## Δευτέρα, 1 Ιουλίου 2019

### Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

### Environmental Research

Correction to: Bioaccumulation of Zinc and Copper in Tissues of Chicken Fed Corn Grain Irrigated with Different Water Regimes

The article listed above was initially published with incorrect first author name and incomplete acknowledgments.

Which Water Sources Do People Revert to in Times of War? Evidence from the Sana'a Basin, Yemen

### Abstract

Current war in Yemen affects the lives of Yemenis, their properties, and basic needs through several impacts and damages on fuel, electricity, and water systems. This paper investigates how this war has affected the people's main water sources. The war impact framework developed in this study is the combination of difference-in-difference (DID) and Human Rights to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) framework, as so far there are no tools to gage the impact of wars on people's choices of water sources. The availability, accessibility, and prices of water keep unstable. Decentralized systems of water and energy showed more stability than public-centralized systems. The majority of families relied on the public water and electricity systems before the war. Now, while the war is ongoing the public water networks and electricity grids serve not more than 10% of families. Solar energy has become the first energy source. Rainwater started to be collected as secondary water source. Getting water and energy through renewable sources is accepted and supported by locals. Many people are willing to continue using these new sources. This study verifies the importance of renewable resources transition to achieve secure sustainable water management.

Effects of Co-occurring Species Present in Swine Lagoons on Adsorption of Copper on Eggshell

### Abstract

There is a significant interest in mitigating copper from swine lagoons. Adsorptive removal of copper using eggshells was proposed to be an effective approach. Most of the previous research on the adsorption of copper was focused on single and binary metals. However, in swine lagoons, copper always co-occurs with acetate, ammonia, and zinc. Hence, in this research, adsorption of copper (0–150 mg L−1) on eggshells was studied in the presence of different concentrations (low, medium, and high) of acetate (250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1) ammonia (250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1), and zinc (25, 50, and 100 mg L−1), for the first time. Results indicated that at highest concentrations, adsorption was negatively affected (< 20%) by acetate and zinc. Ammonia, however, was found to enhance copper adsorption (30%) presumably by formation of ternary complexes. Considering their easy availability, eggshells appear to be promising and a practical solution for copper abatement in lagoons.

### Graphical Abstract

A Comparison of Some Interpolation Techniques for Determining Spatial Distribution of Nitrogen Compounds in Groundwater

### Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse spatial variability of selected parameters of subsurface waters in the area of approximately 10 ha, located in the valley of the Ciemięga River in the village of Snopków, near Lublin, Poland. For the purpose of this study, nine sections were delimited, each with four points of collecting groundwater. In the groundwater samples, there were measured $${\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }$$ $${\text{NO}}_{3}^{-} ,$$ and $${\text{NO}}_{2}^{-}$$ . Due to the small number of samples, the analysis was limited to deterministic interpolation methods. The following methods were compared using leave-one-out cross-validation procedure: triangulation, inverse distance weighting, radial base function, and modified Shepard's method. The methods which proved to be optimal were used to create spatial variability maps of the analysed parameters. Spatial interpolation and visualization of the results were performed in Surfer ver.16, and other calculations were conducted using R software.

Assessment of the Petroleum Oil Degradation Capacity of Indigenous Bacterial Species Isolated from Petroleum Oil-Contaminated Soil

### Abstract

Petroleum hydrocarbons are highly toxic to plants, animals, and humans and are carcinogenic effects to plants, animals, and humans. The present study is focused to enhance the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons using potential indigenous bacterial isolates. Bacteria were isolated from different petroleum oil-contaminated sites and characterized. Bacterial growth was evaluated under different physico-chemical parameters. The petroleum hydrocarbon degradation potentiality was assessed using GC–MS analysis. Forty-nine bacterial isolates were screened; only three isolates (ALK-14, ALK-16, and ALK-23) have good potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and were identified as Alcaligenes species ALK-14, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16, and Enterobacter species ALK-23, respectively, on the basis of morphology, biochemical characterization, and 16S rRNA sequencing. Optimum growth of Alcaligenes species ALK-14, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16, and Enterobacter species ALK-23 occurred at pH 7, 6, and 6, respectively. Petroleum oil concentration found suitable for growth of selected bacterial isolates Alcaligenes species ALK-14, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16, and Enterobacter species ALK-23 were 4%, 8%, and 4% (v/v), respectively. Among different nitrogen sources, ammonium nitrate was found suitable source for the maximum growth of Alcaligenes species ALK-14, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16 at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.2%, respectively, and sodium nitrate for Enterobacter species ALK-23 at the concentration of 0.2%. All bacterial isolates showed maximum growth at 30 °C temperature. Synergistic effect on the growth of bacterial isolates under favourable conditions increased up to 11–28%. GC–MS analysis indicated that the hydrocarbon compounds in the range of C20–C44 were present in petrol. Maximum hydrocarbon degradation by Alcaligenes species ALK-14, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16, and Enterobacter species ALK-23 was 11.65%, 8.11%, and 5.59%, respectively. The degradation of docosane 11-decyl, hexatriacontane, and eicosane by Alcaligenes species ALK-14 was 100%, 60%, and 48.8%, respectively. The degradation of docosane 11-decyl by, Bacillus methylotrophicus ALK-16, was 80%. Degradation of hexatriacontane by Enterobacter species ALK-23 was 31%. Further understanding of the metabolic processes of these organisms on crude oil hydrocarbons degradation will increase possibilities to develop strategies for removing crude oil pollutants from oil-impacted environments.

The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO 2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities

### Abstract

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship's water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails' (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.

Assessment of the Potential of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Producing Bacteria to manage Chemical Fertilizers Application

### Abstract

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has a vital role in stimulation of root growth and nutrients acquisition from soil. The study was conducted to isolate rhizospheric (R) and endophytic (E) IAA producer bacteria from the rhizosphere soil and surface sterilized root of wheat, and evaluate the effects of isolates to managing of chemical fertilizers application. For this, we examined the influence of different chemical fertilizer application rates (40, 60, 80 and 100%) coupled with R (Bacillus toyonensis) and E (Pseudomonas mosselii) IAA producer bacteria on wheat growth. Results indicated that supplementing 80% of the recommended chemical fertilizers rate with E isolates resulted in increase of wheat growth indices, which were similar to 100%-fertilizer need without bacterial inoculant. It seems that application of reduced chemical fertilizers integrated with IAA producer bacteria can positively affect the plant growth and led to decrease of chemical fertilizers application. Then optimal condition for IAA release was determined by P. mosselii and B. toyonensis. Results revealed that optimal growth medium conditions for isolates defined to be at l-tryptophan concentration of 3.0 mg mL−1 at 96 h of incubation and 32 °C by spectrophotometry. Increase in l-tryptophan concentration (> 3.0 mg m−1) significantly decreased the IAA production. These results could be attributed to a possible inhibition towards the indigenous (and/or exogenous) soil microbial population by the higher concentrations of l-tryptophan. Glucose used as carbon source, gave the most IAA production (22.9 μg mL−1) in E isolate. About R isolate use of sucrose in the medium culture stimulates IAA production.

Alkaline Sustained-Release Material Based on In Situ Manganese Removal Technique of Groundwater

### Abstract

To improve the pH of groundwater for in situ manganese removal, we prepared high-performance and long-life alkali sustained-release materials (ASRMs) from calcium oxide (CaO) and cement (CEM) by a physical mixing method. The ASRMs were tested by alkali-releasing experiments under dynamic conditions and filtration experiments. Surface microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. ASRMs exhibited high alkali-releasing performance and effective pH controllability. The optimal matching conditions were flow rate of 5.0 ml/min, solid–liquid ratio of 13.5 g/l, and CaO:CEM weight ratio of 1:20. Under the influence of flow velocity, initial dosage and raw material ratio, the Elovich equation well fitted alkali release with correlation coefficients above 0.982476. The release kinetic equation of ASRMs was determined on MATLAB. In these conditions, the ASRMs could release well and maintain the aqueous pH over 9.5, with a long releasing life of 10 days. This study can be referred to for practical application of this technology into groundwater restoration.

Release of Nutrients and Trace Elements from Wood-, Agricultural Residue- and Manure-Based Biochars

### Abstract

Biochar has been used in many applications as a remediation material, but less attention has been paid to the potential release of various soluble components that may alter the effectiveness of the remediation process. Here, we report the release of nutrients, trace elements, anions and cations from 36 types of biochars. A batch-style experiment was performed by mixing biochar and water at a mass ratio of 1:75. Elevated concentrations of these components were observed in the majority of the solutions mixed with the biochars. No significant differences were observed between low-temperature (low-T, 300 °C) and high-temperature (high-T, 600 °C) biochars in terms of NO3, Cl, Na+, Ca2+, Fe, Cu, PO4-P, NH3-N, and K+ concentrations (P < 0.05). Agricultural residue biochars released significantly less Cl, Na+, Mn, Ca2+, and K+ than manure-based biochars. The observation of nutrients and metal ions in solution was supported by the results of scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis. The release of elevated concentrations of anions, cations, trace elements, and nutrients may affect receiving water bodies after the application of biochar.

Bioaccumulation of Zinc and Copper in Tissues of Chicken Fed Corn Grain Irrigated with Different Water Regimes

### Abstract

Water scarcity in agriculture sector enforces farmers to apply urban waste water without considering its pollutant effects on the environment. The aim of present research was to observe the effect of sewage, canal and ground water on accumulation of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in different parts of corn plants and also in tissues of chicken that were reared on grains of corn crop in two growing seasons, spring and autumn during 2016. Representative samples of water, soil, grains and different chicken parts were assayed for Zn and Cu contents. There were higher concentrations of Zn (8.97–11.47 mg/kg) and Cu (14.73–15.45 mg/kg) in sewage water irrigated soil compared with other sources of water. In spring season, the highest concentration of zinc (5.28 mg/kg) and copper (2.65 mg/kg) was found in grains of Sadaf variety at sewage water treatment. In autumn season, maximum level of zinc (0.38 mg/kg) was found in grains of Sadaf variety at sewage water treatment and copper (3.60 mg/kg) was found in grains of MMRI variety at sewage water treatment. Similarly the group of chickens that consumed the grains raised with sewage water showed higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in their all body parts. However, Cu in contrast to Zn was found above the permissible limits in selected chicken parts due to irrigation with sewage water showing the transferability of this metal threatening the health issues. The values of transfer factor for Zn were greater than Cu. Target hazard quotient (THQ) was also calculated to estimate the potential consumer health risk of Zn and Cu contamination from consumption of selected chicken parts (liver, breast meat and gizzard) and the THQ values for both Cu and Zn were < 1 indicating that the consumption of these chicken edibles was safe for human. However, this study can only be regarded as preliminary since there is a dire need for more comprehensive study for the public awareness to combat health issues.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

### Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

A novel mPGES-1 inhibitor alleviates inflammatory responses by downregulating PGE2 in experimental models

Publication date: October 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 144

Author(s): Hwi-Ho Lee, YoonHyoung Moon, Ji-Sun Shin, Jeong-Hun Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Changyoung Jang, Changmin Park, Juhee Lee, Younghoon Kim, Younggwan Kim, Oliver Werz, Boyoung Y. Park, Jae Yeol Lee, Kyung-Tae Lee

##### Abstract

We previously reported the strong inhibitory potency of N-phenyl-N'-(4- benzyloxyphenoxycarbonyl)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl hydrazide (PBCH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in macrophages. Herein, we characterized PBCH as a microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) inhibitor and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects using in vivo experimental models. PBCH inhibited PGE2production in various activated cells in addition to inhibiting the mPGES-1 activity. In the ear edema and paw edema rat models, PBCH significantly reduced ear thickness and paw swelling, respectively. Besides, in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model, PBCH decreased paw swelling, plasma rheumatoid factor (RF), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. Furthermore, while PBCH reduced the plasma prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) levels, it did not affect the plasma levels of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Our data suggest that PBCH downregulates PGE2 production by interfering with the mPGES-1 activity, thus reducing edema and arthritis in rat models.

##### Graphical abstract

Prostaglandin E2 and an EP4 receptor agonist inhibit LPS-Induced monocyte chemotactic protein 5 production and secretion in mouse cardiac fibroblasts via Akt and NF-κB signaling

Publication date: October 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 144

Author(s): Timothy D. Bryson, Jacob Ross, Edward Peterson, Pamela Harding

##### Abstract
###### Background

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signals through 4 separate G-protein coupled receptor sub-types to elicit a variety of physiologic and pathophysiological effects. We have previously reported that mice lacking the EP4 receptor in the cardiomyocytes develop heart failure with a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy. Also, these mice have increased levels of chemokines, like MCP-5, in their left ventricles. We have recently reported that overexpression of the EP4 receptor could improve cardiac function in the myocardial infarction model. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of EP4 had an anti-inflammatory effect in the whole left ventricle. It has also been shown that PGE2 can antagonize lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of chemokines/cytokines in various cell types. We therefore hypothesized that PGE2 inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MCP-5 secretion in adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts via its EP4 receptor.

###### Methods and results

Our hypothesis was tested using isolated mouse adult ventricular fibroblasts (AVF) treated with LPS. Pre-treatment of the cells with PGE2 and the EP4 agonist CAY10598 resulted in reductions of the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS. Specifically, we observed reductions in MCP-5 secretion. Western blot analysis showed reductions in phosphorylated Akt and IκBα indicating reduced NF-κB activation. The anti-inflammatory effects of PGE2 and EP4 agonist signaling appeared to be independent of cAMP, p-44/42, or p38 pathways.

###### Conclusion

Exogenous treatment of PGE2 and the EP4 receptor agonist blocked the pro-inflammatory actions of LPS. Mechanistically, this was mediated via reduced Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of NF-κB.

Enhancement by HSP90 inhibitor of PGD2-stimulated HSP27 induction in osteoblasts: Suppression of SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Woo Kim, Haruhiko Tokuda, Tetsu Kawabata, Kazuhiko Fujita, Go Sakai, Daiki Nakashima, Junko Tachi, Gen Kuroyanagi, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Kumiko Tanabe, Takanobu Otsuka, Hiroki Iida, Osamu Kozawa

##### Abstract

Heat shock protein (HSP) 90 that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues is a major molecular chaperone. We have previously demonstrated that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), a bone remodeling factor, elicits the expression of HSP27, a small HSP, through stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of HSP90 in the PGD2-stimulated HSP27 induction and the underlying mechanism in MC3T3-E1 cells. Onalespib, an inhibitor of HSP90, significantly enhanced the PGD2-stimulated HSP27 induction. In addition, geldanamycin, another HSP90 inhibitor, potentiated the HSP27 induction. Both onalespib and geldanamycin markedly amplified the PGD2-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase. SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK, and SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, suppressed the amplification by onalespib of the PGD2-stimulated HSP27 induction. These results strongly suggest that HSP90 plays a negative role in the HSP27 induction stimulated by PGD2 in osteoblasts, and that the inhibitory effect of HSP90 is mediated through the regulation of SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinase.

mPGES-1 as a new target to overcome acquired resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Erika Terzuoli, Filomena Costanza, Valerio Ciccone, Marina Ziche, Lucia Morbidelli, Sandra Donnini

##### Abstract

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) as gefitinib are standard treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but resistance often occurs. This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in GR cells. We propose the mPGES-1/PGE-2 signaling as a potential target for treating aggressive and resistant lung cancers.

Seasonal expressions of COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 in the uteri of the wild Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus)

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Yu Wang, Yuchen Yao, Chunjiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng

##### Abstract

Prostaglandins (PGs) play a pivotal role in uterine reproductive process including maternal recognition of pregnancy, cell proliferation, and myometrium contractions in mammals. In this study, we investigated the immunolocalizations and expression levels of Prostaglandin E2 synthases cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, as well as one of PGE2 receptor subtypes 4 (EP4) in the uteri of the wild Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Histologically, the thickness of endometrium: myometrium ratio in the uteri of the breeding season was higher than that of the non-breeding season. The immunostainings of COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 were observed in stromal cells, glandular cells and myometrium cells in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. The protein and mRNA expression levels of COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 were higher in the uteri of the breeding season than those of in the non-breeding season. The mean mRNA levels of COX-1COX-2 and EP4 were positively correlated with uterine weights. In addition, the PGE2 concentration of uterine tissues as well as plasma PGE2, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, LH and FSH levels were also significantly higher in the breeding season compared to those of the non-breeding season. These results suggested that PGE2 might play an important autocrine or paracrine role in the regulation of seasonal changes in the uterine functions of the wild Daurian ground squirrels during the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

Formyl-peptide receptor 2 suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion in human extravillous trophoblastic cells

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Shenzhi Zhao, Tingting Liao, Tong Zhou, Xianping Huang, Huiqiu Xiang, Jiajia Chen, Zhangye Xu

##### Abstract

Although FPR2 receptor is distributed in the endometrium and placenta, its function in human extravillous trophoblastic (TEV-1) cells still remains enigmatic. In this study, overexpression of FPR2 was performed in TEV-1 cells. Then, CCK8 transwell and wound healing assays were used to assess the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively. The results showed that FPR2 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation, invasion and migration in TEV-1 cells. In addition, FPR2 overexpression significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF--κB), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in TEV-1 cells. These findings indicated that FPR2 overexpression alters proliferation, migration and invasion in human extravillous trophoblastic cellsthrough the ILK/NF-κB signaling pathway; ideal FPR2 levels are important for TEV-1 cells functions.

Respective contribution of cytosolic phospholipase A2α and secreted phospholipase A2 IIA to inflammation and eicosanoid production in arthritis

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Anne-Claire Duchez, Luc H. Boudreau, Gajendra S. Naika, Matthieu Rousseau, Nathalie Cloutier, Tania Levesque, Michael H. Gelb, Eric Boilard

##### Abstract

Phospholipase A2s (PLA2) play a key role in generation of eicosanoids. Cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) is constitutively expressed in most cells, whereas IIA secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-IIA) is induced during inflammation and is present at high levels in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. In mice, both cPLA2α and sPLA2-IIA have been implicated in autoimmune arthritis; however, the respective contribution of these two enzymes to the pathogenesis and production of eicosanoids is unknown. We evaluated the respective role of cPLA2α and sPLA2-IIA with regard to arthritis and eicosanoid profile in an in vivo model of arthritis. While arthritis was most severe in mice expressing both enzymes, it was abolished when both cPLA2α and sPLA2-IIA were lacking. cPLA2α played a dominant role in the severity of arthritis, although sPLA2-IIA sufficed to significantly contribute to the disease. Several eicosanoids were modulated during the course of arthritis and numerous species involved sPLA2-IIA expression. This study confirms the critical role of PLA2s in arthritis and unveils the distinct contribution of cPLA2α and sPLA2-IIA to the eicosanoid profile in arthritis.

Do arachidonic acid metabolites affect apoptosis in bovine endometrial cells with silenced PPAR genes?

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): A.A. Szczepańska, M. Łupicka, A.J. Korzekwa

##### Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in bovine uterus, and their agonists are arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We hypothesised that silencing of PPAR genes in bovine endometrial stromal cells (ESC) would change the intracellular signalling through PPAR and affect apoptosis after cell treatment with different AA metabolites. The study's aims are detection of apoptosis and examining the influence of prostaglandins and leukotrienes on apoptosis occurring in physiological ESC and cells with silenced PPAR (α, δ, and γ) genes. Silencing the PPARα and PPARδ genes in cells resulted in increased DNA fragmentation and mRNA and protein expression of caspase (CASP) -3 and -8 (P < 0.05). Neither DNA fragmentation nor the mRNA and protein expression of CASP3 and -8 in cells with silenced PPARγ gene were changed compared to physiological cells (P > 0.05). Among PPARs, PPARα and PPARδ appear to inhibit apoptosis, and AA metabolites, as PPAR agonists, modify this process in bovine ESC.

Emerging class of omega-3 fatty acid endocannabinoids & their derivatives

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Josephine E. Watson, Justin S. Kim, Aditi Das

##### Abstract

Cannabinoid receptor activation is involved in homeostatic regulation of the body. These receptors are activated by cannabinoids, that include the active constituents of Cannabis sativa, as well as endocannabinoids (eCBs). The eCBs are endogenously synthesized from the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The consumption of omega-3 fatty acids shifts the balance towards a higher proportion of omega-3 eCBs, whose physiological functions warrants further investigation. Herein, we review the discovery of omega-3 fatty acid derived eCBs that are generated from long chain omega-3 PUFAs - docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHA-EA or synaptamide), docosahexanoyl-glycerol (DHG), eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPA-EA) and eicosapentanoylglycerol (EPG). Furthermore, we outline the lesser known omega-3 eCB-like molecules that arise from the conjugation of omega-3 fatty acids with neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine - DHA-serotonin (DHA-5HT), DHA-dopamine (DHA-DA), EPA-serotonin (EPA-5HT) and EPA-dopamine (EPA-DA). Additionally, we describe the role of omega-3 eCBs and their derivatives in different disease states, such as pain, inflammation and cancer. Moreover, we detail the formation and potential physiological roles of the oxidative metabolites that arise from the metabolism of omega-3 eCBs by eicosanoid synthesizing enzymes - cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP450). In summary, we outline the novel findings regarding a growing class of signaling molecules that can control the physiological and pathophysiological processes in the body.

PGE2 in fibrosis and cancer: Insights into fibroblast activation

Publication date: August 2019

Source: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 143

Author(s): Eiman Elwakeel, Bernhard Brüne, Andreas Weigert

##### Abstract

Fibroblasts are the essential cellular architects of connective tissue and as such are crucial cells in contributing to organ homeostasis. While fulfilling important repair functions during tissue regeneration upon wounding, chronic fibroblast activation provokes pathological organ fibrosis and promotes neoplastic disease progression. Identifying targets that may serve to therapeutically terminate fibroblast activation is therefore desirable. Among the mediators that may be relevant in this context is the prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that is produced during inflammatory settings, where pathological fibrosis occurs. Here, we summarize current, in part controversial, concepts on the impact of PGE2 on fibroblast activation in fibrotic diseases including cancer, and discuss these findings in the context of the evolving concept of fibroblast heterogeneity.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

### Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The influence of human activity and morphological characteristics of beaches on plastic debris distribution along the Caspian Sea as a closed water body

### Abstract

The Caspian Sea is the largest land-locked lake in the world that includes numerous endemic species. Because of its enclosed nature, the pollutants entering this water body become entrapped. The present paper examines the influence of human activity and beach morphology on the abundance and distribution of stranded plastic debris along the Caspian Sea coastlines. It would be possible by relating some characteristics of these beaches (population, urbanization, substrate type, and slope of beaches) with the abundance of plastic debris through a PCo analysis. The results showed that in our study area, the most effective factors on plastic debris distribution were urbanization and population followed by the slope and substrate of beaches. Three size classes of plastic debris were defined as "large microplastic" (1 to < 5 mm), "mesoplastic" (5 to < 25 mm), and "macroplastic" (> 25 mm). The density of the large microplastic, mesoplastic, and macroplastic materials on the Caspian Sea coastline was 8.43 ± 0.54, 8.74 ± 0.42, and 7.53 ± 0.30 particles/m2, respectively. Foam was the most abundant microplastic debris along the study area (47.58%), followed by resin pellets (33.93%) and fragments (16.30%), respectively. We also selected the Boujagh National Park with limited accessibility as an appropriate area for the study of marine debris as one sampling station. Cigarette butts and film pieces displayed a different distribution pattern compared to other debris types in the Boujagh National Park station likely due to their distinct buoyancy specification.

Correction to: Ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments and selective plants of Uchalli Wetland Complex (UWC)—a Ramsar site

The correct image of Figure 4 is shown in this paper. The original article has been corrected. Fig. 4: Scree plot of heavy metals in sediments. The graph shown in upper right corner shows the concentration of principle components variables in a loading plot.

Environment-health link in a context of urban agricultures: studies of oral exposure to pollutants in order promote the human health

Photocatalytic oxidation of toluene and isopropanol by LaFeO 3 /black-TiO 2

### Abstract

Large amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from industrial, mobile, and domestic sources, causing adverse effects on human health and environment. Among VOCs, toluene and isopropanol (IPA) are commonly used as solvent, soldering flux, and spray paint and their emissions need to be reduced. Several VOCs abatement technologies are available to reduce VOC emission and photocatalytic oxidation of VOC is regarded as a viable technique due to its advantage of utilizing solar energy. TiO2 has been investigated for its oxidation capability toward VOCs because of its good photocatalytic activity. However the utilization is limited to UV due to its wider bandgap; furthermore, its fast recombination rate of electron-hole pair reduces the oxidation rate of VOCs. Black-TiO2 and perovskite-type photocatalyst such as LaFeO3 can be applied to enhance photocatalytic activity due to narrower bandgap and longer electron-hole pair lifetime. In this study, black-TiO2 and LaFeO3 are prepared and investigated for their photocatalytic oxidation rates toward toluene and IPA. Results show that toluene removals achieved with black-TiO2 and LaFeO3 are 89% and 98% while IPA removals are 90% and 94%, respectively. Both photocatalysts show better photocatalytic activity than TiO2 and good absorption capability toward visible light.

Graphical abstract

Regulating nitrate excess in lettuce-planted greenhouse soil with available carbon addition through irrigation

### Abstract

Nitrate excess is common in greenhouse soils, imposing environmental risks and degrading vegetable quality. In this study, the effectiveness of adding sucrose as available carbon through irrigation to cut nitrate excess in lettuce-planted soil was investigated under impacts of soil texture and irrigation type. In the pot experiment using two loam soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (50.2% and 39.8%) and nitrate excess (116.1 and 417.7 mg/kg N), three-time sucrose addition through flood irrigation was more effective in lowering net formation of nitrate-based inorganic N and increasing lettuce yield in the soil with the higher clay to sand ratio, and sucrose addition at 150–450 mg/kg reduced nitrate accumulation and leaching, and nitrate content of lettuce at harvest by 62.5–89.6%, 19.3–36.1%, and 11.4–76.0%, respectively. In the micro-plot field experiment with two-time sucrose addition at 0.6–1.2 g/L through furrow irrigation (42 mm) into two other soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (56.9%, 48.4%), nitrate accumulation at 0–30-cm depth at the prone-leaching furrow location at harvest decreased by 30.9–36.0% under the higher clay to sand ratio but increased by about 35% under the lower clay to sand ratio. The nitrate content and yield of ridge-planted lettuce was less affected in either soil. Hence, carbon addition rate, irrigation type, and clay to sand ratio all affected the effect of available carbon addition on nitrate accumulation in vegetable-planted soil, and their joint impacts need better quantification for cutting nitrate excess in soil and improving vegetable quality and even yield.

Effects of vermicomposting on the main chemical properties and bioavailability of Cd/Zn in pure sludge

### Abstract

To study the effects of vermicomposting on the chemical properties and bioavailability of Cd/Zn in sludge, earthworms (Eisenia foetida) at different densities were inoculated into pure sludge, and sludge and earthworms were collected regularly to determine the earthworm biomass, the main chemical indexes, the structure of the functional groups, and the Cd/Zn content in the sludge. The results showed that the growth curve of earthworms in pure sludge could be well fitted by the logistic model. Earthworm activity eventually reduced the total organic carbon (TOC), fulvic acid (FA), and C/N ratio and increased the electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN), humic acid (HA), and HA/FA ratio in the sludge. TOC, TN, and pH inhibited the bioavailability of Cd/Zn, while HA and EC promoted the bioavailability of Cd/Zn. Earthworm activity ultimately increased the content of Cd/Zn in the sludge. The bioavailability of Cd/Zn was reduced during the rapid growth period of the earthworms but increased during the stable growth period of the earthworms. A suitable vermicomposting time should be determined to ensure the activation or passivation of Cd/Zn.

Metal content in the liver, kidney, and feathers of Northern gannets, Morus bassanus , sampled on the Spanish coast

### Abstract

The value of birds as bioindicators for monitoring the environmental inorganic elements has been globally recognized. In this context, due to its well-known ecology and population stability, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) could be particularly useful. Dead Northern gannets (n = 30) were collected and samples from the liver, kidney, and feathers were taken, dried, mineralized, and finally analyzed via ICP-MS. Metals and metalloids, namely As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn, associated with environmental pollution and toxicity on living organisms, were evaluated. The mean highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Zn were found in the liver (0.916, 7.026, and 89.81 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). For Cd, the kidney showed the highest mean concentration (17.51 mg/kg dry weight), whereas for Pb, this value corresponded to the feathers (0.399 mg/kg dry weight). Significant differences were found between the age classes in terms of contaminant concentrations, with the adults exhibiting higher metal levels. This difference was significantly relevant for Pb and Hg, where the effect of age was observed for all the considered tissues. When considering the effect of gender, no significant differences were observed, in agreement with similar studies performed in other geographical regions. Finally, positive correlations between the concentrations of Hg and Pb in the feathers and in the liver (r = 0.688, p < 0.001 and r = 0.566, p < 0.001, respectively) were observed, as well as between the feather and kidney concentrations (r= 0.685, p < 0.001) indicating the possibility to use feathers, a non-invasive biomonitoring tissue, for better understanding Hg and Pb exposure in seabirds.

Evaluation of the association between urinary cadmium levels below threshold limits and the risk of diabetes mellitus: a dose-response meta-analysis

### Abstract

Performance of desulfurization ash for the preparation of grouting fire prevention material

### Abstract

The accumulation of desulfurization ash from coal-fired power plants can lead to serious waste of land resources and environmental safety problems. This work presents an experimental study on the feasibility of recycling original desulfurization ash as the main raw materials, and a new green grouting material was prepared. The results indicate that a desulfurization ash–based grouting fire prevention material which was prepared according to the following ingredient design (a water-to-solid ratio of 1.0:1 and a hydroxyethyl cellulose content of 0.09% desulfurization ash, 12% quicklime, 0.6% Na2SO4, and 0.05% triethanolamine, 80 °C curing). The slurry's viscosity meets requirements, and its suspension, liquidity, and consolidation strength are better than those of clay under the same conditions. In addition, the grouting material's inhibitor ratio is increased with temperature increase, which means it has good flame retardancy. Environmental performance tests concluded that when desulfurization ash as-recycled admixture is used for the preparation of grouting fire prevention material, from the technique point of view, the environmental safety of them is very good.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

### Mycorrhiza

A non-toxic polymer enhances sorghum - mycorrhiza symbiosis for bioremediation of Cd

### Abstract

In this study, the effect of a mycorrhizal symbiosis on the translocation of Cd from Cd-polluted soil to sorghum roots was investigated using rhizoboxes. A factorial experiment (two factors including fungus inoculation and Cd contamination) in a completely randomized design with three replicates was performed. In the rhizobox rhizosphere compartment, plants were cultivated in uncontaminated soil and mycorrhizal inoculation (inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum or non-inoculated) was performed, and in the other compartment, the soil was contaminated with Cadmium (Cd) at one of three levels (0, 100 mg kg−1 using a non-toxic organic polymer (poly (N-vinyl succinate))–Cd, or 100 mg kg−1 using Cd-nitrate). Cd pollution resulted in a significant decrease in shoot dry weight (from 7.52 to 6.18 and 6.68 g pot−1, from control to polymer-Cd and nitrate-Cd respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 32.33% to 8.16% and 8.33%), shoot phosphorus concentration (from 3.14 to 2.80 and 2.76 g kg−1), and soil carbohydrate (from 12.05 to 10.74 and 10.24 mg g−1), and also resulted in significant increases in soil glomalin (from 595.55 to 660.52 and 690.39 μg g−1). The use of mycorrhizal fungi increased the glomalin content of the soil and improved the studied parameters. The results revealed the key role of Claroideoglomus etunicatum in translocation of Cd in the rhizobox and also in precise control of Cd concentration of plant tissues (increase or decrease of them depending on Cd composition and Cd availability). Poly(N-vinyl succinate) increased Cd availability and Cd concentration of shoot tissue (5.19 mg kg−1) compared to nitrate-Cd (3.68 mg kg−1) and could be recommended for improving phytoremediation.

Role of urban ectomycorrhizal fungi in improving the tolerance of lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) seedlings to salt stress

### Abstract

With large forested urban areas, the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, faces high annual costs of replacing trees injured by deicing salts that are commonly used for winter road maintenance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots that allow trees to tolerate the detrimental effects of polluted soils. Here, we examined mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus contorta by germinating seeds in soils collected from different locations: (1) two urban areas within the city of Edmonton, and (2) an intact pine forest just outside Edmonton. We then tested the responses of seedlings to 0-, 60-, and 90-mM NaCl. Our results showed lower abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in seedlings colonized with the urban soils compared to those from the pine forest soil. However, when subsequently exposed to NaCl treatments, only seedlings inoculated with one of the urban soils containing fungi from the genera TuberSuillus, and Wilcoxina, showed reduced shoot Na accumulation and higher growth rates. Our results indicate that local ectomycorrhizal fungi that are adapted to challenging urban sites may offer a potential suitable source for inoculum for conifer trees designated for plating in polluted urban environments.

Is a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi better for plant growth than single-species inoculants?

### Abstract

Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as plant growth promoters has mostly been conducted using single-species inoculum. In this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of different native AMF species induced an improvement of plant growth in an ultramafic soil. We analyzed the effects of six species of AMF from a New Caledonian ultramafic soil on plant growth and nutrition, using mono-inoculations and mixtures comprising different numbers of AMF species, in a greenhouse experiment. The endemic Metrosideros laurifolia was used as a host plant. Our results suggest that, when the plant faced multiple abiotic stress factors (nutrient deficiencies and high concentrations of different heavy metals), co-inoculation of AMF belonging to different families was more efficient than mono-inoculation in improving biomass, mineral nutrition, Ca/Mg ratio, and tolerance to heavy metals of plants in ultramafic soil. This performance suggested functional complementarity between distantly related AMF. Our findings will have important implications for restoration ecology and mycorrhizal biotechnology applied to ultramafic soils.

Mycorrhizal frequency, physiological parameters, and yield of strawberry plants inoculated with endomycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria

### Abstract

Due to the impoverishment of agricultural and horticultural soils and replant diseases, there is a need to use bioproducts and beneficial microorganisms in order to improve the quality of soils and growth substrates. For this reason, research was undertaken to assess the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria on changes in soil microbiology, the degree of colonization of plant roots by mycorrhizal fungi, selected physiological parameters, and fruit quality and yield of the strawberry cultivar "Rumba." The plants were inoculated with the mycorrhizal preparation Mykoflor (Rhizophagus irregularisFunneliformis mosseaeClaroideoglomus etunicatum), MYC 800 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and the bacterial preparation Rhizocell C (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IT45). The applied preparations increased the total number of bacteria and fungi in the soil and mycorrhizal frequency in the roots of the strawberry plants. They increased the chlorophyll "a" and total chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves as well as the rate of transpiration and CO2 concentration in the intercellular spaces in the leaves. The plants treated with Rhizocell C and MYC 800 exhibited a higher CO2 assimilation rate than control plants. The biopreparations increased chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as maximum fluorescence (FM) and the maximum potential photochemical reaction efficiency in PS II (FV/FM). The influence of the species of rhizosphere bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi used in the experiment on the physiological traits of strawberry plants contributed, especially in the second year of the study, to increase the yield and mean weight of strawberry fruit.

Phosphorus forms affect the hyphosphere bacterial community involved in soil organic phosphorus turnover

### Abstract

Interactions between bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a significant role in mediating organic phosphorus (P) transformations and turnover in soil. The bacterial community in soil is largely responsible for mobilization of the soil organic P pool, and the released P is taken up by extraradical AM hyphae, which mediate its use for plant growth. However, the functional microbiome involved in organic P mineralization in the hyphosphere remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine how AM hyphae-associated bacterial communities related to P turnover in the hyphosphere of leek (Allium porrum) respond to different forms of soil P. Using a compartmented microcosm, leek was grown with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae, and the extraradical mycelium of F. mosseae was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment containing either no added P, or P as KH2PO4 or phytin. High-throughput sequencing showed that the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-harboring bacterial community associated with the AM hyphae was dominated by SinorhizobiumBradyrhizobiumPseudomonas, and Ralstonia and was significantly changed in response to different P treatments, with Pseudomonas showing higher relative abundance in organic P treatments than in control and inorganic P treatments. Pseudomonas was also the major genus harboring the β-propeller phytase (BPP) gene in the hyphosphere, but the BPP-harboring community structure was not affected by the presence of different P forms. These results demonstrate the profound differences in ALP- and BPP-harboring bacterial communities in the hyphosphere at bacterial genus level, providing new insights to link bacteria and biogeochemical P cycling driven in association with mycorrhizal hyphae.

