Η φωτογραφία μου
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/,

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Τετάρτη, 19 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Histopathological study of Round Cell tumors - A retrospective study

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Ravi G Patel, Pooja Y Shah, Shridhan G Prajapati, Nirali S Amin, Varsha S Khant.
Background: Round Cell Tumors are heterogeneous malignancy featuring primitive undifferentiated small cell morphology. Small round cell tumors mostly occur in children, adolescents, and young adults. Because of their significant morphological overlap, have become a paradigm for an integrated approach to diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most common ancillary technique used for differential diagnosis of round cell tumors. Finding from all these studies are reviewed and interpreted in respect with clinical history, laboratory investigations, and diagnostic imaging finding. Objectives: (i) To study the incidence, and age vs. sex wise distribution of round cell tumors. (ii) To study the Immunohistochemical (IHC) pattern of these different round cell tumors and correlate the morphological diagnosis with IHC to determine its role as a confirmatory or diagnostic marker of the round cell tumors. Materials and Methods: As a part of study 75 (seventy-five) cases were selected during the year 2013-2015. Relevant findings were obtained. Biopsy tissues/ samples were fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. IHC was performed on each case. Results were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 75 cases, there were 22 cases (29.33%) of Non-Hodgkins lymphoma with the highest incidence. According to age wise distribution, the highest incidence was observed in 0-10 years of age group. According to sex wise distribution, a higher incidence was observed in males. There were 50 cases (66.66 %) of Males and 25 cases (33.33%) of Females. Overall M:F ratio was 2:1. Based on IHC, 22 cases of NHL were further classified into Burkitts lymphoma, Lymphoblastic lymphoma, and Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma. IHC study of PNET and Rhabdomyosarcoma showed CD 99(86.7%), NSE(73.3%) and Vimentin(100%) positivity and Desmin, Actin, CD 99 and Vimentin positivity respectively. IHC study of Neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma showed NSE, NF, Chromogranin, S 100 and Synaptophysin positivity and GFAP, Synaptophysin, Vimentin, and Ki67 positivity respectively. Conclusion: Most frequent Round Cell Tumors are Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, Neuroblastoma, Ewing/PNET and Rhabdomyosarcoma. Neuroblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Wilms Tumor, Hepatoblastoma show presentation in early childhood while Rhabdomyosarcoma is seen throughout childhood. The majority of round cells tumors have male predominance. This study emphasizes the role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) to arrive a definite diagnosis.


A cross-sectional study on exclusive breastfeeding practice among lactating females attending medical college, district Jhansi (U.P)

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Swati Singh, Nitin Tiwari, Anil Kumar Malhotra.
Background: Breast milk is an unequaled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants and has a unique biological and emotional influence on the health of both mother and child. Objectives: The present study was conducted to study the exclusive breastfeeding practice among females and its association with socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on mothers attending the immunization clinic, for the period of four months between September 2015 to December 2015. The study was conducted on 400 nursing mothers, who were selected randomly using the simple random technique. Data was analyzed in SPSS 16 trial version. Chi-square test was used for comparison and statistical significance was taken at P value


Predictors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
R S Pushpa Kumari, V A Vipula, B Suresh Reddy, W Nagadeepa, B L N Reddy.
Background: Hepatic steatosis in Non-Alcoholics may range from a benign indolent deposition of fat [known as non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)] to severe lipotoxicity-induced steatohepatitis with neuroinflammation [known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. NASH is an overlooked complication of Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that if missed may carry serious long-term consequences. Objectives: To determine the Predictors of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: Fatty liver Disease by Ultrasonography & various other relevant factors (clinical and biochemical) were measured in all study subjects. These parameters were compared among two study groups i.e. (NAFLD and normal Liver). The statistical analyses were done using Statistical Analytic system (SAS), Chi-square test & Fisher Exact test were applied. Results: Incidence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in our study is around 62 (59.7%) of which 37 (55%) are males and 25 (45%) are females. The incidence of Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in this study is around 22 (25.5%) of which 15 are males and 7 are females. BMI and WC values are significantly higher in the fatty liver group than normal group. (p


