Πέμπτη, 11 Φεβρουαρίου 2016

Review: 'Deadpool' plays to Ryan Reynolds' snarky strengths - Charleston Gazette-Mail (subscription)


Charleston Gazette-Mail (subscription)

Review: 'Deadpool' plays to Ryan Reynolds' snarky strengths
Charleston Gazette-Mail (subscription)
When Wade discovers he has advanced-stage cancer, he undergoes an underground experimental treatment, in which his mutant genes are tortured into life by Francis (Ed Skrein) and his henchlady Angel Dust (Gina Carano). The treatment works, imbuing ...



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Carfilzomib combined with suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) synergistically promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

Abstract

Purpose

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a therapeutic target for pharmacologic intervention in cancer cells. We hypothesized that combining carfilzomib (CFZ), a proteasome inhibitor, and vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, would synergistically activate ER stress in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor activity.

Methods

Five NSCLC cell lines were treated with CFZ, SAHA, or the combination and cell proliferation measured using the MTT assay. Calcusyn software was utilized to determine the combination index as a measure of synergy. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured using trypan blue exclusion, CellTiter, and CytoTox assays. Western blot was used to measure markers of apoptosis, ER stress, and oxidative stress-related proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the fluorophore CM–H2DCFDA.

Results

Synergistic activity was observed for all cell lines following 48 and 72 h of combined treatment. H520 and A549 cell lines were used to assess viability and apoptosis. In both cell lines, increased death and cleaved caspase-3 were observed following combination treatment as compared with single-agent treatments. Combination therapy was associated with upregulation of ER stress-regulated proteins including activating transcription factor 4, GRP78/BiP, and C/EBP homologous protein. Both cell lines also showed increased ROS and the oxidative stress-related protein, heat shock protein 70.

Conclusion

Combining proteasome inhibition with HDAC inhibition enhances ER stress, which may contribute to the synergistic anticancer activity observed in NSCLC cell lines. Further preclinical and clinical studies of CFZ + SAHA in NSCLC are warranted.



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Demographic, tumor and clinical features of clinical trials versus clinical practice patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: results of a prospective study

Abstract

Background

Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (BC). However, RCT patients may not invariably be representative of patients routinely seen in clinical practice (CP). To address this issue, we compared the clinical and tumor features of RCT and CP patients with HER2-positive BC.

Patients and methods

From January to December 2012, 650 consecutive patients with HER2-positive early BC, treated in 36 different types of Italian healthcare facilities, were enrolled in this study. Age, treatment, tumor size (T), nodes (N), grade (G), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status were prospectively collected in these CP patients. The same data were extracted from the main adjuvant trastuzumab RCTs and pooled using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. RCT and CP patients were compared by using the Cochran Q statistics.

Results

Versus RCT patients, CP patients were more likely to be older than 50 years (65 vs. 49 %; p < 0.0001) and to have HR (ER and/or PgR)-positive (72 vs. 54 %; p < 0.0001) BC and less likely to have tumor >2 cm (T ≥ 2 cm 39 vs. 59 %; p < 0.0001), positive N (47 vs. 89 %; p < 0.0001) and a high G (61 vs. 67 %; p = 0.0241). CP patients more frequently received adjuvant endocrine therapy (70 vs. 57 %; p < 0.0003) and less frequently adjuvant chemotherapy (97 vs. 99.7 %; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Most tumor and clinical features differed significantly between CP and RCT patients. These data raise concerns about the applicability of RCT results to CP patients.



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MicroRNA-206 functions as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer by targeting FMNL2

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. MicroRNAs play important roles in the progression of CRC. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-206 and its novel mechanism in the invasion and metastasis of CRC.

Methodology

Real-time RT-PCR or Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of miR-206, FMNL2 and c-MET in CRC cell lines and tissues. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to detect the associations between miR-206 and 3′UTRs of FMNL2 and c-MET. A series of loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays were performed to evaluate the effect of miR-206 on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of CRC cells.

Results

miR-206 was significantly down-regulated in CRC tissues and correlated closely with differentiation, lymphatic metastasis and serosal invasion. miR-206 suppressed CRC cell proliferation by arresting CRC cells in the G1/G0 phase and accelerating apoptosis. miR-206 also inhibited cell invasion and lung metastasis in CRC cells. Mechanically, FMNL2 and c-MET were identified as direct targets of miR-206. And FMNL2 rescued the suppression of miR-206 in the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells.

Conclusions

This study revealed functional and mechanistic links between miR-206 and oncogene FMNL2 and c-MET in the progression of CRC. miR-206 functioned as a tumor suppressor in the progression of CRC by targeting FMNL2 and c-MET. Restoration of miR-206 expression may represent a promising therapeutic approach for targeting malignant CRC.



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Unique intravascular tumor microenvironment predicting recurrence of lung squamous cell carcinoma

Abstract

Purpose

Histological vascular invasion (VI) by tumors is a risk factor for recurrence after surgical resection. However, VI features vary histologically. The aim of this study was to identify characteristic VI features that are associated with recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung.

Methods

We enrolled 149 patients with pathological stage I primary lung SCC in this study and examined whether the presence, frequency, and size of VI were associated with recurrence. We also evaluated immunophenotypes of carcinoma cells and stromal cells within VI areas.

Results

Of the 149 patients, 58 had tumors with VI. The presence of VI was significantly correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.018). Although VI frequency was not associated with RFS, larger VI size (>425 µm) was significantly correlated with shorter RFS (P = 0.003). Carcinoma cells within larger VI areas expressed significantly higher levels of podoplanin, cancer stem cell marker (P = 0.039); higher numbers of CD34+ microvessels (P = 0.009), CD204+ macrophages (P = 0.026), and α-SMA+ myofibroblasts (P = 0.056) were present within larger VI areas than within smaller VI ones.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that larger VI areas are a predictor for recurrence in lung SCC; also, within the larger blood vessel, cancer stem cells and abundant stromal cells can create a more favorable microenvironment for tumor metastasis.



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Notch signaling in the prostate: critical roles during development and in the hallmarks of prostate cancer biology

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to summarize the evidence that Notch signaling is associated with prostate development, tumorigenesis and prostate tumor progression.

Methods

Studies in PubMed database were searched using the keywords of Notch signaling, prostate development and prostate cancer. Relevant literatures were identified and summarized.

Results

The Notch pathway plays an important role in determining cell fate, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recent findings have highlighted the involvement of Notch signaling in prostate development and in the maintenance of adult prostate homeostasis. Aberrant Notch expression in tissues leads to dysregulation of Notch functions and promotes various neoplasms, including prostate cancer. High expression of Notch has been implicated in prostate cancer, and its expression increases with higher cancer grade. However, the precise role of Notch in prostate cancer has yet to be clearly defined. The roles of Notch either as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in prostate cancer hallmarks such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and anoikis, hypoxia, migration and invasion, angiogenesis as well as the correlation with metastasis are therefore discussed.

Conclusions

Notch signaling is a complicated signaling pathway in modulating prostate development and prostate cancer. Understanding and manipulating Notch signaling could therefore be of potential therapeutic value in combating prostate cancer.



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Treatment results of alternating chemoradiotherapy followed by proton beam therapy boost combined with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for stage III–IVB tongue cancer

Abstract

Purpose

Proton beam therapy (PBT), compared with conventional radiotherapy, can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor, while minimizing doses delivered to surrounding normal tissues. The better dose distribution of PBT may contribute to the improvement in local control rate and reduction in late adverse events. We evaluated therapeutic results and toxicities of PBT combined with selective intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (PBT-IACT) in patients with stage III–IVB squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

Materials and methods

After 2 systemic chemotherapy courses and whole-neck irradiation (36 Gy in 20 fractions), we administered concurrent chemoradiotherapy comprising PBT for the primary tumor [28.6–33 Gy(RBE) in 13–15 fractions] and for the metastatic neck lymph node [33–39.6 Gy(RBE) in 15–18 fractions] with weekly retrograde intra-arterial chemotherapy by continuous infusion of cisplatin with sodium thiosulfate.

Results

Between February 2009 and September 2012, 33 patients were enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 43 months. The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, local control rate, and regional control rate for the neck were 87.0, 74.1, 86.6, and 83.9 %, respectively. Major acute toxicities >grade 3 included mucositis in 26 cases (79 %), neutropenia in 17 cases (51 %), and dermatitis in 11 cases (33 %). Late grade 2 osteoradionecrosis was observed in 1 case (3 %).

Conclusions

PBT-IACT for stage III–IVB tongue cancer has an acceptable toxicity profile and showed good treatment results. This protocol should be considered as a treatment option for locally advanced tongue cancer.



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Comparison of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in evaluating the prognosis of patients with operable and inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

Abstract

Purpose

The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) are shown to be reliable prognostic indexes in patients with operable and inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Considering the difference between the two indexes lies in whether hypoalbuminemia without an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with worse survival, this study aims to evaluate the prognostic performance of hypoalbuminemia in patients without an elevated CRP and to compare the prognostic value of GPS and mGPS in patients with operable and inoperable NSCLC.

Methods

The data of 2988 patients were retrospectively collected from the Shanghai Health Information Network. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression was performed to investigate the prognostic effect of albumin, CRP, GPS and mGPS. Restricted cubic spline was also performed to evaluate the relationship between albumin and hazard ratio. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were estimated and compared using the log-rank test. Additional discriminative ability of GPS and of mGPS was evaluated using the area under the curve and Harrell’s concordance index.

Results

Hypoalbuminemia was associated with worse survival in both operable and inoperable patients without an elevated CRP. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve of hypoalbuminemic patients without an elevated CRP was more close to the curve of patients with an elevated CRP and a normal albumin than to the curve of patients with neither of these abnormalities. Multivariate analysis, AUC and C-index all indicated that GPS had a higher prognostic value than mGPS.

Conclusions

Hypoalbuminemia was associated with worse survival in patients with or without an elevated CRP. GPS was superior to mGPS in predicting survival in operable and inoperable NSCLC patients.



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An 86-year-old man with acute abdominal pain

An 86-year-old man presented with severe pain in the upper abdomen along with fever. On physical examination, we found an arterial blood pressure of 84/43 mm Hg, a heart rate of 80 bpm and a temperature of 38.3°C. The abdomen was painful and peristalsis was absent. Empiric antibiotic therapy for sepsis was started with amoxicillin/clavulanate and gentamicin. CT scan of the abdomen revealed an emphysematous cholecystitis. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystostomy was applied. Bile cultures revealed Clostridium perfringens. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a life-threatening form of acute cholecystitis that occurs as a consequence of ischaemic injury to the gallbladder, followed by translocation of gas-forming bacteria (ie, C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococci). The mortality associated with emphysematous cholecystitis is higher than in non-emphysematous cholecystitis (15% vs 4%). Therefore, early diagnosis with radiological imaging is of vital importance.



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Spontaneous lymphocoele: an unusual cause of an axillary mass

A lymphocoele or cystic hygroma is a benign lymphatic malformation that usually presents as a congenital mass in infancy. These masses are most common in the cervicofacial region and more rarely occur elsewhere in the body. Spontaneous, atraumatic presentation in adulthood is extremely rare. We present a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with a fluctuant mass in the axilla, which was diagnosed as a lymphocoele. Initial management by ultrasound-guided aspiration of the cyst proved unsuccessful due to recurrence. Surgical excision of the cyst was then successfully performed and histological analysis proved the diagnosis. The incidence of adult-onset lymphocoele without a history of prior trauma or operation is rare. This case report adds to the literature and reviews the various management strategies that have been successfully employed.



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The Oct1 transcription factor and epithelial malignancies: Old protein learns new tricks

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Karina Vázquez-Arreguín, Dean Tantin
The metazoan-specific POU domain transcription factor family comprises activities underpinning developmental processes such as embryonic pluripotency and neuronal specification. Some POU family proteins efficiently bind an 8-bp DNA element known as the octamer motif. These proteins are known as Oct. transcription factors. Oct1/POU2F1 is the only widely expressed POU factor. Unlike other POU factors it controls no specific developmental or organ system. Oct1 was originally described to operate at target genes associated with proliferation and immune modulation, but more recent results additionally identify targets associated with oxidative and cytotoxic stress resistance, metabolic regulation, stem cell function and other unexpected processes. Oct1 is pro-oncogenic in multiple contexts, and several recent reports provide broad evidence that Oct1 has prognostic and therapeutic value in multiple epithelial tumor settings. This review focuses on established and emerging roles of Oct1 in epithelial tumors, with an emphasis on mechanisms of transcription regulation by Oct1 that may underpin these findings.



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Mechanisms of xenobiotic receptor activation: Direct vs. Indirect

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Bryan Mackowiak, Hongbing Wang
The so-called xenobiotic receptors (XRs) have functionally evolved into cellular sensors for both endogenous and exogenous stimuli by regulating the transcription of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, as well as those involving energy homeostasis, cell proliferation, and/or immune responses. Unlike prototypical steroid hormone receptors, XRs are activated through both direct ligand-binding and ligand-independent (indirect) mechanisms by a plethora of structurally unrelated chemicals. This review covers research literature that discusses direct vs. indirect activation of XRs. A particular focus is centered on the signaling control of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We expect that this review will shed light on both the common and distinct mechanisms associated with activation of these three XRs.



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Radiobiologically based analysis of the influence of breathing motion and DIR method on lung treatment plans

Abstract

Objective

The purposes of this work are to investigate the influence of breathing motion on the quality of delivered radiation therapy treatment for lung cancer patients, to study the effect of tumor volume movement and anatomy change (due to the breathing motion) on the dose distribution through a radiobiological analysis, and finally, to examine the influence of the deformable image registration (DIR) method used on the 4D dose accumulation.

Methods

The work is based on the 4D CT image sets and treatment plans of ten lung cancer patients. For each patient, the actual delivered dose was approximated through the development of the “4D” treatment plan, which was created by applying the plan of the average intensity projection (AIP) CT on the ten respiratory phases of the 4D CT dataset. Additionally, the “4D optimal” plan was created, which was based on the optimized plans of each of the 4D CT phases using the same beam setup and objectives as for the 4D AIP plan. Equal weights were used for the different phases, and for both the 4D and 4D optimal cases, the individual phase plans were exported from the treatment planning system (TPS) to the Velocity AI where the dose distributions were summed using DIR together with the extended deformable multipass (EXDMP) and deformable multipass (DMP) methods. A radiobiological analysis was performed based on the radiobiological parameters of the involved organs at risk (OARs) and planning target volume (PTV).

Results

Using the complication-free tumor control probability (P +) index, non-negligible differences in P + were observed between the 4D and 4D optimal dose distributions as well as between the dose distributions that were generated with different DIR methods. The optimal P + values ranged from 9.4 to 98.8 % for the 4D case and from 17.1 to 99.1 % for the 4D optimal case. The clinical P + values ranged from 4.3 to 81.4 % for the 4D case using the EXDMP method and from 4.3 to 81.5 % for the DMP method. These differences emphasize the significance of using the proper DIR algorithm and its influence on the final dose distribution.

Conclusion

The radiobiological and dosimetric analyses showed the importance of taking into account the breathing motion during treatment planning. That was especially evident for smaller tumors and tumors with large motion extent. Also, the importance of choosing the proper DIR method was found to be great since it may lead to large differences in the accumulated 4D dose distribution.



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Factors associated with photoprotection by body clothing coverage, particularly in non-summer months, among a New Zealand community sample.

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1039/C5PP00431D, Paper
Anthony Reeder, Andrew Richard Gray, Ben Liley, Robert Scragg, Richard McKenzie, Alistair Stewart
Clothing coverage is important for reducing skin cancer risk, but may also influence vitamin D sufficiency, so associated plausible predictors require investigation. Volunteers (18 to 85 years), with approximately equal...
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Photochemical transformation of iron(III)-arsenite complex in acidic aqueous solution

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1039/C5PP00240K, Paper
Ivan P. Pozdnyakov, Wei Ding, Jing Xu, Long Chen, Feng Wu, Vjacheslav Pavlovich Grivin, Victor F. Plyusnin
Surface complexation between arsenious acid anions (As(III)) and ferric (hydr)oxides in water is important for the transformation and transfer of inorganic arsenic species. The mechanisms of formation and the photochemistry...
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Efficacy and Toxicity of High-Dose Colistin in Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Infections: A Comparative Study of a Matched Series

Conclusion: The high-dose colistin regimen is more efficient, without significant renal or neurological toxicity.Chemotherapy 2015–16;61:190–196 (Source: Chemotherapy)

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The Organization of Repetitive DNA in the Genomes of Amazonian Lizard Species in the Family Teiidae

Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes.
Cytogenet Genome Res

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TED celebrating and cnspiring big dreams

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Dream is the theme for 2016 TED Conference, however TED and its Fellows program has been celebrating Technology, Entertainment and Design and inspiring big dreams for years. 

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Cellulose Acetate 398-10 Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Osmotically Regulated Delivery of Acyclovir

The study was aimed at developing cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs) of acyclovir for its controlled delivery at the absorption site. The AMCs were prepared by phase inversion technique using wet process. A 23 full factorial design assessed the effect of independent variables (level(s) of polymer, pore former, and osmogen) on the cumulative drug release from AMCs. The buoyant optimized formulation F7 (low level of cellulose acetate; high levels of both glycerol and sodium lauryl sulphate) displayed maximum drug release of in 8 h that was independent of variation in agitational intensity and intentional defect on the cellulose acetate AMC. The in vitro data best fitted zero-order kinetics (). SEM micrograph of the transverse section confirmed the asymmetric nature of the cellulose acetate capsular membrane. Statistical analysis by Design Expert software indicated no interaction between the independent variables confirming the efficiency of the design in estimating the effects of variables on drug release. The optimized formulation F7 (desirability = 0.871) displayed sustenance of drug release over the drug packed in AMC in pure state proving the superiority of osmotically active formulation. Conclusively the AMCs have potential for controlled release of acyclovir at its absorption site.

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Prediction of the PSNR Quality of Decoded Images in Fractal Image Coding

With many observations, we find that there exists a logarithmic relationship between the average collage error (ACER) and the PSNR quality of decoded images. By making use of ACER in the encoding process, the curve fitting result can help us to predict the PSNR quality of decoded images. Then, in order to reduce the computational complexity further, an accelerated version of the prediction method is proposed. Firstly, a low limit of percentage of accumulated collage error (LLPACE) is proposed to evaluate the actual percentage of accumulated collage error (APACE). If LLPACE reaches a large value, such as 90%, the corresponding APACE can be proved to be limited in a small range (90%–100%) and the APACE can be estimated approximately. Thus, the remaining range blocks can be neglected and the corresponding computations can be saved. With the approximated APACE and the logarithmic relationship, the quality of decoded images can be predicted directly. Experiments show that, for four fractal coding methods, the quality of decoded images can be predicted accurately. Furthermore, the accelerated prediction method can provide competitive performance and reduce about one-third of total computations in the encoding process. Finally, the application of the proposed method is also discussed and analyzed.

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Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels

Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC) parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg) as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA) level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL) higher than that of control group (82.9 fL) and ART-naïve (85.9 fL) subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects.

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Fixed Point Theorems for Cyclic Contractions in -Algebra-Valued -Metric Spaces

We study fundamental properties of -algebra-valued -metric space which was introduced by Ma and Jiang (2015) and give some fixed point theorems for cyclic mapping with contractive and expansive condition on such space analogous to the results presented in Ma and Jiang, 2015.

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Optimum Tuning of a Gyroscopic Vibration Absorber Using Coupled Gyroscopes for Vibration Control of a Vertical Cantilever Beam

This paper deals with the investigation of optimum values of the stiffness and damping which connect two gyroscopic systems formed by two rotors mounted in gimbal assuming negligible masses for the spring, damper, and gimbal support. These coupled gyroscopes use two gyroscopic flywheels, spinning in opposing directions to have reverse precessions to eliminate the forces due to the torque existing in the torsional spring and the damper between gyroscopes. The system is mounted on a vertical cantilever with the purpose of studying the horizontal and vertical vibrations. The equation of motion of the compound system (gyro-beam system) is introduced and solved to find the response measured on the primary system. This is fundamental to design, in some way, the dynamic absorber or neutralizer. On the other hand, the effect of the angular velocities of the gyroscopes are studied, and it is shown that the angular velocity (spin velocity) of a gyroscope has a significant effect on the behavior of the dynamic motion. Correctness of the analytical results is verified by numerical simulations. The comparison with the results from the derivation of the corresponding frequency equations shows that the optimized stiffness and damping values are very accurate.

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Metabolism Is Central to Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell Function

Immunological tolerance is a fundamental tenant of immune homeostasis and overall health. Self-tolerance is a critical component of the immune system that allows for the recognition of self, resulting in hyporeactivity instead of immunogenicity. Dendritic cells are central to the establishment of dominant immune tolerance through the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and regulatory polarization of T cells. Cellular metabolism holds the key to determining DC immunogenic or tolerogenic cell fate. Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cell maturation leads to a shift toward a glycolytic metabolic state and preferred use of glucose as a carbon source. In contrast, tolerogenic dendritic cells favor oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation. This dichotomous metabolic reprogramming of dendritic cells drives differential cellular function and plays a role in pathologies, such as autoimmune disease. Pharmacological alterations in metabolism have promising therapeutic potential.

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Single agent systemic therapy shows success for soft-tissue sarcoma sub-types https://t.co/pj0RkX744Q

Single agent systemic therapy shows success for soft-tissue sarcoma sub-types https://t.co/pj0RkX744Q

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Effect of Angiotensin-(1-7) on Aortic Response, TNF-α, IL-1β and Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproduct in Rat's Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

Altered vascular reactivity due to endothelial dysfunction, consequent to vascular damage, is observed in rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the effect of angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) on vasculature changes in arthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in male Wistar rats. Arthritis decreased soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) whereas elevated aortic RAGE expression, increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), systolic blood pressure and the contractility induced by phenylephrine and KCl. Moreover, arthritis decreased the relaxing effect of acetylcholine. Neither arthritis nor Ang-(1-7) altered sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Ang-(1-7) reversed the effect of arthritis on TNF-α, sRAGE and RAGE expression without any effect on the IL-1β. Ang-(1-7) decreased phenylephrine and KCl contractility, especially in the endothelial-denuded aorta, whereas increased acetylcholine relaxation in the endothelial-intact aorta. Ang-(1-7) could find its place in the treatment protocol of arthritis and vascular diseases.
Pharmacology 2016;97:207-217

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Late Presentation of Fulminant Necrotizing Enterocolitis in a Child with Hyperinsulinism on Octreotide Therapy

Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants and children. In cases of diazoxide-unresponsive HI, alternative medical and surgical approaches may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, often has a role in the management of these children, but a dose-dependent reduction in splanchnic blood flow is a recognized complication. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has been reported within the first few weeks of initiating predominantly high doses of octreotide. We describe the case of an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and diazoxide-unresponsive HI, who had persistent hypoglycemia after two pancreatectomy surgeries. She developed NEC 2 months after beginning octreotide therapy at a relatively low dose of 8 µg/kg/day. This complication has occurred later, and at a lower dose, than has previously been described. We review the case and identify the known and suspected multifactorial risk factors for NEC that may contribute to the development of this complication in patients with HI.
Horm Res Paediatr

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Erratum to: Cloning and Characterization of a Novel NAC Family Gene CarNAC1 from Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)



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Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus

Abstract

Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test.



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Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Presence of Bifenthrin

Abstract

This work describes the effect of insecticide bifenthrin on Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growths of used microorganisms in growth media supplemented with pesticide were studied. Determination of bacterial and yeast fermentation efficiency in wheat supplemented with bifenthrin was conducted. Additionally, investigation of bifenthrin dissipation during microbiological activity was performed. Experiments applying bifenthrin in different concentrations highlighted a negligible impact of the pesticide on the growth of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae. This insecticide overall negatively affected the yeast fermentation of wheat, while its presence in wheat had a slight negative impact on lactic acid fermentation. The results of bifenthrin dissipation during lactic acid and yeast fermentations of wheat showed that activities of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae caused lower pesticide reductions. Average bifenthrin residue reduction within samples fermented with L. plantarum was 5.4 % (maximum ~16 %), while within samples fermented with S. cerevisiae, it was 11.6 % (maximum ~17 %).



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Hepatocellular Carcinoma Extrahepatic Metastasis in Relation to Tumor Size and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to metastasize. However, there are few reports on patients with metastasis at the time of HCC diagnosis. Aims: To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of extrahepatic metastasis patients presenting at baseline with noncurable, advanced HCC. Results: The total HCC cohort was initially dichotomized into 2 subcohorts, with (n = 214) and without (n = 719) extrahepatic metastasis (‘metastasis'), and patient baseline characteristics were compared. The main findings for patients with metastasis (22.9% of total cohort) compared with other, nonmetastatic patients were: more advanced tumors, as judged by larger tumor diameters, more tumor multifocality and percent with portal vein thrombosis, higher blood α-fetoprotein and des #x03B3;-carboxy prothrombin levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), but not bilirubin levels, and a lower incidence of cirrhosis. There was a strong correlation between increases in tumor size and percent of patients with metastasis. A subset of patients with larger tumors was identified with low blood ALKP levels and better survival. Survival in the total metastasis cohort was lower than in the non-metastasis cohort, as expected, but only in patients with smaller tumors. In patients with larger tumors, survival with or without metastasis was similar and poor. Conclusions: There was a lower incidence of cirrhosis in HCC patients with metastasis, and they had larger and more aggressive primary tumors. Patients with smaller, but not larger, tumors and metastasis had worse prognosis than patients without metastasis. A distinct subset of metastatic patients was identified that had better prognosis and low ALKP levels.
Oncology

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Features of Residual Dizziness after Canalith Repositioning Procedures for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

Features of Residual Dizziness after Canalith Repositioning Procedures for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Martellucci S, Pagliuca G, de Vincentiis M, Greco A, De Virgilio A, Nobili Benedetti FM, Gallipoli C, Rosato C, Clemenzi V, Gallo A

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess factors related to residual dizziness (RD) in patients who underwent successful canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs) for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Academic center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven consecutive patients with BPPV of the posterior semicircular canal were initially enrolled. Diagnosis was assessed according to clinical history and bedside evaluation. All patients were treated with CRPs until nystagmus disappeared. Three days after the successful treatment, presence of RD was investigated. If RD was present, patients were monitored every 3 days until the symptoms disappeared. Subjects who required ≥4 CRPs or who failed to meet the follow-up visit were excluded. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was obtained from patients at the time of diagnosis and at every subsequent visit.
RESULTS: At the end of selection, 86 patients were included; 33 (38.36%) reported RD after successful treatment. A significant difference in the incidence of RD was observed in consideration of the age of the subjects (P = .0003) and the DHI score at the time of diagnosis (P < .001). A logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of RD occurrence increased with the increase of the emotional subdomain score of the DHI questionnaire.
CONCLUSION: RD is a common self-limited disorder, more frequent in the elderly, which may occur after the physical treatment for BPPV. The DHI score at the time of BPPV diagnosis represents a useful tool to quantify the impact of this vestibular disorder on the quality of life and to estimate the risk of RD after CRPs.

PMID: 26861236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Novel Anatomic Characteristics of the Laryngeal Framework: A Computed Tomography Evaluation.

Novel Anatomic Characteristics of the Laryngeal Framework: A Computed Tomography Evaluation.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Sagiv D, Eyal A, Mansour J, Nakache G, Wolf M, Primov-Fever A

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The thyroid cartilage (TC) in men has a more prominent thyroid notch and a narrower interlaminae angle (ILA) as compared with women. Anatomy textbooks classically stipulate that the ILA is 90° in men and 120° in women. Our observation, based on thyroid chondroplasty operations, of a much narrower angle led to the current investigation.
STUDY DESIGN: Cohort imaging study.
SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Computed tomography angiography neck images of adult patients were studied. The ILA was measured on 2 axial planes: at the level of the vocal processes (and the upper portion of thyroarytenoid muscles) and 5 mm superior and parallel to the former. The anterior projection of the TC and the vertical dimensions of the midline cricothyroid membrane (CTM) were also measured.
RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were included in the study. The average ILAs were 63.5°±20.6° and 93.3°±16.6° for men and women, respectively (P < 10(-14)), and were significantly narrower at the upper level in comparison with the vocal process level (P < 10(-7) for men, P = .004 for women). The anterior projection of the TC in men was more prominent as compared with women (P = .0003) and significantly correlated with the ILA (P = .0159). The length of the midline CTM was 11.1±2.3 mm in men and 10.3±1.7 mm in women (P = .0355).
CONCLUSIONS: The ILA is narrower than that reported in the classic anatomy textbooks. In male patients, the upper part of the TC becomes narrower and projects anteriorly like a "jug's spout." The mean vertical dimension of the midline CTM was 10 to 11 mm.

PMID: 26861235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma at the Mandibular Edentulous Ridge Mucosa: An Infrequent Location.

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma at the Mandibular Edentulous Ridge Mucosa: An Infrequent Location.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Alberto PL

PMID: 26861234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Repair of Posterior Glottic Stenosis with the Modified Endoscopic Postcricoid Advancement Flap.

Repair of Posterior Glottic Stenosis with the Modified Endoscopic Postcricoid Advancement Flap.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Damrose EJ, Beswick DM

Abstract
Posterior glottic stenosis is a difficult clinical problem that frequently results in bilateral vocal fold immobility, dyspnea, and tracheostomy dependence. Charts were reviewed of all patients undergoing a modified endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap procedure for posterior glottic stenosis between October 1, 2003, and June 30, 2015. Age, sex, operative findings, complications, and outcomes were noted. Follow-up was available in 10 of 11 patients, 10 of whom were successfully decannulated. There were no complications. Regular diet was maintained in all patients. In patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility secondary to posterior glottis stenosis, endoscopic repair via endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap can restore full vocal fold motion and allow decannulation. In select patients with posterior glottic stenosis, repair via endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap should be considered in lieu of ablative methods, such as cordotomy, cordectomy, or arytenoidectomy.

PMID: 26861233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Application of Lean Sigma to the Audiology Clinic at a Large Academic Center.

Application of Lean Sigma to the Audiology Clinic at a Large Academic Center.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Huddle MG, Tirabassi A, Turner L, Lee E, Ries K, Lin SY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To apply Lean Sigma-a quality improvement strategy to eliminate waste and reduce variation and defects-to improve audiology scheduling and utilization in a large tertiary care referral center. The project goals included an increase in utilization rates of audiology block time and a reduction in appointment lead time.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement study.
SETTING: Academic tertiary care center.
SUBJECTS: All patients scheduling audiology clinic visits July 2013 to July 2014.
METHODS: Value stream mapping was performed for the audiology scheduling process, and wasteful steps were identified for elimination. Interventions included a 2-week block release, audiology template revision, and reduction of underutilized blocks. Schedule utilization and lead time for new patient diagnostic audiogram were measured for 5 months postintervention and compared with 5 months preintervention. Overall, 2995 preintervention and 3714 postintervention booked appointments were analyzed.
RESULTS: Block utilization increased from 77% to 90% after intervention (P < .0001). Utilization of joint-with-provider visits increased from 39% to 67% (P < .0001). Booked appointments increased from 2995 to 3714, with joint-with-provider booked appointments increasing from 317 to 1193. Appointment lead time averaged 24 days postintervention, compared with 29 days preintervention (P = .06). Average monthly relative value units measured 13,321 preintervention and 14,778 postintervention (P = .09).
CONCLUSION: Lean Sigma techniques were successfully used to increase appointment block utilization and streamline scheduling practices.

PMID: 26861232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Definitive Surgical Therapy after Open Neck Biopsy for HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer.

Definitive Surgical Therapy after Open Neck Biopsy for HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Zenga J, Graboyes EM, Haughey BH, Paniello RC, Mehrad M, Lewis JS, Thorstad WL, Nussenbaum B, Rich JT

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of prior open neck biopsy on the prognosis of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) who are subsequently treated with a definitive surgical paradigm, including adjuvant therapy when indicated.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort.
SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients with open neck biopsies who were treated with definitive surgery, with or without adjuvant therapy, for HPV-related OPSCC between 1998 and 2012 were compared with a matched control group who did not undergo open neck biopsy. Outcomes were disease-free survival, overall survival, disease-specific survival, incidence of tumor deposit in dermal scar, patterns of recurrence, and neck dissection complications.
RESULTS: Forty-five patients who underwent open neck biopsy were compared with 90 matched controls. Tumor deposits in dermal scars from the prior open neck biopsy were found in 3 patients (7%) during completion neck dissection. Overall complications of the neck dissection were not significantly increased in the open biopsy group over matched controls (20% vs 12%, respectively; P > .05). Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for disease-free survival, overall survival, and disease-specific survival were not significantly different between the open biopsy and control groups (93% vs 91%, 98% vs 97%, 98% vs 99%, respectively; all P > .05). Recurrence rates were also not significantly different between groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HPV-related OPSCC who have undergone a prior open neck biopsy can be successfully treated with a definitive surgical paradigm. Although needle biopsy is preferable to establish a diagnosis, previous open neck biopsy does not affect prognosis in these patients.

PMID: 26861231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Head and Neck Paragangliomas: An Update on Evaluation and Management.

Head and Neck Paragangliomas: An Update on Evaluation and Management.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Moore MG, Netterville JL, Mendenhall WM, Isaacson B, Nussenbaum B

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Head and neck paragangliomas are a group of slow-growing hypervascular tumors associated with the paraganglion system. The approach to evaluate and treat these lesions has evolved over the last 2 decades. While radical surgery had been the traditional approach, improvements in diagnostic imaging as well as radiation therapy techniques have led to an emphasis on observation and nonsurgical therapy in many patients. This article reviews the contemporary approach to the workup and management of head and neck paragangliomas.
DATA SOURCE: Articles were identified from PubMed.
REVIEW METHODS: PubMed searches with the following keywords were performed: carotid body paraganglioma management, vagal paraganglioma management, jugulotympanic paraganglioma management, imaging of head and neck paragangliomas, head and neck paraganglioma embolization, paraganglioma radiation, head and neck paraganglioma management, observation of head and neck paragangliomas, bilateral carotid body paragangliomas, and genetics of paragangliomas. Review and original research articles available in the English language and published during or after 2009 were selected on the basis of their clinical relevance and scientific strength. Certain articles published prior to 2009 were also included if they provided background information that was relevant.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Workup and treatment of head and neck paragangliomas are changing. With more now known regarding the longitudinal behavior of these tumors, observation and nonsurgical therapy are indicated in many instances. For patients where surgery is the most appropriate option, improved diagnostic and perioperative techniques are allowing patients to tolerate resection, often with reduced morbidity.

PMID: 26861230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Organized Hematoma: An Analysis of 84 Cases with Emphasis on Difficult Prediction and Favorable Management.

Organized Hematoma: An Analysis of 84 Cases with Emphasis on Difficult Prediction and Favorable Management.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Pang W, Hu L, Wang H, Sha Y, Ma N, Wang S, Liu Q, Sun X, Wang D

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To characterize features of organized hematoma (OH) that may cause considerable diagnostic difficulties.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: Tertiary medical center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients with pathologically confirmed OH over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, imaging findings, pathologic characteristics, and treatment modalities.
RESULTS: This study included 39 males and 45 females who presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. There were 62 (74%) patients >40 years old (mean, 50; range, 9-81). OH mainly originated in the maxillary sinus (n = 82) or nasal cavity (n = 2) unilaterally, and most were expansile masses (n = 73) that extended into nasal cavity (n = 71) or choanae (n = 17). Several lesions were locally aggressive and simulated a malignant process that involved the ethmoid sinus (n = 22), orbit (n = 11), pterygopalatine fossa (n = 16), infratemporal fossa (n = 9), cheek (n = 3), and hard palate (n = 3). Internal architecture on computed tomography (CT) scans showed OH with expansile remodeling of the maxillary wall (82.1%) and smooth bony destruction (70.2%), whereas T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images showed inhomogeneity with a notable hypointense peripheral rim in all lesions. CT and MR contrast-enhanced images revealed patchy heterogeneous enhancement that could be interpreted according to histopathologic findings of hemorrhage and neovascularization. OH was successfully removed with endoscopic surgery, although 5 cases recurred.
CONCLUSIONS: OH can be successfully treated by endoscopic surgery. CT and MR examination provide characteristic findings for prediction and careful surgical planning.

PMID: 26861229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Effect of Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation Treatment on Nasal Ciliary Motility: A Study with Phase-Contrast Microscopy.

Effect of Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation Treatment on Nasal Ciliary Motility: A Study with Phase-Contrast Microscopy.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Rosato C, Pagliuca G, Martellucci S, de Vincentiis M, Greco A, Fusconi M, De Virgilio A, Gallipoli C, Simonelli M, Gallo A

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of nasal ciliary motility after radiofrequency ablation treatment in patients with isolated inferior turbinate hypertrophy and to clarify how long until normal ciliary function is restored.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, single-group, pretest-posttest design.
SETTING: Academic tertiary care medical center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study involved 34 adult patients affected by nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy who underwent radiofrequency ablation treatment between June and December 2014. Diagnosis was assessed according to clinical history, nasal endoscopy, and active anterior rhinomanometry. Cytologic samples were collected by nasal scraping before surgery and 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery. Ciliary motility was evaluated by nasal cytology with phase-contrast microscopy. Functional aspects of nasal mucosa were studied, with a focus on 3 parameters: (1) nasal mucociliary clearance, assessed by saccharin nasal transit time test; (2) percentage of ciliated cell motility, measured as the ratio between cells with motility and cells without motility; and (3) efficacy of ciliary motility, measured as the ratio between cells with valid motility and cells with hypovalid motility.
RESULTS: Ciliary motility and ciliary efficacy showed a significant reduction after 1 and 2 months from surgery, returning to normal values within 3 months. No significant changes in saccharin nasal transit time were recorded during the follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of this study suggest that radiofrequency ablation treatment causes ciliary motility changes of nasal mucosa that are completely restored after at least 3 months after surgery. These cytologic abnormalities do not affect nasal functionality.

PMID: 26861228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb 9;

Authors: Balakrishnan V, Chandy Z, Hseih A, Bui TL, Verma SP

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Patients use several online resources to learn about vocal cord paralysis (VCP). The objective of this study was to assess the readability and understandability of online VCP patient education materials (PEMs), with readability assessments and the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT), respectively. The relationship between readability and understandability was then analyzed.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive and correlational design.
METHOD: Online PEMs were identified by performing a Google search with the term "vocal cord paralysis." After scientific webpages, news articles, and information for medical professionals were excluded, 29 articles from the first 50 search results were considered. Readability analysis was performed with 6 formulas. Four individuals with different educational backgrounds conducted understandability analysis with the PEMAT. Fleiss's Kappa interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among raters. Correlation between readability and understandability was determined with Pearson's correlation test.
RESULTS: The reading level of the reviewed articles ranged from grades 9 to 17. Understandability ranged from 29% to 82%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between materials' readability and understandability (r = -0.462, P < .05).
CONCLUSION: Online PEMs pertaining to VCP are written above the recommended reading levels. Overall, materials written at lower grade levels are more understandable. However, articles of identical grade levels had varying levels of understandability. The PEMAT may provide a more critical evaluation of the quality of a PEM when compared with readability formulas. Both readability and understandability should be used to evaluate PEMs.

PMID: 26861227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Pre-Operative Cognitive Functioning and Inflammatory and Neuroendocrine Responses to Cardiac Surgery

Abstract

Background

Cognitive functioning is linked to cardiac mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear.

Purpose

To examine the relationship between pre-operative cognitive functioning and post-operative inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Methods

One-hundred ninety-three outpatients were screened to assess their cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) on average 30 days prior to CABG surgery and provided blood samples for the measurement of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) and saliva samples for the measurement of diurnal cortisol. Participants were followed-up 4–8 days following surgery for the repeat measurement of IL-6 and CRP and 60 days after surgery for the measurement of diurnal salivary cortisol.

Results

Patients with low cognitive function (MoCA < 26) prior to surgery reached higher IL-6 concentrations in the days after surgery (β = −0.212, p = 0.021) and had greater cortisol output across the day 2 months after surgery (β = −0.179, p = 0.044).

Conclusions

Low cognitive functioning is associated with a more negative pattern of biological response to surgery, indicative of poorer physical recovery. These pathways may contribute to the links between cognitive function and cardiovascular pathology.



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Dyadic Dynamics in a Randomized Weight Loss Intervention

Abstract

Background

Despite health and economic burdens associated with overweight and obesity, long-term weight loss intervention efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Observations that weight status tends to cluster in social groups, and findings showing “ripple” effects of weight change within social clusters, raise questions about the impact of social relationships on weight loss.

Purpose

Through a reanalysis of data from a randomized weight loss intervention, this study compared dyadic dynamics in intervention participants and in-home partners.

Methods

Over the course of 18 months, data was collected from 201 pairs enrolled in either behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL) or treatment including partners and providing items to facilitate healthy choices at home (BWL + H). Using a dyadic growth curve model, covariance between baseline BMI, BMI change trajectories, and starting BMI and BMI trajectory for both the self and the other were examined.

Results

There were strong indicators of dependence in the data. Baseline BMI was positively correlated for both treatment groups. In the BWL + H condition, BMI change trajectories were positively correlated. In the BWL condition, this reversed: Change trajectories were negatively correlated. Additionally, partner BMI and primary participant BMI change were positively correlated, indicating that a heavier partner at baseline related to less weight loss.

Conclusions

Social relationships exert a significant influence on weight loss outcomes. Depending on the intervention group, these influences may help (BWL + H) or hinder (BWL). It may be that home intervention changed social support and interaction in important ways and that these effects could be effectively harnessed to implement more effective interventions (NCT00200330).



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Prescription for harm: Dangerous drug mix leaves woman fighting for life - Chicago Tribune


Chicago Tribune

Prescription for harm: Dangerous drug mix leaves woman fighting for life
Chicago Tribune
In many cases, one drug makes the other drug ineffective, leaving patients vulnerable to the effects of HIV, cancer and other serious ailments. When Becki Conway sought help, trusted health care providers failed her at nearly every turn, leaving her in ...



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Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

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Fate and Effect of Intravenously Infused Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Resection

Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable during transplantation and resection and is characterized by hepatocellular injury. Therapeutic strategies to reduce IRI and accelerate regeneration could offer major benefits. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are reported to have anti-inflammatory and regeneration promoting properties. We investigated the effect of MSC in a model of combined IRI and partial resection in the mouse. Hepatic IRI was induced by occlusion of 70% of the blood flow during 60 minutes, followed by 30% hepatectomy. 2 × 105 MSC or PBS were infused 2 hours before or 1 hour after IRI. Six, 48, and 120 hours postoperatively mice were sacrificed. Liver damage was evaluated by liver enzymes, histology, and inflammatory markers. Regeneration was determined by liver/body weight ratio, proliferating hepatocytes, and TGF-β levels. Fate of MSC was visualized with 3D cryoimaging. Infusion of 2 × 105 MSC 2 hours before or 1 hour after IRI and resection showed no beneficial effects. Tracking revealed that MSC were trapped in the lungs and did not migrate to the site of injury and many cells had already disappeared 2 hours after infusion. Based on these findings we conclude that intravenously infused MSC disappear rapidly and were unable to induce beneficial effects in a clinically relevant model of IRI and resection.

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A Fault-Tolerant Detection Fusion Strategy for Distributed Multisensor Systems

The distributed detection fusion formulation (DDFF) in ideal multisensor systems has been studied over the last two decades. If some local sensors cannot work normally, the detection performance of system may reduce significantly. It is meaningful to design fault-tolerant detection fusion rules which can guarantee the performance of system no matter whether the fusion center and local sensors work well or not. A new distributed detection fusion strategy is thus proposed by minimizing a weighted sum of risk at the fusion center and risks at the local sensors, and then a fault-tolerant distributed detection fusion formulation (FT-DDFF) is derived. Some numerical examples illustrate the performance of the proposed formulation. If the whole system is perfect, compared with the DDFF, the FT-DDFF has both small risks of local sensors and a little small risk of fusion center with an appropriately selected parameter. While some local sensors cannot work, the FT-DDFF would perform better than the DDFF at fusion center in average.

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Tumor Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cell as a Prognostic Marker in Primary Glioblastoma

The isolation from brain tumors of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs) suggests that these cells play a role in creating a microenvironment for tumor initiation and progression. The clinical characteristics of patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM) positive for tMSLCs have not been determined. This study analyzed samples from 82 patients with pGBM who had undergone tumor removal, pathological diagnosis, and isolation of tMSLC from April 2009 to October 2014. Survival, extent of resection, molecular markers, and tMSLC culture results were statistically evaluated. Median overall survival was 18.6 months, 15.0 months in tMSLC-positive patients and 29.5 months in tMSLC-negative patients (). Multivariate cox regression model showed isolation of tMSLC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1~5.6, ) showed poor outcome while larger extent of resection (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2~0.8, ) has association with better outcome. The presence of tMSLCs isolated from the specimen of pGBM is associated with the survival of patient.

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High Dielectric Constant Study of TiO2-Polypyrrole Composites with Low Contents of Filler Prepared by In Situ Polymerization

TiO2/polypyrrole composites with high dielectric constant have been synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole in an aqueous dispersion of low concentration of TiO2, in the presence of small amount of HCl. Structural, optical, surface morphological, and thermal properties of the composites were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The data obtained from diffractometer and thermal gravimetric analysis confirmed the crystalline nature and thermal stability of the prepared composites. The dielectric constant of 5 wt% TiO2 increased with filler content up to 4.3 × 103 at 1 kHz and then decreased to 1.25 × 103 at 10 kHz.

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Advances in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolation, Characterization, and Application in Regenerative Tissue Engineering

Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease that has been extensively researched in recent times. Obesity is characterized by excess deposition of adipose tissue in response to surplus energy. Despite the negative connotations of adipose tissue (AT), it serves as a critical endocrine organ. Adipose tissue is a source of several adipokines and cytokines which have been deemed important for both normal metabolic function and disease formation. The discoveries of metabolically active brown AT in adult humans and adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) have been key findings in the past decade with potential therapeutic implications. ADSCs represent an enticing pool of multipotent adult stem cells because of their noncontroversial nature, relative abundance, ease of isolation, and expandability. A decade and a half since the discovery of ADSCs, the scientific community is still working to uncover their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of ADSCs and examine their potential use in transplantation and cell-based therapies for the regeneration of diseased organs and systems. We also hope to provide perspective on how to best utilize this readily available, powerful pool of stem cells in the future.

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