Rhizophagus irregularis modulates cadmium uptake, metal transporter, and chelator gene expression in Medicago sativa

### Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered a potential biotechnological tool for mitigating heavy metal (HM) toxicity. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the impacts of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on cadmium (Cd) uptake, mycorrhizal colonization, and some plant growth parameters of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) in Cd-polluted soils. In addition, expression of two metal chelators (MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)) and two metal transporter genes (MsIRT1 and MsNramp1) was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Cd addition had a significant negative effect on mycorrhizal colonization. However, AMF symbiosis promoted the accumulation of biomass under both stressed and unstressed conditions compared with non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Results also showed that inoculation with R. irregularis significantly reduced shoot Cd concentration in polluted soils. Transcripts abundance of MsPCS1MsMT2MsIRT1, and MsNRAMP1 genes were downregulated compared with NM plants indicating that metal sequestration within hyphal fungi probably made Cd concentration insufficient in root cells for induction of these genes. These results suggest that reduction of shoot Cd concentration in M. sativa colonized by R. irregulariscould be a promising strategy for safe production of this plant in Cd-polluted soils.

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis helps plants to challenge salt stress conditions

### Abstract

Soil salinity is an environmental condition that is currently increasing worldwide. Plant growth under salinity induces osmotic stress and ion toxicity impairing root water and nutrient absorption, but the association with beneficial soil microorganisms has been linked to an improved adaptation to this constraint. The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis has been proposed as a key factor for a better tolerance of woody species to salt stress, thanks to the reduction of sodium (Na+) uptake towards photosynthetic organs. Although no precise mechanisms for this enhanced plant salt tolerance have been described yet, in this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated so far on the role of ECM symbiosis. Moreover, we propose several strategies by which ECM fungi might help plants, including restriction of Na+ entrance into plant tissues and improvement of mineral nutrition and water balances. This positive effect of ECM fungi has been proven in field assays and the results obtained point to a promising application in forestry cultures and reforestation.

First record of North American fungus Rhizopogon pseudoroseolus in Australia and prediction of its occurrence based on climatic niche and symbiotic partner preferences

### Abstract

In 2017 a North American fungus, Rhizopogon pseudoroseolus (Boletales, Basidiomycota), formerly known in Oceania as only occurring in New Zealand, was found for the first time in South Australia. The morphological identification of collected specimens was confirmed using an internal transcribed spacer barcoding approach. In this study, the biogeography of R. pseudoroseolus is also presented, based on sporocarp and ectomycorrhiza records. Species distribution modeling implemented in MaxEnt was used to estimate the distribution of the potential range of R. pseudoroseolus in Australia and New Zealand. The obtained model illustrates, in the background of climatic variables and distribution of a symbiotic partner, its wide range of suitable habitats in New Zealand, South-East Australia, and Tasmania. Precipitation of the coldest quarters and annual mean temperature are important factors influencing the potential distribution of the fungus. The occurrence of Pinus radiata, the ectomycorrhizal partner of R. pseudoroseolus, is also an important factor limiting expansion of the fungus' invasion range.

Two herbicides, two fungicides and spore-associated bacteria affect Funneliformis mosseae extraradical mycelium structural traits and viability

### Abstract

The extraradical mycelium (ERM) produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is fundamental for the maintenance of biological fertility in agricultural soils, representing an important inoculum source, together with spores and mycorrhizal root fragments. Its viability and structural traits, such as density, extent and interconnectedness, which are positively correlated with the growth and nutrition of host plants, may be affected by different agronomic practices, including the use of pesticides and by different mycorrhizospheric communities. This work, carried out using a whole-plant experimental model system, showed that structural traits of ERM, such as length and density, were strongly decreased by the herbicides dicamba and glufosinolate and the fungicides benomyl and fenhexamid, while anastomosis frequency and hyphal branching were differentially modulated by singly inoculated mycorrhizospheric bacteria, depending on their identity.

Chestnuts bred for blight resistance depart nursery with distinct fungal rhizobiomes

### Abstract

Restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is underway using backcross breeding that confers chestnut blight disease resistance from Asian chestnuts (most often Castanea mollissima) to the susceptible host. Successful restoration will depend on blight resistance and performance of hybrid seedlings, which can be impacted by below-ground fungal communities. We compared fungal communities in roots and rhizospheres (rhizobiomes) of nursery-grown, 1-year-old chestnut seedlings from different genetic families of American chestnut, Chinese chestnut, and hybrids from backcross breeding generations as well as those present in the nursery soil. We specifically focused on the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi that may facilitate host performance in the nursery and aid in seedling establishment after outplanting. Seedling rhizobiomes and nursery soil communities were distinct and seedlings recruited heterogeneous communities from shared nursery soil. The rhizobiomes included EcM fungi as well as endophytes, putative pathogens, and likely saprobes, but their relative proportions varied widely within and among the chestnut families. Notably, hybrid seedlings that hosted few EcM fungi hosted a large proportion of potential pathogens and endophytes, with possible consequences in outplanting success. Our data show that chestnut seedlings recruit divergent rhizobiomes and depart nurseries with communities that may facilitate or compromise the seedling performance in the field.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480