Παρασκευή, 2 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Redesign of the GATE PET coincidence sorter

The GATE software platform, based on the Geant4 toolkit for simulating particle interactions with matter, enables simulation of, among other medical imaging and treatment systems, positron emission tomography. However, at least one publication (Moraes et al 2015 Phys. Med . 31 43–8) has reported discrepancies between the expected results and those obtained using GATE simulations, specifically with respect to the coincidence sorter which processes single events detected by the scanner to find coincidence pairs. In particular, the current software appears to overestimate the number of ‘true’ coincidence pairs when in multi-window mode, while the delayed coincidence window, used to estimate the randoms present in the prompt coincidence window, underestimates the randoms. Both effects are particularly evident at high count rates. We have investigated this discrepancy and reproduced the reported problems. We have also rewritten the relevant portion of the GATE cod...

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Non-local total-variation (NLTV) minimization combined with reweighted L1-norm for compressed sensing CT reconstruction

The compressed sensing (CS) technique has been employed to reconstruct CT/CBCT images from fewer projections as it is designed to recover a sparse signal from highly under-sampled measurements. Since the CT image itself cannot be sparse, a variety of transforms were developed to make the image sufficiently sparse. The total-variation (TV) transform with local image gradient in L1-norm was adopted in most cases. This approach, however, which utilizes very local information and penalizes the weight at a constant rate regardless of different degrees of spatial gradient, may not produce qualified reconstructed images from noise-contaminated CT projection data. This work presents a new non-local operator of total-variation (NLTV) to overcome the deficits stated above by utilizing a more global search and non-uniform weight penalization in reconstruction. To further improve the reconstructed results, a reweighted L1-norm that approximates the ideal sparse signal recovery of the L0-nor...

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Motion-aware temporal regularization for improved 4D cone-beam computed tomography

Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) of the free-breathing thorax is a valuable tool in image-guided radiation therapy of the thorax and the upper abdomen. It allows the determination of the position of a tumor throughout the breathing cycle, while only its mean position can be extracted from three-dimensional CBCT. The classical approaches are not fully satisfactory: respiration-correlated methods allow one to accurately locate high-contrast structures in any frame, but contain strong streak artifacts unless the acquisition is significantly slowed down. Motion-compensated methods can yield streak-free, but static, reconstructions. This work proposes a 4D-CBCT method that can be seen as a trade-off between respiration-correlated and motion-compensated reconstruction. It builds upon the existing reconstruction using spatial and temporal regularization (ROOSTER) and is called motion-aware ROOSTER (MA-ROOSTER). It performs temporal regularization along curved tr...

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How a young maverick’s grit saved the world’s rarest bird

Carl Jones battled with his scientific elders to save the Mauritius kestrel. His renegade success taught him that mainstream conservation needs a rethink

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1467: Aberrant JAK/STAT Signaling Suppresses TFF1 and TFF2 through Epigenetic Silencing of GATA6 in Gastric Cancer

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Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2). Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60) of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1469: Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention

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Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1427: MicroRNA-378 Alleviates Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Negatively Regulating Apoptosis Executioner Caspase-3

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miRNAs have been linked to many human diseases, including ischemic stroke, and are being pursued as clinical diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Among the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in our previous report using large-scale microarray screening, the downregulation of miR-378 in the peri-infarct region of middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice can be reversed by hypoxic preconditioning (HPC). In this study, the role of miR-378 in the ischemic injury was further explored. We found that miR-378 levels significantly decreased in N2A cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. Overexpression of miR-378 significantly enhanced cell viability, decreased TUNEL-positive cells and the immunoreactivity of cleaved-caspase-3. Conversely, downregulation of miR-378 aggravated OGD-induced apoptosis and ischemic injury. By using bioinformatic algorithms, we discovered that miR-378 may directly bind to the predicted 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of Caspase-3 gene. The protein level of caspase-3 increased significantly upon OGD treatment, and can be downregulated by pri-miR-378 transfection. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed the binding of miR-378 to the 3′-UTR of Caspase-3 mRNA and repressed its translation. In addition, miR-378 agomir decreased cleaved-caspase-3 ratio, reduced infarct volume and neural cell death induced by MCAO. Furthermore, caspase-3 knockdown could reverse anti-miR-378 mediated neuronal injury. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-378 attenuated ischemic injury by negatively regulating the apoptosis executioner, caspase-3, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1465: Restoration of Immune Responsiveness to Glioma by Vaccination of Mice with Established Brain Gliomas with a Semi-Allogeneic Vaccine

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Prior studies had shown the clinical efficacy of a semi-allogeneic glioma vaccine in mice with lethal GL261 gliomas. This was confirmed in the present study. As subcutaneous vaccination resulted in protection against tumor in the brain, the present study assessed the impact of this vaccination of mice bearing established GL261 brain gliomas on their cytokine production upon in vitro exposure to tumor-derived products. Mice with established GL261 brain gliomas were vaccinated subcutaneously with H-2b GL261 glioma cells fused with H-2d RAG-neo cells or with a mock vaccine of phosphate-buffered saline. The results of these analyses show that the presence of GL261 tumor-conditioned medium resulted in increased production of Th1, inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines by spleen cells from control mice and from vaccinated glioma-bearing mice. In contrast, spleen cells of tumor-bearing, mock-vaccinated mice produced lower levels of cytokines in the presence of tumor-conditioned media. However, these results also show that there was not a heightened level of cytokine production in the presence of tumor-conditioned medium by spleen cells of vaccinated mice over the production by spleen cells of control mice. Overall, these results show that vaccination slows growth of the GL261 tumors to the point where GL261-vaccinated mice do not show the signs of morbidly or splenic dysfunction exhibited by unvaccinated, late stage glioma-bearing mice.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1470: Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae—A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study

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Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea). Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal), the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA). Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of 1H-13C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence) signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1464: Infectious Diseases: Pathophysiology, Diagnostics and Prevention

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Infectious diseases occur very frequently in children and adults. Novel diagnostic methods have permitted us to expand our knowledge on their epidemiology and pathophysiology [1].[...]

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1466: Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

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In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1463: Perillyl Alcohol and Its Drug-Conjugated Derivatives as Potential Novel Methods of Treating Brain Metastases

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Metastasis to the central nervous system remains difficult to treat, and such patients are faced with a dismal prognosis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), despite being partially compromised within malignant lesions in the brain, still retains much of its barrier function and prevents most chemotherapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor cells. Here, we review some of the recent developments aimed at overcoming this obstacle in order to more effectively deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the intracranial tumor site. These advances include intranasal delivery to achieve direct nose-to-brain transport of anticancer agents and covalent modification of existing drugs to support enhanced penetration of the BBB. In both of these areas, use of the natural product perillyl alcohol, a monoterpene with anticancer properties, contributed to promising new results, which will be discussed here.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 1468: Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine

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The development of brain metastases in patients with advanced stage melanoma is common, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their development are poorly understood. Melanoma brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality and confer a poor prognosis; traditional therapies including whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy yield only modest increases in overall survival (OS) for these patients. While recently approved therapies have significantly improved OS in melanoma patients, only a small number of studies have investigated their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. Preliminary data suggest that some responses have been observed in intracranial lesions, which has sparked new clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy in melanoma patients with brain metastases. Simultaneously, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of melanoma cell dissemination to the brain have revealed novel and potentially therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide an overview of newly discovered mechanisms of melanoma spread to the brain, discuss preclinical models that are being used to further our understanding of this deadly disease and provide an update of the current clinical trials for melanoma patients with brain metastases.

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 879: Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China

We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001). AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11), the intermediate (0.11–0.21) and the increased (>0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665–0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706–0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 880: Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 878: Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China

This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09–3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

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Functional SNP in 3’-UTR microRNA Binding Site of ZNF350 Confers Risk for Age-Related Cataract

ABSTRACT

Many studies have suggested that individual susceptibility to age-related cataract (ARC) may be associated with DNA sequence polymorphisms affecting gene regulation. As DNA repair is implicated in ARC pathogenesis and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3’-terminal untranslated region (3’-UTR) targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs) can alter the gene function, we hypothesize that the miRNA biding SNPs (miRSNPs) in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways might associate with ARC risk. We genotyped 9 miRSNPs of 8 genes in DSBR and NER pathways in Chinese population and found that ZNF350- rs2278414:G>A was significantly associated with ARC risk. Even though the Comet assay of cellular DNA damage indicated that all the subtypes of ARC patients had more DNA breaks in peripheral lymphocytes than the controls independent of rs2278414 genotypes, individuals carrying the variant A allele (AA and AG) had lower ZNF350 mRNA levels compared to individuals with GG genotype. Moreover, the in vitro experiment indicated that miR-21-3p and miR-150-5p specifically downregulated luciferase reporter expression in the cell lines transfected with rs2278414 A allele compared to rs2278414 G. These results suggested that the association of SNP rs2278414 with ARC might involve an altered miRNA regulation of ZNF350.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Genotype–Phenotype Correlations of Malignant Hyperthermia and Central Core Disease Mutations in the Central Region of the RYR1 Channel

ABSTRACT

Type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and is mutated in some muscle diseases, including malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD). Over 200 mutations associated with these diseases have been identified, and most mutations accelerate Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR), resulting in abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle. However, it remains largely unknown how specific mutations cause different phenotypes. In this study, we investigated the CICR activity of 14 mutations at 10 different positions in the central region of RYR1 (10 MH and four MH/CCD mutations) using a heterologous expression system in HEK293 cells. In live-cell Ca2+ imaging, the mutant channels exhibited an enhanced sensitivity to caffeine, a reduced endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content, and an increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level. The three parameters for CICR (Ca2+ sensitivity for activation, Ca2+ sensitivity for inactivation, and attainable maximum activity, i.e., gain) were obtained by [3H]ryanodine binding and fitting analysis. The mutant channels showed increased gain and Ca2+ sensitivity for activation in a site-specific manner. Genotype–phenotype correlations were explained well by the near-atomic structure of RYR1. Our data suggest that divergent CICR activity may cause various disease phenotypes by specific mutations.

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How a young maverick’s grit saved the world’s rarest bird

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Carl Jones battled with his scientific elders to save the Mauritius kestrel. His renegade success taught him that mainstream conservation needs a rethink

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News Beyond Our Pages

Trajectories of lung function growth and decline in childhood asthma determine the risk for future chronic respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). McGeachie et al (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016; http://ift.tt/2ceW7CJ) assessed the genetics of lung function patterns in patients with childhood asthma. They performed a genome-wide association study of 581 non-Hispanic white asthmatic patients in whom patterns of lung function growth and decrease were known (Normal Growth, Normal Growth with Early Decline, Reduced Growth, and Reduced Growth with Early Decline).

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Cover 1



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Brief Overview of This Month's JACI



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News & Notes

Anthony S. Fauci, MD, FAAAAI, will deliver the Keynote Saturday, March 4, in Atlanta.

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Table of Contents



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CME Activities Calendar

▪ New! AAAAI QCDR for Practice Improvement 2016

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Editorial Board



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The Editors' Choice

Lemanske et al (p 711) report on the creation and implementation of a new school-based asthma educational program for children called the School-based Asthma Management Program (SAMPRO™). SAMPRO™ was developed after a summit meeting held in October 2015 that was attended by multiple stakeholders with experience, interest, and/or active programs that focus on establishing best-care policies for children with asthma while they are attending school. SAMPRO™ consists of 4 components to integrate schools, specifically school nurses, within the asthma care team.

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Information for Readers



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Anionic surfactants and commercial detergents decrease tight junction barrier integrity in human keratinocytes

As the largest organ of the body, the skin acts as an essential barrier that protects against and/or minimizes damage from environmental and endogenous factors to maintain internal homeostasis.1 The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and in preventing penetration of microbes, toxins, pollutants, and allergens.2 This important barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, which has 2 major barrier structures: the stratum corneum3 and tight junctions (TJs),4 the latter of which seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum.

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Role of regulatory B cells in immune tolerance to allergens and beyond

Immune tolerance to both self-antigens and innocuous non–self-antigens is essential to protect the host against chronic inflammatory diseases and tissue damage. A wide range of cell types and suppressive molecules are involved in induction and maintenance of tolerance. In addition to their key function in the production of immunoglobulins, B cells can regulate immune responses through their surface molecules and secretion of cytokines. Regulatory B (Breg) cells are characterized by their immunosuppressive capacity, which is often mediated through IL-10 secretion.

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Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases



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Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases

The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the “dual” functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease.

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Creation and implementation of SAMPRO™: A school-based asthma management program

Clinicians who care for children with asthma have an obligation to coordinate asthma care with the schools. Aside from routine clinical care of asthmatic children, providers must educate the family and child about the need for an asthma treatment plan in school and support the school nurse meeting the needs of the student requiring school-based asthma care. The following article was developed by multiple stakeholders to address this need. It describes the 4 components of the School-based Asthma Management Program (SAMPRO™).

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Effect of treatment of rectal cancer metastasis with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patient with subretinal fluid and macular oedema: short-term follow-up

We describe the management of subretinal fluid and macular oedema due to colorectal cancer metastasis to the choroid using intravitreal bevacizumab. A patient with grade VI KRAS mutation rectal cancer with metastasis to the lung and cerebellum presented with left eye choroidal metastasis 1 week after being started on the experimental medication KTN3379. After intravitreal bevacizumab administration, the patient had improvement in macular subretinal fluid, but eventually progressed to severe cystoid macular oedema despite monthly intravitreal bevacizumab treatment.



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Ethiopian-Israeli community

The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs. These factors significantly affect the community's health. Governmental and non-governmental organisations have sought to improve the quality of life for Ethiopian Israelis through empowerment and education. Enhancing societal integration, augmenting cross-cultural communication and understanding and instituting community-based health projects are essential in improving the health of this community. Successful healthcare intervention requires a biopsychosocial model of analysis and usage of a culturally appropriate context.



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ANCA-negative eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA) manifesting as a large intracardiac thrombus and glomerulonephritis with angionecrosis

A 59-year-old woman with a history of bronchial asthma presented with a prolonged fever and eosinophilia. There was transient proteinuria and troponin level was elevated. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative and she did not fulfil criteria for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA). Echocardiography showed a large apical mass in the left ventricle, but there was no systolic dysfunction, local asynergy or ventricular remodelling. On MRI, apical mass was compatible with a thrombus and endocardial region was diffusely damaged. Loeffler endocarditis-like cardiac manifestation led to meticulous examination, which found no aetiology for eosinophilia. Finally, renal biopsy revealed eosinophil infiltration and glomerular angionecrosis, confirming as EGPA. This case highlights the isolated large cardiac thrombus as a rare presenting sign for EGPA and underscores current complicated strategy to diagnose EGPA. Of note, this clinical challenge was mostly caused by inchoate comprehension of hypereosinophilia-related disorders.



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Orolingual angioedema to alteplase. Identify, counsel and monitor at risk patients

Orolingual angioedema (OLA) is a known complication of intravenous alteplase used to treat ischaemic stroke. The incidence may be as high as 5.1%. ACE inhibitors are thought to increase the risk of developing this potentially life-threatening complication. This case report demonstrates how we may improve in the identification of risk factors in the history; the counselling of patients appropriately; in seeking alternative therapies such as mechanical thrombectomy; and in the monitoring of patients for signs of OLA once alteplase has been given.



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Penetrating cardiac injury: sustaining health by building team resilience in growing civilian violence

Penetrating cardiac injury (PCI) is gradually increasing in developing countries owing to large-scale manufacturing of illegal country-made weapons. These injuries are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Logistically it is difficult to have all organ-based specialists arrive together and attend every critically injured patient round-the-clock in developing countries. It is therefore important for doctors (physicians, surgeons and anaesthetists) to be trained for adequate management of critically injured patients following trauma. We report the approach towards 2 cases of haemodynamically unstable PCI managed by a team of trauma doctors. Time lag (duration between injury and arrival at hospital) and quick horizontal resuscitation are important considerations in the treatment. By not referring these patients to different hospitals the team actually reduced the time lag, and a quick life-saving surgery by trauma surgeons (trained in torso surgery) offered these almost dying patients a chance of survival.



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Traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip

Description

A 31-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the emergency department(ED) following a road traffic accident with significant right hip pain and inability to weight bear. On examination the patient had a shortened and externally rotated leg with absent peripheral pulses and cold peripheries concerning for vascular compromise. A plain radiograph demonstrated an anterior hip dislocation (AHD) with a greater trochanter (GT) fracture (figure 1). An urgent CT of the pelvis was performed to exclude the possibility of a femoral neck fracture (figure 2A, B). The hip was reduced under conscious sedation in the ED using the Allis method. The peripheral pulses returned. A further CT angiogram of the pelvis was performed which showed concentric reduction, an undisplaced GT fracture and a short segment dissection of the right external iliac artery which was managed conservatively as directed by the vascular team (figure 3A,...



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Retinoic acid suppresses colorectal cancer development, researchers say: https://t.co/4NROGcc45o

Retinoic acid suppresses colorectal cancer development, researchers say: https://t.co/4NROGcc45o

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/771676579290284032
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Preparations underway for our upcoming event in Cardiff! Contact editor@ecancer .org for last-minute signup! https://t.co/nKbgKSh5rE

Preparations underway for our upcoming event in Cardiff! Contact editor@ecancer .org for last-minute signup! https://t.co/nKbgKSh5rE

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RT @ecancer_espanol : Dr Adele Murrell discussed the potential influence of epigenetics on lung cancer #lungcancer16

RT @ecancer_espanol : Dr Adele Murrell discussed the potential influence of epigenetics on lung cancer #lungcancer16

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RT @ecancer_espanol : Dr O Pardo talked about the use of metabolomics to find novel target in Chemo-resistant lung cancer #lungcancer16 http…

RT @ecancer_espanol : Dr O Pardo talked about the use of metabolomics to find novel target in Chemo-resistant lung cancer #lungcancer16 http…

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Dr Olivier Pardo discusses challenges & the future of metabolomics at #lungcancer16 https://t.co/S26V6ceOC8

Dr Olivier Pardo discusses challenges & the future of metabolomics at #lungcancer16 https://t.co/S26V6ceOC8

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Dr Adele Murrell: 'We should ideally be looking for pre-disposition to cancer for early intervention' #lungcancer16 https://t.co/h8CvkDZstl

Dr Adele Murrell: 'We should ideally be looking for pre-disposition to cancer for early intervention' #lungcancer16 https://t.co/h8CvkDZstl

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People born underweight do less exercise throughout their lives

Babies who weigh less than 2.5 kilograms at birth are less likely to do well at school sports, and do less regular exercise when they become adults

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There is now a sixth taste – and it explains why we love carbs

Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami – and “starchy”? It seems we can sense bread-like flavours associated with complex carbohydrates as a taste in their own right

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Kjøtt sett i relasjon til evolusjonen

– Diskusjonen om hvorvidt rødt kjøtt er helseskadelig er preget av uvitenskapelige ytterligheter, skriver kommentarforfatter.

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Hvem fikk tidlig hjelp etter Utøya-angrepet?

Det var geografiske forskjeller i helsehjelpen som ble gitt etter terrorangrepet på Utøya, viser en ny gjennomgang.

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David Oliver: Groundhog days for doctors

I recently saw a wonderful stage adaptation of Groundhog Day. Phil Connors, a misanthropic TV weatherman, gets stuck in small town America, living out the exact same day on a loop.He soon realises...
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