; p = 0.02) compared with those with IR. Patients with a prostate-specific antigen nadir >0.4 ng/mL had an increased risk of failure (hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% confidence interval = 1.27–1.47; p < 0.0001).ConclusionsOur initial biochemical and clinical outcomes using real-time IO-PSI persisted with extended followup and support our original hypothesis for use of a reduced number of sources, needles, and total activity, suggesting that with IO, less is more.



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The (Anthropological) Truth about Walls

From the Great Wall of China to Hadrian's Wall to the New Amsterdam Wall on Wall Street to the Wall defended by Castle Black, walls have a long-standing place in history and pop culture to defend...

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
feed?d=yIl2AUoC8zA feed?d=qj6IDK7rITs feed?i=y98DUy1QC94:HfdIWNc2v3o:gIN9vFwOq feed?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 feed?d=ZC7T4KBF6Nw feed?d=I9og5sOYxJI feed?d=xQlvkV3S7Ew


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The (Anthropological) Truth about Walls

From the Great Wall of China to Hadrian's Wall to the New Amsterdam Wall on Wall Street to the Wall defended by Castle Black, walls have a long-standing place in history and pop culture to defend...

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
feed?d=yIl2AUoC8zA feed?d=qj6IDK7rITs feed?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 feed?i=y98DUy1QC94:HfdIWNc2v3o:gIN9vFwOq feed?d=ZC7T4KBF6Nw feed?d=I9og5sOYxJI feed?d=QXVau8BzmBE


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Should bariatric surgery be performed in adolescents?

Adolescent obesity has markedly increased worldwide in both its extent and prevalence in recent decades and obesity prevention strategies are failing. As a result, effective treatment strategies are urgently needed. As behavioral and pharmacological treatment approaches have only moderate effects in severe obesity, bariatric surgery has begun to emerge as a treatment option. In this debate article, we offer arguments opposing and supporting bariatric surgery in the treatment of severe obesity in adolescents. Bariatric surgery has superior therapeutic outcomes with respect to weight loss and resolution of comorbid diseases over other existing treatments. However, long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery in adolescents are only just beginning to emerge. Furthermore, the procedures are generally considered irreversible, apart from gastric banding. Most importantly, not all adolescents seem to benefit greatly from bariatric surgery and we are not yet able to reliably identify those who stand to gain the greatest benefit. The authors agree that adolescent bariatric surgery should be offered exclusively within formal adolescent obesity programs, delivered by specialist multidisciplinary child/adolescent obesity teams, and within specialist centers, in order to optimize outcomes and minimize potential detrimental effects. Patients and their family/carers must be educated regarding the benefits and risks, potential side effects, expected changes in eating behavior and the lifelong requirement for regular medical follow-up after surgery. Before embarking upon a surgical treatment pathway in adolescents with severe obesity, it may also be beneficial to ensure compliance to treatment is demonstrated, in order to minimize the risk of nutritional deficiencies and associated potential complications.



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A comparison of lobectomy and total thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a retrospective individual risk factor-matched cohort study

Objective

Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) accounts for most of the increase in thyroid cancer in recent decades. We compared clinical outcomes and surgical complications of lobectomy and total thyroidectomy (TT) in PTMC patients.

Design and methods

In this retrospective individual risk factor-matched cohort study, 2031 patients with PTMC were initially included. Patients who underwent lobectomy or TT were one-to-one matched according to individual risk factors, including age, sex, primary tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, multifocality and cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis.

Results

In total, 688 patients were assigned to each group. During the median 8.5 years of follow-up, 26 patients (3.8%) in the lobectomy group and 11 patients (1.6%) in the TT group had recurrences. The relative risk of recurrence was significantly less in the TT than that in the lobectomy group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21–0.81; P = 0.01). Most recurrences (84.6%) in the lobectomy group occurred in the contralateral lobe, and all patients were disease-free after completion of thyroidectomy. There were no significant differences in recurrence-free survival between the two groups after exclusion of contralateral lobe recurrences (HR, 2.75; 95% CI, 0.08–8.79; P = 0.08). There were significantly more patients with transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism in the TT than that in the lobectomy group (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Lobectomy could be appropriate for most patients with PTMC when there is no evidence of extrathyroidal disease in the preoperative work-up. Preoperative and postoperative imaging studies are important for patients who undergo lobectomy for PTMC, because most recurrences are in the contralateral lobe.



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Dynamic GnRH and hCG testing: establishment of new diagnostic reference levels

Objective

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation tests may be used to evaluate the pituitary and testicular capacity. Our aim was to evaluate changes in follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone after GnRH and hCG stimulation in healthy men and assess the impact of six single nucleotide polymorphisms on the responses.

Design

GnRH and hCG stimulation tests were performed on 77 healthy men, 18–40 years (reference group) at a specialized andrology referral center at a university hospital. The potential influence of the tests was illustrated by results from 45 patients suspected of disordered hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis.

Methods

Baseline, stimulated, relative and absolute changes in serum FSH and LH were determined by ultrasensitive TRIFMA, and testosterone was determined by LC–MS/MS.

Results

For the reference group, LH and FSH increased almost 400% and 40% during GnRH testing, stimulated levels varied from 4.4 to 58.8 U/L and 0.2 to 11.8 U/L and FSH decreased in nine men. Testosterone increased approximately 110% (range: 18.7–67.6 nmol/L) during hCG testing. None of the polymorphisms had any major impact on the test results. Results from GnRH and hCG tests in patients compared with the reference group showed that the stimulated level and absolute increase in LH showed superior identification of patients compared with the relative increase, and the absolute change in testosterone was superior in identifying men with Leydig cell insufficiency, compared with the relative increase.

Conclusions

We provide novel reference ranges for GnRH and hCG test in healthy men, which allows future diagnostic evaluation of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal disorders in men.



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Down-regulated miR-26a promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion via negative regulation of MTDH in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [Research]

Numerous studies have reported that the role played by miR-26a in cancer is controversial, but whether miR-26a regulates metadherin (MTDH) expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. We performed this study to investigate the clinical relevance of miR-26a expression in ESCC. miR-26a was detected by using the in situ hybridization method. To functionally analyze the role of miR-26a in ESCC cell lines in vitro, KYSE-450 and Eca109 cells were employed, whose endogenous miR-26a was artificially down- or up-regulated, respectively, by using lentiviral-based transfection. There was significant association between miR-26a expression and clinical stage (P = 0.049), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), tumor volume (P = 0.003), and poor overall prognosis (P = 0.026). miR-26a was able to suppress proliferation and migration of ESCC cells in vitro. Moreover, we have confirmed that miR-26a can negatively regulate MTDH in ESCC cells by using luciferase reporter assay. In addition, to investigate the role miR-26a plays in cell proliferation, we nude mice were xenografted with ESCC cells whose miR-26a was stably down- and up-regulated. Together, our results show that miR-26a is capable of suppressing the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells via negative regulation of MTDH. Moreover, miR-26a expression was clinically relevant in cancer progression and poor prognosis, which supports the idea that miR-26a acts as a tumor suppressor in ESCC.—Yang, C., Zheng, S., Liu, T., Liu, Q., Dai, F., Zhou, J., Chen, Y., Sheyhidin, I., Lu, X. Down-regulated miR-26a promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion via negative regulation of MTDH in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.



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Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation [Research]

High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low Schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor–like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival. HBEGF protein is expressed only in stromal compartments of human neuroblastoma specimens, with tissue from high-stage disease containing very little stroma or HBEGF expression. In 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE2, and SH-SY5Y), soluble HBEGF is sufficient to promote neuroblast differentiation and decrease proliferation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin derivatives further enhance HBEGF-induced differentiation by forming a complex with the epidermal growth factor receptor, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and up-regulation of the inhibitor of DNA binding transcription factor. These data support a role for loss of HBEGF in the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.—Gaviglio, A. L., Knelson, E. H., Blobe, G. C. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.



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The pyruvate and {alpha}-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa catalyze pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid reduction via the subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [Metabolism]

Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. While prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P. aeruginosa contains multiple enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the endogenous phenazines pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. We used chemical inhibitors to target general enzyme classes and found that an inhibitor of flavoproteins and heme-containing proteins, diphenyleneiodonium, effectively inhibited phenazine reduction in vitro, suggesting that most phenazine reduction derives from these enzymes. Using natively purified proteins, we demonstrate that the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes directly catalyze phenazine reduction with pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate as electron donors. Both complexes transfer electrons to phenazines through the common subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein encoded by the gene lpdG. Although we were unable to co-crystalize LpdG with an endogenous phenazine, we report its X-ray crystal structure in the apo form (refined to 1.35 Å), bound to NAD+ (1.45 Å), and bound to NADH (1.79 Å). In contrast to the notion that phenazines support intracellular redox homeostasis by oxidizing NADH, our work suggests that phenazines may substitute for NAD+ in LpdG and other enzymes, achieving the same end by a different mechanism.

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Central Regulatory Role for SIN1 in Interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}) Signaling and Generation of Biological Responses [Cell Biology]

The precise signaling mechanisms by which Type II interferon (IFN) receptors control expression of unique genes to induce biological responses remain to be established. We provide evidence that Sin1, a known element of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), is required for IFNγ-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT and that such activation mediates downstream regulation of mTORC1 and its effectors. These events play important roles in the assembly of the translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) and mRNA translation of ISGs. Interestingly, IFNγ-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is reduced in cells with targeted disruption of Sin1, leading to decreased transcription of several IFNγ-inducible genes in an mTORC2-independent manner. Additionally, our studies establish that Sin1 is essential for generation of Type II IFN-dependent antiviral effects and antiproli-ferative responses in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Together, our findings establish an important role for Sin1 in both transcription and translation of ISGs and Type II IFN-mediated biological responses, involving both mTORC2-dependent and -independent functions.

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Free Energy Landscape Remodeling of the Cardiac Pacemaker Channel Explains the Molecular Basis of Familial Sinus Bradycardia [Molecular Bases of Disease]

The hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic-nucleotide modulated ion channel (HCN) drives the pacemaker activity in the heart, and its malfunction can result in heart disorders. One such disorder, familial sinus bradycardia, is caused by the S672R mutation in HCN, whose electrophysiological phenotypes include a negative shift in the channel activation voltage and an accelerated HCN deactivation. The outcomes of these changes are abnormally low resting heart rates. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these electrophysiological changes is currently not fully understood. Crystallographic investigations indicate that the S672R mutation causes limited changes in the structure of the HCN intracellular gating tetramer, but its effects on protein dynamics are unknown. Here, we utilize comparative S672R vs. WT NMR analyses to show that the S672R mutation results in extensive perturbations of the dynamics in both apo and holo forms of the HCN4 isoform, reflecting how S672R remodels the free energy-landscape for the modulation of HCN4 by cAMP, i.e. the primary cyclic-nucleotide modulator of HCN channels. We show that the S672R mutation results in a constitutive shift of the dynamic auto-inhibitory equilibrium towards inactive states of HCN4 and broadens the free-energy well of the apo form, enhancing the ms-μs dynamics of the holo form at sites critical for gating cAMP binding. These S672R-induced variations in dynamics provide a molecular basis for the electrophysiological phenotypes of this mutation and demonstrate that the pathogenic effects of the S672R mutation can be rationalized primarily in terms of modulations of protein dynamics.

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Respiratory complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans pumps four protons across the membrane for every NADH oxidized [Metabolism]

Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane, to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis, as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation, and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies.

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Decorin-inducible Peg3 Evokes Beclin 1-mediated Autophagy and Thrombospondin 1-mediated Angiostasis [Cell Biology]

We previously discovered that systemic delivery of decorin for treatment of breast carcinoma xenografts induces the paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), an imprinted gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor postulated to function as a tumor suppressor. Here we found that de novo expression of Peg3 increased Beclin 1 promoter activity and protein expression. This process required the full-length Peg3 as truncated mutants lacking either the N-terminal SCAN domain or the zinc fingers failed to translocate to the nucleus and promote Beclin 1 transcription. Importantly, overexpression of Peg3 in endothelial cells stimulated autophagy and concurrently inhibited endothelial cell migration and evasion from a 3D matrix. Mechanistically, we found that Peg3 induced the secretion of the powerful angiostatic glycoprotein, Thrombospondin-1, independently of Beclin 1 transcriptional induction. Thus, we provide a new mechanism whereby Peg3 can simultaneously evoke autophagy in endothelial cells and attenuate angiogenesis.

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The Chloroplast Tubulin Homologs FtsZA and FtsZB from the Red Alga Galdieria sulphuraria Co-assemble into Dynamic Filaments [Plant Biology]

FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin and is present in almost all bacteria and many archaea, where it is the major cytoskeletal protein in the Z ring, required for cell division. Unlike some other cell organelles of prokaryotic origin, chloroplasts have retained FtsZ as an essential component of the division machinery. However, chloroplast FtsZs have been challenging to study because they are difficult to express and purify. To this end, we have used a FATT-tag expression system to produce as soluble proteins the two chloroplast FtsZs from Galdieria sulphuraria, a thermophilic red alga. GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled individually in the presence of GTP, forming large bundles of protofilaments. GsFtsZA also assembled in the presence of GDP, the first member of the FtsZ/tubulin superfamily to do so. Mixtures of GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled protofilament bundles and hydrolyzed GTP at a rate approximately equal to the sum of their individual rates, suggesting a random co-assembly. GsFtsZA assembly by itself in limiting GTP gave polymers that remained stable for a prolonged time. However, when GsFtsZB was added, the co-polymers disassembled with enhanced kinetics, suggesting that the GsFtsZB regulates and enhances disassembly dynamics. GsFtsZA-mts (where mts is a membrane-targeting amphipathic helix) formed Z ring-like helices when expressed in E. coli. Co-expression of GsFtsZB (without an mts) gave co-assembly of both into similar helices. In summary, we provide biochemical evidence that GsFtsZA assembles as the primary scaffold of the chloroplast Z ring, and that GsFtsZB co-assembly enhances polymer disassembly and dynamics.

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The startle disease mutation E103K impairs activation of human homomeric {alpha}1 glycine receptors by disrupting an intersubunit salt bridge across the agonist binding site [Signal Transduction]

Glycine receptors (GlyR) belong to the pentameric ligand gated ion channel (pLGIC) superfamily and mediate fast inhibitory transmission in the vertebrate CNS. Disruption of glycinergic transmission by inherited mutations produces startle disease in man. Many startle mutations are in GlyRs and provide useful clues to the function of the channel domains. E103K is one of few startle mutations found in the extracellular agonist binding site of the channel, in loop A of the principal side of the subunit interface. Homology modelling shows that the side chain of E103 is close to that of R131, in loop E of the complementary side of the binding site, and may form a salt bridge at the back of the binding site, constraining its size. We investigated this hypothesis in recombinant human α1 GlyR by site directed mutagenesis and functional measurements of agonist efficacy and potency by whole-cell patch clamp and single channel recording. Despite its position near the binding site, E103K causes hyperekplexia by impairing the efficacy of glycine, its ability to gate the channel once bound, which is very high in wild type GlyR. Mutating E103 and R131 caused various degrees of loss-of-function in the action of glycine, whereas mutations in R131 enhanced the efficacy of the slightly bigger partial agonist sarcosine (N-methyl glycine). The effects of the single charge-swapping mutations of these two residues were largely rescued in the double mutant, supporting the possibility that they interact via a salt bridge which normally constrains the efficacy of larger agonist molecules.

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Calmodulin Lobes Facilitate Dimerization and Activation of Estrogen Receptor-{alpha} [Protein Structure and Folding]

Estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) is a nuclear hormone receptor that controls selected genes, thereby regulating proliferation and differentiation of target tissues, such as breast. Gene expression controlled by ER-α is modulated by Ca2+ via calmodulin (CaM). Here we present the NMR structure of Ca2+-CaM bound to two molecules of ER-α (residues 287-305). The two lobes of CaM bind to the same site on two separate ER-α molecules (residues 292, 296, 299, 302 and 303), which explains why CaM binds two molecules of ER-α in a 1:2 complex and stabilizes ER-α dimerization. Exposed glutamate residues in CaM (E11, E14, E84 and E87) form salt bridges with key lysine residues in ER-α (K299, K302 and K303), which is likely to prevent ubiquitination at these sites and inhibit degradation of ER-α. Transfection of cells with full-length CaM slightly enhanced the ability of estrogen to enhance transcriptional activation by ER-α of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes. By contrast, expression of either the N- or C-lobe of CaM (which individually bind to ER-α) abrogated estrogen-stimulated transcription of the estrogen responsive genes pS2 and progesterone receptor. These data suggest that CaM-induced dimerization of ER-α is required for estrogen stimulated transcriptional activation by the receptor. In light of the critical role of ER-α in breast carcinoma, our data suggest that small molecules that selectively disrupt the interaction of ER-α with CaM may be useful in the therapy of breast carcinoma.

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NCS1 regulates Ca2+-Dependent Focal Exocytosis of Golgi-derived Vesicles to Help Phagocytic uptake in Macrophages [Cell Biology]

During phagocytic uptake by macrophages, role of Golgi apparatus was previously ruled out. Notably all such reports were limited to Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis. Here we unravel a highly devolved mechanism for recruitment of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles during phagosome biogenesis, which was important for uptake of most cargos except IgG-coated ones. We report recruitment of Mannosidase-II positive Golgi-derived vesicles during uptake of diverse targets including latex beads, E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human and mouse macrophages. The recruitment of Mannosidase-II vesicles was an early event mediated by focal exocytosis and coincided with the recruitment of transferrin receptor, VAMP3 and dynamin-2. Brefeldin A treatment inhibited Mannosidase-II recruitment and phagocytic uptake of serum coated or uncoated latex beads and E. coli. However consistent with previous studies, Brefeldin A treatment did not affect uptake of IgG-coated latex beads. Mechanistically recruitment of Mannosidase-II vesicles during phagocytic uptake required Ca2+ from both extra- and intra-cellular sources apart from PI3Kinase, microtubules and dynamin-2. Extracellular Ca2+ via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels establish a Ca2+-dependent local PIP3 gradient, which guides the focal movement of Golgi-derived vesicles to the site of uptake. We confirmed Golgi-derived vesicles recruited during phagocytosis were secretory vesicles as their recruitment was sensitive to depletion of VAMP2 or NCS1 whereas recruitment of recycling endosome marker VAMP3 was unaffected. Both VAMP2 and NCS1 depletion individually resulted in the reduced uptake by macrophages. Together the study provides a previously unprecedented role of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles in phagocytic uptake, the key innate defense function.

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Effect of nitrogen availability on the poly-3-d-hydroxybutyrate accumulation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Poly-3-d-hydroxybutyrate (or PHB) is a polyester which can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. It is naturally produced by several bacteria as a response to nutrient star...

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American Thyroid Association invited to speak at HUD Health & Wellness Event for Thyroid Awareness month

ATA and AAES Member, Dr. Jennifer Rosen, chief of endocrine surgery at Medstar, talks about thyroid disease and thyroid cancer to employee group

The post American Thyroid Association invited to speak at HUD Health & Wellness Event for Thyroid Awareness month appeared first on American Thyroid Association.



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Supporting shared decision-making for older people with multiple health and social care needs: a protocol for a realist synthesis to inform integrated care models

Introduction

Including the patient or user perspective is a central organising principle of integrated care. Moreover, there is increasing recognition of the importance of strengthening relationships among patients, carers and practitioners, particularly for individuals receiving substantial health and care support, such as those with long-term or multiple conditions. The overall aims of this synthesis are to provide a context-relevant understanding of how models to facilitate shared decision-making (SDM) might work for older people with multiple health and care needs, and how they might be applied to integrated care models.

Methods and analysis

The synthesis draws on the principles of realist inquiry, to explain how, in what contexts and for whom, interventions that aim to strengthen SDM among older patients, carers and practitioners are effective. We will use an iterative, stakeholder-driven, three-phase approach. Phase 1: development of programme theory/theories that will be tested through a first scoping of the literature and consultation with key stakeholder groups; phase 2: systematic searches of the evidence to test and develop the theories identified in phase 1; phase 3: validation of programme theory/theories with a purposive sample of participants from phase 1. The synthesis will draw on prevailing theories such as candidacy, self-efficacy, personalisation and coproduction.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval for the stakeholder interviews was obtained from the University of Hertfordshire ECDA (Ethics Committee with Delegated Authority), reference number HSK/SF/UH/02387. The propositions arising from this review will be used to develop recommendations about how to tailor SDM interventions to older people with complex health and social care needs in an integrated care setting.



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Endorsement of PRISMA statement and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in nursing journals: a cross-sectional study

Objective

Systematic reviews (SRs) often poorly report key information, thereby diminishing their usefulness. Previous studies evaluated published SRs and determined that they failed to meet explicit criteria or characteristics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was recommended as a reporting guideline for SR and meta-analysis (MA), but previous studies showed that adherence to the statement was not high for SRs published in different medical fields. Thus, the aims of this study are twofold: (1) to investigate the number of nursing journals that have required or recommended the use of the PRISMA statement for reporting SR, and (2) to examine the adherence of SRs and/or meta-analyses to the PRISMA statement published in nursing journals.

Design

A cross-sectional study.

Methods

Nursing journals listed in the ISI journal citation report were divided into 2 groups based on the recommendation of PRISMA statement in their ‘Instruction for Authors’. SRs and meta-analyses published in 2014 were searched in 3 databases. 37 SRs and meta-analyses were randomly selected in each group. The adherence of each item to the PRISMA was examined and summarised using descriptive statistics. The quality of the SRs was assessed by Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews. The differences between the 2 groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test.

