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! # Ola via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

Δευτέρα, 17 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Economic Importance of the Preventive Measures in Dentistry

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Emsudina Deljo, Zinaida Sijercic, Amina Mulaosmanovic, Ilma Musanovic, Nedim Prses.
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. The research goals are: a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. The examinees and methods: For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The results and conclusions: The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.


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Evaluation of Denture-related Factors Predisposing to Denture Stomatitis in a Lebanese Population

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Georges Aoun, Antoine Cassia.
Background: Denture stomatitis is a common fungal oral infection of multifactorial etiology. Denture-related factors such as dentures age, hygiene, night wearing and colonization by Candida albicans are known to predispose to denture stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate these factors and their relationship with the occurrence of denture stomatitis in a Lebanese population. Material and methods: Sixty patients (40 women, 20 men; age range 40-80 years) showing clinical evidence of denture-related stomatitis were selected for this study. Swab samples from the palate and the palatal surfaces of the upper dentures of these patients were collected and examined mycologically. Dentures age, hygiene, night wearing and colonization by Candida albicans were evaluated and analyzed statistically. Results: The statistical analysis showed a significant role for dentures hygiene, night wearing, and colonization by Candida albicans in the installation of the denture stomatitis. Patients gender and age, as well as the dentures age, were not significant predictors of the disease. Conclusion: In a sample of Lebanese population, poor denture hygiene, continuous denture use, and Candida denture colonization are important etiological factors that contribute to denture stomatitis.


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Reliability, Validity, and Psychometric Properties of the Greek Translation of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS)

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Konstantinos Kontoangelos, Sofia Tsiori, Garyfalia Poulakou, Konstantinos Protopapas, Ioannis Katsarolis, Vissaria Sakka, Dimitra Kavatha, Antonios Papadopoulos, Anastasia Antoniadou, and Charalambos.C. Papageorgiou.
Introduction: The Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale is meant to capture the frequency and duration of depersonalisation symptoms over the last 6 months. Methods: In order to develop a Greek version of CDS scale, the CDS scale was translated in Greek by 2 psychiatrists. Then, the Greek version of CDS scale was back-translated by a person who did not knew the original English version. The back-translated version was reviewed in order to establish whether is consistent with the original English version. After this procedure we administered the Greek version of CDS scale to a sample of 294 Greeks in order to assess the reliability and the validity of the Greek version of scale. Results: The five components solution accounted for 58.204% of the total variation. Initial eigenvalues of the five components were: factor 1=11.555, factor 2=1.564, factor 3=1.356, factor 4=1.247 and factor 5=1.157. Six items did not load on any factor. Correlations between factors were low ranged from 0.134 to 0.314 and no complex variables were found. Cronbachs alpha and Guttman split-half coefficient were used to evaluate interval consistency of CDS scale in 294 individuals. The alpha coefficients and Guttman split-half coefficient of the CDS scale were 0.938 and 0.921, respectively. The test-retest reliability proved to be satisfactory. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the total CDS score was very good and equal to 0,883. The CDS scale correlated highly with the SCL-90 and all subscales (p-value


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Predictors for Post- Stroke Delirium Outcome

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Zikrija Dostovic, Ernestina Dostovic, Dzevdet Smajlovic, Omer C. Ibrahimagic, Leila Avdic, and Elvir Becirovic.
Background: There have been only a small number of studies that have evaluated the outcome of post-stroke delirium. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of gender, age, stroke localization, delirium severity, previous illnesses, associated medical complications on delirium outcome as well as, to determine effects of delirium on cognitive functioning one year after stroke. Patients and Methods: Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were performed within the rst week of stroke onset, at hospital discharge, and followed-up for 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke. We used diagnostic tools such as Glazgow Coma Scale, Delirium Rating Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Mini-Mental State. Results: Patients who developed post-stroke delirium had significantly more complications (p = 0.0005). Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of several factors on the likelihood that patients will die. The strongest predictor of outcome was age, mean age ≥ 65 years with a odds ratio (OR) 4.9. Coxs regression survival was conducted to assess the impact of multiple factors on survival. The accompanying medical complications were the strongest predictor of respondents poore outcome with Hazard-risk 3.3. Cognitive assessments including Mini Mental State score have showen that post-stroke delirium patients had significant cognitive impairment, three (p = 0.0005), six months (p = 0.0005) and one year (p = 0.0005) after stroke, compared to patients without delirium. Conclusion: Patient gender, age, localization of stroke, severity of delirium, chronic diseases and emerging complications significantly affect the outcome of post- stroke delirium. Delirium significantly reduced cognitive functioning of after stroke patients.


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Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet/lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with NSCLC

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Vesna Cukic.
Objective: to compare neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with NSCLC (Non- Small- Cell Lung Cancer) with and without metastases at the time of diagnosis to find out if there is the importance of these cell ratios in the assessment of severity NSCLC. Material and Methods: this is the retrospective analysis of NRL and PRL in patients with NSCLC at the time of the diagnosis of disease before any anti tumor treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery). 57 of patients with NSCLC treated in the first three months of 2016 .year were chosen at random regardless of sex and age. We examined full blood count cells (FBC), calculated NLR and PLR in every patient and compared obtained values in patients with and patients without metastases. Results: In 57 patients with NSCLC there were 15 males with metastases, 28 without metastases, and 8 females with metastases, 6 without metastases. Since there was no regularity in the distribution of obtained values of NLR and PLR we made the Mann-Whitney U test. Mean values are presented with a median and interquartile percentiles. There was no significant difference in NLR between patients without and with metastases (p = 0.614; p = NS) as well as in PLR (p=0,068; p=NS). Conclusion: There must be a link between the immune status of the organism and lung cancer development. Immune cells have become of interest in recent years and much work has been done to study their role in the genesis of cancer but it did not give satisfactory results. Further clinical studies on large number of patients and further laboratory examination of the role of immune cells in cancer development and suppression are required.


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The Influence of Information and Religion on Organ Donation, as Seen by School Teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Sahmir Sadic, Jasna Sadic, Rasim Krupic, Nabi Fatahi, and Ferid Krupic.
Introduction: Transplantation of organs is the treatment of choice for severe organ failure worldwide. Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the influence of religion on attitudes towards organ donation among staff at schools in Tuzla. Material and Methods: In the Tuzla region there are 42 schools and 1580 school staff. A total of 21 schools were selected randomly, which were stratified by geographical location. 499 employees were invited to participate in the study, and 475 agreed to participate. According to the definition of their attitude towards religion the subjects were divided into three groups: non-religious, only religious and practical believers. Results: None of the subjects possesses a donor card. To the question whether the subjects support the idea of organ transplantation, most replied that they support the idea of donating organs both during life and after death. Regarding this question there is a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0063). To the question whether they are prepared to donate an organ of a deceased family member, most replied that they would consent to donating an organ, whilst a significant number also replied that they were not sure. The results show that there is no significant difference between the replies given by the groups (p = 0.7694). To the question regarding to whom they were prepared to donate an organ, most said they were prepared to donate one to a member of their family, then to a close relative, whilst the least would donate to a stranger. The results show that there is a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: In order to reduce the wide disparity between the need and organ donation amongst other things a more active relationship is necessary between health workers, religious officials and school staff.


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Oral Health of Down Syndrome Children in Bosnia and Herzegovina

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Selma Porovic, Amila Zukanovic, Hrvoje Juric, and Senka Mesihovic Dinarevic.
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the oral health condition Down syndrome (DS) children in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by analizing oral health of Down syndrome individuals in two largest regions, Sarajevo and Tuzla Canton. Patients and Methods: Caries and oral health status of Down syndrome children aged 6-18 years were examined and assessed according WHO 1997 criteria. DS individuals were divided in to four age groups: I (0-6 yrs); II (7-12 yrs); III (13-18 yrs). Results: The mean dmft/DMFT index for age group I is (6,40±6,05); II (2,05±2,04) and III (10,30±6,80). The analysis of oral hygiene of Down syndrome children by using the debris index, it was found that 43,9% have very good oral hygiene, 33,3% respondents have good oral hygiene, 15,8% were with poor oral hygiene, while the very poor hygiene had 7% subjects. By using Pearsons correlation to the value of DMFT, debris index and age of examinees with Down syndrome, it is established a statistically significant positive correlation between analyzed variables. Values of CPI index according to age groups were as follows: I (0,1); II (0,17) and III group (0,4).


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Identifying Eleven Factors of Service Marketing Mix (4Ps) Effective on Tendency of Patients toward Private Hospital

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Samira Etesaminia, and Mehrnoosh Jafari.
Introduction: One of the important factors of correct management is to identify the reasons for patient tendency toward private hospitals. This study measures these factors based on service marketing mixes. Patients and methods: This study used a cross sectional descriptive methodology. The study was conducted during 6 months in 2015. The studied population included patients of private hospitals in Tehran. Random sampling was used (n = 200). Data was collected by an author-made questionnaire for service marketing factors. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were confirmed. Data analysis was done using factor analysis test in SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that constant attendance of physicians and nurses has the highest effect (0.707%) on patient tendency toward private hospitals.


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Effect of Perceived Social Support on the Levels of Anxiety and Depression of Hemodialysis Patients

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Ioanna Lilympaki, Andriana Makri, Kyriaki Vlantousi, Ioannis Koutelekos, Fotoula Babatsikou, and Maria Polikandrioti.
Purpose: of this study was to explore the effect of social support on the levels of anxiety and depression of hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: 258 patients undergoing hemodialysis were enrolled. A questionnaire developed for the purpose of the study was used to collect data through the interview process. Apart from socio-demographic, clinical and other characteristics, the questionnaire also included the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to assess social support from significant others, family and friends, and the questionnaire Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs) to assess the levels of anxiety and depression of patients. Results: 53,9% of the participants were male while 34,1% of the participants were >70 years old. 32,9% and 30,2% of the participants felt high levels of anxiety and depression, respectively. Analysis of data showed a statistically significant association between anxiety/depression and social support from significant others, family and friends (p=


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Effects of Home-Care Training on the Self-Efficacy of Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Mahdieh Poodineh Moghadam, Hajar Nourisancho, Hossein Shahdadi, Sohila Shahraki, Batoul Azarkish, and Abbas Balouchi.
Background: The self-efficacy of thalassemia patients is an important factor in creating behavioral changes in such patients. Home-care training reduces hospitalization duration as well as relevant costs and improves disease outcomes. This study was designed to assess the effect of home-care training on the self-efficacy of patients with beta thalassemia major. Methodology: This was a quasi-experimental, case-control, before and after intervention study conducted on 136 thalassemia cases from January 2014 to October 2015. Data was collected through Shere general self-efficacy questionnaire (SGSES). Home-care trainings were provided in the form of training courses with respect to the training needs of thalassemia major cases. Two (2) months after the end of training courses, SGSES questionnaire was filled again and the obtained data was analyzed by SPSS 21 as well as descriptive-inferential statistics (significance level=P≤0.05). Results: The results of this study revealed that the mean self-efficacy score of control group was 48.69±6.82 before intervention which increased to 46.69±6.81 after intervention. The mean self-efficacy score of case group was 44.58±5.23 before intervention which increased to 49.5±6.66 after intervention. The rise of self-efficacy score, after intervention, was significantly higher in the case group compared with the control group (P≤.001). Conclusion: According to results, home-care training can develop self-efficacy in thalassemia patients. In home-care training procedure patients play an active role. By providing home-care trainings, therefore, an effective step should be taken to promote the self-efficacy of the patients and to decrease associated problems.


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Level of Competencies of Family Physicians in Kosovo from Different Perspectives

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Gazmend Bojaj, Fitim Skeraj, Katarzyna Czabanowska, and Genc Burazeri.
Aim: The aim of this analysis was to compare the level of self-perceived competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo with patients viewpoint, as well as the necessary (required) level of such competencies from decision-makers standpoint. Methods: Three cross-sectional studies were carried out in Kosovo in 2013 including: i) a representative sample of 1340 primary health care users aged ≥18 years (49% men; overall mean age: 50.5±17.9 years; response rate: 89%); ii) a representative sample of 597 primary health care physicians (49% men; overall mean age: 46.0±9.4 years; response rate: 90%), and; iii) a nationwide representative sample of 100 decision-makers operating at different primary health care institutions or public health agencies in Kosovo (63% men; mean age: 47.7±5.7 years). A structured self-administered questionnaire (consisting of 37 items) was used in the three surveys in order to assess physicians competencies regarding different domains of the quality of health care. Results: There was a significant gap in the level of self-perceived physicians competencies and patients perspective in transitional Kosovo. Furthermore, there was a gap in the level of self-perceived physicians competencies and the necessary (required) level of physicians competencies from decision-makers perspective which was less evident in Prishtina, but considerable in the other regions of Kosovo. Conclusion: Our analysis provides valuable evidence about the level of competencies of primary health care physicians in Kosovo from different stakeholders perspectives. There is an urgent need for continuous professional development of family physicians in post-war Kosovo.


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A Comparative Study Between Povidone-iodine and Manugel 85 on Surgical Scrub

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Bahar Seifi, Faezeh Sahbaei, Mohamad Zare Zare, Azam Abdoli, and Mohammad Heidari.
Background: Direct transmission through skin contact is one of ways for disease transmission. Medical staffs have contact with many patients, so their hand can be a factor for the transmission of disease. Surgical scrub is a process that leads to destruction immigrant and stable microbus of hands and arms through friction washing by use of antiseptic solution prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of disinfection of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85 in surgical scrub. Methods: This study was a clinical trial that done before and after Surgical scrub. 33 person of surgical team in hospital were surveyed during. Four samples were done for every person: first before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution, second immediately after surgical scrub, then after one week third test done before surgical scrub with Manugel 85, and forth one immediately after surgical scrub. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis and SPSS analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85, separately, before and after surgical scrub on number of colonies is significant. But the effect of these two solutions on behalf of number of colonies was not significant. The 100% grown cultures before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution and 90.91% before surgical scrub with Manugel 85 were staphylococcus. Conclusion: The disinfection effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manuge l85 on surgical scrub is the same.


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Comparison of Patients’ Admission, Mean and Highest Sofa Scores in Prediction of ICU Mortality: a Prospective Observational Study

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Afshin Gholipour Baradari, Abolfazl Firouzian, Ali Davanlou, Mohsen Aarabi, Maryam Daneshiyan, and Yaser Talebiyan Kiakolaye.
Background: Use of valid criteria for evaluation of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is essential to assess the quality of services provided. This study was conducted to evaluate admission, mean and the highest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores in predicting mortality and outcome of patients admitted to the ICU. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 300 patients admitted to the ICU of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, in 2015. The SOFA tool was applied at the beginning of the admission of patients in the ICU and then every 24 hours. Functions of six vital organs were recorded on a daily basis for scoring with SOFA. Demographic profile, the main diagnosis leading to hospitalization in the ICU, previous interventions, complications and hospital outcomes were recorded for each patient. The patients admission, mean and highest SOFA scores were also evaluated and recorded during the study period. These scores were compared between deceased and survived patients. ROC curve determined the best cut-off point of score calculated. Results: Among all 300 patients who were enrolled in the study, 189 (63%) cases were males. Trauma was the most common cause of hospitalization and mortality. Thirty point seven percent of 92 deceased patients needed to intubation. Mean length of ICU and hospital stay were significantly longer for deceased patients than the survivors (P


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The Effect of Perceived Social Support on Hemodialysis Patients’ Quality of Life

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Margarita Alexopoulou, Natalia Giannakopoulou, Eleni Komna, Viktoria Alikari, Georgia Toulia, and Maria Polikandrioti.
Background: Association between perceived social support and quality of life in hemodialysis patients represents a new area of interest. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of social support on the quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: In this study 258 hemodialysis patients were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire which consisted of three parts: a) the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to assess perceived social support, b) the Missoula-VITAS Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI15) to assess quality of patients life and c) the socio-demographic, clinical and other variables of patients. To test the existence of association between quality of life and social support the correlation coefficient of Spearman was used. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate the effect of social support on quality of life (dependent variable), adjusted for potential confounders. The analysis was performed on SPSS v20. Results: Patients felt high support from significant others and family and less from friends (median 6, 6 and 4.5 respectively). Patients evaluated their quality of life in its entirety as moderate in the total and overall quality of life score (median 17.2 and 3 respectively). Regarding the association between social support and quality of life, results showed that the more support patients had from their significant others, family and friends, the better quality of life they had. (rho =0,395, rho =0,399 and rho=0,359, respectively). Conclusions: Understanding the relation between social support and quality of life should prompt health professionals to provide beneficial care to hemodialysis patients.


