Δευτέρα, 31 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Effect of Dental Chair Light on Enamel Bonding of Orthodontic Brackets Using Light Cure Based Adhesive System: An In-Vitro Study

2016-10-31T23-36-36Z
Source: Acta Informatica Medica
Anil Tiwari, Tarulatha Shyagali, Sarvraj Kohli, Rishi Joshi, Abhishek Gupta, and Rana Tiwari.
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the Dental chair light on the bond strength of light cured composite resin. Materials and Methods: Sixty therapeutically extracted human premolar teeth were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 specimens each. In both groups light cured composite resin (Transbond XT) and MBT premolar metal brackets (3M Unitek) was used to bond brackets. In group I and II light curing was done using Light-emitting diode light curing units without and with the dental chair light respectively. After bonding, all samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours and subsequently tested for shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores. Data was subjected to Mann Whitney U statistical test. Results: Results indicated that there was significantly higher shear bond strength (7.71 ± 1.90) for the Group II (composite cured with LED and dental chair light ) compared with Group I (composite cured with LED LCU only) (5.74 ± 1.13).the obtained difference was statistically significant. There was no statistical significant difference between ARI scores in between the groups. Conclusions: light cure bonding with dental chair light switched on will produce greater bond strength than the conventional bonding. However, the ARI score were similar to both the groups. It is advised that the inexperienced orthodontist should always switch off the dental chair light while bonding for enough working time during the bracket placement.


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Role of Endothelial Cell Function Assessment Using Flow-mediated Dilation for Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease in Low-risk Patients

2016-10-31T23-36-36Z
Source: Acta Informatica Medica
Seyed Mahmoud Nouraei, Ali Ghaemian,Hanieh Shiraj,Reza Ali Mohammadpour, and Alireza Malekrah.
Introduction: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurement in the brachial artery (BA) is a method of endothelial cell function assessment. We can use it to predict atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. We investigated the predictive value of FMD for the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a low-risk population of patients without major (CAD) risk factors. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety-seven patients (age 53.2±9 years; 194 men) with chest pain admitted for coronary angiography were enrolled in this study. FMD was measured in the BA before coronary angiography using high-resolution ultrasound. Results: Coronary angiography was normal in (151)patient, (149) with single and (97) multi-vessel disease. FMD was significantly higher in normal coronary groupagainst patients with coronary artery disease (11.1±2.6% vs. 6.8±3.1%; P


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Designing and Implementation of Retina Image Drawing System and Automatic Report Generation from Retina Examinations

2016-10-31T23-36-36Z
Source: Acta Informatica Medica
Reza Safdari, Mehrshad Mokhtaran, Shahram Tahmasebian.
Introduction: Electronic medical records as one of major parts of electronic health records is an important application of Medical Informatics. EMR includes different types of data, Graphical items being one of these data types. To this end, a standard structure for storing and recovering and finally exchanging this data type is required. In order to standardize information items in this research, UMLS standard is used. In this research, graphical information from fondues designing in retina surgery forms is used for the task of implementation. Implementation: Three-layer software architecture is used for implementation of this system, which includes user interface, data base access and business logic. XML database is used for storing and exchanging of data. User interface is designed by the means of Adobe Flash. Also in the user interface for eye examinations, appropriate icons compatible with current pathologies in retina examinations are considered and UMLS codes are used for standardizations purposes. Results: As this project is independently implemented in Adobe Flash, it can be run in most of electronic patient records software. For evaluation purposes of this research, an EMR system for eye clinics is used. Tree structure is used for data entry and finally a text report based on the entered data will be generated. By storing graphical items in this software editing and searching in medical concepts and also comparing features will be available. Conclusion: One of the data items that we encounter in various medical records is graphical data. In order to cover the patient's complete electronic medical records, the Electronic Implementation of this information is important. For this purpose, graphical items in retina surgery forms were used and finally a software application for drawing retina picture was developed. Also, XML files were used for the purpose of storing valuable medical data from the pictures, and also UMLS were applied for the standardization purpose. The developed software is currently being used in some of eye clinics in Iran.


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Assessment of physicians' knowledge in transfusion medicine in eastern part of Turkey

2016-10-31T07-16-56Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Ali Fettah, Duygu Kara, Gökçe Pınar Reis, Alev Cansu Certel, Soner Sertan Kara.
Transfusion of blood and blood components is one of the most common medical procedures in the developed world. Knowledge of physicians about blood transfusion is the most important determinant of their approach towards blood transfusion. In this study, we aimed to assess clinicians' basic knowledge regarding transfusion medicine through a questionnaire in a regional hospital. One hundred and one physicians including general practitioners, resident physicians, and specialists participated in the study. The participants were tested with a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions about transfusion medicine. Their scores were compared with regard to their departments, age and experience in medicine. The mean age of study population was 33.1±6 years. Of the total, 70 (69.3%) were male and the average year in medical practice was 7.3±5.8 years. Overall, 52% of the questions were correctly answered. The proportion of correct answers to the questions about basic knowledge, clinical use of blood, and transfusion reactions were as; 52.7%, 54.7%, and 47.3%, respectively. Thirty-four (33.7%) participants scored higher than 60 points, out of 100 points. The average score of total knowledge of participants about transfusion medicine was 52±10. The total knowledge scores of groups including internal departments, surgical departments, and emergency medicine were 55.7±10.2, 51.5±8.3, and 46±10.3, respectively and the differences between three groups were significant (p=0.001) . Also, a positive correlation has been shown between age, experience in medicine and total awareness score in transfusion medicine. The study yielded low/moderate levels of knowledge about transfusion medicine and it was concluded that additional education in transfusion medicine is necessary in all specialties and at each phases of medical practice.


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Κυριακή, 30 Οκτωβρίου 2016

The new issue is now available.Angioscopy

Vol.2 No.Supplement

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.11 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Chikyukagaku

Vol.1 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.18 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Food Science and Technology Research

Vol.22 No.5

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.12 No.Special

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The new issue is now available.The Hokuriku Crop Science

Vol.26

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Vol.16 No.3

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan

Vol.44 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.10 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing

Vol.10 No.7

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.12 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing

Vol.10 No.8

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.13 No.4

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Japanese Agricultural Systems Society

Vol.20 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms

Vol.15 No.3

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Eleven States Now Get >10% of Their Electricity from Wind

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Eleven states now use wind to meet more than 10% of their electricity needs. Two more – Texas and New Mexico – are on track to exceed this benchmark in 2016.

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Partial Portal Vein Arterialization Attenuates Acute Bile Duct Injury Induced by Hepatic Dearterialization in a Rat Model

Hepatic infarcts or abscesses occur after hepatic artery interruption. We explored the mechanisms of hepatic deprivation-induced acute liver injury and determine whether partial portal vein arterialization attenuated this injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either complete hepatic arterial deprivation or partial portal vein arterialization, or both. Hepatic ischemia was evaluated using biochemical analysis, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hepatic ATP levels, the expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and the expression of bile transporter genes were assessed. Complete dearterialization of the liver induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the histological changes, significantly increased serum biochemical markers, decreased ATP content, increased expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and decreased expression of bile transporter genes. These detrimental changes were extenuated but not fully reversed by partial portal vein arterialization, which also attenuated ductular reaction and fibrosis in completely dearterialized rat livers. Collectively, complete hepatic deprivation causes severe liver injury, including bile infarcts and biloma formation. Partial portal vein arterialization seems to protect against acute ischemia-hypoxia-induced liver injury.

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Responsivity Dependent Anodization Current Density of Nanoporous Silicon Based MSM Photodetector

Achieving a cheap and ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector (PD) for very high-speed communications is ever-demanding. We report the influence of anodization current density variation on the response of nanoporous silicon (NPSi) based MSM PD with platinum (Pt) contact electrodes. Such NPSi samples are grown from n-type Si (100) wafer using photoelectrochemical etching with three different anodization current densities. FESEM images of as-prepared samples revealed the existence of discrete pores with spherical and square-like shapes. XRD pattern displayed the growth of nanocrystals with (311) lattice orientation. The nanocrystallite sizes obtained using Scherrer formula are found to be between 20.8 nm and 28.6 nm. The observed rectifying behavior in the characteristics is ascribed to the Pt/PSi/n-Si Schottky barrier formation, where the barrier height at the Pt/PSi interface is estimated to be 0.69 eV. Furthermore, this Pt/PSi/Pt MSM PD achieved maximum responsivity of 0.17 A/W and quantum efficiency as much as 39.3%. The photoresponse of this NPSi based MSM PD demonstrated excellent repeatability, fast response, and enhanced saturation current with increasing anodization current density.

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Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Outcome of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated with Hybrid Hook-Screw Instrumentation versus Universal Clamp System

Background. In surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), hybrid universal clamp system has been used by some authors. We aimed to compare the clinical and radiologic outcome of hybrid universal clamp with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw. Methods. A prospective study was performed on 56 consecutive patients with AIS, who had alternatively undergone a posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw system (28 patients: group A) and hybrid universal clamp system (28 patients: group B) between June 2006 and January 2014 at Imam Reza University Hospital and had been followed up for more than two years. The comparison was according to radiographic changes, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, complications, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) outcome scores. Results. The preoperative mean curve Cobb angle was (42°–74°) in group A and (46°–75°) in group B. The mean final coronal curve correction was 60.4% and 75.5% in groups A and B, respectively (). Postoperative SRS outcome scores were also comparable. Conclusion. Universal clamp instrumentation had a significantly better curve correction and lower complication rate compared with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw. Both instrumentation methods had similar operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative SRS outcome scores.

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The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects

Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement.

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Ultra-Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography in Microscopic Polyangiitis

A 25-year-old Hispanic female presented with 5 months of dry eyes and 2 months of bilateral photophobia and decreased vision. On examination, she had bilateral anterior uveitis and mild disc edema of the left eye. A complete infectious and inflammatory work-up was positive for elevated antinuclear antibodies and p-ANCA, leading to a diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis. One year after initial treatment and steroid taper, an ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography revealed peripheral vasculitis, outside of the standard traditional field of view, leading to an increase in immunomodulatory therapy and illustrating the utility of wide-field angiography for managing patients with uveitis.

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Numerical Simulation of Entropy Growth for a Nonlinear Evolutionary Model of Random Markets

In this communication, the generalized continuous economic model for random markets is revisited. In this model for random markets, agents trade by pairs and exchange their money in a random and conservative way. They display the exponential wealth distribution as asymptotic equilibrium, independently of the effectiveness of the transactions and of the limitation of the total wealth. In the current work, entropy of mentioned model is defined and then some theorems on entropy growth of this evolutionary problem are given. Furthermore, the entropy increasing by simulation on some numerical examples is verified.

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Proliferative Effects of Histamine on Primary Human Pterygium Fibroblasts

Purpose. It has been confirmed that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the progression of pterygium. Histamine can enhance proliferation and migration of many cells. Therefore, we intend to investigate the proliferative and migratory effects of histamine on primary culture of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs). Methods. Pterygium and conjunctiva samples were obtained from surgery, and toluidine blue staining was used to identify mast cells. 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to evaluate the proliferative rate of HPFs and human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFs); ki67 expression was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. Histamine receptor-1 (H1R) antagonist (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) and histamine receptor-2 (H2R) antagonist (Nizatidine) were added to figure out which receptor was involved. Wound healing model was used to evaluate the migratory ability of HPFs. Results. The numbers of total mast cells and degranulated mast cells were both higher in pterygium than in conjunctiva. Histamine had a proliferative effect on both HPFs and HCFs, the effective concentration (10 μmol/L) on HPFs was lower than on HCFs (100 μmol/L), and the effect could be blocked by H1R antagonist. Histamine showed no migratory effect on HPFs. Conclusion. Histamine may play an important role in the proliferation of HPFs and act through H1R.

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Efficient CSR-Based Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication on GPU

Sparse matrix-vector multiplication (SpMV) is an important operation in computational science and needs be accelerated because it often represents the dominant cost in many widely used iterative methods and eigenvalue problems. We achieve this objective by proposing a novel SpMV algorithm based on the compressed sparse row (CSR) on the GPU. Our method dynamically assigns different numbers of rows to each thread block and executes different optimization implementations on the basis of the number of rows it involves for each block. The process of accesses to the CSR arrays is fully coalesced, and the GPU’s DRAM bandwidth is efficiently utilized by loading data into the shared memory, which alleviates the bottleneck of many existing CSR-based algorithms (i.e., CSR-scalar and CSR-vector). Test results on C2050 and K20c GPUs show that our method outperforms a perfect-CSR algorithm that inspires our work, the vendor tuned CUSPARSE V6.5 and CUSP V0.5.1, and three popular algorithms clSpMV, CSR5, and CSR-Adaptive.

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Role of Membrane Lipids in the Regulation of Erythrocytic Oxygen-Transport Function in Cardiovascular Diseases

The composition and condition of membrane lipids, the morphology of erythrocytes, and hemoglobin distribution were explored with the help of laser interference microscopy (LIM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have significant changes in the composition of their phospholipids and the fatty acids of membrane lipids. Furthermore, the microviscosity of the membranes and morphology of the erythrocytes are altered causing disordered oxygen transport by hemoglobin. Basic therapy carried out with the use of antiaggregants, statins, antianginals, beta-blockers, and calcium antagonists does not help to recover the morphofunctional properties of erythrocytes. Based on the results the authors assume that, for the relief of the ischemic crisis and further therapeutic treatment, it is necessary to include, in addition to cardiovascular disease medicines, medication that increases the ability of erythrocytes’ hemoglobin to transport oxygen to the tissues. We assume that the use of LIM and Raman spectroscopy is advisable for early diagnosis of changes in the structure and functional state of erythrocytes when cardiovascular diseases develop.

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A Cognitive Model Based on Neuromodulated Plasticity

Associative learning, including classical conditioning and operant conditioning, is regarded as the most fundamental type of learning for animals and human beings. Many models have been proposed surrounding classical conditioning or operant conditioning. However, a unified and integrated model to explain the two types of conditioning is much less studied. Here, a model based on neuromodulated synaptic plasticity is presented. The model is bioinspired including multistored memory module and simulated VTA dopaminergic neurons to produce reward signal. The synaptic weights are modified according to the reward signal, which simulates the change of associative strengths in associative learning. The experiment results in real robots prove the suitability and validity of the proposed model.

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Novel Burst Suppression Segmentation in the Joint Time-Frequency Domain for EEG in Treatment of Status Epilepticus

We developed a method to distinguish bursts and suppressions for EEG burst suppression from the treatments of status epilepticus, employing the joint time-frequency domain. We obtained the feature used in the proposed method from the joint use of the time and frequency domains, and we estimated the decision as to whether the measured EEG was a burst segment or suppression segment by the maximum likelihood estimation. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of its accordance with the visual scores and estimation of the burst suppression ratio. The accuracy was higher than the sole use of the time or frequency domains, as well as conventional methods conducted in the time domain. In addition, probabilistic modeling provided a more simplified optimization than conventional methods. Burst suppression quantification necessitated precise burst suppression segmentation with an easy optimization; therefore, the excellent discrimination and the easy optimization of burst suppression by the proposed method appear to be beneficial.

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End Point Results in Metric Spaces Endowed with a Graph

We introduce the notion of end point of multivalued mappings in the setting of metric space endowed with a graph and prove some existence results in this context. The mappings are assumed to satisfy certain generalized multivalued almost -contractive type inequalities. Further, the consequences of the corresponding results in the cases of single-valued mappings are also discussed with examples.

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Design of Wideband Dual-Polarized Planar Antenna Using Multimode Concept

A wideband dual-polarized planar antenna is designed and analyzed by using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM). The eigenvalue, eigencurrent, characteristic pattern, and modal weighting coefficient are analyzed to bring physical insight to this kind of antenna. The results demonstrate that there are two modes resonant in the operating band for each polarization, which have been combined to form a wider frequency band. A bandwidth of 60.2% (1.72–3.2 GHz) for VSWR

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Effect of Intravenous High Dose Vitamin C on Postoperative Pain and Morphine Use after Laparoscopic Colectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background and Objective. Vitamin C has antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neuromodulating effects. Recently, it showed antinociceptive effect as a result of the antioxidant properties. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intravenous vitamin C on opiate consumption and pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. Methods. A total of 100 patients were enrolled and allocated to receive 50 mg/kg vitamin C or placebo by intravenous infusion immediately after induction of anesthesia. Morphine consumption and scores of pain were assessed at 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of surgery. Results. There were 97 patients included in the analysis. Patients who received vitamin C had higher plasma concentrations of vitamin C at the end of surgery, significantly lower morphine consumption at the 2 h after end of surgery, and significantly lower pain scores at rest during first 24 h postoperatively. There was no significant difference between groups in side effects, fatigue score, or pain score during cough. Conclusion. This study shows high dose vitamin C infusion decreased postoperative pain during the first 24 h and reduced morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Additional research needed to examine whether higher doses of vitamin C and longer infusion times can amplify these effects.

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Impacts of the Sahel-Sahara Interface Reforestation on West African Climate: Intraseasonal Variability and Extreme Precipitation Events

This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the Sahel-Sahara interface reforestation on spatiotemporal variability of the summer rainfall and extreme precipitation events over West Africa using the RegCM4 model. The land surface scheme of RegCM4 was modified to incorporate an East-West reforested zone (15°N and 20°N). Two runs were performed using the standard version of RegCM4 and the modified one of the same model taking into account the incorporated forest. The reforestation significantly modifies rainfall signal over West Africa by increasing it over the reforested zone and the Fouta Jallon highlands (FJH). This rainfall increase is associated with a strengthening of the atmospheric moisture over the reforested area. This atmospheric moisture content increase associated with the wind dynamic may explain the spatiotemporal change of the rainfall and extreme precipitation events. The analysis of the impacts of the reforestation on some rainfall indices shows an increase of the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles over the reforested zone and off the FJH. This reforestation also causes an increase of the maximum length of the consecutive wet days over and off FJH and a decrease of the maximum length of the consecutive dry days over the northern Sahel and the reforested zone.

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F4/80+ Host Macrophages Are a Barrier to Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hematopoietic Progenitor Engraftment In Vivo

Understanding how embryonic stem cells and their derivatives interact with the adult host immune system is critical to developing their therapeutic potential. Murine embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic progenitors (ESHPs) were generated via coculture with the bone marrow stromal cell line, OP9, and then transplanted into NOD.SCID.Common Gamma Chain (NSG) knockout mice, which lack B, T, and natural killer cells. Compared to control mice transplanted with adult lineage-negative bone marrow (Lin− BM) progenitors, ESHP-transplanted mice attained a low but significant level of donor hematopoietic chimerism. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that macrophages might contribute to the low engraftment of ESHPs in vivo. Enlarged spleens were observed in ESHP-transplanted mice and found to contain higher numbers of host F4/80+ macrophages compared to BM-transplanted controls. In vivo depletion of host macrophages using clodronate-loaded liposomes improved the ESHP-derived hematopoietic chimerism in the spleen but not in the BM. F4/80+ macrophages demonstrated a striking propensity to phagocytose ESHP targets in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that macrophages are a barrier to both syngeneic and allogeneic ESHP engraftment in vivo.

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A Systematic Review of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa

The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development & Adolescent Studies, through EBSCO and identified studies from across SSA. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, 47 studies were included in this review. Most of the identified studies (74%) were conducted in only 2 African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria. Additionally, most of these studies (83%) were carried out in the last decade. These studies had four major themes: development of measurement tools of ASD in Africa, examining the prevalence of ASD, identifying risk factors and risk markers, and examining psychosocial issues. We identified only a single population level study aimed at documenting the prevalence of ASD and could not identify a single case-control study aimed at examining a comprehensive set of potential risk factors. All intervention studies were based on very small sample sizes. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence base is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in Africa.

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The Role of Interleukin-17 in Lung Cancer

Tumour-associated inflammation is a hallmark of malignant carcinomas, and lung cancer is a typical inflammation-associated carcinoma. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is an important inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and in inflammation-associated tumours. Numerous studies have shown that IL-17 directly or indirectly promotes tumour angiogenesis and cell proliferation and that it inhibits apoptosis via the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Therefore, IL-17 contributes to the metastasis and progression of lung cancer. Research advances with respect to the role of IL-17 in lung cancer will be presented as a review in this paper.

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An Atypical Case of Myxedema Coma with Concomitant Nonconvulsive Seizure

Hypothyroidism is a prevalent condition in the general population that is treatable with appropriately dosed thyroid hormone replacement medication. Infrequently, patients will present with myxedema coma, characterized by hypothermia, hypotension, bradycardia, and altered mental status in the setting of severe hypothyroidism. Myxedema coma has also been known to manifest in a number of unusual and dangerous forms. Here, we present the case of a woman we diagnosed with an uncharacteristic expression of myxedema coma and nonconvulsive seizure complicated by a right middle cerebral artery infarct.

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Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

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Controlled Release of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist from Hyaluronic Acid-Chitosan Microspheres Attenuates Interleukin-1β-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Chondrocytes

This paper investigates the protective effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) released from hyaluronic acid chitosan (HA-CS) microspheres in a controlled manner on IL-1β-induced inflammation and apoptosis in chondrocytes. The IL-1Ra release kinetics was characterized by an initial burst release, which was reduced to a linear release over eight days. Chondrocytes were stimulated with 10 ng/ml IL-1β and subsequently incubated with HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres. The cell viability was decreased by IL-1β, which was attenuated by HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres as indicated by an MTT assay. ELISA showed that HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation by attenuating increases in and prostaglandin E2 levels as well as increase in glycosaminoglycan release. A terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay revealed that the IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis was decreased by HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres. Moreover, HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres blocked IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis by increasing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and decreasing Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase-3 expressions at mRNA and protein levels, as indicated by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that HA-CS-IL-1Ra microspheres as a controlled release system of IL-1Ra possess potential anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties in rat chondrocytes due to their ability to regulate inflammatory factors and apoptosis associated genes.

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17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

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Kinematics Comparative Study of Two Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators

A comparison study of kinematics characteristics of two overconstrained 2-RPU&SPR parallel manipulators (PMs) is introduced in this paper. The two 2-RPU&SPR PMs have the same kinematics properties in terms of one translational degree of freedom (DOF) and two rotational DOFs kinematics outputs. But there are some differences between the two PMs as far as joints distribution is concerned, leading to the differences in respect of workspace and dexterity of the two PMs. Firstly, based on screw theory, the structural characteristics and DOFs of the two PMs are analyzed. Secondly, the inverse and forward displacements problems for the two PMs are formulated by analytic formulae. Some numerical examples are simulated by software. Thirdly, based on algorithm for the direct displacement solution, the workspace characteristics of the two PMs are analyzed and compared. Then, the Jacobian matrices of the mechanisms are formulated. Based on the Jacobian matrices, the dexterities of the two PMs are established and compared. Finally, according to the comparisons of the properties between the two PMs, some useful conclusions are provided.

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Σάββατο, 29 Οκτωβρίου 2016

The Results of Single Bundle Versus Double Bundle ACL Reconstruction Surgery, a Retrospective Study and Review of Literature

2016-10-29T18-46-28Z
Source: Medical Archives
Ali Torkaman, Hamidreza Yazdi, Mohammad Ghorban Hosseini.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of single bundle and double bundle surgical techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: In this study, all single bundle and double bundle ACL reconstruction surgeries that were done in our university hospital from January 2008 to December 2012 were enrolled. All patients were followed at 2,6,12, 24 weeks and 1 a 2 years post operatively. On last follow up all patients were evaluated by clinical examination, KT-1000 and Lysholm questionnaire. Results: Seventy five patients were operated using single bundle and eighty five patients with double bundle technique. Fifty seven percent of patients in single bundle and 80% of patients in double bundle group had experienced pain during follow-up period. None of cases had knee extension or flexion loss. The average side to side differences using KT-1000 was 3.5 ± 0.38 (2.9-4.1) millimeters in single bundle group and 3.39 ± 0.39 (2.8-4) millimeters in double bundle group. These results showed no significant difference between two groups (P= 0.31). Lysholm score improved significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between them. Conclusion: According to this study the clinical results of single bundle ACL reconstruction was similar to double bundle reconstruction in short term follow up. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long term results.


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Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients

2016-10-29T18-46-28Z
Source: Medical Archives
Valdete TopçiuShufta, Ramë Miftari, Valdete Haxhibeqiri, Shpend Haxhibeqiri.
Background: Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. Results: In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p


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Arsenic induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin – atypical presentation with aggressiveness.

2016-10-29T04-45-55Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Santu Mondal, Soumita Poddar, Mridul Kanti Biswas.
A 68 year old gentleman from arsenic affected area presented with an ulceration at skin at the junction of neck and thorax (left side) and a lump at left upper neck. On examination, ulcer was 3×3 cm. In size. There was an enlarged lymph node at level I I cervical region. There were hyperkeratoses and hyperpigmentation at multiple site. Patient had lost one finger at left upper extremity. Biopsy and histopathological examination from the ulcer revealed squamous cell carcinoma. CT scan of whole abdomen showed multiple hypodence space occupying lesion in liver, consistent with metastasis. Patient was treated with chemotherapy with palliative intent. This case has atypical presentation with aggressiveness in behaviour. The case is described along with a review of literature.


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Retrogastric cyst due to perforated appendix

2016-10-29T04-45-55Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Digamber Chaubey, Anand Pandey, Archika Gupta, Shiv Narain Kureel.
Appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency. The lifetime risk of having appendicitis is 8.6% for males and 6.7% for females; while the lifetime risk of appendicectomy is 12.0% for males and 23.1% for females. A very important complication of this entity is appendicular perforation. We treated a patient of appendicular perforation with extremely uncommon manifestation- retrogastric cyst leading to gastric outlet obstruction.


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Membranous Nephropathy With Transverse Myelitis

2016-10-29T04-45-55Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Mudasir Mushtaq, Maqbool Wani, Mushtaq Ahmed Wani, Rouf Asimi, Sawan Verma, Irfan Shah.
MGN is the most common form of glomerulonephritis causing nephritic syndrome in adults. Cases have been reported depicting association between MGN and neurological diseases like guillain-barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy . However only one case has been reported with MGN and inflammatory myelopathy. Our patient was 36 yrs old female admitted with paraparesis and paresthesias in bilateral hands with bowel and bladder involvement and she had a biopsy documented episode of membranous nephropathy.


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Πέμπτη, 27 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Chronic Subclinical Inflammation in Middle Aged Bangladeshi Population: Association with Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

2016-10-27T16-00-40Z
Source: Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology
Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique, Muhammad Saiedullah, Matiar Rahman, Liaquat Ali, Mohammad Amirul Islam.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of chronic subclinical inflammation as assessed by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in a middle aged Bangladeshi population. Materials and Methods: Total 348 adults (169 male, 179 female) were included and anthropometric data and clinical histories were recorded. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic endpoint technique and hsCRP was estimated by immunoturbidimetric method. Results: The mean of age and body mass index (BMI) of the total subjects were 50.5 ± 11.5 years and 26.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2 respectively. Substantial proportions (57.47%) of the subjects had low HDL cholesterol. Of the total subjects, 45.4% had hsCRP > 3.0 mg/l followed by 31.9% with hsCRP: 1.0-3.0 mg/l coupled with elevation of one or more traditional risk factors of CVDs. Lipid parameters showed no significant difference between subjects with low and moderate (hsCRP ≤3.0 mg/l) and high hsCRP (hsCRP > 3.0 mg/l). But BMI was significantly higher in high hsCRP group compared to low hsCRP group [25.4 (23.3-27.9) vs 27.3 (24.3-30.1) kg/m2, p


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Ethno-medicinal studies of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms, Detarium microcarpum Guill. and Perr and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC on Blood Glucose Levels, Liver Enzymes, and Lipid Profile of Female Wistar Rats

2016-10-27T16-00-40Z
Source: Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology
Godspower I. Onyeso, Kpobari W. Nkpaa, Uche P Wigwe.
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the ethno-medicinal effect of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms (B. eurycoma), Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr (D. microcarpum) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (M. pruriens) on blood glucose levels, liver enzymes, and lipid profile of female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: B. eurycoma, D. microcarpum and M. pruriens aqueous seeds extract were administered at a single dose of 200 mgkg-1 body weight to the experimental animals individually and in combination daily for three weeks. Results: The blood glucose level in group II, IV and V (94.5±3.09, 99.5±3.77 and 100.0±5.83 mg dL-1) were significant different (p0.05) compare to the control. AST and ALT level in group II and III were also significant different (p


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Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: A Case Report with Emphasis on Diagnosis and Treatment

2016-10-27T13-31-55Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Bhagyalaxmi Hongal, Priya Shirish Joshi, Appasaheb Sanadi.
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is characterized by development of multiple keratotic plaques with roughened surface projections. Since its introduction in 1985 by Hansen et al., PVL of the oral mucosa still remains an enigma and is difficult to define as a sub-entity of leukoplakia. Although the lesion typically begins as simple, flat hyperkeratosis indistinguishable from ordinary leukoplakic lesion, PVL exhibits persistent growth and eventually becomes exophytic and verrucous in nature. As the lesion progresses, they may go through a stage indistinguishable from verrucous carcinoma but may later develop dysplastic changes or transform into full-fledged squamous cell carcinoma usually within 8 years of initial PVL diagnosis. PVL is unusual among the leukoplakia variants in having a strong female predilection and minimal association with tobacco usage. Presenting here, a case of PVL transforming into verrucous carcinoma with areas of suspected malignancy in a 53-year-old male with habit of chewing tobacco quid and beedi smoking 4-6 times a day since 20 years, with a chief complaint of pain and burning sensation of the oral cavity and multiple oral lesions for 1 month. This paper will elaborate typical behavior pattern of the lesion and will discuss this rare entity in light of current information.


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A Comparative Evaluation Of Intravenous Ranitidine And Rabeprazole On Gastric Volume And Ph In Patients Undergoing Surgery Under General Anaesthesia

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Sumit Kumar Singh, Mukesh Kumar, Usha Suwalka.
Introduction: The morbidity and mortality associated with the complication of Acid aspiration syndrome increases with the volume and acidity of gastric aspirates. Objective: Routine practice often includes use of pharmacological agents to reduce gastric volume and increase gastric pH. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous Rabeprazole and intravenous Ranitidine on gastric fluid volume and pH in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. Material and Methods: This prospective randomised double blind study was conducted on 90 healthy adult patients of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia of age group 18-60 years and three groups were assigned with, Group 1 received intravenous Ranitidine 50 mg, Group 2 received intravenous Rabeprazole 20 mg, Group 3 received 5ml of normal saline(control group) before one hr, on the day of surgery and gastric volume and pH estimated just before induction of anaesthesia. Results: Volume of the gastric aspirates in preintubation was 15.8±2.73 ml in Group 1 (Ranitidine), 14.2±2.93 ml in Group 2 (Rabeprazole) and 20.8±2.81 ml in Group 3 (Control). There was significant (p=0.03) decrease in gastric volume with Rabeprazole compared to Ranitidine. The pH values determined in preintubation was 3.21±0.68 in Group 1 (Ranitidine), 3.66±0.79 in Group 2 (Rabeprazole) and 2.62±0.79 in Group 3 (Control). There was significant (p=0.018) increase in pH with Rabeprazole compared to Ranitidine. Conclusion: From present study it may be concluded that Ranitidine and Rabeprazole both are effective in reducing gastric volume and pH. As compared to Rabeprazole, Ranitidine is less effective in reducing gastric volume and pH but still more commonly used due to its cost effectiveness.


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Immune thrombocytopenia and its association with lymph node tuberculosis – A dilemma!

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Sangita Deepak Kamath, Neeraj Jain, Saurabh Pathak, Ballamudi Srinivas Rao.
Background: Although various hematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune mediated thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in TB is rare; only 27 cases have been reported so far. Case: We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis who presented with immune thrombocytopenia. An eighteen year old girl was admitted to our hospital with excessive vaginal bleed of one week duration followed by the development of petechial lesions and ecchymosis over legs, hands and mouth. She also had solitary, firm, left axillary lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of immune mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) was made from peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination. Intravenous methylprednisolone (30mg/kg body weight) followed by oral prednisolone (1mg/kg) failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the left axillary lymphadenopathy done later revealed tuberculosis. After two weeks of starting anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet count returned to normal and she was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the causal association between immune thrombocytopenia and tuberculosis.


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Pleural effusion in advanced liver disease

2016-10-27T06-44-06Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Cyriac Abby Philips Lovkesh Anand and Apurva Pande.
We present the case of a decompensated cirrhotic in whom localized pleural effusion was managed on the lines of tubercular effusion inadvertently, with use of catheter drainage, leading to fatal complications. Pleural effusion in advanced cirrhosis must be evaluated in a step wise manner to minimize interventional treatments.


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Establishment of reference ranges for Serum Leptin and C-Peptide using enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay method: a preliminary report

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Mainasara Abdullah Sulaiman, Dahiru Shafiu Gumel, Umar Zayyanu Usman, Anaja Peter Ocheni, Yakubu Abdulmumini, Rosemary Nwaelugo Adanze and Yeldu Mohammed Haruna.
Reference ranges (RR) or Reference Intervals (RIs) are very important values for accurate interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. Any test result that is not accompanied by a valid RR value is less informative and may not be interpreted correctly. However, reference values of most analytes for Nigerian population are not readily available. The present study aims at establishing reference values of Serum Leptin and C-Peptide for Dutse, Jigawa State. In a cross sectional study, eighty (80) reference individuals were recruited. Serum Leptin and C-Peptide were analysed using ELISA methods. Following an accepted guideline, population specific reference intervals were established for these analytes and found to be 3.13ng/mL to 14.09ng/mL for Leptin and 0.56ng/mL to 5.64ng/mL for C-Peptide, respectively. Populations sharing similar physical and socio-economic characteristics may adapt these intervals if validated and considered suitable for their laboratory methods.


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Productive and reproductive performances of Brown Bengal goat (Hilly goat) at research farm level

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Azharul Islam Talukder, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Ashadul Alam and Md. Abu Hemayet.
A nucleus-breeding flock of selected Brown Bengal goat was established in the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Regional Station, Naikhongchari, Bandarban, with the objective of characterization, conservation and improvement of the breed. A total of 69 does of different generations (Foundation = 07, Generation one = 32, Generation two = 23 and Generation three = 07.) and 07 bucks (All were first generation) were used to study the genetic parameters of Brown Bengal goat on productive and reproductive traits. The studied Animals were bred naturally. Goats were reared under semi-intensive management system in which goats were browsing in nature and allowed to graze in field as well as mounting in hills. All goats were housed in a plastic made floor house and allowed to graze 6-8 hours in a day and concentrate was offered twice daily during morning and evening at the rate of 1% of their body weight per day. The adult body weight of hilly goat was 20.95 kg. The phenotypic characteristics like the face, horn, ear and udder length were 15.56, 7.18, 12.19 and 12.67 cm respectively. On the other hand the hearth girth, front leg, hind leg and body length were 61.51, 46.8, 49.48 and 55.24 cm respectively. The gestation length, kidding to first heat, kidding to conception and kidding interval were 148.52 ± 1.06, 33.48 ± 2.85, 33.40 ± 1.98 and 176.86 ± 1.98 days, respectively. According to parity the GL, AFH, KC and KI were not followed trends up to 3rd parity but kid birth weight was increasing trends with increasing parity up to fifth. The birth weight of male kid (1.25 ± 0.25 kg) was higher than that of female kid (1.13± 0.27 kg). The highest birth weight (1.24±0.02 kg) was found in single birth. According to litter size the birth weight of single kid (1.24 ± 0.01 kg) stood first followed by twine (1.20 ± 0.01), triplet (1.1±0.03 kg) and quadruplet kids (0.93±0.08 kg). . The productive and reproductive performances of brown Bengal goat were not affected by parity. Birth weights of kids were significantly varied with birth type.


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Impact of stocking density on growth and production performance of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Mamunur Rahman, Debashis Kumar Mondal, Md. Rurul Amin and Mohammad Golam Muktadir.
Stocking density is considered one of the important factors affecting fish growth. The study was aimed to compare the growth parameters of monosex tilapia at various stocking densities. The experiment was carried out during the period from 06 August to 22 December 2014. Three stocking densities were used as 125, 250 and 375 fish/dec and designated as treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively each having two replicates. All the fishes were of same age group having average initial body weight of 1.34g. A commercial feed was supplied at the rate of 40% of the body weight and then gradually it was readjusted to 20%, 10%, 5% and 3% respectively and continued up to the end of the experiment. The water quality parameters were monitored at 14 days interval and the ranges were: temperature 19.34 to 31.40°C, pH 6.83 to 8.03, dissolved oxygen 4.78 to 6.82 mg/l and transparency 29.02 to 49.45cm.The result of the present study showed that the mean weight gain was significantly (P


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Investigation of health condition of small indigenous species Channa punctatus from Sherpur and Mymensingh areas

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Gias Uddin Ahmed, Sahara Khatun and Md. Mamunur Rahman.
Investigation on the health condition of small indigenous fish, Channa punctatus was carried out through clinical and histological observation from Jailka beel of Sherpur sadar, Sherpur district and Kailla beel of Ishargonj upazila, Mymensingh district for a period of six months from October 2014 to March 2015. Water quality parameters like water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate were recorded. Water temperature and total hardness were found at unfavorable level for fish in December and January. Clinical examinations of the fish were also carried out for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Clinically, it was observed that fish was affected with numerous red spots and patches in lateral and ventral regions, large deep whitish ulcers reached up to deep ulcers especially in December and January in both the beels. Samples of skin, muscle, gill, liver and kidney were collected and processed for histological observations. Major pathology in the skin and muscle were epidermis separated from dermis, presence of fungal granuloma, vacuums, hemorrhage and necrosis. Loss of primary and secondary gill lamellae, hypertrophy and primary gill lamellae separated, necrosis and hemorrhage were found in the gill. Large vacuums, necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in liver and kidney. Among the affected fish organs, skin and muscle, gills were found to be more affected than those of the internal organs like liver and kidney. Overall, under the clinical and histopathological observations the fish were found to be more affected in December and January. Whereas, in the months of February and March, the pathological condition of fish gradually healed up to normal except few vacuums and hemorrhage. Under histopathological observations, fish of Jailka beel were more affected than the fish of Kailla beel. In clinical and histopathological observation C. punctatus was more affected due to EUS.


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Management and treatment patterns of diabetes patients having blood pressure complications living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman, Lutful Haque Saran, Md. Mamun-Ur-Rashid and Adnan Taher.
A study way carried out in Dhaka city to find out the management and treatment patterns of diabetic patients those having blood pressure complications. It was a cross sectional study of 150 patients by using self administered survey questionnaire and founded data was analyzed and described. In this study, it is found that almost all of the patients (92%) were from Dhaka and just were a few those were outsider but came as referred patients. The male and female percentages were accordingly 64.67% and 35.33% and among those diabetes patients 47.33% had hypertension and 10.66% had hypotension and most of them (74%) check their diabetes monthly. Among those patients 79.33% patients were prescribed only drugs while 17% patients were prescribed to change their routine only and 4% were prescribed both (drug and routine). Most of the diabetes patients having blood pressure complicacy were prescribed only drugs which is very significant and those are going to do further research in this aspect will be benefited by getting this information.


http://ift.tt/2ePPCZ0

Growth performance and survival of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): different formulated diets effect

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Ishrat Zahan Anka, Jakia Sultana Jothi, Joyshri Sarker, Avijit Talukder and Md. Sadrul Islam.
Growth performance of guppy fries was assessed by providing four different types of formulated diets comprised of some available ingredients (fish meal (FM), prawn meal (PM), meat and bone meal (MBM), wheat flour (WF), corn flour (CF), starch (S) and soya bean oil) and the result was compared with supplied commercial diet as control. After 30 days experimental period, diet 1 (FM: PM=6:1) showed the best result in case of length gain (0.48 cm) in guppies whereas lowest (0.01 cm) was reported from diet 2 (PM: MBM= 4:3). The body weight gain in guppies was also found higher (0.004 g) in diet 1 than other diets. Specific growth rate (SGR) of all formulated diets was between 1.03% to 4.8% while 0.7% was found in commercial diet. Maximum survival rate (95%) was recorded in formulated diet 1 whereas 80% was investigated in control .Growth trend of guppies from all the supplied formulated diets resulted better rather than the imported commercial diets. So, Commercial diets might be replaced by experimental diets for the better production of guppy.


http://ift.tt/2ez06xq

Yield and grain dimensions of T. Aman rice varieties as influenced by date of transplanting

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Syeda Nuzhat Reza, Nahid Nadia Tani, Muhammad Salim, Ahmed Khairul Hasan and Mst. Arjina Akter.
A field experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during June 2013 to December 2013 to study the yield and grain dimensions of transplant aman rice varieties as influenced by date of transplanting. The experimental factors comprised of two factors namely, date of transplanting and variety. Date of transplanting comprised of 18 July, 19 August and 18 September. The variety comprised of Binadhan-7, BRRI dhan57, BR11 and Bashiraj. The experimental field was laid out in a split plot design. Most of the yield parameters were significantly affected by the date of transplanting. The yield and yield contributing characters were highest at 19 August transplanting and lowest at 18 September transplanting. Variety had significant effect on most of the yield and yield contributing characters. BR11 gave the highest grain yield (4.47 t ha-1) and the lowest value was obtained in BRRI dhan57. Among the grain dimensions, Binadhan-7 with 18 July transplanting gave the highest grain length (9.64 mm) whereas BR11 with 18 September transplanting gave the lowest value (7.82mm). Results showed that yield components were highest at 19 August transplanting and after that the reduction occurred at 18 September may be due to low temperature and short day length at flowering stage.


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Economic analysis of the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor at Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district of Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Yousuf Ali, Manos Kumar Saha, Md. Anam Ahmad, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
The study was conducted on Bergobindapur baor at Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district. The study period was February to June, 2015. Data were collected by using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal observation. Net return was loss in 2013-2014 and the loss amount was BDT 254200. Cost benefitratio in 2013-2014 was 0.99. Major income (83.30%) of the fishermen community was drawn from the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor. In 2014-2015, average income of fishermen was BDT 25250 during the fishing period. Within the household of fishermen community, the expenditure for food was 19%, clothing, 3%, childrens education, 19%, medical, 3%, dowry and religion, 33%, agriculture, 13% and others, such as business, accommodation, sanitation etc. 10%, which came from baor activities. The findings of this study indicated that Bergobindapur baor plays a vital role for the support of livelihood of fishermen and net profit from baor was not satisfactory. A long-term strategy should be developed to make the baor profitable. The developed strategic plans should be initiated immediately for the profitability of the baor as well as improving the livelihood conditions of the fishermen engaged with the boar fishery activities.


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Effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Abdus Samad, Aliza Khatun, Md. Selim Reza, Md. Asrafuzzaman and Most. Habiba Ferdaushy.
The research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond for a period of 35 days. Three treatments differing in stocking density of hatchling viz., T1:172900 individuals/ha, T2:148200 individuals/ha and T3:123500 individuals/ha were employed each having three replicates. Fries were fed same diet in three different treatments consisting of (28.5%) at the rate of 6-10% of body weight. The Physico-chemical characteristics of pond water were measured weekly. The mean values of some water quality parameters such as temperature (°C) were 30.41 1.15 (T1), 30.381.08 (T2), 30.451.10 (T3); transparency (cm) 40.000.90 (T1), 39.740.51 (T2), 39.930.70 (T3); dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6.790.45 (T1), 6.710.38 (T2), 7.020.29 (T3); pH 7.550.18 (T1), 7.670.16 (T2), 7.620.20 (T3) and alkalinity (mg/l) 116.200.64 (T1), 99.360.45 (T2), 96.470.93 (T3) from 35 days respectively. Except alkalinity no significant value were found for parameters. Sampling was also done weekly. The mean value of final weight (g) was 0.350.004 (T1), 0.420.008 (T2), 0.590.006 (T3). The survival rate of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 54.20% (T1), 62.90% (T2) and 74.56% (T3) respectively. The highest survivability was found in T3. The production (kg/ha) of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 76.324.96 (T1), 77.605.19 (T2), 91.046.02 (T3) respectively. Significantly (p

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Arsenic deposition in different organs or tissues in an experimental toxicosis of White Newzealand Rabbit

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Shaifuddin Ahmed, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui, Kamrul Islam, Md. Nazrul Islam, Mohammad Usman Gani, Sharifunnessa Moonmoon, Md. Harun-or-Rashid and Md. Abdul Awal.
The present study was undertaken for the detection of arsenic in different organs or tissues in an experimentally induced arsenicosis affected adult Newzealand white rabbits. The experiment was carried out on a total of 30 (01 month old) adult Newzealand white rabbits. Experimental arsenicosis were developed in rabbits by oral administration of arsenic trioxide alone and along with tannic acid, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP), alum and As contaminated water after filtration using SCIF bed along with alum. For this, the rabbits were randomly divided in to six (6) equal groups (A,B,C,D,E & F) at the ratio of three males and two females in each group, rats of group A was kept as control without giving any treatment, rabbits of group B received arsenic trioxide@100ppm, group C received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus tannic acid @100ppm, group D received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) @100ppm, group E received arsenic trioxide @100ppm plus alum @100ppm orally daily for 60 days in all cases and group F received alum@100ppm in SCIF-bed filtrated water orally daily for 60 days. The different organs and tissues of both dead and sacrificed rabbits (Liver, kidney, heart, Lungs spleen, stomach, muscle and skin) were collected for detection of arsenic. Arsenic was detected qualitatively by Reinsch test, semiquantitatively by Merck Arsen test kit. The distribution of arsenic concentration was highest in liver and lowest in skin. It has been concluded that arsenic were deposited in different organs or tissues of rabbit in an experimentally induced arsenicosis as like as natural occurrence.


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Water quality, feeding management and cost-benefit analysis of a fish hatchery in Jessore district of Bangladesh

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Md. Monirul Islam, Rashidul Hassan, B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Mostafizur Rahaman, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
The study was conducted at Ma-Fatema Fish Hatchery in Jessore from January to March, 2016. The present study was emphasized on water quality parameters, feeding management and cost- benefit analysis. The water quality parameters temperature (0C), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) (mg/l) and transparency (cm) were measured by Celsius thermometer, pH meter, DO meter and secchi disk, respectively. The proximate composition of feed ingredients was determined by the Association of Analytical Chemists, 1980. Brood fishes were reared all year round in the brood ponds by supplying formulated feeds. Temperature was 19oC -26°C in brood ponds and 18oC-24oC in hatching jars; pH was 6.937.87 in brood ponds and 6.79-7.54 in the hatching jars; dissolved oxygen was 4.8-6.3 mg/l in brood ponds and 4.8-6.7 mg/l in hatching jars; transparency was 1418 cm in the brood ponds. The percentage of farm made feed was protein (27.76%), lipid (4.9%), CHO (18.62%), ash (11.31%), fiber (6.4%), moisture (31.01%). The cost benefit ratios were 1.54, 1.32 and 1.23 and net profits were BDT 49911.67, BDT 24816.67and BDT 16366.67 respectively in January, February and March. Management of brood fish by providing quality feed and physico-chemical parameters of water were maintained in according to scientific procedure. Cost-benefit ratio of the hatchery in common carp production was satisfactory.


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Antidiabetogenic impact of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and garlic (Allium sativum) on alloxan induced diabetic rabbit model

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Ambiara, Fahima Binthe Aziz, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Misrat Masuma Parvez, Kishor Kumar Roy and Md. Anowarul Haque.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the Bitter melon and Garlic on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental rabbits. At 2 to 3 months of age, rabbits were assigned into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) and each group was remained 4 rabbits. Group A was kept for control, Group B was treated with Alloxanintramuscullarly at a dose of 75mg /kg body weight, Group C was treated with bitter melon 250gm/kg body weight orally, Group D was treated with garlic 750mg/kg body weight orally, Group E treated with combined at previous dose. After acclimatization, diabetes was induced in four groups of rabbits (B, C, D and E) by administering Alloxan injection in a dose of 75mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) intramuscularlly. There was significant decreased in blood glucose level in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and lowest glucose was recorded in E group when treated with combined medicinal herbs and body weight was increased in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and highest was recorded in Dgroup while treated with those.% of PCV level and Hb gm/dl concentration was the highest in group E which was treated with both garlic and bitter melon compare to the A group. ESR was highest in group B treated with Alloxan and lowest in group E. The present study reveals that combined treatment increases body weight and decreases glucose level without affecting health of rabbits.


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Effects of periparturient anthelmintic treatment on milk yield and quality in dairy cows

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Adil Borman, Md. Faruk Islam, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Md. Fazlul Hoque, Sandip Kispotta and Md. Anowarul Haque.
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal parasite in periparturient dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and quality. Sixty mixed breed pregnant cows were selected divided into four groups, A (n=18), B (n=14), C (n=16) and D (n=12) and group D kept as control. Cows of group A were treated with Nitroxynilat the rate of 10 mg/kg bwt. s/c, 30 days before parturition and average feacal egg per gram(EPG) was reduced from 506.1 ± 172.3 to 157.8 ± 24.9 within 14 days.Group B were treated with combined triclabendazole and levamisoleat the rate of19.5 mg/kg bwt. orally at calving. The average EPG was reduced from 967.7 ± 237.1 to 172.0 ± 25.9. Group C were treated with same as group B at calving and 42 days after. The mean EPG fall from 794.6 ± 310.5 to 166.7 ± 26.2.In group D average EPG increased from 791.7 ± 268.5 to 864.2 ± 290.7. The mean change in EPG 14 days after treatment was significantly higher (p


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Determination of antibiotics sensitivity profiles of bacteria isolated from raw milk

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
MuktaTalukder and H. M. Manir Ahmed.
The extensive progress of dairy sectors in a developing country like Bangladesh, led to widespread use of antibiotics to improve the health and productivity of animals. Prolonged usage may lead to antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin; hence, the emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Accurate data on the antibiotic usage in livestock treatment, antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances in raw milk in Bangladesh are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the types and usages of antibiotics in cattle, their potential microbial resistances in raw milk samples. To do so, a total of 54 raw milk samples were evaluated and the bacterial isolates were identified and measured for resistance to 4 antibiotics most commonly used during bacterial infection Bangladesh. Amongst all 54 (100%) isolates were positive to S. aureus and 36 (66.67%) isolates were positive to E coli. Determination of the antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates showed that all isolates of S. aureus were resistant to cefoxitin (81.48%), ampicillin (64.81%), ciprofloxacin (51.85%), and gentamycin (70.37%). E. coli showed resistance to cefoxitin (69.44%), ampicillin (83.33%), ciprofloxacin (77.78%), and gentamycin (86.11%). However multidrug resistance pattern was also found. The obtained results provide evidence that antimicrobial resistant strains of the above pathogens have become remarkably widespread in raw milk. This requires better management for antibiotic usages among livestock farmers to control sources of food contamination and reduce the health risks associated with the development of resistant microbial strains.


http://ift.tt/2ez33yh

Tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Northern Sabah

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Swe, Than Myint and Mon Mon Yee.
Tobacco smoking in adolescent age group has become a major public health concern as it is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases leading to burden of adverse health effects in their later life. Those who start smoking tobacco at an early age are more likely to develop nicotine addiction and continue smoking throughout their adulthood. The general objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking, their initiation and perception towards tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Kudat District, Sabah State, Malaysia. It was a school based cross sectional descriptive study which employed a twostaged stratified random sampling method and used self-administered structured questionnaire for data collection. A total of 257 students aged between 15 to 19 years old from two upper secondary schools participated in the study. This study revealed that (26.6%) were ever smokers and (8.6%) were current smokers. The earliest age of started smoking was 7 years old and 9 years old among male and female ever smokers respectively. Majority of the respondents perceived that smoking was a bad habit which would cause environmental pollution and harmful effects on health. The most common reasons to start smoking among ever smokers were peer pressures, curiosity and experimenting and to relieve the feeling of pressured and stress. Among the current smokers, 86.4%had ever attempted to quit smoking but they failed to stop smoking because they thought smoking could give feeling pleasure (50%), relieve their anxiety or craving (27.3%) and because of peer pressures (22.7%). The findings suggested that although tobacco smoking prevalence among school adolescents in Kudat was comparatively lower than that of national prevalence reported by GYTS, there is still need for early interventions with holistic approach to prevent them from initiation and to help them for cessation of tobacco smoking.


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Quality control and interest of the determination of anti-CCP antibodies and rheumatoid factor in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Amoussou Nathalie Gisèle, Gounongbé Marcelle, Dougnon Tamègnon Victorien, Zomalheto Zavier, Loko Frédéric and Bigot André.
The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune, rheumatic and chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by joints damage. The early diagnosis of RA allows the initiation of a treatment which offers to the patients more chance of remission and avoids the evolution towards the unrecoverable deformity of joints. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of recent tests for the determination of anti -CCP antibodies and FR by ELISA in Benin Republic. This analytical, retrospective (2 years 6 months) and prospective (7 months) study allowed us to collect 36 patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA and 24 controls. A comparison was made with the latex agglutination test for rheumatoid factors and a search of rheumatoid factors (RF) on the one hand and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. In our study, the specificity of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA (91.7%). The sensitivity of RF-ELISA assay is higher (77.8 %) than that of anti-CCP assay (66.7%). The latex test for rheumatoid factors has a sensitivity of 33.3 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA assay (93.33 %). The positive-likelihood ratio (LR+) of anti-CCP assay is higher than the LR+ of RF-ELISA assay (4.96). The negative-likelihood ratio (LR-) of anti-CCP assay (0.33) is higher than the LR- of RF-ELISA assay (0.24). In conclusion, the anti-CCP assay has the highest specificity and RF-ELISA assay shows the highest sensitivity. In conclusion, the association of the two assays enhances a better diagnosis value for RA.


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Changes in hematological parameters and gill morphology in common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Malathion

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Sadia Sharmin, Md. Abdus Salam, Farhana Haque, Md. Sadiqul Islam and Md. Shahjahan.
Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in the agricultural field in Bangladesh and reach in the aquatic environment through rain wash. In the present study, we examined the effects of Malathion on hematological parameters and gills morphology in common carp exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (1.5 and 3.0 mg/L) for a period of 192h (8 days). For hematological parameters fish were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72, and 96h after start of exposure. Gills were collected at 192h after start of exposure. The blood glucose level was significantly elevated with increasing the concentration of Malathion. Red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were significantly decreased after the exposure of Malathion. Significant increments were observed in case of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), while no distinct changes were noted for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Interestingly, white blood cells (WBCs) count was significantly increased with toxicity of Malathion. Several morphological changes, such as telangiectasia, blood lamellar congestion, hypertrophy of filaments, lamellar fusion were observed in the gills of fish exposed to Malathion. The present study revealed that the insecticide had adverse effects on various blood parameters and gills morphology in common carp. Thus, the use of insecticide in the agriculture field may be a threat to fauna and flora of the aquatic environment.


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Modalities of treatment for sleep disordered breathing

2016-10-27T06-35-17Z
Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Win Tin and Khin Maung Ohn.
Sleep disordered breathing is a spectrum of diseases that includes snoring, upperairway resistance syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It occurs more in obese males, resulting in hypertension and cardiac complications if untreated. There are various treatments, conservatively and surgically, starting from simple tonsillectomy to multi-level surgeries and multi discipline. Literature review was carried out on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, diagnosis and various treatments, using internet Google, search PubMed. Additional information was obtained by cross referencing, using text and journals in the medical libraries.


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Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities in Astragalus angulosus

2016-10-27T05-19-23Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Hussein Kanaan, Majid El-Mestrah, Alaa Sweidan, Falah As-sadi, Ali Al Bazzal, Ali Chokr.
Aim: in a search for finding novel therapeutic agents, extracts from an endemic Lebanese plant, Astragalus angulosus, were evaluated for their potential in-vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against three Gram positive bacterial strains; Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIP444), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212);.in addition to two Gram negative strains, Escherichia coli (ATCC35218) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853). Methods: the plant was collected in April of 2013 and it was divided into several different portions, then its extracts were obtained by maceration using two different solvents. Extract analysis followed directly, where microtiter broth dilution method was employed to assess antibacterial activity, while antibiofilm potential was tested using colorimetric method. Results: whole plant ethanolic extract showed the highest bacteriostatic effect at a concentration of 12.78 mg ml-1 and also was the most versatile exerting its effect against 3 different strains. Other extracts also exhibited an effect but at higher concentrations and each against a single strain. Regarding antibiofilm activity, the majority of the extracts were able to eradicate >50% of Staphylococcus epidermidis preformed biofilm, where the highest activity was obtained with flower fraction extracted in water, achieving 67.7% biofilm eradication at 0.2 mg ml-1. Conclusions: This plant possesses a promising potential in regard to eradicating bacteria and their biofilms, and it is the first contributing step of establishing a library for the endemic Lebanese plants in this domain.


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Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Regulates Inflammation in a Rabbit Model of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

Objective: It is well known that inflammation plays key roles in the development of atherosclerosis and that the transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) can suppress inflammation in rodent models of ischemic diseases. Here, we explored whether transplantation of autologous BMMNCs could prevent the progression of atherosclerosis by the alleviation of inflammatory responses in a rabbit model of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: The atherosclerotic rabbit model was established by air desiccation followed by a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Then, 1 × 107 BMMNCs labeled with BrdU or an equal volume of vehicle were injected into the rabbits via the ear vein. Using an ultrasonographic imaging method, we found that autologous BMMNC treatment significantly decreased the area of atherosclerotic plaques compared to the vehicle-treated group (p 0.05), which was consistent with Western blot results. Conclusions: Transplantation of autologous BMMNCs delays the development of atherosclerosis, most probably via the attenuation of inflammatory responses, which could be a new approach for treating carotid atherosclerosis.
J Vasc Res 2016;53:196-205

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 1050: Identification of Vape Shops in Two North Carolina Counties: An Approach for States without Retailer Licensing

Stores that sell electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) as their primary product are a new phenomenon and often termed “vape shops”. While vape shops are now regulated by state and federal agencies, not all states maintain lists of vape shops in operation. Standard ways of identifying tobacco retailers through off-premise alcohol permits and business listing services may not identify vape shops. We used four online business listing services (i.e., Google Maps, ReferenceUSA, YellowPages.com, Yelp) to identify vape shops in two counties in North Carolina (NC). In one county, we also assessed four vaping web sites. We drove primary and secondary roads to physically validate the identified stores and attempt to identify stores not listed online. To assess the accuracy of the online searches, we calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPVs). This research was conducted in spring and summer 2016 and identified 28 vape shops online. We confirmed 16 vape shops (seven in Pitt County, NC, USA, and nine in Durham County, NC, USA). Online searches ranged in sensitivity, 62.5%–81.3%, and PPVs ranged from 73.3% to 92.3%. Because of the range of sensitivity found among the business listing services, state policymakers should consider uniform licensing requirements for vape and tobacco retailers to more easily track retailers and ensure compliance with regulations.

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Two energy balance closure approaches: applications and comparisons over an oasis-desert ecotone

Abstract

Studies of energy balance that rely on eddy covariance (EC) are always challenged by energy balance closure, which is mainly caused by the underestimations of latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (Hs). The Bowen ratio (BR) and energy balance residual (ER) approaches are two widely-used methods to correct the LE. A comprehensive comparison of those two approaches in different land-use types is essential to accurately correcting the LE and thus improving the EC experiments. In this study, two energy balance approaches (i.e., BR and ER) were compared to correct the LE measured at six EC sites (i.e., three vegetated, one mixed and two non-vegetated sites) in an oasis-desert ecotone of the Heihe River Basin, China. The influences of meteorological factors on those two approaches were also quantitatively assessed. Our results demonstrated that the average energy closure ratio ((LE+Hs)/(Rn–Gs); where Rn is the surface net radiation and Gs is the surface soil heat flux) was approximately close to 1.0 at wetland, maize and village sites, but far from 1.0 at orchard, Gobi and desert sites, indicating a significant energy imbalance at those three latter sites. After the corrections of BR and ER approaches that took into account of soil heat storage, the corrected LE was considerably larger than the EC-measured LE at five of six EC sites with an exception at Gobi site. The BR and ER approaches yielded approximately similar corrected LE at vegetated and mixed sites, but they generated dissimilar results at non-vegetated sites, especially at non-vegetated sites with low relative humidity, strong wind, and large surface-air temperature difference. Our findings provide insight into the applicability of BR and ER approaches to correcting EC-based LE measurements in different land-use types. We recommend that the BR-corrected and ER-corrected LE could be seriously reconsidered as validation references in dry and windy areas.



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The Preventive Effect of the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Hochuekkito, against Influenza A Virus via Autophagy in vitro

Background: Hochuekkito (HKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, enhances the immunity of elderly or weak individuals. It is also known to have preventive effects against influenza clinically. However, the detailed mechanisms of the preventive effects have not been clarified. We examined the relationship between the preventive effects of HKT and autophagy, a known stress response and quality control mechanism, using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. Methods: The effect of HKT on autophagy in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells was assessed by Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy using an RFP-GFP-LC3B sensor kit. Results: In Western blotting, treatment with HKT before IAV infection (pre-HKT) tended to induce autophagy in IAV-infected cells at an early stage of infection, eventually suppressing IAV-induced autophagy. Moreover, several autolysosomes, indicative of normal autophagosome-lysosome fusion, were observed in Pre-HKT cells transduced with RFP-GFP-LC3B but not in untreated IAV-infected cells. Conclusions: These findings indicated that IAV-mediated inhibition of the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes was prevented by HKT treatment before infection. According to these results, we propose that this phenomenon is one of the preventive effects of HKT against IAV.
Pharmacology 2017;99:99-105

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Alcohol consumption and accentuated personality traits among young adults in Romania: a cross-sectional study

Alcohol consumption (AC) has negative social and economic consequences, affects health, and can create dependence. As dependence is particularly difficult to cure, prevention is important. This study aimed to ...

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Follow-up on Programmed Cell Death 1 Inhibitor for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Follow-up on Programmed Cell Death 1 Inhibitor for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

JAMA Dermatol. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Tran DC, Colevas AD, Chang AL

PMID: 27784038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Next generation sequencing and its applications in HPV-associated cancers.

Next generation sequencing and its applications in HPV-associated cancers.

Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 23;:

Authors: Tuna M, Amos CI

Abstract
Approximately 18% of all human cancers have a viral etiology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as one of the most prevalent viruses that plays causative role in nearly all cervical cancers and, in addition, in subset of head and neck, anal, penile and vulvar cancers. The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) and other 'omics' approaches have resulted in comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of HPV-driven tumors. Specifically, these approaches have provided detailed information on genomic HPV integration sites, disrupted genes and pathways, and common and distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations in different human HPV-associated cancers. This review focuses on HPV integration sites, its concomitantly disrupted genes and pathways and its functional consequences in both cervical and head and neck cancers. Integration of NGS data with other 'omics' and clinical data is crucial to better understand the pathophysiology of each individual malignancy and, based on this, to select targets and to design effective personalized treatment options.

PMID: 27784002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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SATB1 promotes tumor metastasis and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

SATB1 promotes tumor metastasis and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Dis. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Li YC, Bu LL, Mao L, Ma SR, Liu JF, Yu GT, Deng WW, Zhang WF, Sun ZJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to evaluate the expression of SATB1 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and its role in the invasiveness and metastasis of OSCC.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A human OSCC tissue microarray was used to evaluate the expression pattern of SATB1. SATB1 mRNA knockdown was performed in human OSCC cell lines SCC25 and Cal27 to assess the function of SATB1 in the invasiveness and metastasis of OSCC.
RESULTS: SATB1 is highly expressed in human OSCC determined by immunohistochemistry and its nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of histoscore is significantly correlated with patients' prognosis. Reduced cell motility, invasiveness, expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin and β-catenin) and elevated expression of epithelial markers were observed in SATB1-knockdown cells in in vitro studies. Depletion of SATB1 also restored a cobblestone-like morphology in TGF-β1 treated cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest SATB1 may play an important role in OSCC invasiveness and metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27783844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Clinical features and treatment outcomes of Japanese head and neck cancer patients with a second primary cancer.

Clinical features and treatment outcomes of Japanese head and neck cancer patients with a second primary cancer.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Yamashita T, Araki K, Tomifuji M, Tanaka Y, Harada E, Suzuki T, Miyamoto S, Shiotani A

Abstract
AIM: It has been well established that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have an elevated risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC), owing to the common carcinogenic risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol consumption, and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype. Here we investigated the current state of SPC in Japanese HNC patients.
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and treatment outcomes of synchronous and metachronous SPCs among 434 newly diagnosed HNC patients. Moreover, the associations between various carcinogenic risk factors and SPC were also assessed.
RESULTS: Fifty-two (12.0%) and 104 patients (24.0%) had synchronous and metachronous SPCs, respectively. The cases with SPC were associated with high rates of smoking and alcohol histories (81.1% and 74.6%, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 47.5% of all oropharyngeal cancer cases showed positive p16 expression, and there was no significant difference between p16-positive and -negative cases in terms of the proportions of patients with SPC. The 3-year overall survival rates were 78.8%, 75.3% and 75.9% in patients without, with synchronous, and with metachronous SPC, respectively (P = 0.4048).
CONCLUSION: Given the distinct features of the carcinogenic risk factors for HNC in Japan, care should be taken not to underestimate the frequency of SPC, even for human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer patients. Considering the high incidence of SPC associated with HNC, the appropriate diagnostic strategy to allow for early detection of SPC and a treatment strategy aimed at avoiding unnecessary radiotherapy for the index tumor would contribute to improving the prognosis for HNC.

PMID: 27783469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A european multicenter study evaluating the flex robotic system in transoral robotic surgery.

A european multicenter study evaluating the flex robotic system in transoral robotic surgery.

Laryngoscope. 2016 Oct 26;:

Authors: Lang S, Mattheis S, Hasskamp P, Lawson G, Güldner C, Mandapathil M, Schuler P, Hoffmann T, Scheithauer M, Remacle M

Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the application of the Flex Robotic System in transoral robotic surgery (TORS).
STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-armed clinical study.
METHODS: A prospective clinical follow-up multicenter study was performed from July 2014 to October 2015 assessing the safety and efficacy of the Medrobotics Flex Robotic System for access and visualization of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx as well as for resection of benign and malignant lesions. A total of 80 patients were enrolled. Access and visualization of five anatomic subsites (base of tongue, palatine tonsil area, epiglottis, posterior pharyngeal wall, and false vocal cords) were individually graded by the surgeon. Setup times, access and visualization times, surgical results, and adverse events were documented.
RESULTS: The relevant anatomic structures could be exposed and visualized properly in 75 patients, who went on to have a surgical procedure performed with the Flex Robotic System. Access and visualization of the palatine tonsil area, posterior pharyngeal wall, epiglottis, and posterior pharyngeal wall were excellent. However, false vocal cords and vocal cords were more difficult to expose. Seventy-two patients were treated successfully with the Flex Robotic System. There were no serious or unanticipated device-related adverse events caused by the Flex Robotic System.
CONCLUSIONS: Lesions in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx could be successfully resected with the Flex Robotic System, specifically developed for TORS. Our study provides evidence that the Flex Robotic System is a safe and effective tool in TORS. Laryngoscope, 2016.

PMID: 27783427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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