Results

Out of 107 nursing journals, 30 (28.0%) recommended or required authors to follow the PRISMA statement when they submit SRs or meta-analyses. The median rates of adherence to the PRISMA statement for reviews published in journals with and without PRISMA endorsement were 64.9% (IQR: 17.6–92.3%) and 73.0% (IQR: 59.5–94.6%), respectively. No significant difference was observed in any of the items between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

The median adherence of SRs and meta-analyses in nursing journals to PRISMA is low at 64.9% and 73.0%, respectively. Nonetheless, the adherence level of nursing journals to the PRISMA statement does not significantly vary whether they endorse or recommend such a guideline.



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Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol

Introduction

The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation.

Methods and analysis

This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ~100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10–25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity.

Ethics and dissemination

The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University of Wollongong Human Research Ethics Committee (HE14/330).



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Fall-related attendance and associated hospitalisation of children and adolescents in Hong Kong: a 12-year retrospective study

Objectives

The present study aimed to examine the trends and characteristics of fall-related attendance in accident and emergency department (AED) by injury type and the trend in associated average length of stay (LOS) among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.

Design

A retrospective approach was adopted.

Setting

AED, involving all local public emergency departments from 2001 to 2012.

Participants

63 557 subjects aged 0–19 years with fall injury record were included in the analysis.

Primary outcome measures

Fall-related injury number and rates were calculated and reported. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to study the trends of injury incidence rate at different body regions.

Results

AED fall-related attendance rate increased significantly with an annual percentage change of 4.45 (95% CI 3.43 to 5.47%, p<0.0001). The attendance number of male subjects was persistently higher than female subjects. The standardised rate of fracture injury increased by 1.31% (95% CI 0.56 to 2.05%, p<0.0001) and that of non-fracture injury increased by 9.23% (95% CI 7.07 to 11.43%, p<0.0001) annually. Upper limb was the most frequently fractured location. It included forearm/elbow, shoulder/upper arm and wrist/hand with descending order of frequency. On the contrary, head was the most frequent non-fracture location, followed by forearm/elbow.

Conclusions

The rates of fall-related attendance have been increasing and still remain high. There were significant increases in non-fracture injuries. Fractures were most frequently found in the upper extremity of a child while the most common non-fracture location was head. It appears that more efforts should be made and preventive measures should be implemented for children and adolescents in Hong Kong.



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Erratum: Validity of self-reported myocardial infarction and stroke in regions with Sami and Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR 1 Survey and the CVDNOR project

Eliassen B-M, Melhus M, Tell GS, et al. Validity of self-reported myocardial infarction and stroke in regions with Sami and Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR 1 Survey and the CVDNOR project. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012717. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016 012717

The following changes should have been added to this publication before it was published online.

In the abstract the sentence ‘16 865 men and women aged 30 and 36–79 years participated in the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Sami and Norwegian Populations (SAMINOR) 1 Survey in 2003–2004’ should read ‘16 865 men and women aged 30 and 36–79 years participated in the first survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 1 Survey) in 2003–2004'.

In the results section ‘PPV with regard to ethnicity, sex, age, and education would have been statistically significant in our study should read ‘PPV and...



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Systematic review of pathways for the delivery of allergy services

Objectives

The incidence and prevalence of allergies worldwide has been increasing and allergy services globally are unable to keep up with this increase in demand. This systematic review aims to understand the delivery of allergy services worldwide, challenges faced and future directions for service delivery.

Methods

A systematic scoping review of Ovid, EMBASE, HMIC, CINAHL, Cochrane, DARE, NHS EED and INAHTA databases was carried out using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data on the geographical region, study design and treatment pathways described were collected, and the findings were narratively reported. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results

205 publications were screened and 27 selected for review. Only 3 were prospective studies, and none included a control group. There were no eligible publications identified from North America, Africa, Australia and most parts of Asia. Most publications relate to allergy services in the UK. In general, allergy services globally appear not to have kept pace with increasing demand. The review suggests that primary care practitioners are not being adequately trained in allergy and that there is a paucity of appropriately trained specialists, especially in paediatric allergy. There appear to be considerable barriers to service improvement, including lack of political will and reluctance to allocate funds from local budgets.

Conclusions

Demand for allergy services appears to have significantly outpaced supply. Primary and secondary care pathways in allergy seem inadequate leading to poor referral practices, delays in patient management and consequently poor outcomes. Improvement of services requires strong public and political engagement. There is a need for well-planned, prospective studies in this area and a few are currently underway. There is no evidence to suggest that any given pathway of service provision is better than another although data from a few long-term, prospective studies look very promising.



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Inequality trends in maternal health services for young Ghanaian women with childbirth history between 2003 and 2014

Objective

To achieve universal coverage of reproductive healthcare and drastic reduction in maternal mortality, adequate attention and resources should be given to young women. This study therefore aimed to examine the inequality trends in the use of antenatal care (ANC) services and skilled birth attendance (SBA) within a subgroup of Ghanaian women aged 15–24 years between 2003 and 2014.

Design

This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) 2003, 2008 and 2014. We applied regression-based total attributable fraction (TAF) as an index for measuring multiple dimensions of inequality in the use of ANC and SBA.

Setting

Ghana.

Participants

Young women aged 15–24 years with at least one previous birth experience in the past 5 years prior to the surveys.

Main outcome measures

ANC visits and skilled attendance at birth.

Results

Urbanicity-related, education-related and wealth-related inequality in non-use of SBA declined between 2003 and 2008, but increased between 2008 and 2014. A consistent decline was observed in urbanicity-related inequality in non-use of four or more ANC visits from 2003 through 2008 to 2014. A similar reduction was observed for education-related inequality in relation to the same outcome. In contrast, wealth-related inequality in ANC usage increased over time.

Conclusions

The rise in urbanicity-related, education-related and wealth-related inequality in the usage of SBA between 2008 and 2014 threatens the sustainability of the general progress made in the usage of maternal health services in Ghana within the same period.



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Do biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediate educational inequalities in stillbirth risk? An analysis of the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey

Background

Numerous studies have explored the association between educational inequalities and stillbirth but most have failed to elaborate how low educational attainment leads to an increased risk of stillbirth. We hypothesised that use of biomass fuels and consumption of unsafe water related to low educational attainment could explain the stillbirth burden in Ghana attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage.

Methods

Data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based survey were analysed for this study. Of the10 370 women aged 15–49 years interviewed via structured questionnaires for the survey, 7183 primiparous and multiparous women qualified for inclusion in the present study.

Results

In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, area of residence, marital status and ethnicity of women, lower maternal primary education was associated with a 62% (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52) increased lifetime risk of stillbirth. Biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediated 18% and 8% of the observed effects, respectively. Jointly these two exposures explained 24% of the observed effects. The generalised additive modelling revealed a very flat inverted spoon-shaped smoothed curve which peaked at low levels of schooling (2–3 years) and confirms the findings from the logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions

Our results show that biomass fuel use and unsafe water consumption could be important pathways through which low maternal educational attainment leads to stillbirths in Ghana and similar developing countries. Addressing educational inequalities in developing countries is thus essential for ensuring household choices that curtail environmental exposures and help improve pregnancy outcomes.



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Comparisons of neurodegeneration over time between healthy ageing and Alzheimer's disease cohorts via Bayesian inference

Objectives

In recent years, large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies have improved our understanding of healthy ageing and pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particular focus of these studies is group differences and identification of participants at risk of deteriorating to a worse diagnosis. For this, statistical analysis using linear mixed-effects (LME) models are used to account for correlated observations from individuals measured over time. A Bayesian framework for LME models in AD is introduced in this paper to provide additional insight often not found in current LME volumetric analyses.

Setting and participants

Longitudinal neuroimaging case study of ageing was analysed in this research on 260 participants diagnosed as either healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI) or AD. Bayesian LME models for the ventricle and hippocampus regions were used to: (1) estimate how the volumes of these regions change over time by diagnosis, (2) identify high-risk non-AD individuals with AD like degeneration and (3) determine probabilistic trajectories of diagnosis groups over age.

Results

We observed (1) large differences in the average rate of change of volume for the ventricle and hippocampus regions between diagnosis groups, (2) high-risk individuals who had progressed from HC to MCI and displayed similar rates of deterioration as AD counterparts, and (3) critical time points which indicate where deterioration of regions begins to diverge between the diagnosis groups.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of Bayesian LME models to neuroimaging data which provides inference on a population and individual level in the AD field. The application of a Bayesian LME framework allows for additional information to be extracted from longitudinal studies. This provides health professionals with valuable information of neurodegeneration stages, and a potential to provide a better understanding of disease pathology.



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Voice Mutation During Adolescence in Mangalore, India: Implications for the Assessment and Management of Mutational Voice Disorders

The knowledge of vocal mutation is important for speech pathologists in the diagnosis and management of individuals with mutational voice disorders. However, data on vocal mutation in the Indian population are scarce and hence the present study was planned to investigate the age of attainment of vocal mutation in boys and girls from Mangalore, India, in the age range of 8–18 years.

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The Impact of a Teaching or Singing Career on the Female Vocal Quality at the Mean Age of 67 Years: A Pilot Study

The purpose of this study was to measure the objective and subjective vocal quality in women aged between 60 and 75 years. Secondly, the impact of a teaching or singing career on the vocal quality was investigated by comparing the vocal quality of retired women with different careers.

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Measuring the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) in the Program Praat

The original Dysphonia Severity Index (ie, DSI) weighs and combines four voice markers in a single number to size dysphonia gradation in the clinic: percent jitter (from Multi-Dimensional Voice Program; KayPENTAX Corp., Montvale, NJ), softest intensity and highest fundamental frequency (both from Voice Range Profile; KayPENTAX Corp.), and maximum phonation time. To be more generally applied, however, implementation of DSI in the program Praat (Paul Boersma and David Weenink, Institute for Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) would be advantageous for all voice clinicians.

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A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP) estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX). The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

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Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Derived from a Canadian National Survey and Needs Assessment on Choices of Therapeutic Agents

Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients’ quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1) Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2) physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3) the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice. Methods. A 9-item questionnaire was sent to 350 Canadian specialists to evaluate their clinical practice for the management of CIC and IBS-C. Results. The response rate to the survey was 16% (). Almost all (96%) respondents followed a standard, stepwise approach for management while they believed that only 24% of referring physicians followed the same approach. Respondents found guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) agonist most satisfying when treating their patients. Among the 69% of respondents who were aware of published guidelines, only 50% found them helpful in prioritizing treatment choices and 69% of respondents indicated that a treatment algorithm, applicable to Canadian practice, would be valuable. Conclusion. Based on this needs assessment, a treatment algorithm was developed to provide clinical guidance in the management of IBS-C and CIC in Canada.

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Competition between High-Speed Rail and Airline Based on Game Theory

The coexistence of high-speed rail (HSR) and airline in a busy transportation corridor generates competition between the two transportation modes. An unfair competition between HSR and airline not only reduces both revenues, but also triggers a series of social problems. Based on generalized costs, this paper proposes combining an improved gray prediction model, modified gravity model, and Logit model to predict the average passenger flow, induced passenger flow, and transfer passenger flow. According to the predicted results, we establish a game model that considers different stages of the HSR development. For demonstrative purposes, the approach is applied to an empirical study in China, that is, the competition between Beijing-Shenyang HSR and airline. Malignant fare war will make both parties lose out. Either mode that improves service quality will generate more revenue. If both parties improve the level of service, all incomes of the HSR, airline, and community increase. Results show the HSR contribution is greater than the airline in the case study.

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An Asymptotic-Numerical Hybrid Method for Solving Singularly Perturbed Linear Delay Differential Equations

In this work, approximations to the solutions of singularly perturbed second-order linear delay differential equations are studied. We firstly use two-term Taylor series expansion for the delayed convection term and obtain a singularly perturbed ordinary differential equation (ODE). Later, an efficient and simple asymptotic method so called Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM) is employed to obtain a uniformly valid approximation to this corresponding singularly perturbed ODE. As the final step, we employ a numerical procedure to solve the resulting equations that come from SCEM procedure. In order to show efficiency of this numerical-asymptotic hybrid method, we compare the results with exact solutions if possible; if not we compare with the results that are obtained by other reported methods.

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Optimal Modes for the Fabrication of Aluminum Nanopowders by the Electrical Explosion of Wires

The paper is aimed at studying the impact of initial conditions of electrical explosion of wires on energy characteristics of the explosion and some other properties of the obtained aluminum powders. Explosion modes where the energy input into the wire has the maximal level were found. These modes are optimal for fabrication of powders with the best properties. The powders have the highest value of the specific surface of 14.5 m2/g, a narrow histogram of the particle size distribution, and a narrow distribution histogram with a high polydispersity coefficient of 0.7.

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Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Performance in Evaluation Tests for Executive Brain Functions

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition, which compromises the motor functions and causes the alteration of some executive brain functions. The presence of changes in cognitive symptoms in PD could be due to the procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We searched in several databases for studies that compared performance in executive function tests before and after the DBS procedure in PE and then performed a meta-analysis. After the initial search, there were 15 articles that specifically evaluated the functions of verbal fluency, working memory, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, and inhibition. It was found that there were differences in the evaluation of the cognitive functions in terms of the protocols, which generated heterogeneity in the results of the meta-analysis. Likewise, a tendency to diminish functions like verbal fluency and inhibition was found, being this consistent with similar studies. In the other functions evaluated, no difference was found between pre- and postsurgery scores. Monitoring of this type of function is recommended after the procedure.

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A Unified Constitutive Model for Creep and Cyclic Viscoplasticity Behavior Simulation of Steels Based on the Absolute Reaction Rate Theory

In this work, the viscoplasticity and creep behavior for modified 9Cr-1Mo and 316 stainless steels were investigated. Based on the absolute reaction rate theory, a unified constitutive model incorporating internal state variables was proposed to characterize the evolution of the back stress. Also, the model was implemented by the ABAQUS system with the semi-implicit stress integration. Compared to the experimental data, the results demonstrated that the proposed approach could effectively simulate the cyclic softening and hardening behavior for such structural steels.

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Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options.

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Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial

Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square test. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U test were used to compare clinical and laboratory data. Results. There were no differences in venous blood gas (VBG) values between the two groups (). However, at six hours, TFM was much more effective in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) (). Patient comfort and acceptance were statistically similar in both groups (). Total time of NPPV was also similar in the two groups (). Conclusions. TFM was superior to ONM in acute phase of respiratory failure but not once the patients were out of acute phase.

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Acupuncture Attenuates Renal Sympathetic Activity and Blood Pressure via Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

The sympathetic nervous system, via epinephrine and norepinephrine, regulates β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) expression, and renal sympathetic activation causes sustained increases in blood pressure by enhanced renin release. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) on renal sympathetic activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Unanesthetized rats were subject to daily acupuncture for 2 weeks. Mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored at days 0, 7, and 14 by radiotelemetry. After euthanasia on the 14th day, blood and the kidneys were collected and subject to the following analyses. Epinephrine and norepinephrine were detected by ELISA. The expression of β-ARs was studied by western blotting and PCR. The renin content was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. 14-day acupuncture significantly attenuates the increase of MBP. The HRV indices, the standard deviation of all normal NN intervals (SDNN), and the ratio of the low-frequency component to the high-frequency component (LF/HF) were improved following acupuncture. Renal sympathetic activation induced upregulation of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and renin content were attenuated by acupuncture. In addition, acupuncture decreased β1-AR expression and improved β2-AR expression. These results indicated that acupuncture relieves the increased MBP via the regulation of renal sympathetic activity and β-ARs.

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Targeting Oxidative Stress for Treatment of Glaucoma and Optic Neuritis

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye and it is one of the leading causes of blindness. Glaucoma is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, namely, the optic nerve, usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Current glaucoma therapies target reduction of IOP, but since RGC death is the cause of irreversible vision loss, neuroprotection may be an effective strategy for glaucoma treatment. One of the risk factors for glaucoma is increased oxidative stress, and drugs with antioxidative properties including valproic acid and spermidine, as well as inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, an enzyme that is involved in oxidative stress, have been reported to prevent glaucomatous retinal degeneration in mouse models of glaucoma. Optic neuritis is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve that presents with visual impairment and it is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis, a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although steroids are commonly used for treatment of optic neuritis, reduction of oxidative stress by approaches such as gene therapy is effective in ameliorating optic nerve demyelination in preclinical studies. In this review, we discuss oxidative stress as a therapeutic target for glaucoma and optic neuritis.

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Aggression from Patients or Next of Kin and Exposure to Bullying Behaviors: A Conglomerate Experience?

Although workplace violence and aggression have been identified as important stressors in the nursing profession, studies simultaneously comparing patient-initiated aggression and exposure to bullying behaviors at work are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to compare aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors in terms of prevalence, health-related quality of life outcomes, and potential overlap in those targeted. In the period of 2008-2009, data were collected among 2059 members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization. Latent class (LC) analysis and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the proposed relationships. The results showed that aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors were perceived as separate and independent stressors. Although aggression from patients or next of kin was more frequent than workplace bullying, the latter was the only significant stressor related to health-related quality of life in terms of reduced mental health functioning. Although being a rather infrequent experience, exposure to bullying behaviors seems to have more severe health-related outcomes for nurses than aggression from patients or next of kin. Hence, the results of the study strengthen previous findings and suggest that managers must aim to maintain a positive psychosocial work environment with zero-tolerance for bullying.

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Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

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Virtualized ANR to Manage Resources for Optimization of Neighbour Cell Lists in 5G Mobile Wireless Networks

In future, more devices such as wearable devices will be connected to the networks. This will increase simultaneous handovers. The coverage of a cell will be small because a superhigh frequency used in 5G wireless networks does not propagate very far. This trend will increase the number of neighbour cell lists and it will accelerate the change of neighbour cell lists since the coverage of cells can be altered by the environment. Meanwhile, the ANR technology will be essential in 5G networks. Since the network environment in the future is not similar to the present, the strategy of ANR should also be different from the present. First, since practical neighbour cell lists in each cell are changed frequently and individually, it is necessary to optimize them frequently and individually. Second, since the neighbour cell lists in each cell are not changed similarly, it is necessary to operate ANR flexibly. To respond to these issues, we propose to use network function virtualization (NFV) for ANR. To evaluate the proposed strategies, we measured additional resource consumption and the latency of handover if neighbour cell lists are not optimized when UEs perform handover simultaneously. These experiments are conducted using Amarisoft LTE-100 Platform.

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Modeling Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability in Soft X-Ray Solar Jets

Development of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability in solar coronal jets can trigger the wave turbulence considered as one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. In this review, we have investigated the propagation of normal MHD modes running on three X-ray jets modeling them as untwisted and slightly twisted moving cylindrical flux tubes. The basic physical parameters of the jets are temperatures in the range of 5.2–8.2 MK, particle number densities of the order of  cm−3, and speeds of 385, 437, and 532 km s−1, respectively. For small density contrast between the environment and a given jet, as well as at ambient coronal temperature of 2.0 MK and magnetic field around 7 G, we have obtained that the kink () mode propagating on moving untwisted flux tubes can become unstable in the first and second jets at flow speeds of ≅348 and 429 km s−1, respectively. The KH instability onset in the third jet requires a speed of ≅826 km s−1, higher than the observed one. The same mode, propagating in weakly twisted flux tubes, becomes unstable at flow speeds of ≅361 km s−1 for the first and of 443 km s−1 for the second jet. Except the kink mode, the twisted moving flux tube supports the propagation of higher () MHD modes that can become unstable at accessible jets’ speeds.

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Sources of Charged Higgs Pair through Double or Triple Higgs Production at Linear Colliders

The production of triple Higgs , and pairwise charged Higgs boson is studied in the context of future linear colliders within the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type II. The aim is to compare sources of charged Higgs pair through the above processes, that is, double and triple Higgs production. Cross sections are calculated at the leading order in 2HDM type II and Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Several orders of magnitude (104) enhancement are observed in 2HDM compared to MSSM, while no sizable enhancement is seen in muon collider versus electron-positron collider. The analysis is based on a heavy charged Higgs with mass above 500 GeV. It is found that double charged Higgs production cross section (being the same in 2HDM and MSSM) is few femtobarns, while the triple Higgs production cannot exceed a fraction of femtobarn within the parameter space under study.

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Pathologic and Radiologic Correlation of Adult Cystic Lung Disease: A Comprehensive Review

The presence of pulmonary parenchymal cysts on computed tomography (CT) imaging presents a significant diagnostic challenge. The diverse range of possible etiologies can usually be differentiated based on the clinical setting and radiologic features. In fact, the advent of high-resolution CT has facilitated making a diagnosis solely on analysis of CT image patterns, thus averting the need for a biopsy. While it is possible to make a fairly specific diagnosis during early stages of disease evolution by its characteristic radiological presentation, distinct features may progress to temporally converge into relatively nonspecific radiologic presentations sometimes necessitating histological examination to make a diagnosis. The aim of this review study is to provide both the pathologist and the radiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with cystic lung lesions primarily in adults by illustration and description of pathologic and radiologic features of each entity. Brief descriptions and characteristic radiologic features of the various disease entities are included and illustrative examples are provided for the common majority of them. In this article, we also classify pulmonary cystic disease with an emphasis on the pathophysiology behind cyst formation in an attempt to elucidate the characteristics of similar cystic appearances seen in various disease entities.

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Operando Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering/X-ray Diffraction of Model Ordered Mesoporous Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b06708
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Dermal matrices. An option in the management of circumferential nevi of extremities

I have read with great interest the manuscript written by Sachar Y et al. "Expanded bi-pedicled “sleeve” flap for reconstruction of the upper extremity after large circumferential nevus excision in children"

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TIAFT2016 Special Edition of Forensic Science International

The 54th annual meeting of The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT) met in Brisbane from August 28 to September 1, 2016 in a combined meeting with the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) and the Forensic and Clinical Toxicology Association of Australasia (FACTA inc.). This meeting was particularly well attended with 505 registrants from 46 Countries representing all regions and included 53 students and 35 attendees from developing countries.

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Shared genetic variants suggest common pathways in allergy and autoimmune diseases

We identified shared susceptibility loci and commonalities in pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases. Further studies of these loci and related mechanisms might help understanding the complex relationship between allergy and autoimmunity.

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8LBA Two year overall survival rate of all advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab in Australia 2013–2014

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): H. Kim, S. Comey




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101 Efficacy of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy in improving sexual functioning of breast cancer survivors with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction: results of a randomized controlled trial

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): L. Hummel, J. Van Lankveld, H. Oldenburg, D. Hahn, J. Kieffer, M. Gerritsma, M. Kuenen, N. Bijker, P. Borgstein, G. Heuff, A. Lopes Cardozo, P. Plaisier, H. Rijna, S. Van der Meij, E. Van Dulken, B. Vrouenraets, E. Broomans, N. Aaronson




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4BA Sarcoma care pathways – the patient viewpoint

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): R. Wilson, M. Wartenberg, E. Lecointe




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6LBA Breath volatile organic compound analysis for the diagnosis of oesophago-gastric cancer; multi-centre blinded validation clinical trial

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): S. Markar, T. Wiggins, S. Antonowicz, J. Lagergren, M. Mughal, G. Hanna




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2BA Randomised phase 3 study of S-1 versus capecitabine, with bevacizumab optional in both arms, in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the SALTO study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): J.J.M. Kwakman, L.H.J. Simkens, J.M. Van Rooijen, A.J. Van de Wouw, O.J.L. Loosveld, G.J.M. Creemers, M.P. Hendriks, M. Los, R.J. Van Alphen, M.B. Polée, E.W. Muller, A.M.T. Van der Velden, T. Van Voorthuizen, M. Koopman, L. Mol, E. Van Werkhoven, C.J.A. Punt




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6BA Survival of patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases is affected by treatment disparities among hospitals of diagnosis: a nationwide population-based study

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Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): K. Rovers, G. Simkens, P. Vissers, V. Lemmens, V. Verwaal, A. Bremers, M. Wiezer, J. Burger, P. Hemmer, H. Boot, W. Van Grevenstein, W. Meijerink, A. Aalbers, C. Punt, P. Tanis, I. De Hingh




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7LBA Recognising European Cancer Nursing (RECaN): A systematic review of trial evidence that helps to identify the roles and interventions of nurses caring for patients with cancer

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Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): M. Wells, P. Campbell, C. Torrens, A. Charalambous, L. Sharp, T. Wiseman, U. Östlund, E. Patiraki, I. Nohavova, N. Domenech-Climent, W. Oldenmenger, D. Kelly




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1BA Investigating the effect of a supportive complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) nursing intervention to improve quality of life outcomes in gynecologic oncology patients – first report of a randomized controlled trial

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): N. Klafke, C. Mahler, L. Uhlmann, C. Von Hagens, M. Bentner, S. Andreas, M. Andreas, J. Szecsenyi, S. Joos




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3BA Patient reported outcomes following lymphatic radiotherapy: Results from the UK START (Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy) trials. Presented on behalf of the START Trial Management Group

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): C. Griffin, N. Porta, J. Snape, J. Bliss, J. Yarnold




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5BA Impact of chronic neuropathic pain on job retention among cancer survivors: evidence from the French national survey VICAN

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): M. Bendiane, C. Alleaume, S. Cortaredona, D. Rey, A.D. Bouhnik, P. Peretti-Watel




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7BA Surgicopathological quality control in the CRITICS gastric cancer trial

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): Y.H.M. Claassen, W.O. De Steur, H.H. Hartgrink, J.W. Van Sandick, J.L. Dikken, E. Meershoek-Klein Kranenberg, J. Braak, E.P.M. Jansen, N.C.T. Van Grieken, H. Putter, A. Trip, H. Boot, A. Cats, K. Sikorska, H. Van Tinteren, M. Verheij, C.J.H. Van de Velde




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102 Health-related quality of life analysis from the accelerated partial breast irradiation IMRT-Florence phase 3 trial: Impact of age and scores trend over time

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): I. Meattini, C. Saieva, G. Miccinesi, I. Desideri, L. Marrazzo, M. Loi, F. Meacci, C. Muntoni, D. Greto, J. Topulli, J. Nori, M. Bernini, L.J. Sanchez, L. Orzalesi, M. Mangoni, S. Pallotta, S. Bianchi, L. Livi




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Editorial Board

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1





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1LBA Eight-year follow up results of the OTOASOR Trial: The Optimal Treatment Of the Axilla − Surgery Or Radiotherapy after positive sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer. A randomized, single centre, phase III, non-inferiority trial

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): Á. Sávolt, G. Peley, P. Csaba, N. Udvarhelyi, E. Kovács, B. Győrffy, Z. Mátrai




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2LBA Efficacy and safety of ribociclib (LEE011) + letrozole in elderly patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), HER2-negative (HER2−) advanced breast cancer (ABC) in MONALEESA-2

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Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): G.S. Sonke, L.L. Hart, M. Campone, F. Erdkamp, W. Janni, S. Verma, C. Villanueva, E. Jakobsen, E. Alba, E. Wist, A.M. Favret, T. Bachelot, R. Hegg, P. Wheatley-Price, F. Souami, S. Sutradhar, M. Miller, C. Germa, H.A. Burris




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3LBA Pembrolizumab vs investigator-choice chemotherapy for previously treated advanced urothelial cancer: Phase 3 KEYNOTE-045 study

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Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): A. Necchi, J. Bellmunt, R. De Wit, D. Vaughn, Y. Fradet, J.L. Lee, L. Fong, N. Vogelzang, M. Climent, D. Petrylak, T. Choueiri, W. Gerritsen, H. Gurney, D. Quinn, S. Culine, C. Sternberg, Y. Mai, M. Puhlmann, R. Perini, D. Bajorin




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4LBA Breast conserving therapy and mastectomy revisited: Breast cancer-specific survival and the influence of prognostic factors in 129,692 patients

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): M. Lagendijk, M.C. Van Maaren, S. Saadatmand, L.J.A. Strobbe, P. Poortmans, L.B. Koppert, M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst, S. Siesling




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5LBA Sixteen months follow-up of health related quality of life in women with high-risk breast cancer after random assignment to adjuvant treatment with tailored dose-dense chemotherapy vs standard three-weekly adjuvant chemotherapy (PANTHER study)

Publication date: February 2017
Source:European Journal of Cancer, Volume 72, Supplement 1
Author(s): Y. Brandberg, T. Foukakis, H. Johansson, M. Hellström, M. Gnant, S. Loibl, J. Bergh




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Why grey wolves kill less prey when brown bears are around

We’ve long assumed wolf packs are forced to kill more often to make up for having meals stolen by scavenging bears – but the opposite is true, they kill less

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Bird lookouts make alarm calls to save themselves, not the group

Arabian babbler birds that go it alone continue to sound alarm calls when they see threats, showing there must be selfish motives behind sentinel behaviour

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Why grey wolves kill less prey when brown bears are around

01268722-800x533.jpg

We’ve long assumed wolf packs are forced to kill more often to make up for having meals stolen by scavenging bears – but the opposite is true, they kill less

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Bird lookouts make alarm calls to save themselves, not the group

gettyimages-507841125.jpg

Arabian babbler birds that go it alone continue to sound alarm calls when they see threats, showing there must be selfish motives behind sentinel behaviour

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Can changes in parentally measured acoustic reflectometry levels predict the middle ear status?

Spectral gradient acoustic reflectometry (SG-AR) may be used to detect middle ear effusion. Our aim was to investigate whether increasing SG-AR levels between two SG-AR examinations indicate deterioration from a healthy middle ear to acute otitis media (AOM).

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Imaging tests in staging and surveillance of non-metastatic breast cancer: changes in routine clinical practice and cost implications

Imaging tests in staging and surveillance of non-metastatic breast cancer: changes in routine clinical practice and cost implications

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, February 7 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.24

Authors: S De Placido, C De Angelis, M Giuliano, C Pizzi, R Ruocco, V Perrone, D Bruzzese, G Tommasielli, M De Laurentiis, S Cammarota, G Arpino & G Arpino



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Prognostication and monitoring of mesothelioma using biomarkers: a systematic review

Prognostication and monitoring of mesothelioma using biomarkers: a systematic review

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, February 7 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.22

Authors: David T Arnold, Duneesha De Fonseka, Fergus W Hamilton, Najib M Rahman & Nick A Maskell



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Development of a gene panel for next-generation sequencing of clinically relevant mutations in cell-free DNA from cancer patients

Development of a gene panel for next-generation sequencing of clinically relevant mutations in cell-free DNA from cancer patients

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, February 7 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.8

Authors: Umberto Malapelle, Clara Mayo de-Las-Casas, Danilo Rocco, Monica Garzon, Pasquale Pisapia, Nuria Jordana-Ariza, Maria Russo, Roberta Sgariglia, Caterina De Luca, Francesco Pepe, Alejandro Martinez-Bueno, Daniela Morales-Espinosa, María González-Cao, Niki Karachaliou, Santiago Viteri Ramirez, Claudio Bellevicine, Miguel Angel Molina-Vila, Rafael Rosell & Giancarlo Troncone



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Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, February 7 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.14

Authors: Esther Molina-Montes, María-José Sánchez, Genevieve Buckland, H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita, Elisabete Weiderpass, Pilar Amiano, Petra A Wark, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, José María Huerta, Eva Ardanaz, José Ramón Quirós, Aurélie Affret, Mathilde His, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Petra H Peeters, Weimin Ye, Malin Sund, Heiner Boeing, Khalid Iqbal, Bodil Ohlsson, Emily Sonestedt, Anne Tjønneland, Kristina EN Petersen, Ruth C Travis, Guri Skeie, Claudia Agnoli, Salvatore Panico, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Heinz Freisling, Inge Huybrechts, Kim Overvad, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Effie Vasilopoulou, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Amanda J Cross, Heather A Ward, Elio Riboli & Eric J Duell



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Low Threshold Multiexciton Optical Gain in Colloidal CdSe/CdTe Core/Crown Type-II Nanoplatelet Heterostructures

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b08674
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Elevated transcriptional levels of aldolase A (ALDOA) associates with cell cycle-related genes in patients with NSCLC and several solid tumors

Aldolase A (ALDOA) is one of the glycolytic enzymes primarily found in the developing embryo and adult muscle. Recently, a new role of ALDOA in several cancers has been proposed. However, the underlying mechan...

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Myoclonic seizure prior to diagnosis of chronic toxic encephalopathy: a case report

“Thinner” is a widely used industrial mixture of organic solvents. Exposure to organic solvents is usually not considered to be a possible cause of epilepsy, despite descriptions of toxic effects on the centra...

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Reply to Liu et al.: Haplotype matters: CD226 polymorphism as a potential trigger for impaired immune regulation in multiple sclerosis [Biological Sciences]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which results from a breakdown in peripheral tolerance driven by genetic and environmental factors. The activating receptor DNAM-1 (DNAX accessory molecule-1, CD226) seems to be crucial in both NK-cell (1) and Foxp3+ (forkhead box protein-3) regulatory T-cell (Treg)...

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Reply to Roerink et al.: Metabolomics of chronic fatigue syndrome [Biological Sciences]

We thank Roerink et al. (1) for their comments. We respond to their two points in order. Their first point asked about the effect of physical activity on sphingolipids. The sphingolipid response to exercise is complex. It differs in healthy trained and untrained individuals and has not yet been studied...

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Genetic variant rs763361 regulates multiple sclerosis CD226 gene expression [Biological Sciences]

In a recent study, Gross et al. investigate the presence, distribution, and function of natural killer (NK) cells in three different compartments to characterize the role of NK cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) (1). Their results indicate that NK cells played an important role in controlling T-cell activity in vivo....

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Metabolome of chronic fatigue syndrome [Biological Sciences]

Naviaux et al. (1) report on a distinct metabolic signature present in patients who have myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with healthy controls. Metabolic pathway analysis is a growing field of interest, and could offer relevant pathophysiological or diagnostic clues in complex illnesses such as CFS. However, reviewing...

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Direct measurement of sequence-dependent transition path times and conformational diffusion in DNA duplex formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

The conformational diffusion coefficient, D, sets the timescale for microscopic structural changes during folding transitions in biomolecules like nucleic acids and proteins. D encodes significant information about the folding dynamics such as the roughness of the energy landscape governing the folding and the level of internal friction in the molecule,...

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Correction for Eremina et al., Brassinosteroids participate in the control of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants [Correction]

PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Brassinosteroids participate in the control of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants,” by Marina Eremina, Simon J. Unterholzner, Ajith I. Rathnayake, Marcos Castellanos, Mamoona Khan, Karl G. Kugler, Sean T. May, Klaus F. X. Mayer, Wilfried Rozhon, and Brigitte Poppenberger, which appeared in issue 40,...

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Correction for Honda et al., Dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa [Correction]

GENETICS Correction for “Dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa,” by Shinji Honda, Vincent T. Bicocca, Jordan D. Gessaman, Michael R. Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y. Yu, Jeanne M. L. Selker, and Eric U. Selker, which appeared in issue...

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High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala [Anthropology]

The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent...

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Interference of the complex between NCS-1 and Ric8a with phenothiazines regulates synaptic function and is an approach for fragile X syndrome [Neuroscience]

The protein complex formed by the Ca2+ sensor neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) and the guanine exchange factor protein Ric8a coregulates synapse number and probability of neurotransmitter release, emerging as a potential therapeutic target for diseases affecting synapses, such as fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable autism disorder....

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Uncovering hidden variation in polyploid wheat [Agricultural Sciences]

Comprehensive reverse genetic resources, which have been key to understanding gene function in diploid model organisms, are missing in many polyploid crops. Young polyploid species such as wheat, which was domesticated less than 10,000 y ago, have high levels of sequence identity among subgenomes that mask the effects of recessive...

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CD4 T-cell cytokines synergize to induce proliferation of malignant and nonmalignant innate intraepithelial lymphocytes [Immunology and Inflammation]

Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin−IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin−IELs...

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