Δευτέρα, 24 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Thyroid function tests in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Samiksha Ganvir, Anagha Vinay Sahasrabuddhe, Shailesh Umakant Pitale.
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is the most common endocrine problem in young females with chronic anovulatory cycles occurring in 5-10% of reproductive women. PCOS is viewed as a heterogeneous disorder of multifactorial etiology also associated with increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Both PCOD and thyroid dysfunction have multiple common presentations and both have profound effect on fertility and reproductive biology. Hypothyroidism can initiate, maintain or worsen PCOD. Aims and Objectives: This study has been contemplated to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders in PCOS patients from Central India. Materials and Methods: Female patients in the age group between 18 and 30 years meeting Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS were included in the study. The patients were asked to report in fasting state for the following investigations: Fasting blood sugars, fasting insulin levels, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and serum prolactin were done. FSH and LH were done on the 2nd or 3rd day of menstrual cycle. Gynecological ultrasound was done to assess ovarian condition and presence or absence of multiple cysts. Results: LH/FSH ratio of more than 2 was found in 60% of the cases, 41 subjects (68%) were insulin resistant. Raised serum testosterone was found in 64% of the cases. The mean TSH level in subjects was 4.219333 ± 1.877632. Subclinical hypothyroidism was seen in 16 (26.6%) cases and overt hypothyroidism in 12 (20%) cases. Total thyroid dysfunction (clinical and subclinical) was seen in 28 (46.66%) cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in PCOS is very high. All patients with PCOS should be screened for thyroid dysfunction.


Study of auditory and visual reaction time across various phases of menstrual cycle

Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Veena CN, Vastrad BC, Nandan TM.
Background: The reproductive system of women shows regular cyclic changes that teleologically may be regarded as periodic preparations for fertilization and pregnancy. These cyclical changes are also associated with cyclical changes in the level of ovarian steroids. Estrogen is said to have widespread effects throughout the brain regions involved in affective state as well as cognition. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to observe the effect of gonadal hormones on auditory and visual reaction time (VRT) across various phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 healthy female volunteers having regular menstrual cycle belonging to the age group of 17-20 years studying in the first year MBBS at P.E.S. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research using pitch change 1000 Hz reaction timer. Results: The results of this study reveal that the auditory and VRT was highest during the mid-proliferative phase compared to premenstrual phase and mid secretary phase. Conclusion: Thus, the fluctuating levels of ovarian hormones across the normal menstrual cycle influence auditory and VRT and this fact can be taken into consideration during neurological and behavioral assessment of women.


Adenomyoepithelioma Of Breast : Report Of A Rare Case

Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Reena Kouli, Swagata Dowerah, Luckymoni Duara.
Benign adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor characterized by biphasic proliferation of both an inner layer of epithelial cells and a prominent peripheral layer of myoepithelial cells. This entity may rarely progresses to a more malignant state or gives rise to metastasis. Accurate diagnosis and close follow up is essential for proper treatment of these tumors. We report a 15 year old girl who presented with large lump in the breast which was clinically mistaken for a giant fibroadenoma of breast. No nodes were palpable. On gross examination, a large lump 11x11x8 cm was noted which was well circumscribed, solid on cut section. On histopathologic examination the diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma was made which was further supported by immunohistochemistry findings.


Clinical and bacterial profile of pneumonia in 2 months to 5 years age children: a prospective study done in a tertiary care hospital

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Madhusudhan Kamatham, Bharathi Sreenivasaiah, Santhimayee Kalivela, Suresh Srinivasa Nadavapalli, Ramesh Babu T, Venkateswara Rao Jampana.
Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality among under-five children contributing to 15% of deaths all over the world. More than 95% of all new cases of pneumonia in children less than 5 years occur in developing countries due to increased prevalence of under nutrition, inadequate coverage of vaccination, lack of exclusive breast feeding, illiteracy etc. Methods: A total 110 subjects with pneumonia aged 2 months to 5 years were included in the study. Pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and classified according to new guidelines of WHO. Nutrition history including breast feeding practices and immunization history was taken. Anthropometry recorded along with thorough clinical examination bacterial cultures of blood, sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirates were done. Chest X-ray was taken for all patients for confirmation. Results: Out of 110 total subjects, Sixty three cases (57.27%) belonged to the revised WHO classification of pneumonia and 47 (42.72%) cases had severe pneumonia. Ninety cases (81.81%) were less than 3 years of age. The percentage of severe pneumonia was higher in children less than 3 years of age with p value


Spontaneous Perinephric Haematoma In An Otherwise Healthy Adult Female

Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Amit Sharma, Mukund Andankar, Hemant Pathak.
Spontaneous perinephric haematoma is a rare urologic entity. Tumours (both benign and malignant) are the most common causes. Several other causes have also been reported. However, in some patients, no apparent underlying etiology could be found and are described as having idiopathic spontaneous perinephric hematoma. We report a case of idiopathic spontaneous perinephric haematoma in a 38 year-old female who was successfully managed conservatively.


Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting As Pyonephrosis In A Young Adult.

Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Amit Sharma, Mukund Andankar, Hemant Pathak.
Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma is the second most common type of renal malignancy in adults. It presents in fifth to seventh decade of life and is commoner in patients with End Stage Renal Disease and acquired renal cystic diseases. The presentation is similar to the clear cell type of Renal Cell Carcinoma and is asymptomatic usually. We report a case of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in a young adult who presented with pyonephrosis.


Primary Low Grade Spindle Cell Sarcoma Of The Breast

Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Anne Wilkinson, Radhika Mhatre, Anjali Patrikar.
Spindle cell sarcomas of the breast are very rare accounting for 0.2 to 1 % of all breast malignancies. Sarcomas of the breast differ from the invasive epithelial cancers in their presentation, behavior, management, staging and prognosis. Hence it is important to be aware of these rare lesions. This article describes a case of primary low grade spindle cell sarcoma of the breast in a 70 year old female patient.


Stenosis of internal jugular vein detected by ultrasound imaging in renal recipient patient

Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Ahmet Selim Ozkan, Mehmet Ali Erdogan, Sedat Akbas, Mahmut Sahin, Nevzat Erdil.
Central Venous Stenosis (CVS) has been reported as a later complication of recurrent and long-term Central Venous Cannulation (CVC). Using ultrasonography (USG) before or during CVC greatly increases first-pass success and decreases the complications such as arterial puncture or hemotoma. Anatomical abnormalities of Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) often leads to increase the complication rate and the failed attempt. In this presentation; we aimed to report that the use of USG during CVC in renal recipient patient with CVS.


The potential role of S-allylcysteine as antioxidant against various disorders in animal models

Source: Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science
V. V. Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, Balaji Meriga, Ganapathy Saravanan.
Successful regulation of cellular equilibrium among oxidation and anti-oxidation is significant for cellular function and DNA integrity as well as gene expression for signal transduction. Numerous pathological processes, such as cancer, diabetes, heart and/or kidney diseases, Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases, have been revealed to be associated to the redox state of cells. In a challenge to curtail the onset of oxidative stress, administration with diverse recognized antioxidants has been recommended. Glutathione (GSH) is accepted for its capability to reduce oxidative stress and downstream the harmful effects such as lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants thus play a significant part in protecting the human body against the damage caused by reactive oxygen species. S-Allylcysteine (SAC), a sulfur containing amino acid derived from garlic, has been experimentally demonstrated to possess antioxidant and other beneficial activities. In the present review, we addressed the therapeutic effects of SAC as a potential antioxidant on various disorders by increasing GSH and other antioxidants. Authenticated with a number of in vivo, in vitro, animal experiments and some human clinical trials, beneficial effects of SAC were reported in cancer, neurodegeneration, nephrotoxicity, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and other heart diseases, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, preeclampsia and diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, there is no scientific evidence against SAC for having adverse effects.


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