Παρασκευή, 18 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Effect of aerobics on general well-being and physical parameters

2016-11-18T09-36-12Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Pooja Godiyal, Grace M Singh, Priya JP Narayan.
Background: Many people suffer physically and mentally due to various diseases and ailments as a result of erratic lifestyles. Lifestyle modification is a pro-active approach toward optimum health and wellness by bringing about appropriate changes in the way we live to Live Life More and physical activity plays an important role in this aspect. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of dance aerobics on general well-being (GWB) and selected physical parameters of nursing students. Materials and Methods: Quasi-experimental approach with time series design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Himalayan College of Nursing, HIHT, Dehradun. Consecutive sampling technique was used to collect data from 40 subjects. Results: The improvement in GWB with a mean difference (MD) of 26.45 was found significant at P

http://ift.tt/2g40Yvp

Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among adults of reproductive age group in an urban slum of Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

2016-11-18T09-36-12Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Ranganath T S, Shibi S, Nimra Shireen, Swetha N B.
Background: People living in slums are often deprived of health-care facilities, making them vulnerable to several health issues and infections. One of the most fatal infections is HIV/AIDS, and moreover, many are not even aware of available services for the treatment of such fatal diseases. HIV-related stigma and discrimination remain an important barrier in effectively fighting the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Objectives: To assess the comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among adults of reproductive age group in an urban slum in Bengaluru and to assess the attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)among the slum population. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out among adults of reproductive age group (15-49 years of age)in urban slums of Bengaluru. The study was conducted among 260 participants over a period of 3 months (July to September 2015). House to house survey was done and data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS 21 software. Descriptive statistics such as frequency tables, pie diagrams, and bar charts were used wherever necessary. Results: Only 35.3% (92)of study participants were aware of the fact that HIV can be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 41.9% (109)knew about transmission from mother-to-child during delivery. Although the majority of the participants said they felt sympathetic toward PLWHA, 207 (79.6%)of them believed that PLWHA should not marry, and 114 (43.8%) thought that HIV positive women should not give birth to a child. Conclusion: Comprehensive knowledge of transmission and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS is still low among the slum population. Therefore, programs must focus on appropriate behavior change communication especially among women in the reproductive age group in slum areas.


http://ift.tt/2fMy67L

Impact of active smoking, passive smoking, and smoking cessation on overweight and obesity: First national cross-sectional study

2016-11-18T09-36-12Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Amani Haidar, Lama Jouni, Mohamad Koubar, Sarine El Daouk, Maha Hoteit.
Background: Smoking and obesity are two major modifiable leading causes of preventable mortality and morbidity worldwide. The relationship between smoking and body weight is still incompletely understood. Objective: To examine the impact of active smoking, passive smoking, and smoking cessation on overweight and obesity in the Lebanese population, aged 18 years and above in Beirut. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 Lebanese adults aged 18 years and older were recruited. The Global Tobacco Surveillance System questionnaire was used to collect the data about smoking in the population studied. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were also performed to test possible association between smoking status and body weight. Results: No significant association exists between current smoking and body weight (P = 0.166), but smokers may have 2.59 times more chance to be overweight, 2.37 times to be obese, and 2.68 times to have a morbid obesity. Former smokers have a 0.15 times higher risk of being overweight compared to nonsmokers (odds ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.036-0.70]. Passive smoking at home was associated with lower BMI compared to nonsmokers (P = 0.034). Conclusions: We conclude that smoking may be a crucial factor in overweight and obesity among men and women mainly who have stopped smoking. It may be expected that from a public health perspective the problems from weight gain do not outweigh the benefits from smoking cessation. There is a large unused potential to prevent weight gain among smokers before and after they quit. Overweight might probably be prevented by support of smokers who quit, for example, by the provision of information on weight control or by teaching coping skills. Furthermore, passive smokers should be provided with the information that the nicotine smoked prevents weight gain during the time of exposure and once quit weight gain will be unpreventable.


http://ift.tt/2g3Z261

A post-mortem study of coronary atherosclerosis and relationship to myocardial infarction in Ajmer region

