Δευτέρα, 31 Δεκεμβρίου 2018

Happy New Year 2019


Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Journal of Pain

EDITORIAL 

Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Current controversyp. 123
Kailash Kothari
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_67_18  
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REVIEW ARTICLESTop

Full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy for high canal compromised disc at upper lumbar level: A technical reviewp. 125
Manish Raj, Kailash Kothari, Anurag Agarwal, Hyeun Sung Kim, Pankaj Surange, Kapil Tyagi, Prashant Punia, Palea Ovideu
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_51_18  
Objective: In this study, we have described the technique to overcome difficulty faced during trans-foraminal endoscopic discectomy for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in patients who have herniated discs at the upper lumbar level & thoracolumbar junction. Method: After institutional review board approval, A retrospective analysis of 27 patients operated between March 2013- September 2017, by a single specialist for disc herniation at upper lumbar levels D12-L1, L1-2, L2-3 with or without high canal compromise by outside in technique (using rigid endoscope, sequential reamers) along with detailed description of our technique is the focus of this study. Results: Out of 27 patients there were 11 cases for L1-2 & 16 cases of L2-3 disc herniation respectively. There were 21 cases of broad-based, high canal compromised disc herniation with significant neurological deficit & only 6 cases were of focal herniation type. The average preoperative VAS score of 8.5 (range 6-10) reduced to 4 (range 2-7) immediate postoperatively & it further reduced to 2 (range 0-4) at one month follow up. The average preoperative ODI score of 65 (range 28- 88) reduced to 27 (range 12-40) immediate postoperatively & it further reduced to 10 (range 3- 18) at one month follow up. Post-operative MRI showed that the ruptured disc had been successfully removed. Conclusion: An anatomically modified surgical technique promote a more successful outcome after percutaneous endoscopic discectomy for upper lumbar disc herniation. Foraminotomy is recommended for all intra-canalicular herniation. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy can be used as a safe yet minimally invasive technique for the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of an upper lumbar disc herniation.
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Pharmacological management of neuropathic pain in India: A consensus statement from Indian expertsp. 132
Ashok Kumar Saxena, Parmanand Jain, Gur Prasad Dureja, Anil Venkitachalam, Subrata Goswami, Hammad Usmani, Shardul Kothari, Dipit Sahu, Baljit Singh, Vandana Trivedi, Gaurav Sharma, Sanjay Kamble, Amit Qamra, Salman Motlekar, Rishi Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_47_18  
Neuropathic pain (NeP) constitutes a major pain-related disorder, which is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Adverse physical, psychological, and economic consequences associated with NeP lead to poor quality of life. Burden of NeP in developing countries like India is colossal. Various international guidelines provide effective approaches to diagnose and manage NeP. However, differences in the genetic makeup of Indian population can result in subtle differences in clinical response, considering their low body weight, drug metabolism ability, and pain perception. Similarly, treatment-related adverse effects may also vary. Practice of Indian physicians may also differ for choice of drugs based on their availability and affordability. In the absence of country-specific guidelines, this document could serve as a guiding tool for health-care providers, ensuring uniformity in the treatment of NeP. Thus, applicability of all recommendations from any of these guidelines in Indian setting demands careful evaluation. Clinical experience of Indian physicians suggests that there are lot many challenges (e.g., busy outpatient departments, nonavailability of screening questionnaires in regional languages, and availability and affordability of medications) faced by them when managing NeP. In addition, in India, there are no country-specific guidelines that would help them to address these challenges. The objective for this consensus was to develop an expert opinion guideline to harmonize the management of NeP in India. The expert panel consisted of experts from various specialties such as pain medicine, anesthesiology, diabetology, neurology, and orthopedics. The panel critically reviewed the existing literature evidence and guideline recommendations to provide India-specific consensus on the management of NeP. The final consensus document was reviewed and approved by all the experts. This expert opinion consensus will help health-care professionals as a guiding tool for effective management of NeP in India. Use of Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire for NeP screening should be routine in day-to-day clinical practice. For effective utilization of DN4 questionnaire, it should be converted to regional language. If DN4 questionnaire screening fails to identify NeP, it should not be disregarded and should not replace the sound clinical judgment from the treating physician. Diagnostic tests may be considered as a supplement to clinical judgment. Cost-effective treatment should be the initial choice. Dosing should be individualized based on efficacy and tolerability. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), gabapentinoids, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) can be considered among initial choices. Tramadol can be considered as a second-line add-on treatment for NeP if there is partial response to the first-line agent either alone or in combination. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) of gabapentinoids such as pregabalin (75 mg) with TCA such as nortriptyline (10 mg) is synergistic and improves treatment adherence. Among other treatments, Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) can be used either alone or in combination for the management of NeP. Use of Vitamin D and steroids should be limited to specific NeP in individual cases. Referral to pain specialists can be considered if two drugs fail to provide relief in NeP.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLESTop

Is tactile acuity altered in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain?p. 145
Shobhalakshmi S Holla, Turiya Vats, Pratima Nagpal
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_20_18  
Background: Tactile acuity measured by point discrimination (TPD) refers to the precision by which we can sense touch.An increase in TPD threshold (loss of tactile acuity) is considered suggestive of disruptions to S1 cortical maps of that specific body part. In some chronically painful conditions, reduced tactile acuity is a manifestation of Central sensitization (CS).The other symptoms include hyperalgesia and allodynia due to repeated activation of spinal nociceptors. A recent study has shown that tactile acuity is affected in individuals with chronic neck pain. While there seems to be adequate evidence stating that tactile acuity is reduced in individuals with chronic pain, CS may not be limited to chronic pain states. There is a paucity of literature with respect to the tactile acuity of a person with acute neck pain. A measurement of tactile acuity of the affected body area in acute pain, may suggest the extent of the altered threshold of sensory discriminative aspect of pain experience. Objectives: To compare the two-point discrimination over C7 spinous process between the symptomatic individuals with mechanical neck pain and age matched healthy controls. Methods: 30 individuals with mechanical neck pain & 30 age matched normals were assessed for two point discrimination using mechanical calipers, The two sharp points of the caliper were vertically placed against the skin surface over C7 spinous process, commencing with 5mm, which was stretched out till the subject appreciated the two points. Values were noted down in millimeters. Results: An independent t – test showed a significant difference in the two point discrimination between the 2 groups (P < 0.000). Conclusion: It can be concluded that individuals with acute mechanical neck pain demonstrated a change in tactile acuity.
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A comparative study of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block versus fascia iliaca compartment block in patients with fracture femur for reducing pain associated with positioning for subarachnoid blockp. 150
Neena Jain, Pooja Rawat Mathur, Veena Patodi, Saurav Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_21_18  
Context: Lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks are increasingly being recommended for pain control in patients with fracture femur as it reduces pain and shortens the duration of hospital stay. Aims: To compare analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided femoral nerve block (FNB) and fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) in patients with fracture femur for reducing pain associated with positioning for subarachnoid block. Settings and Design: It was a prospective, randomized, double blind study. Methods and Material: Group A (n = 25) received ultrasound guided FNB and Group B (n = 25) received ultrasound guided FICB using 0.5% ropivacaine. Primary objective was to observe reduction in pain associated with positioning (sitting) for subarachnoid block. Statistical Analysis used: For data analysis t test, Mann Whitney test and Chi-square test were applied. Results: Visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain before giving peripheral nerve block between Group A (7.60 ± 0.57) and Group B (7.44 ± 0.50) was comparable (P = 0.302). VAS score for pain in sitting position before giving subarachnoid block was lesser in Group A (1.88 ± 0.83) than in Group B (2.40 ± 0.57) (P = 0.013). Mean reduction in VAS score for pain was more in Group A (5.72 ± 0.73) compared to Group B (5.04 ± 0.73) (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Ultrasound guided FNB is more efficacious in reducing pain associated with positioning (sitting) for subarachnoid block in patients undergoing surgery for fracture femur compared to ultrasound guided FICB.
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Image guided trans foraminal epidural injection: Is it a viable stopgap therapy for low backachep. 155
Samaresh Sahu, Rochan Pant, Sashank Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_33_18  
Aims: 1. Study the change in pain and function in patient with lumbosacral disc disease on MRI using visual analogue scale (VAS) and the revised Oswestry disability index (ODI) for back pain after administration of fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural injection. 2. Correlate the response of the patient with the spread of contrast in epidural space. Method: 100 patients with history of low back ache and imaging findings of disc herniation were enrolled based on inclusion criteria. Patients scored their pain on the VAS and functional disability on revised ODI. The patient was evaluated for distribution of pain and was administered a combination of anaesthetic and steroid after confirming the position of the tip of needle using iodinated contrast. Follow up for response to pain and improvement in disability in immediate post procedure done at 3 and 6 months. Result: 102 injections were administered for 100 patients which comprised of n=69 {67.6%} male and 33{32.4%} female and age distribution was 21-79 years. The distribution of indication was disc bulge n=29 (28.4%), extrusion n=12 (11.8%), post operative n=19 (18.6%), protrusion n=42 (41.2%). No significant difference between the VAS scores (p=0.20) of the individual indication pre procedure. After 3 & 6 months there was statistically significant difference between the mean rank value of population indicating maximum benefit for disc bulge population and least for post operative population at three months follow up. Conclusion: There is statistically proven good results in all cases for 6 months, after which repeat injections may be tried.
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Perception, knowledge, and attitudes of first-year postgraduates toward postoperative pain management: A questionnaire-based studyp. 163
Pritam B Adsule, Pradnya M Bhalerao, Prakash R Dhumal
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_31_18  
Context: Inadequately controlled postoperative pain has undesirable physiological and psychological consequences. It increases postoperative morbidity, delays recovery, and hence causes a delayed return to normal daily living. Furthermore, the lack of adequate postoperative pain treatment may lead to persistent pain after surgery, which is often overlooked. Overall, inadequate pain management increases the use of health care resources and health care costs. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of first-year postgraduate students toward postoperative pain. Study Design: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 42 first-year postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: A 20-point questionnaire was prepared based on the various aspects of postoperative pain services. The students were asked to provide their answers on a five-point Likert scale ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." The responses were kept anonymous, and the results were expressed in terms of percentage. Results:Almost 70% of students had a good knowledge of opioids, 52% strongly felt the need for a structured pain curriculum, 76% were well aware of nonpharmacological methods of pain relief, 48% agreed on the need for a pain physician, and 52% were aware of the advantage of postoperative analgesia. Conclusion: This pilot study helped us to evaluate the current understanding of our first-year postgraduate students and further created awareness on the importance of pain relief postoperatively.
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Executive function and its clinical correlates among migraineursp. 167
Ashitha Sreedhar, Suresh M Kumar, Anjali N Shobha
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_38_18  
Background: The studies conducted in the field of migraine and its effect on various cognitive functions revealed contradicting results mainly due to the incorporation of patients from varied socioeconomic status, clinical conditions, and the methodology adopted to the study. Methods: The participants of the study consist of 130 migraineurs, selected from the outpatient department of neurology from reputed tertiary centers at Chennai, South India, and controls were picked up from the community. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical examination and screening. The instruments used are Migraine Severity Scale, Headache impact test, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral word Association Test. Results: The study found that migraine group to have deficits in some aspects of problem-solving and concept formation competencies in comparison with healthy individuals and also found strong and weak correlation with various clinical variables such as its severity, duration, and headache impact indicating the role of migraine on cognitive functioning. Conclusion: The condition of migraine does lead to mild-to-moderate levels of impairment in various frontal lobe-involved cognitive functions such as attention, planning, and problem-solving even in a high-profile samples having higher levels of education and occupation. The relation between the migraine and impairment in cognitive functions are further cemented by the strong correlation found between various clinical factors such as its severity, duration, and its impact. Findings from such a study will also pave new ways and means to incorporate the implementation of a holistic approach in the treatment and management of migraine, and thereby to enhance the quality of life of these patients.
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Translation and validation of Marathi version of Fear-Avoidance and Belief Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back painp. 173
Vrushali P Panhale, Reshma S Gurav, Kartiki Suradkar
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_41_18  
Background: Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) is widely used to assess the fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with low back pain (LBP). However, English serves as a barrier to the population of the state where Marathi is the prime language. Hence, the FABQ needs to be translated into Marathi for the ease of its use. Materials and Methods: FABQ was successfully translated in Marathi using forward-backward translation using recommended guidelines. The final version of FABQ-Marathi version (FABQ-M) was used on 100 patients with chronic nonspecific LBP to assess its reliability and validity. Reliability was assessed by measuring the internal consistency of FABQ-M and its subscales and by checking the test-retest reliability on day 1 and day 2. For the determination of construct validity, convergent and divergent validity was assessed. The floor and ceiling effects were studied. Results: Reliability-internal consistency-Cronbach's alpha for FABQ-M was 0.860 and test–retest: correlation between FABQ-M on day 1 and day 2 were highly significant. The intraclass coefficient was 0.976. There was a high internal consistency between the FABQ-M and its subscales. On assessing convergent validity, there was moderate correlation found between FABQ-M and TSK (r = 0.52, P = 0.00). Divergent validity showed moderate correlation between FABQ-M and NRS (r = 0.48, P = 0.00) and between FABQ-M and RMDQ (r = 0.59, P = 0.00). Conclusion: The translated FABQ-M proved to be acceptable. The results suggest it is a validated, an easy to comprehend, reliable, and valid instrument for the measurement of the fear and avoidance beliefs caused by back disorders in the Marathi-speaking population.
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CASE SERIESTop

A case series discussing the intrathecal drug delivery system to improve the quality of life in terminal cancer patientsp. 179
Joanna Samantha Rodrigues, Preeti Gupta, Shalini Saksena, Manju Butani
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_49_18  
Cancer is a life changing diagnosis and chronic pain in these terminally ill patients is extremely debilitating. In the present case series, the feasibility of continuous infusion of low dose local anaesthetics and opioids through the intrathecal route has been discussed pertaining to patient selection, technique, drugs used and trouble shooting. The intrathecal catheters were connected through a subcutaneous port to an external ambulatory infusion device (CADD pump) and used on a home care basis.
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CASE REPORTSTop

Quadratus lumborum: One of the many significant causes of low back painp. 184
Asha Satish Barge, Satish Mahadeo Barge
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_53_18  
Quadratus lumborum is one of the common sources of pain and that can be missed or ignored easily. Quadratus lumborum pain syndrome is a myofascial pain syndrome. The pain is due to spasm and stiffness of the muscle. Many a times, weak back muscles are compensated by quadratus lumborum leading to painful spasm. It is diffi cult to differentiate between quadratus lumborum and iliopsoas pain syndrome. Diagnostic quadratus lumborum injection helps differentiate between these two. In this report, we reported a case of quadratus lumborum pain syndrome as a primary diagnosis and iliopsoas pain syndrome as a secondary diagnosis. The diagnosis was confi rmed by fl uoroscopically guided quadratus lumborum injection.
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Management of chronic postsurgical pain following cholecystectomyp. 187
Parthasarathy Srinivasan, Gobinath Jayaraman
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_36_18  
A 50-year-old female presented with severe pain at the cholecystectomy scar site of 4 months' duration. She had an open cholecystectomy done followed by continuous pain from the time of discharge. She was diagnosed as a case of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) syndrome. We administered right-sided erector spinae (ES) block by ultrasound guidance depositing 15 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 40 mg of methylprednisolone at site of incision. The visual analog score showed significant improvement from 7/10 to 2/10 for the next 2 months of follow-up. We conclude that ultrasonography-guided ES block combined with intralesional steroid is a viable treatment option in cases of CPSP. This is possibly the first case report of postcholecystectomy chronic pain managed with ES block.
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Horner syndrome: A hidden benign complication of cervical epidural injectionp. 190
Sudheer Dara, Minal Chandra, Rachna Varma
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.ijpn_59_18  
Cervical epidural steroid injection is an intervention done for cervical prolapsed intervertebral disc. Cervical epidural steroid injection is done if a patient has not responded to medications and physical therapy. We discuss a case report of the occurrence of Horner's syndrome in the patient with cervical radiculopathy undergoing cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection which resolved spontaneously without residual side effects.
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Molecular pathways of oral cancer that predict prognosis and survival

Several genes and pathways associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are significant in terms of early detection and prognosis. The objective of this literature review is to evaluate the current research on molecular pathways and genes involved in oral cancer. Articles on the genes involved in oral cancer pathways were evaluated to identify potential biomarkers that can predict survival. In total, 36 articles were retrieved from internet databases, including EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct, using the keywords "biomarker of oral cancer," "pathways of oral cancer," "genes involved in oral cancer," and "oral cancer pathways." A total of 36 studies related to OSCC were chosen. Most of the studies used cell lines, while others used archival tissues, few studies followed up the cases. Three major interlinked pathways found were the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), PI3K-AKT, and Wnt pathways. The commonly mutated genes were cyclin D1 (CCND1), Rb, p53, FLJ10540, and TC21. The NF-kB, PI3K-AKT, and Wnt pathways are most frequently involved in the molecular pathogenesis of oral cancer. However, the CCND1, Rb, p53, FLJ10540, and TC21 genes were found to be more accurate in determining patients' overall survival. Polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting were the commonly used detection methods.

Keywords: Biomarkers, molecular pathways, prognosis, survival, targeted therapy


http://www.carcinogenesis.com/article.asp?issn=1477-3163;year=2018;volume=17;issue=1;spage=7;epage=7;aulast=Lakshminarayana

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences, a publication of Maulana Azad Medical College

Draft Charter of Patients' Rights: An Appraisal
Vivek R Minocha

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):113-115



Retinopathy of Prematurity
Mukta Sharma, Arti Sareen, Sunder Singh Negi

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):116-120

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a bilateral proliferative retinopathy affecting premature infants with low birth weight,who have been exposed to excessive oxygenation, resulting in dysregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression and thus untimely vasoobliteration or exaggerated vasoproliferation.Screening for ROP is mandatory in such infants so as to prevent this blinding disorder. 


The Safety and Efficacy of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy of Brain Lesion
Wisam H Mohammed, Ahmed R Obaid, Ali K Al-Shalaji, Samer S Hoz, Bishree K Shakir, Luis R Moscote-Salazar

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):121-127

Background Radiological imaging techniques provide early detection of neurological diseases, but they do not always provide an adequate diagnosis. With the help of stereotactic biopsy techniques, it is possible to access deep-brain lesions safely and with high precision, being crucial in the elaboration of therapeutic strategies and prevents unnecessary neurosurgical interventions. Aim To evaluate the safety, diagnostic yields, and associated mortality and morbidity of computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of all pathologically diagnosed intracranial biopsies, between 2010 and 2016 in Baghdad Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital, was conducted. Stereotactic biopsies were performed by using the Leksell stereotactic frame in 116 patients. Medical charts, radiological studies, and postoperative complications were reviewed, and then the information was analyzed. Results A total of 116 patients underwent stereotactic surgery procedures. Patients consisted of 66 females and 50 males, ages ranging from 7 to 74 years (mean 44.4&#8201;&#177;&#8201;19.35 years). General anesthesia was used in 88 patients. The rest were performed under local anesthesia. The overall diagnostic yield was 98.3%. Complications were observed in 8.6% of the cases, with morbidity 5.1% of the cases, and the overall mortality rate was 3.4%. These results are comparable to other reports. Other clinical, radiological, or histological variables were not associated with an increased risk of complications. Conclusion Our findings support that frame-based stereotactic biopsy is a relatively safe and valuable technique that allows the neurosurgeon to obtain tissue samples for histopathological diagnosis of most of the intracranial mass lesions. 


Text-Messaging to Supplement Classroom Teaching: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial
Anurag Agarwal, Sumaira Khalil, Mohit Sethi, Devendra Mishra

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):128-132

Introduction Short messaging service (SMS), or text messaging is highly accepted in medical education of health workers and patients. This study was conducted to evaluate if SMS-based supplementation of key messages with conventional classroom teaching compared to conventional teaching results in a better cognitive performance of undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods Setting: Department of pediatrics of a public medical college in India. Participants: Ninety-two final-year undergraduate medical students. Study design: Single-center, nonrandomized, controlled trial. Intervention: One batch was given SMS-based key messages in addition to conventional teaching (intervention group, n &#61; 48), as compared to only conventional teaching of the other (control, n &#61; 44) batch. The text messages pertained to five predetermined topics of the teaching session and were sent in the evening of the day the topic was taught. Primary outcome variable: Scores in a multiple-choice question (MCQ)-based test at the end of posting of each batch. Results A total of 92 final-year MBBS students were enrolled in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the performance of the study participants in the post-intervention MCQ test in the two groups [mean (standard deviation) scores, 13.4 (1.55) vs. 9.7 (3.49), P &#62; 0.05], even after subgroup analysis for high scorers and low scorers. The total cost of sending the messages was less than Rs. 100. Conclusion There was no statistically significant effect on cognitive performance following a supplementation of classroom teaching by SMS-based key messages. However, given the low cost of this methodology and the reported high acceptance of this method by students, there is a need for more well-planned studies to confirm these results. 


Status of Noncommunicable Disease Screening in an Urban Resettlement Colony in Delhi, India: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study
Ruchira Pangtey, Saurav Basu, Gajendra S Meena, Bratati Banerjee

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):133-136

Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for more than two-third cases of premature mortality (30&#8211;69 years) in India. Screening for NCDs is the most effective means for detection of undiagnosed NCD cases and early treatment initiation that lowers morbidity and mortality due to these diseases. The objective of the present study was to assess the NCD screening status in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents of the area. Patients with preexisting hypertension and diabetes and aged below 30 years were excluded. The patients were further screened for hypertension by taking three separate readings using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) was calculated to evaluate diabetes risk. Results A total of 110 men and 103 women (N &#61; 213) met the inclusion criteria. The mean (&#177;standard deviation) age of the patients was 40 (&#177;9.3) years. A history of previous screening for hypertension and diabetes was reported by 73 (34.2%) and 40 (35.4%) patients, respectively. A medium or high-risk of having diabetes mellitus as per the IDRS score was present in most (88.4%) patients. On current screening, nine (8.2%) men and nine (8.7%) women were identified as undiagnosed hypertension cases. Only four (3.8%) women had undergone a clinical breast exam, and just nine (8.7%) women ever had a Pap smear examination. Conclusion The present study shows that the current strategy of opportunistic screening for NCDs has been unable to reach large segments of vulnerable and at risk populations. 


Coarctation of Aorta With Valvular Heart Disease: A Hybrid Approach
Ankit Jain, Prerit Agarwal, Subodh Satyarthy, Kuber Sharma, Muhammed A Geelani

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):137-141

We describe the management of three patients with coarctation of aorta (COA) associated with valvular heart disease. All the three patients underwent initial balloon dilatation following which they underwent surgical correction of the valvular pathology. Staged approach in such diseases has better outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. Both single-stage and two stage operations can be used. As surgical correction of COA is frequently associated with potential complications, we adopted the staged approach for better results. Background COA with valvular heart disease is generally a rare combination. Both these entities require correction which can be done simultaneously or as staged procedure. Objective To study the outcome of staged procedures in such patients. Materials and Methods We managed 3 patients with COA associated with valvular heart disease. Results All the 3 patients had uneventful post operative recovery. At the time of discharge gradients were &#60;20 mm Hg across the coarctated segment. Post operative echocardiography (echo) after 3 months on follow up were normal. Conclusion Simultaneous surgical correction of COA along with valvular heart disease is associated with potential surgical and anesthetic complications. Hence staged procedures are preferred if the anatomy of coarctation is feasible for endovascular correction. 


Anesthetic Considerations in a Child With IgG4 Disease
Summit D Bloria, Ketan Kataria, Ankur Luthra, Pallavi Bloria

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):142-144

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a relatively newly coined term for a disease which affects various body organs. There is tissue invasion of IgG4-positive plasma cells into tissues leading to various manifestations like lymph node enlargement, autoimmune pancreatitis, pulmonary manifestations, hepatic disease, and others. We describe the anesthetic management of a pediatric patient suffering from IgG4-related disease with systemic manifestations who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision. 


Emergency Cesarean Delivery in a Parturient With Intracranial Tumor: Anesthesiologist's Challenge
Kapil Chaudhary, Sandeep Mehra, Kirti N Saxena, Bharti Wadhwa, Himanshu Sikri

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):145-148

Anesthetic management of a patient having an intracranial tumor undergoing cesarean section is challenging because of a combination of factors including their diagnosis, physiological changes of pregnancy, fetal viability concerns and complexity of surgical and anesthetic interventions. The scenario is more challenging in emergency surgery as the time for optimization and multidisciplinary involvement is minimal. We discuss successful management of a term primigravida with intracranial tumor who presented for emergency cesarean delivery. The anesthetic challenges and the management options are discussed. 


Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt-Associated Meningitis Caused by Candida auris: A Case Report
Rohit Chawla, Anuj Sud, Nadeem Ahmad, Chander Prakash Baveja

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):149-151

Candida auris was first isolated in Japan in 2008. Since then, it has become an emerging global threat due to its role in outbreaks in healthcare facilities and its decreased susceptibility to multiple antifungal agents. We report a case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt-associated meningitis caused by C. auris in a patient who had a history of tubercular meningitis and hydrocephalus. The isolate was initially misidentified as Candida krusei based on purple-colored colonies on Modified HiCrome Candida Differential Agar but was finally identified as C. auris on VITEK-2 compact (version 8.01). The isolate had a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for fluconazole, whereas the MICs for other major classes of antifungals were low. 


Intractable Chylothorax Following Mitral Valve Replacement in an Adult
Ankit Jain, Arindam Roy, Saumya S Jenasamant, Manish Jawarkar, Harpreet S Minhas

MAMC Journal of Medical Sciences 2018 4(3):152-154

Chylothorax after an open-heart surgery has previously been mentioned in the literature. We report this association in a young female post-mitral valve replacement surgery due to abnormal lymphatic channels. Medical management was conducted for 4 weeks. On failure of the conservative treatment, she underwent pleurectomy with suture ligation of the thymic gland remnants and pericardium for the chylothorax, which resolved following the redo surgery. This rare incidental variation in lymphatic drainage was responsible for refractory chylothorax, which otherwise could have been managed medically. 


EDITORIAL 

Draft Charter of Patients' Rights: An Appraisalp. 113
Vivek R Minocha
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_50_18  
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REVIEW ARTICLETop

Retinopathy of Prematurityp. 116
Mukta Sharma, Arti Sareen, Sunder Singh Negi
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_66_17  
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a bilateral proliferative retinopathy affecting premature infants with low birth weight,who have been exposed to excessive oxygenation, resulting in dysregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression and thus untimely vasoobliteration or exaggerated vasoproliferation.Screening for ROP is mandatory in such infants so as to prevent this blinding disorder.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLESTop

The Safety and Efficacy of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy of Brain Lesionp. 121
Wisam H Mohammed, Ahmed R Obaid, Ali K Al-Shalaji, Samer S Hoz, Bishree K Shakir, Luis R Moscote-Salazar
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_3_18  
Background Radiological imaging techniques provide early detection of neurological diseases, but they do not always provide an adequate diagnosis. With the help of stereotactic biopsy techniques, it is possible to access deep-brain lesions safely and with high precision, being crucial in the elaboration of therapeutic strategies and prevents unnecessary neurosurgical interventions. Aim To evaluate the safety, diagnostic yields, and associated mortality and morbidity of computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of all pathologically diagnosed intracranial biopsies, between 2010 and 2016 in Baghdad Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital, was conducted. Stereotactic biopsies were performed by using the Leksell stereotactic frame in 116 patients. Medical charts, radiological studies, and postoperative complications were reviewed, and then the information was analyzed. Results A total of 116 patients underwent stereotactic surgery procedures. Patients consisted of 66 females and 50 males, ages ranging from 7 to 74 years (mean 44.4 ± 19.35 years). General anesthesia was used in 88 patients. The rest were performed under local anesthesia. The overall diagnostic yield was 98.3%. Complications were observed in 8.6% of the cases, with morbidity 5.1% of the cases, and the overall mortality rate was 3.4%. These results are comparable to other reports. Other clinical, radiological, or histological variables were not associated with an increased risk of complications. Conclusion Our findings support that frame-based stereotactic biopsy is a relatively safe and valuable technique that allows the neurosurgeon to obtain tissue samples for histopathological diagnosis of most of the intracranial mass lesions.
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Text-Messaging to Supplement Classroom Teaching: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trialp. 128
Anurag Agarwal, Sumaira Khalil, Mohit Sethi, Devendra Mishra
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_26_18  
Introduction Short messaging service (SMS), or text messaging is highly accepted in medical education of health workers and patients. This study was conducted to evaluate if SMS-based supplementation of key messages with conventional classroom teaching compared to conventional teaching results in a better cognitive performance of undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods Setting:Department of pediatrics of a public medical college in India. Participants: Ninety-two final-year undergraduate medical students. Study design: Single-center, nonrandomized, controlled trial. Intervention: One batch was given SMS-based key messages in addition to conventional teaching (intervention group, n = 48), as compared to only conventional teaching of the other (control, n = 44) batch. The text messages pertained to five predetermined topics of the teaching session and were sent in the evening of the day the topic was taught. Primary outcome variable: Scores in a multiple-choice question (MCQ)-based test at the end of posting of each batch. Results A total of 92 final-year MBBS students were enrolled in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the performance of the study participants in the post-intervention MCQ test in the two groups [mean (standard deviation) scores, 13.4 (1.55) vs. 9.7 (3.49), P > 0.05], even after subgroup analysis for high scorers and low scorers. The total cost of sending the messages was less than Rs. 100. ConclusionThere was no statistically significant effect on cognitive performance following a supplementation of classroom teaching by SMS-based key messages. However, given the low cost of this methodology and the reported high acceptance of this method by students, there is a need for more well-planned studies to confirm these results.
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Status of Noncommunicable Disease Screening in an Urban Resettlement Colony in Delhi, India: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Studyp. 133
Ruchira Pangtey, Saurav Basu, Gajendra S Meena, Bratati Banerjee
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_42_18  
Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for more than two-third cases of premature mortality (30–69 years) in India. Screening for NCDs is the most effective means for detection of undiagnosed NCD cases and early treatment initiation that lowers morbidity and mortality due to these diseases. The objective of the present study was to assess the NCD screening status in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents of the area. Patients with preexisting hypertension and diabetes and aged below 30 years were excluded. The patients were further screened for hypertension by taking three separate readings using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) was calculated to evaluate diabetes risk. Results A total of 110 men and 103 women (N = 213) met the inclusion criteria. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the patients was 40 (±9.3) years. A history of previous screening for hypertension and diabetes was reported by 73 (34.2%) and 40 (35.4%) patients, respectively. A medium or high-risk of having diabetes mellitus as per the IDRS score was present in most (88.4%) patients. On current screening, nine (8.2%) men and nine (8.7%) women were identified as undiagnosed hypertension cases. Only four (3.8%) women had undergone a clinical breast exam, and just nine (8.7%) women ever had a Pap smear examination. Conclusion The present study shows that the current strategy of opportunistic screening for NCDs has been unable to reach large segments of vulnerable and at risk populations.
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Coarctation of Aorta With Valvular Heart Disease: A Hybrid Approachp. 137
Ankit Jain, Prerit Agarwal, Subodh Satyarthy, Kuber Sharma, Muhammed A Geelani
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_41_18  
We describe the management of three patients with coarctation of aorta (COA) associated with valvular heart disease. All the three patients underwent initial balloon dilatation following which they underwent surgical correction of the valvular pathology. Staged approach in such diseases has better outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. Both single-stage and two stage operations can be used. As surgical correction of COA is frequently associated with potential complications, we adopted the staged approach for better results. Background COA with valvular heart disease is generally a rare combination. Both these entities require correction which can be done simultaneously or as staged procedure. Objective To study the outcome of staged procedures in such patients. Materials and Methods We managed 3 patients with COA associated with valvular heart disease. Results All the 3 patients had uneventful post operative recovery. At the time of discharge gradients were <20 mm Hg across the coarctated segment. Post operative echocardiography (echo) after 3 months on follow up were normal. ConclusionSimultaneous surgical correction of COA along with valvular heart disease is associated with potential surgical and anesthetic complications. Hence staged procedures are preferred if the anatomy of coarctation is feasible for endovascular correction.
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CASE REPORTSTop

Anesthetic Considerations in a Child With IgG4 Diseasep. 142
Summit D Bloria, Ketan Kataria, Ankur Luthra, Pallavi Bloria
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_22_18  
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a relatively newly coined term for a disease which affects various body organs. There is tissue invasion of IgG4-positive plasma cells into tissues leading to various manifestations like lymph node enlargement, autoimmune pancreatitis, pulmonary manifestations, hepatic disease, and others. We describe the anesthetic management of a pediatric patient suffering from IgG4-related disease with systemic manifestations who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision.
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Emergency Cesarean Delivery in a Parturient With Intracranial Tumor: Anesthesiologist's Challengep. 145
Kapil Chaudhary, Sandeep Mehra, Kirti N Saxena, Bharti Wadhwa, Himanshu Sikri
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_34_18  
Anesthetic management of a patient having an intracranial tumor undergoing cesarean section is challenging because of a combination of factors including their diagnosis, physiological changes of pregnancy, fetal viability concerns and complexity of surgical and anesthetic interventions. The scenario is more challenging in emergency surgery as the time for optimization and multidisciplinary involvement is minimal. We discuss successful management of a term primigravida with intracranial tumor who presented for emergency cesarean delivery. The anesthetic challenges and the management options are discussed.
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Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt-Associated Meningitis Caused by Candida auris: A Case Reportp. 149
Rohit Chawla, Anuj Sud, Nadeem Ahmad, Chander Prakash Baveja
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_35_18  
Candida auris was first isolated in Japan in 2008. Since then, it has become an emerging global threat due to its role in outbreaks in healthcare facilities and its decreased susceptibility to multiple antifungal agents. We report a case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt-associated meningitis caused by C. auris in a patient who had a history of tubercular meningitis and hydrocephalus. The isolate was initially misidentified as Candida krusei based on purple-colored colonies on Modified HiCrome Candida Differential Agar but was finally identified as C. auris on VITEK-2 compact (version 8.01). The isolate had a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for fluconazole, whereas the MICs for other major classes of antifungals were low.
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Intractable Chylothorax Following Mitral Valve Replacement in an Adultp. 152
Ankit Jain, Arindam Roy, Saumya S Jenasamant, Manish Jawarkar, Harpreet S Minhas
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_46_18  
Chylothorax after an open-heart surgery has previously been mentioned in the literature. We report this association in a young female post-mitral valve replacement surgery due to abnormal lymphatic channels. Medical management was conducted for 4 weeks. On failure of the conservative treatment, she underwent pleurectomy with suture ligation of the thymic gland remnants and pericardium for the chylothorax, which resolved following the redo surgery. This rare incidental variation in lymphatic drainage was responsible for refractory chylothorax, which otherwise could have been managed medically.
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IMAGES IN CLINICAL PRACTICETop

Multiple Osteolytic Lesions Due to Primary Hyperparathyroidismp. 155
Saurav Kumar, Lovekesh Kumar, Alpana Manchanda, Radhika Batra, Rajesh V., Anubhav Vindal, Anju Garg, Pawanindra Lal
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_56_18  
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LETTER TO THE EDITORTop

Spontaneous Severe Hypoglycemia: Cause of Delayed Emergencep. 159
Divya Gahlot, Kirti N Saxena, Rahil Singh
DOI:10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_28_18  
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