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Side to Side Differences Between Dominant and Non-dominant Arm’s Bone Density and Isometric Handgrip Strength in Males and Females Aged 40-65 Years Old

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Ermira Krasniqi, Mynyr Koni, Antigona Kabashi, Abedin Bahtiri, Selda Gjeli, and Arben Boshnjaku.
Objective. This observational, cross-sectional study, investigates and compares the differences of BMD, T-score, Z-score and isometric strength between dominant (D) versus non-dominant (ND) arms of 162 subjects aged 40-65 in a developing, low income country (Kosova). Material and Methods. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), T-score and Z-score at distal forearm regions of both arms (measured by DXA scan), together with the Handgrip Isometric Strength (HIS) (by handgrip) were evaluated in a total subjects (53 Males and 109 Females). Additionally, General Healthcare Status Questionnaire together with self-administrated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were filled. Results. Significant differences (p0.05) were observed in Males BMD comparing to significantly higher results (p0.05) were found between PA1, as well as PA3 whereas significantly differences (p


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Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes in the Southern Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Vajdana Tomic, Marinko Misic, Ana Dugandzic Simic, Ana Boskovic, Tanja Kresic, Olivera Peric, Martina Orlovic, and Ivana Culjak Blagojevic.
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as a complex problem in pregnancy, is increasing all over the world, but most noticeable in developing countries. Aims: To estimate GDM prevalence and associated pregnancy features in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted from October 2010 through March 2011. A total of 285 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies participated and were asigned to the study in the order they came for their usual ante-natal clinic examination. They underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of glucose. Information on OGTT results, maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were collected from database and medical records. Results: Prevalence of GDM was 10.9% according to 1999 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Prenatal cigarette smoking, previous GDM, cesarean delivery rate and neonatal hypoglycemia were significantly more frequent in the GDM group compared to the group of pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance (p = 0.015, p

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Detection, Ribotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties of Clostridium difficile Strains Isolated From The Cases of Diarrhea

2016-10-17T18-42-40Z
Source: Materia Socio Medica
Samaneh Kouzegaran, Mahmood Ganjifard, and Amir Saber Tanha.
Background: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. Materials and methods: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics hospitalized due to the diseases other than diarrhea. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to disk diffusion and PCR-based ribotyping. Results: Thirty-five out of 400 (8.75%) samples were positive for C. difficile. Prevalence of C. difficile in diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics were 11.25% and 4.16%, respectively. Male had the higher prevalence of bacteria than female (P

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Team-based versus ward-based junior doctors: Where do the differences lie?

2016-10-17T14-06-09Z
Source: Journal of Contemporary Medical Education
Babatunde Oremule, Oluwafikunayo Orekoya, Linda Hacking.
Foundation Year 1 doctors (or pre-registration house officers) are the most junior members on the medical or surgical team. They provide secretarial and clinical services under supervision of more senior clinicians. With the increasing demand on health services in the United Kingdom, employers and educators are searching for ways to maximise their productivity without detriment to their training. One such method was trialled at our Trust. We changed from a team-based system to a ward-based system for Foundation Year 1 doctors on general surgical firms. Following the change we assessed the impact on junior doctor training using qualitative and quantitative methods. We believe that our study and the results will be of great interest to your readers. This project has been presented regionally and nationally and has been met with great interest.


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Assessment of effectiveness of small group teaching among Medical Students

2016-10-17T14-06-09Z
Source: Journal of Contemporary Medical Education
Kashmir Singh, Rashmi Katyal, Arun Singh, Hari Shankar Joshi, Shalini Chandra.
Introduction: Small group teaching has grown in popularity in medical education as it offers a dynamic and collaborative setting for learning. It improves the retention of knowledge and students thinking. Conflicting reports in literature regarding effectiveness of small group teaching vs didactic lectures. Aim and objectives: 1. To assess the effectiveness of small group tutorials versus didactic lectures 2. To know the Students' and faculties perceptions regarding small group tutorials. Methods: Eighty final year MBBS students with informed consent were divided randomly into two groups. Two topics on head injury were taken in two sessions. In which pre and post assessment was done based on MCQs. In first session, one group was subjected to didactic lecture and the other group to tutorials followed by the cross-over in the second session. The same group of teachers took the didactic lectures and tutorials respectively. Perception of faculty based on likert scale taken. The data analysed in SPSS software using paired t-test. Results: There is a significant statistical difference in the pre-test and the post-test scores of each modality of teaching on the application of paired t-test (p-value


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A comparative study of impact of obesity on maximum voluntary ventilation in young adult women

2016-10-17T12-59-40Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Malini M, Baljoshi V S, Kammar K F.
Background: Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence and severity of obesity in young adult females are dramatically increasing worldwide. Along with other organs, respiratory system is also compromised. Obesity is likely the cause of pulmonary function decline which is linked to early morbidity and mortality. The maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) test evaluates the respiratory endurance and is influenced by the respiratory muscle strength, the lung and chest compliance, and the control of breathing and airway resistance. In the case of obese individuals, this variable is reduced mainly by mechanical injury to the respiratory muscles, caused in particular by the excessive weight on the thorax. Hence, this study was done to know the impact of obesity on MVV in adult females. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the pulmonary function test (PFT) parameter in obese adult females and non-obese adult female patient and to evaluate the impact of obesity on MVV. Materials and Methods: PFTs of 50 normal, healthy, non-obese females and 50 healthy but obese females, age group 18-30 years of Hubli city were determined and were compared. Criteria for obesity in our study taken were according to the WHO criteria of body mass index. The PFT was carried out with computerized Spirometer Eazy on-PC model. MVV parameter was used as a measure of lung function. Results: In our study, obese females had MVV (liters) of 58 ± 12.2, whereas corresponding values in controls was 87 ± 66. There was statistically highly significant difference between two groups (P

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A study of serum total protein, serum albumin and thyroid hormones in protein-energy malnutrition in children

2016-10-17T09-21-44Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Anil M Gamit, Asha S Khubchandani, Mital R Gamit, Utsav Parmar, Anuja Adarsh, Pankaj Gaadhe.
Background: Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is one of the most common nutritional problems of developing countries of the world and an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity leading to permanent impairment of physical and mental growth. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare serum total protein, serum albumin and thyroid hormones in children with Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and in healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Serum total protein, serum albumin, and thyroid hormones were estimated in Fifty children (age, 1- 5 year) with PEM (PEM group). And an equal number of age, sex matched healthy controls were included for the control group. Results: PEM children have low serum total protein and albumin levels as compared to healthy controls (p


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An interventional study on knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among medical students

2016-10-17T09-21-44Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Jana Priya Sugumar, Manasi Shekhar Padhyegurjar, Shekhar Bhikaji Padhyegurjar.
Background: Organ donation to date remains a sensitive issue among the general public and medical community. In both groups lack of awareness persists despite the significance of organ shortage faced by the health care system. The constant demand for organs must be dealt by increasing the donor pool by generating a positive attitude of public towards donation while curbing illegal activities by stricter laws. This can be brought about by Medical professionals whose opinion makes a significant impact on the prospective belief of public. Objective: To explore the knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among undergraduate medical students and to assess the change in variables post intervention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional interventional study was conducted among 382 medical students. Data was collected pre and post intervention using a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire, in a lecture hall setting. Results: Knowledge regarding organ donation practices was poor but showed good improvement post intervention. Only 3.93% students possessed donor card, but more than 60% were willing for donation in future with preference to deceased donation, though only 37.96% were willing to receive organs; and 48.63% showed distrust against doctors and majority agreed that religion was not against organ donation. Media was stated as the most popular source of information and poor knowledge was claimed to be the major reason for unpopularity. Conclusion: Intervention does improve knowledge; however positive change in attitude will require a different approach. Appropriate changes in the curriculum are thus indicated to generate well-informed physicians with an optimistic outlook to change the organ donation scenario.


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