A study of morbidity profile amongst construction workers at selected construction sites in Surendranagar city

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Pratik K. Jasani, Jay H. Nimavat, Jwalant B Joshi, Girija P. Kartha.
Background: Work plays a central role in peoples lives whether it is on a construction site, in an office or in a factory. Workers constitute a large & important sector of the worlds population. The two broad categories of construction works are building & civil engineering. Construction workers in both categories are at greater risk of developing certain health disorders & sickness than workers in many other industries. They are exposed to multiple physical, chemical & biological agents, which make them vulnerable to various health problems that include injuries, respiratory problems, dermatitis, and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Apart from this, in most of the construction projects, the workers employed are unorganized in nature & often not guided by the legislations made for the health & welfare of the workers & hence are not eligible for free or subsidized care. In this context, this study was conducted to understand the health problems of construction workers & to advocate public health measures for the promotion of health & prevention of diseases among construction workers. Objectives: To assess the morbidity profile amongst the construction workers & correlate the findings with the occupational profile of the workers. Materials and Methods: It was a Cross-sectional study carried out among 312 construction workers from 10 different construction sites selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected and analyzed by the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Microsoft Word & Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables etc. Results: The study revealed that most common morbidity among construction workers was one or other types of minor injuries (34%) followed by skin problems (25.64%) & MSDs (19.55%). Conclusion: Illiteracy, poor working conditions, lack of infrastructure & security, inadequate health service utilization make these workers a vulnerable population & it shows the imperative need for an overall socioeconomic development as a key for achieving the desired status.


Treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions regarding malaria in Surat city

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Anjali Modi, Sukesha Gamit, Sankalp Raj Choudhary, Rohit Parmar, Prakash Goghara, Abhay Kavishvar.
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are a public health challenge in India. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation leading to rural-urban migration have led to a surge in cases of malaria. Intense surveillance and vector control strategies are also essential for its control. Surat city being inhabited by migrants is endemic for malaria. Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge about mosquito-borne diseases, treatment seeking behaviour and community perceptions about malaria in Surat city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the seven zones of Surat city namely Central, West, North, West, South East, South West and East zones in the last quarter of the year 2010 with data collection in the month of October 2010. Data was collected in a pre-tested semi-structured open-ended questionnaire, containing questions on socio-demographic profile, knowledge about MBDs, protection from MBDs, public surveillance activities carried out by Government for MBDs and treatment seeking behaviour. Results: About 38.4 % people utilised public sector services for peripheral blood smear examination. The majority (95.4%) of the fever cases took treatment for malaria. Only 59 cases received radical treatment out of 78 Plasmodium vivax cases. About 70% and 55 % of the respondents had correct knowledge about diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and mosquito breeding habits respectively. Around 81% fever cases reported that health workers come to their area for taking peripheral blood smears. Conclusions: The MBD control efforts need to be directed more to health education regarding complete treatment of malaria including the radical treatment. More endeavours for information about mosquitoes and their breeding habits are required.


Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate in a Patient Treated with Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign, self-limiting, necrotizing process involving the minor salivary glands, mainly the mucoserous glands of the hard palate. It is thought to be the result of an ischemic event of the vasculature supplying the salivary gland lobules. Some predisposing factors such as smoking, use of alcohol, denture wearing, recent surgery, traumatic injuries, respiratory infections, systemic diseases bulimia, and anorexia have been described. Herein we present a case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate in a patient without known predisposing factors, in our opinion, resulting from the use of topical anti-inflammatory drug. After diagnosis, the patient underwent treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate and a full palatal acrylic guard to protect the exposed bone from food residues during meals. After the sixth week the lesion regressed.

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Patterning of Endothelial Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting to Study Cell Migration

Tissue engineering of large organs is currently limited by the lack of potent vascularization in vitro. Tissue-engineered bone grafts can be prevascularized in vitro using endothelial cells (ECs). The microvascular network architecture could be controlled by printing ECs following a specific pattern. Using laser-assisted bioprinting, we investigated the effect of distance between printed cell islets and the influence of coprinted mesenchymal cells on migration. When printed alone, ECs spread out evenly on the collagen hydrogel, regardless of the distance between cell islets. However, when printed in coculture with mesenchymal cells by laser-assisted bioprinting, they remained in the printed area. Therefore, the presence of mesenchymal cell is mandatory in order to create a pattern that will be conserved over time. This work describes an interesting approach to study cell migration that could be reproduced to study the effect of trophic factors.

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Carbohydrate Moieties and Cytoenzymatic Characterization of Hemocytes in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed. Enzymatic studies indicated that acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase, and specific esterases were present; alkaline phosphatase was not observed. The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies.

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Activin A Stimulates Aromatase via the ALK4-Smad Pathway in Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. We previously found that the expression of Activin A was upregulated in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. The results of the present study indicated that Activin A induced estradiol secretion and P450arom expression in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) derived from endometriosis patients. The mechanism of estrogenic synthesis was regulated by the Activin-Smad pathway in endometrial lesions. The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the type I receptor, ActRIB) and Smad4-siRNA. Cumulatively, these data suggest that Activin A promotes the secretion of estradiol from ESCs by increasing the expression of P450arom via the ALK4-Smad pathway. These findings indicate the ALK4-Smad pathway may promote ectopic lesion survival and development.

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Carcinoid syndrome

Dr Reichelmann speaks with ecancertv at ESMO 2016 about carcinoid syndrome, which results from carcinoid tumour invasion of organ sites and stimulation of the release of hormones. She describes the symptoms and impacts of carcinoid syndrome on patients...

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Positive lessons of negative trials

Dr Gyawali meets with ecancertv at ESMO 2016 to discuss the value of negative trials, considering the slow progression in treating ovarian cancer. He considers statistically positive studies that have limited benefit for patient survivals, trials...

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Drug repurposing of propanolol

Dr Pantziarka speaks with ecancertv at ESMO 2016 about current efforts, and regulatory hurdles, towards the repurposing of medicines that are approved to treat other diseases, but have the potential to improve cancer patient outcomes. He discusses how...

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Comparison of cellular effects of starch-coated SPIONs and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix nanoparticles on human monocytes


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Effects of nanoporous anodic titanium oxide on human adipose derived stem cells


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Hepatitis C virus E2 protein encapsulation into poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolide microspheres could induce mice cytotoxic T-cell response


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JDB, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Hedgehog Signaling in Prostate Development, Regeneration and Cancer

The prostate is a developmental model system study of prostate growth regulation. Historically the research focus was on androgen regulation of development and growth and instructive interactions between the mesenchyme and epithelium. The study of Hh signaling in prostate development revealed important roles in ductal morphogenesis and in epithelial growth regulation that appear to be recapitulated in prostate cancer. This overview of Hh signaling in the prostate will address the well-described role of paracrine signaling prostate development as well as new evidence suggesting a role for autocrine signaling, the role of Hh signaling in prostate regeneration and reiterative activities in prostate cancer.

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Dr Graff of @OHSUKnight explores first signs of significant clinical activity of PD1 inhibition in prostate cancer… https://t.co/CXUbjlgLKJ

Dr Graff of @OHSUKnight explores first signs of significant clinical activity of PD1 inhibition in prostate cancer… https://t.co/CXUbjlgLKJ

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/788691208201768960

Research from @childrensatl shows oncoproteins interact to promote cancer cell growth & survival in retinoblastoma… https://t.co/Qic5VXc9tg

Research from @childrensatl shows oncoproteins interact to promote cancer cell growth & survival in retinoblastoma… https://t.co/Qic5VXc9tg

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A commentary on the paper: Facial trauma in the Trojan War

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Landing on Mars: How and When


A graphic from the Scientific American archive provides context for this month’s Mars landing attempt

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
feed?d=yIl2AUoC8zA feed?d=qj6IDK7rITs feed?i=n3Yd0w408Pc:wxgJd-yyk04:gIN9vFwOq feed?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 feed?d=ZC7T4KBF6Nw feed?d=I9og5sOYxJI feed?d=xQlvkV3S7Ew

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A North-South Model with Technological Spillovers, Environmental Degradation and Structural Change

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Das Bildliche und das Unbildliche : Nietzsche, Wagner und das Musikdrama

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Diet, Lifestyles, Family History, and Prostate Cancer Incidence in an East Algerian Patient Group

Prostate cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth leading cause of death in Algeria. To examine the relationship between lifestyle factors, including diet, and family history and PC risk, a case-control study was performed in an eastern Algerian population, comprising 90 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 190 controls. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the different variables. The data showed that consumption of lamb and beef meat and high intake of animal fat and dairy products increased PC risk. Seven to thirteen vegetables servings per week and fourteen or more servings decreased PC risk by 62% and 96%, respectively. Seven to fourteen fruit servings per week decrease PC risk by 98%. Green tea consumption reduced the risk of PC but the results were statistically borderline. Increased risk was observed for individuals with family history of PC in first and in second degree. A positive strong association was also found for alcohol and smoking intake and a dose-response relationship existed for quantity and history of smoking. This study suggests that dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and family history have influence on the development of PC in Algerian population.

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Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways: a review

Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Nikhil Pathi, Sundaram Viswanath, Abhishek Pathak, Anvesh Rathore, Abhishek Prukayastha.
The two important enabling characteristics of cancer cells are uncontrolled proliferation and loss of programmed cell death (enhanced survival). These processes are tightly controlled by the discrete integration of signalling cascades that translate extracellular and intracellular cues into specific output responses. Alterations in these pathways in cancer cells by mutation, amplification/deletion, chromosomal translocation, over expression, or epigenetic silencing lead to constitutive activation or suppression of signalling. We will review the major signal transduction cascade well known as the receptor tyrosine kinase pathway, focussing on their common alterations in human cancers and their clinical implications and therapeutics. Since major drug development efforts are presently being focused on the development of targeted inhibitors of oncogene-activated signalling pathways, a detailed understanding of these normal physiological pathways along with their deregulation in cancer will be required of both basic cancer researchers and practicing clinical oncologists for betterment of mankind suffering. Hence with this requirement in mind we have written this article to highlight some of the most important signal transduction pathways that is receptor tyrosine signalling pathways.


Genes, Vol. 7, Pages 89: Systematic Analysis of the 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Related Genes and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development in the Chinese Pear

In plants, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CLs), comprising some of the adenylate-forming enzymes, are key enzymes involved in regulating lignin metabolism and the biosynthesis of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Although several 4CL-related proteins were shown to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study on 4CL-related genes in the pear and other Rosaceae species has been reported. In this study, we identified 4CL-related genes in the apple, peach, yangmei, and pear genomes using DNATOOLS software and inferred their evolutionary relationships using phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, conserved motif analysis, and structure analysis. A total of 149 4CL-related genes in four Rosaceous species (pear, apple, peach, and yangmei) were identified, with 30 members in the pear. We explored the functions of several 4CL and acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) genes during the development of pear fruit by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that duplication events had occurred in the 30 4CL-related genes in the pear. These duplicated 4CL-related genes are distributed unevenly across all pear chromosomes except chromosomes 4, 8, 11, and 12. The results of this study provide a basis for further investigation of both the functions and evolutionary history of 4CL-related genes.

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The CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 Nicotinic Receptor Regulome: Genomic Architecture, Regulatory Variants, and Clinical Associations


Functionally related genes often cluster into a genome region under coordinated regulation, forming a local regulome. To understand regulation of the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor gene cluster, we integrate large-scale RNA expression data (brain and peripheral) from GTEx (Genotype Tissue Expression), clinical associations (GRASP) and linkage disequilibrium data (1,000 Genomes) to find candidate SNPs representing independent regulatory variants. CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNB4 mRNAs, and a well-expressed CHRNA5 antisense RNA (RP11-650L12.2) are co-expressed in many human tissues, suggesting common regulatory elements. The CHRNA5 enhancer haplotype tagged by rs880395 not only increases CHRNA5 mRNA expression in all tissues, but also enhances RP11-650L12.2 and CHRNA3 expression, suggesting DNA looping to multiple promoters. However, in nucleus accumbens and putamen, but not other brain regions, CHRNA3 expression associates uniquely with a haplotype tagged by rs1948 (located in the CHRNB4 3′UTR). Haplotype/diplotype analysis of rs880395 and rs1948 plus rs16969968 (a nonsynonymous CHRNA5 risk variant) in GWAS (COGEND, UW-TTURC, SAGE) yields a nicotine dependence risk profile only partially captured by rs16969968 alone. An example of local gene clusters, this nicotinic regulome is controlled by complex genetic variation, with broad implications for interpreting GWAS.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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La Settimana di consapevolezza sul tumore della testa e del collo ... - Padova News (Comunicati Stampa) (Blog)

La Settimana di consapevolezza sul tumore della testa e del collo ...
Padova News (Comunicati Stampa) (Blog)
... – Oggi, nel giorno dell'apertura della quarta edizione della Settimana di consapevolezza sul tumore della testa e del collo (19-23 settembre), la Societa' ...

and more »

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Recycling cancer-fighting tools for cheaper radioisotopes

According to the World Nuclear Association, more than 10,000 hospitals worldwide use radioisotopes in medicine. Molybdenum-99, the parent isotope of technetium-99m, is the most widely used radioisotope for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However,...

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Protein network linked to cancer is critical to male fertility

Researchers studying reproductive science identified a network of proteins often linked to cancer as also important to male fertility and the birth of healthy offspring, according to a study in the online issue of Cell Reports. The study by Satoshi...

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SPARCL1 manages angiogenesis, denies tumour growth

When tumours develop they absorb oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding tissue. Once the tumour reaches a certain size, this is no longer enough to allow it to continue growing. It needs new blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients. A common...

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Vulnerabilities of leukaemia cells revealed using genome editing technique

Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators have adapted a CRISPR gene editing technique and used it to find new therapeutic targets for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In research published today in Cell Reports, the team...

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Spatiotemporal Pattern of Human Cortical and Subcortical Activity during Early-Stage Odor Processing

The dynamics of early-stage cortical and subcortical responses in the human brain to odor stimulation are currently unknown. The objective of the present study was to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of human brain activity during odor perception using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In 12 normosmic healthy subjects, we investigated the onset of brain activity in relation to ipsilateral and contralateral stimulation with 2 odorants. Olfactory stimuli (200ms duration) were applied using an olfactometer, and brain activity was recorded with a 248-magnetometer whole-head MEG system. Olfactory responses were identified shortly (within 150ms) after stimulus onset in both hemispheres. Stimulation on the ipsilateral side yielded signals earlier (starting at 90ms) compared with contralateral stimulation in the primary olfactory cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex (P < 0.001). The duration and peak amplitude of olfactory evoked magnetic fields were found to increase with increasing poststimulus time in the majority of the investigated cortical structures (P ≤ 0.019 and P ≤ 0.021). The study showed the locations of early olfactory brain activity in humans within 150ms after the onset of stimuli. Olfactory activation is processed on the ipsilateral side of stimulation in early stages. After a short delay of 34ms a corresponding pattern of activation was also seen in the contralateral hemisphere, indicating the functional connectivity between the 2 hemispheres in the anterior commissure.

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Asymmetrical Processing of Olfactory Input in the Piriform Cortex Mediates "Activation" of the Avian Navigation Circuitry

The role of odors in the long-distance navigation of birds has elicited intense debate for more than half a century. Failure to resolve many of the issues fueling this debate is due at least in part to the absence of controls for a variety of non-specific effects that odors have on the navigational process. The present experiments were carried out to investigate whether the olfactory inputs are involved only in "activation" of neuronal circuitry involved in navigation or are also playing a role in providing directional information. Experienced adult pigeons were exposed to controlled olfactory stimuli during different segments of the journey (release site vs. displacement + release site). Protein levels of IEGs (immediate early genes used to mark synaptic activity) were analyzed in areas within the olfactory/navigation avian circuitry. The results indicate that 1) exposure to natural odors at the release site (and not before) elicit greater activation across brain regions than exposure to filtered air, artificial odors, and natural odors along the entire outward journey (from home to the release site, inclusive); 2) activation of the piriform cortex in terms of odor discrimination is lateralized; 3) activation of the navigation circuitry is achieved by means of lateralized activation of piriform cortex neurons. Altogether, the findings provide the first direct evidence that activation of the avian navigation circuitry is mediated by asymmetrical processing of olfactory input occurring in the right piriform cortex.

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Editorial Board

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Temperature Influences Chorda Tympani Nerve Responses to Sweet, Salty, Sour, Umami, and Bitter Stimuli in Mice

Temperature profoundly affects the perceived intensity of taste, yet we know little of the extent of temperature’s effect on taste in the peripheral nervous system. Accordingly, we investigated the influence of temperature from 23 °C to 43 °C in 4 °C intervals on the integrated responses of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve to a large series of chemical stimuli representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes in C57BL/J6 mice. We also measured neural responses to NaCl, Na-gluconate, Na-acetate, Na-sulfate, and MSG with and without 5 µM benzamil, an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) antagonist, to assess the influence of temperature on ENaC-dependent and ENaC-independent response components. Our results showed that for most stimuli (0.5M sucrose, glucose, fructose, and maltose; 0.02M saccharin and sucralose; 0.5M NaCl, Na-gluconate, Na-acetate, Na-sulfate, KCl, K-gluconate, K-acetate, and K-sulfate; 0.05M citric acid, acetic acid, and HCl; 0.1M MSG and 0.05M quinine hydrochloride: QHCl), CT response magnitudes were maximal between 35 °C and 39 °C and progressively smaller at cooler or warmer temperatures. In contrast, the weakest responses to NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, and K-sulfate were at the lowest temperature, with response magnitude increasing monotonically with increasing temperature, while the largest responses to acetic acid were at the lowest temperature, with response magnitude decreasing with increasing temperature. The response to sweet and umami stimuli across temperatures were similar reflecting the involvement of TRPM5 activity, in contrast to bitter stimuli, which were weakly affected by temperature. Temperature-modulated responses to salts and acids most likely operate through mechanisms independent of ENaC and TRPM5.

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A Unifying Data-Driven Model of Human Olfactory Pathology Representing Known Etiologies of Dysfunction

In the clinical diagnosis of olfactory function, 2 quantitative extremes of either lost or normal olfactory function are in the focus while no particular attention is directed at the interval between the 2 main diagnoses of "anosmia" or "normosmia", respectively. We analyzed the modal distribution of olfactory scores with the intention to describe a complex human olfactory pathology in a unifying model. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, olfactory performance scores acquired from 10714 individuals by means of a clinically established psychophysical test were analyzed with respect to their modal distribution by fitting a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to the data. The probability distribution of all olfactory scores was found to be multimodal. It could be described as a mixture of 6 Gaussian distributions at a high statistical significance level of P < 10–5. Moreover, 9 different pathologies associated with the olfactory dysfunction could be shown to be reflected in 1–3 distinct Gaussians. This provides the possibility to assign distinct degrees of olfactory acuity with each etiology. Results indicate that human olfactory pathology is composed of clearly distinct subpathologies that can be connected with underlying subetiologies. We present a unifying data science-based model that satisfies the human olfactory pathology observed in 10714 subjects. The analysis of the distribution of their olfactory performance scores suggests a complex but very distinct human olfactory pathology. This implies a distinction of the olfactory diagnosis of hyposmia from those of anosmia or normosmia.

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Table of Contents

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17th International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste (ISOT2016): PACIFICO Yokohama, Yokohama, Japan, June 5 - 9, 2016 President: Yuzo Nimoniya

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Is the Association Between Sweet and Bitter Perception due to Genetic Variation?

Perceived intensities of sweetness and bitterness are correlated with one another and each is influenced by genetics. The extent to which these correlations share common genetic variation, however, remains unclear. In a mainly adolescent sample (n = 1901, mean age 16.2 years), including 243 monozygotic (MZ) and 452 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, we estimated the covariance among the perceived intensities of 4 bitter compounds (6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP], sucrose octa-acetate, quinine, caffeine) and 4 sweeteners (the weighted mean ratings of glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, aspartame) with multivariate genetic modeling. The sweetness factor was moderately correlated with sucrose octa-acetate, quinine, and caffeine (r p = 0.35–0.40). This was mainly due to a shared genetic factor (r g = 0.46–0.51) that accounted for 17–37% of the variance in the 3 bitter compounds’ ratings and 8% of the variance in general sweetness ratings. In contrast, an association between sweetness and PROP only became evident after adjusting for the TAS2R38 diplotype (r p increased from 0.18 to 0.32) with the PROP genetic factor accounting for 6% of variance in sweetness. These genetic associations were not inflated by scale use bias, as the cross-trait correlations for both MZ and DZ twins were weak. There was also little evidence for mediation by cognition or behavioral factors. This suggests an overlap of genetic variance between perceptions of sweetness and bitterness from a variety of stimuli, which includes PROP when considering the TAS2R38 diplotype. The most likely sources of shared variation are within genes encoding post-receptor transduction mechanisms common to the various taste G protein-coupled receptors.

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Humans Can Taste Glucose Oligomers Independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 Sweet Taste Receptor

It is widely accepted that humans can taste mono- and disaccharides as sweet substances, but they cannot taste longer chain oligo- and polysaccharides. From the evolutionary standpoint, the ability to taste starch or its oligomeric hydrolysis products would be highly adaptive, given their nutritional value. Here, we report that humans can taste glucose oligomer preparations (average degree of polymerization 7 and 14) without any other sensorial cues. The same human subjects could not taste the corresponding glucose polymer preparation (average degree of polymerization 44). When the sweet taste receptor was blocked by lactisole, a known sweet inhibitor, subjects could not detect sweet substances (glucose, maltose, and sucralose), but they could still detect the glucose oligomers. This suggests that glucose oligomer detection is independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 sweet taste receptor. Human subjects described the taste of glucose oligomers as "starchy," while they describe sugars as "sweet." The dose–response function of glucose oligomer was also found to be indistinguishable from that of glucose on a molar basis.

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Olfactory Impairment in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Using Threshold, Discrimination, and Identification Scores

Differences in testing modalities and cut-points used to define olfactory dysfunction contribute to the wide variability in estimating the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of olfactory impairment using each component of the Sniffin’ Sticks test (threshold, discrimination, identification, and total score) with age-adjusted and ideal cut-points from normative populations. Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for CRS were enrolled from rhinology clinics at a tertiary academic center. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin’ Sticks test. The study population consisted of 110 patients. The prevalence of normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia using total Sniffin’ Sticks score was 41.8%, 20.0%, and 38.2% using age-appropriate cut-points and 20.9%, 40.9%, and 38.2% using ideal cut-points. Olfactory impairment estimates for each dimension mirrored these findings, with threshold yielding the highest values. Threshold, discrimination, and identification were also found to be significantly correlated to each other (P < 0.001). In addition, computed tomography scores, asthma, allergy, and diabetes were found to be associated with olfactory dysfunction. In conclusion, the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction is dependent upon olfactory dimension and if age-adjusted cut-points are used. The method of olfactory testing should be chosen based upon specific clinical and research goals.

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Methods for Fitting Olfactory Psychometric Functions: A Case Study Comparing Psychometric Functions for Individuals with a "Sensitive" or "Insensitive" Genotype for {beta}-Ionone

In psychophysics, the detection of sensory signals can be depicted by a psychometric function (PF)—a sigmoid function determined by the intercept (i.e., threshold) and the slope (i.e., the rate of increase of detection probability). Fitting psychometric functions is, however, unpopular in chemosensory research, particularly in olfaction. Most olfactory studies adopt ad hoc methods involving a fixed-performance criterion, which result only in a threshold estimate rather than a complete detection profile. This study illustrates the method selection process for fitting olfactory PFs, using a unique odorant—β-ionone—as an exemplar. This particular odorant has a bimodal threshold distribution across the population, which is known to associate with individuals’ genotypes for rs6591536. The characteristics of β-ionone enabled us to use a receiver operating characteristic analysis to assess the different odor threshold estimation methods. The results showed that the available methods based on PFs discriminated between individuals of different genotypes with greater accuracy than the ad hoc method. By fitting PFs to the separate genotypic groups, we also made the first observation of the relationship between genotypic variation and the slope parameter of olfactory PFs. The genetically identified β-ionone "sensitive" group (s = 1.102–1.883) was shown to have significantly shallower PFs than the β-ionone "insensitive" group (s = 0.542–0.724). The slope difference may indicate potential discrepancies in the combinatorial coding scheme of odors between these 2 genotype groups, inviting future research to identify the physiological basis.

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Olfactory Dysfunction in IgG4-Related Disease

IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized systemic disease, and its elucidation is progressing. However, little is known about its sinonasal manifestations. The aim of this study was to assess the olfaction of patients with IgG4-related disease. Twenty-five patients with IgG4-related disease underwent T&T olfactometry to measure olfactory function. We analyzed the clinical features, including serum IgG4 and IgE levels, involved organs, and sinonasal computed tomography scores to explore the etiology of olfactory dysfunction. Thirteen patients with IgG4-related disease were found to have moderate to severe olfactory dysfunction (52%). There were no differences in the clinical features between the olfactory dysfunction group and the normal group. In 7 patients, the inferior turbinate was biopsied to study the correlation between olfaction score and the number of IgG4-positive cells, but no such correlation was found. Six hyposmia patients recovered to a normal state. Five patients recovered after corticosteroid treatment and 1 recovered spontaneously. We found that the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was high in patients with IgG4-related disease and that it could be reversed. Olfactory dysfunction appears to be a novel important manifestation of IgG4-related disease.

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Recognition by Rats of Binary Taste Solutions and Their Components

This behavioral study investigated how rats conditioned to binary mixtures of preferred and aversive taste stimuli, respectively, responded to the individual components in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm. The preference of stimuli was determined based on the initial results of 2 bottle preference test. The preferred stimuli included 5mM sodium saccharin (Sacc), 0.03M NaCl (Na), 0.1M Na, 5mM Sacc + 0.03M Na, and 5mM Sacc + 0.2mM quinine hydrochloride (Q), whereas the aversive stimuli tested were 1.0M Na, 0.2mM Q, 0.3mM Q, 5mM Sacc + 1.0M Na, and 5mM Sacc + 0.3mM Q. In CTA tests where LiCl was the unconditioned stimulus, the number of licks to the preferred binary mixtures and to all tested preferred components were significantly less than in control rats. No significant difference resulted between the number of licks to the aversive binary mixtures or to all tested aversive components. However, when rats pre-exposed to the aversive components contained of the aversive binary mixtures were conditioned to these mixtures, the number of licks to all the tested stimuli was significantly less than in controls. Rats conditioned to components of the aversive binary mixtures generalized to the binary mixtures containing those components. These results suggest that rats recognize and remember preferred and aversive taste mixtures as well as the preferred and aversive components of the binary mixtures, and that pre-exposure before CTA is an available method to study the recognition of aversive taste stimuli.

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A girl with an abnormal gait

A 1 year old girl presented to the paediatric orthopaedic clinic with abnormal gait. Her parents noticed that she had a “duck-like” waddle when she had first started to walk a month previously. On...
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Industry sponsorship hits the headlines

The headlines after the first day of the Royal College of General Practitioners’ annual conference at the beginning of October were unexpected. Chair Maureen Baker’s speech to the 1630 registrants...
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David Oliver: Four riders of the NHS apocalypse

The NHS faces an existential crisis. Last week, four news stories foretold its apocalypse. Think of them as the four horse riders from the Book of Revelation.1On 11 October Chris Hopson, chief of NHS...
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Intelligent Luddites . . . and other stories

Genes and breast cancer treatmentNobody seems to know if there was a real Ned Ludd who went around smashing spinning machines in Lancashire, but the name Luddite has been used for 200 years for...
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