2016-11-18T09-36-12Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Dinesh Beelwal, Geeta Pachori, Ravi Kant Sunaria, Vinit Goyal.
Background: The incidence of coronary heart disease has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Ischemic heart disease, the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing countries today, is overwhelmingly contributed by atherosclerosis. Objectives: The study was done to determine the burden of atherosclerotic lesions in the population of Ajmer district. This study also highlights the various grades of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries and the relationship of atherosclerosis with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: We studied atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries in cases subjected to autopsy in last 5 years, to grade and to evaluate the atheromatous plaques; and to assess the cases of MI among them. The study comprises dissected specimens of heart in total 600 cases subjected for an autopsy. The vessels were examined for the presence of atherosclerotic lesions which were graded according to the American Heart Association and examined for evidence of MI. Results: The study comprises the cases in the age group between 0 to 80 years. The most common type of atherosclerosis seen was Grade 5. Left anterior descending coronary was most commonly involved artery. MI was the cause of death in 75 cases (12.5%). The data obtained may form a baseline for the forthcoming studies. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of cardiovascular risk factors screening from early ages of third decades. Our study aids valuable data to the literature regarding the morphology of atherosclerotic lesions.


http://ift.tt/2fMB9Ng

Behavior of plasma interferon-gamma with graded exercise in individuals with varied body mass index and age: Risk stratification of predisposition to inflammation

2016-11-18T08-46-40Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ambarish Vijayaraghava.
Background: Increasing body mass index (BMI) and age predispose one to cardiometabolic disorders and their complications. Cardiometabolic disorders and their complications are associated with excessive inflammation leading to further exacerbation. Regular moderate exercise modulates inflammatory processes. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which protects against excessive inflammation. We assessed the plasma levels of IFN-γ after different grades of exercise in normal healthy individuals with variable BMI and age. Aims and Objective: To study the behavior of plasma IFN-γ with graded exercise in individuals with varied BMI and age. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 healthy volunteers (21 males and 19 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years were enlisted into the study. Each volunteer performed a bout of moderate exercise, a bout of severe exercise, and 1 month regular moderate exercise under supervision. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of BMI was 22.26 ± 3.3 kg/m2. BMI ranged between 19 kg/m2 and 26 kg/m2. Blood samples from cubital vein were collected before a bout of moderate exercise (baseline), after moderate exercise, after a bout of severe exercise, and at the end of 1 month of regular moderate exercise. Plasma IFN-γ was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: Mean and SD of IFN-γ at baseline (no exercise) was 10.54 ± 2.21 pg/ml. After a bout of moderate exercise, its levels increased to 21.21 ± 1.34 pg/ml. Mean and SD of IFN-γ after a bout of strenuous exercise was 8.32 ± 1.45 pg/ml. The IFN-γ levels increased to 38.98 ± 2.33 pg/ml at the end of 1 month of regular moderate exercise. Its levels were higher in healthy individuals with lower BMI and lower age. But on the performance of 1 month of regular moderate exercise, the IFN-γ levels of higher age group and higher BMI came closer to that of the lower age group with lower BMI. This indicates that regular physical activity confers protection against excessive inflammation in spite of higher BMI and age. Conclusion: Although an increase in physical stress, BMI and age predispose one to inflammation, regular physical activity of moderate nature protects against inflammation by increasing levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ.


http://ift.tt/2gqR08t

Smile and dental aesthetics: a literature review

2016-11-18T06-07-55Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Funda Demir, Elif Aybala Oktay, Fulya Toksoy Topcu.
The importance of dentofacial appeal in regard to the individual's psycho-social well-being is a proven fact. One of the most important factors that affect people's smiles is teeth. A dental restorations positive impact on the patient's smile, appearance, self-confidence and overall mental health can not be underestimated. In this review, the relation between smile and dental aesthetics is being addressed together with teeth, gum, face elements, aesthetics criteria and cases.


http://ift.tt/2f7sNyl

The efficacy of clobetasol, dexpanthenol, and fucidic acid in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity

2016-11-18T06-07-55Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Didem Tastekin.
Cetuximab (CTX) is a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is used as a monotherapy or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Severe cutaneous reactions are frequent and major causes of discontinuation of CTX treatment. This open-label study evaluated the efficacy of a mixture drug topically applied to skin lesions in patients with mCRC who developed skin toxicity caused by CTX. Twenty patients with mCRC were included in this prospective, single-center, open-labeled trial. The patients had received CTX in addition to chemotherapy and developed grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity and were treated twice daily with an ointment mixture of clobetasol, dexpanthenol, and fucidic acid. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity were necessary. Skin toxicity relapsed in the following chemotherapy cycles in all patients after discontinuation of the ointment. Repeated administration of the ointment resulted in improvement of skin toxicity and allowed continuation of CTX treatment. This ointment mixture seems to be effective in the treatment of CTX-induced skin toxicity in patients with mCRC.


http://ift.tt/2gnhhDS

A cross sectional study to evaluate needle stick injuries among health care workers in Malabar medical college, Calicut, Kerala, India

2016-11-18T04-29-22Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ananthachari K. R., Divya C. V..
Background: Percutaneous injuries caused by needle sticks pose a significant risk of blood borne pathogens among health care workers. Many factors are involved in transmission of infections like HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C such as overuse of injections, lack of disposable syringes, safer needle devices, sharps disposal containers, passing instruments from hand to hand, lack of awareness and adequate training. Needle stick injuries (NSI) are under reported, this study helps to know the causes and other factors related to NSI for effective prevention. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted among all health care workers who consented to participated in the study in July 1st to July 31st 2016. 514 health workers were interviewed and given a pre-detested, semi-structured questionnaire was given to elicit information regarding the factors for causation of NSI and its effective prevention. Results: 21.1% (108) of the health care workers had NSI. 45.4% were interns, followed by nursing staff (26.8%). 55.5% (60) had history of NSI while performing any surgeries or assisting procedures. Majority of them knew about the transmission of HIV (100%), Hepatitis B (99.1%) and Hepatitis C (81.4%) and Malaria (20.3). NSI reporting was observed at 46.2%. 88.2% (90) of them had completed their 3 dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccine, 48% (52) had received training on universal precautions. Conclusions: NSI was seen more among interns and nursing staff. They had good knowledge regarding the diseases transmission due to NSI and Vaccination. Effective periodic training on universal precautions can prevent NSI.


http://ift.tt/2eNem7n

Transplant ineligible multiple myeloma patients presenting as paraplegia/paraparesis a prospective single institution study

2016-11-18T04-17-24Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Aravindh Sivanandan Anand, Vipin George Kuriakose, Resmi K. P., Sabarinath P. S..
Background: Multiple myeloma a plasma cell neoplasm characterized by heterogeneous myriad of presentation with paraparesis or paraplegia in 20% cases due to spinal cord compression by vertebral collapse, compression or fracture. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of thirty transplant ineligible multiple myeloma patients with paraplegia/paraparesis. Pretreatment evaluation done as per standard protocol including MRI whole spine. Involved spine XRT 8Gy single fraction followed by BLD (Bortezomib 1.3mg/m2 weekly once, Lenalidomide 10mg/m2 for 21 days, oral dexamethasone 40 mg weekly once). Neurological parameters, time to neurological and tumor response at 6 months assessed. Patients in very good partial response or complete response were maintained on Lenalidomide and bisphosphonate therapy for a period of two years. The duration of symptoms and time to response were analyzed with Mann Whitney Cox test. Results: 15 patients were grade 0 power and others grade 1 or 2. Median time to any neurological response was 2.97 weeks. 63.3% of patients achieved power of grade 5, 30% grade 4 and 6.7% grade 3 powers. 23.3% patients received complete response while 63.3% patients very good partial response. Conclusions: Bedridden myeloma patients had an excellent improvement in quality of life and tumor control with this treatment schedule.


http://ift.tt/2g3dclb

Histopathological spectrum of ophthalmic lesions in Chhattisgarh: study from a tertiary care centre

2016-11-18T01-26-01Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Kujur P., Mulkalwar M., Kosam S..
Background: Ophthalmic pathology is a subspecialty of cellular pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of eye diseases. Ophthalmic pathologists study tissues excised by ophthalmologists through evisceration and enucleation and other small biopsies from various ophthalmic surgeries. Ophthalmic lesions include a wide spectrum of lesions ranging from benign, premalignant to malignant lesions. The diagnosis of these lesions is based on the clinical as well as histopathological features. Methods: The present study was an observational prospective study conducted on a 62 ophthalmic biopsies received in Histopathology laboratory, Department of Pathology, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College and Dr. B.R.A.M. Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, between March 2016 and October 2016. Institutional ethics committee of Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, India has approved this study. Informed written consent was collected from the patients or their relatives. Results: Out of 62 cases of ophthalmic biopsies, 38 (61.29%) were non-neoplastic and 24 (38.71%) were neoplastic lesions. Among non-neoplastic lesions, inflammatory lesions of lacrimal sac were more common 16 (42%) followed by conjuctival lesions 10 (26.3%). Among the neoplastic lesions, retinoblastoma was the most common malignancy 11 (45.83%). Conclusions: The most common ocular malignancy was retinoblastoma; among non-neoplastic disorder, chronic dacryoadenitis followed by benign lesions of conjunctiva. Some ocular masses composed of rhino sporangium involving conjunctiva, lid or lacrimal sac.


http://ift.tt/2gpt2uf

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις