Τετάρτη, 7 Δεκεμβρίου 2016

Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Comprehensive Presentation of the Desmosomal Adhesion Disrupting and Oral Blister Causing Multifactorial Autoimmune Disease

Source: Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine
Mandy Alhajj, Sathees B Chandra.
Abstract: Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is a blister causing autoimmune disease that is continually being studied because of its devastating symptomology and life-threatening effects on patients afflicted with the disease. There is a sense of urgency in finding better treatment options for PV patients and an even greater emphasis placed on diagnosing the disease in its earliest stages in order to improve its prognosis. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of pemphigus vulgaris, by discussing its genetics, prevalence, physiological mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic and monitoring techniques, and treatments, in order to better equip clinicians with the current information on the disease and to prompt interest in future research on identifying potential environmental triggers.


Radical Scavenging Potential: Antioxidant Vitamins and Total Phenolics Contents of Raw and Hydrothermal Processed Herbs In Vitro

Source: Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine
Okey Alphonsus Ojiako, Paul Chidoka Chikezie, Doris I. Ukairo, Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem, Reginald N. Nwaoguikpe.
Aim/Background: The present study evaluated the antioxidant vitamins and total phenolics contents from Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa in connection with their comparative radical scavenging potential between the raw and hydrothermal processed herbs using in vitro models. Methods: Antioxidant vitamins and total phenolics contents as well as radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the herbs were measured using standard spectrophotometric methods. Results: The hydrothermal processed herbs exhibited relatively lower antioxidant vitamins and total phenolics contents compared with the raw herbs. Total phenolics contents of the raw and hydrothermal processed herbs varied within relatively narrow range: 0.26 ± 0.04 7.97 ± 0.20 mg GAE/g dry sample. The SCI50 of raw herbal extracts against O2− was within the range of 201.61 ± 4.09 305.21 ± 5.11 µg/mL, whereas those of corresponding hydrothermal processed herbs gave 211.02 ± 4.15 531.66 ± 8.14 µg/mL. For the most part, SCI50 of the raw herbs against NO− were significantly lower (p


Fluoroscopy improves femoral stem placement in cementless total hip arthroplasty

Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Haluk Cabuk, Cem Dincay Buyukkurt, Suleyman Semih Dedeoglu, Yunus Imren, Ali Cagrı Tekin, Hakan Gurbuz.
Fluoroscopy is routinely used in trauma cases to evaluate alignment and reduction quality. Because conventional templating has a high mismatch rate, we sought to explore whether we could use intraoperative fluoroscopy while implanting the femoral stem. Sixty patients with Croft 3-4 coxarthrosis were included in this study. No preoperative templating was performed in either of the two groups. The final conformations of the stem sizes and positions were achieved freehand intraoperatively using anatomic landmarks. In the second group, after surgeons intraoperatively agreed on the final stem size, C-arm fluoroscopy images are obtained with the last rasp size before the stem implantation. The alignment of femoral stem according to the femoral canal, the lower leg discrepancy (LLD) and the lateral offsets were evaluated with X ray. The stem/endosteal areas at 2 cm above the trochanter minor (T+2) and 2 cm below the trochanter minor (T-2) and the deviation of the stem tip from the center of the femoral canal were evaluated in CT images. The stems that were implanted under fluoroscopic control filled the medullary cavity better at both the T+2 and T-2 levels. On fluoroscopy, in the control group, the malpositioning of the femoral stems were less, the centralizations were better, and the restorations of the lateral offset and LLD were more accurate. The use of fluoroscopy while rasping the femoral canal leads to proper alignment and press fitting of the stem and provides the opportunity to intraoperatively correct malpositionings of the stem.


Correlation Between Anteversion and neck-Shaft Femoral Angles, For Designing Of Hip Prostheses

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Ehsan Golchini*, Baghermin Aeezangi**, Mohammad Barbarestani***, Tahminehmo Khtari****, Reza Pakzad*****.
Background& Objective: Femoral neck anteversion angle (FNA) and neck-shaft angle (NSA) or inclination angle are important anatomic indicators in clinical orthopedics. Main aim of this study, is to determine correlation between FNA and NSA to prediction one of these parameters from other to designing of hip prostheses .Methods: Each femur was placed with the posterior surface of its condyles and greater trochanter touching a smooth horizontal surface (Kingsley and Olmsted method). For measurement of anteversion angle, Retrocondylar axis andfemoral neck axis were made with digital photography and with Digimizer software. For measurement of inclination angle, femoral neck axis and Diaphyseal axis were made with same manner. Results: 159 dried femora were studied. Average anteversion angle in degree for male was 12.17° (±6.83°) and in female was 15.14° (±9.17°). According to this study, in left male femur, for one degree increase in NSA, FNA grows 0.38°; in right male femur, for one degree increase in NSA, FNA grows 0.74°; in right female femur, for on degree increase in NSA, FNA grows 1.55°.Interpretation& Conclusion:In this research, we found that there is a meaningfulpositive relationship between FNA and NSA, to prediction on of them from the other. This relationship is seen in male femur (right and left) and Female femur (just right). [Ehsangolchini NJIRM 2016; 7(5): 25-32]


A perfect diagnosis of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome by oral manifestations: a case report

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Khaja Khalid Nawaz, Selvabalaji, Santham Krishnamurthy, Sivaraman.
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an extremely rare congenital genetic disorder having autosomal recessive inheritance. The characteristic features of this syndrome are bilateral postaxial polydactyly, acromesomelic dwarfism, ectodermal dysplasia affecting nails, congenital cardiac malformation, edentulous maxillary and mandibular incisors, non-appearance of mucobuccal fold, congenitally missing teeth, slight serrations of the alveolar ridge and multiple small alveolar notches. The present case describes the oral manifestations of the patient which leads to a perfect diagnosis of this syndrome. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome requires a multidisciplinary management and, hence the dental surgeons play an important role in these cases.


Clinical and etiological profile of children with pathological short stature

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ganavi Ramagopal, Jaishree Vasudevan.
Background: Short stature is one of the common problem in child population with diverse aetiologies, half of them being physiological and another half due to pathological causes. The objective of this study was to study the clinical profile of the children with pathological short stature and to study the various causes for pathological stature Methods: Retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, where the data of Children who met the inclusion criteria were collected from the case records of 2 years period from Jan 2013 to December 2014. Data collected was tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Commonest age group affected was 10 years. 48% were males and 52% were females. Commonest causes were Hypothyroidism and genetic disorders, followed by nutritional and musculoskeletal. 58% were proportionate and 42% were disproportionate. Conclusions: Endocrinological and genetic syndromes are most common etiologies for pathological short stature. So detailed evaluation of short stature is very important as some of the pathological causes are treatable when diagnosed at an early stage.



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Pradnya Kulkarni, Pradeep Pilajirao Kulkarni.
Problem Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative way of getting knowledge and thinking properly to solve problems. In the 1960s, PBL method wasused in McMaster University School of Medicine in Canada and then spread around the world. If students follow PBL method,they develop knowledge, effective problem solving skills, self-directed learning, effective collaboration skills and intrinsic motivation.1 Problem Based Learning shows active involvement of students. By working together students come to know their own knowledge, how much they should know about that particular topic, the sources from which they will get knowledge etc.Instructors (Tutors) should guide and monitor the learning process.2 Tutor should encourage the students and built up their confidence.3 PBL is not a lecture. PBL is not conducted in a class room



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Renganath M. J., Ramakrishnan T., Manisundar N., VidyaSekhar, Ebenezer M., Sivaranjani P..
Aim: Ankyloglossia, which is also commonly known as tongue-tie, either partial or complete may lead to various difficulties and deformities that includes abnormal speech, mal-occlusion and inability in deglutination thus being an undesired problem in normal life activity. Various techniques like scalpel, laser, and electro-surgery have been performed for the past few decades in treating tongue-tie. Though, each techniquehas got their own advantages and disadvantages, all aimed at relieving the high muscle attachment to improve the movement of the tongue. Hence, scalpel have been preferred for treating the cases with ankyloglossia. Case Report: This series of case reports of 2 cases with partial ankyloglossia, exhibiting speech difficulty along with restricted tongue movementswhich requires definitive treatment to correct the deformity. Discussion: The outcome of the frenulectomy in the 2 cases using scalpel showed good healing with improved tongue movements than that of pre-operative movements thus achieving the primary objective of relieving the tongue-tie. Conclusion: The clinical outcome following the surgical frenulectomy for the 2 cases treated by scalpel has shown better healing with improvement in tongue movements suggesting that surgical frenulectomy could be considered as the reliable technique for the treatment of ankyloglossia..



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
C. Ravikumar, M. Ganapathy, V. Vaiyapuri.
Aim: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the response and fix an optimize source and levels of S for sunflower production. Materials and Methods: Field experiments were conducted in the Experimental Farm of the Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar during March - June and June - September 2014 in RBD to study the response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) var. K-1 to different sources and levels of sulphur (Elemental sulphur, Gypsum and Pyrite for their growth, yield attributes, and yield. Result: Among the different treatments Elemental Sulphur @ 45 kg ha-1 along with RDF (40:20:20 kg ha-1) had a positive effect on growth, yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake in sunflower for I and II crops. The lowest values of growth, yield attributes and yield were recorded by 0 kg S ha-1 along with RDF. Conclusion: Application of sulphur especially through Elemental sulphur @ 45 kg ha-1 along with RDF (40:20:20 kg ha-1) is a fitting practice for augmenting sunflower yields in clay loam regions of Cuddalore district sunflower farmers.



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Nausheen Mobeen, Mahesh Ramakrishnan.
Aim: The aim of the study is to measure the prevalence of dental caries in school going children. Objective: This study is to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 5-10 years studying in different primary and high schools in Chennai, India. Background: Dental caries is a multi-factorial, microbial, infectious, transmissible disease of hard tissues of teeth characterized by the demineralization of inorganic structures and subsequent breakdown of organic structure along with remineralization of the demineralized structures until there is cavitations. The most common influencing factors, such as sticky carbohydrate containing foods, dietary intake of fibrous foods, the presence of fluoride or other micronutrients in diet, sugar intake frequency and oral hygiene maintenance all have to some extent influence over the causation of dental caries. This Study is carried out in children falling under age group of 3-6 years using World health organization criteria (1997) to record prevalence of dental caries. Results: A total of 200 children were examined, out of which 126 were female and 74 were male. The prevalence of dental caries was 63% among girls and 37% among boys. In all the primary teeth which were examined the highest incidence of dental caries is seen in maxillary left second molar with an average of 4.6 and highest incidence of filled tooth was also in maxillary left second molar with an average of 2.45. In mandibular quadrant the highest incidence of dental caries was in right second molar with mean average of 4.6 and highest filled tooth was also seen in mandibular right second molar With average of 2.3 while comparing both the quadrant the highest incidence of dental caries are seen in maxillary left second molar and mandibular right second molar with mean value of 4.6 but highest incidence of caries filled tooth is seen in maxillary left second molar with average of 2.45..



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Pratibha Vyas, Parikh U.R., Goswami H.M..
Background: Odontogenic tumors arise from remnants of embryonic tissue destined to develop into teeth & associated structure. They originate from remnants of odontogenic epithelium, mesenchymal or combination of cellular elements that comprise the tooth- forming apparatus, clinical behaviour ranges from hematoma like proliferation to benign and invasive neoplasm Objective: Purpose of study to analyse frequency of benign and malignant lesion, male female ratio, most common site for lesion and age of patient at the time of presentation. Material and Method: This study was carried out between January 2013 to May 2015 at department of pathology of the Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Patient data such as patient age and histopathologies of tumors were collected. Result: We found a total no of 115 odontogenic tumors; of this 87 were benign; of which keratosis with dysplasia (10.57 %) and keratosis without dysplasia (13.91 %) are common. Twenty one were malignant of which squamous cell carcinoma is most common and 7 were inflammatory lesions. The male female ratio was 1.3:1 Conclusion: Among odontogenic tumors, benign condition is most common with mandible is the most common. The tumours show male predominance with common in 5th decade.



Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Babitha Rexlin G., Sivakumar E., Rajkumar D., Nagendran M..
Aim: The objective is to find the prevalence of obesity among school children aged 6 to 12 years in Madurai and to investigate the factors promoting rise of weight in children. Methodology: It is a cross sectional observational study. The sample size is 2519 children from 2 rural and 2 urban schools. Height is measured by stadiometer and weight by electronic weighing machine. Body Mass Index is calculated and plotted on the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Body Mass Index chart (IAP-BMI) 2015 for boys and girls. Children are classified as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Factors causing obesity assessed were age, gender, place of residence, birth weight, preterm/term, socio-economic status, Parents BMI, Environmental factors (physical activity, TV/Video gaming duration, Transport to school, Environmental safety), Food habits and sleep pattern. Result: The prevalence of obesity and overweight are 9.3% and 16.8% respectively. Obesity has strong association with the place of residence and socio-economic status (p


Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις