Πέμπτη, 9 Ιουνίου 2016

Cardiovascular regulation pattern of contamination-related disgust: Consistency and context dependence

Abstract

The cardiovascular response to contamination-related disgust was proposed to be under parasympathetic or parasympathetic-sympathetic cardiac control. However, findings of physiological disgust responses are inconsistent, possibly due to effects of the emotion induction context and single cardiovascular changes being part of larger cardiovascular regulation patterns. Therefore, we induced an emotionally neutral state and core and contamination disgust in female participants in two induction contexts (auditory script, film clip). Dependent variables were emotion self-reports and 10 cardiovascular factors derived from 23 cardiovascular variables. We found elevated disgust ratings in both induction contexts. On the cardiovascular level, we observed consistent increases in a factor indicating vagal cardiac control in both contexts and changes in factors indicating sympathetic activation that were bound to the respective context. These findings support the notion of a parasympathetic dominance of the contamination-related disgust response and underpin the importance of incorporating the induction context in the study of cardiovascular responses to disgust.



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Clinical events in a large prospective cohort of children with sickle cell disease in Nagpur, India: evidence against a milder clinical phenotype in India

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Abstract

Background

The clinical phenotype of sickle cell disease (SCD) has been reported to be milder in India than in the United States. The objective of this large single-center study was to examine the rate of complications to define the phenotype of SCD in India.

Methods

The rate of complications per 100 person-years in 833 pediatric SCD patients for 1954 person-years in Nagpur, India including those diagnosed on newborn screen (NBS) and those presenting later in childhood (non-NBS) was compared to those reported in the cooperative study of sickle cell disease (CSSCD). Event rates were also compared between patients belonging to scheduled castes (SCs), scheduled tribes (STs), and other backward classes (OBC).

Results

Comparison of CSSCD versus Nagpur NBS versus Nagpur non-NBS for rates of pain (32.4 vs. 85.2 vs. 62.4), severe anemia (7.1 vs. 27 vs. 6.6), stroke (0.7 vs. 0.8 vs. 1.4), splenic sequestration (3.4 vs. 6.7 vs. 1.6), acute chest syndrome (24.5 vs. 23.6 vs. 1.0), and meningitis (0.8 vs. 0 vs. 0.1) revealed more frequent complications in Nagpur compared to CSSCD. Comparison of ST, SC, and OBC for rates of pain (84.6 vs. 71.9 vs. 63.5), acute chest syndrome (3.6 vs. 2.8 vs. 2.2), severe anemia (5.4 vs. 9.5 vs. 11.4), stroke (1.2 vs. 0.4 vs. 0.3), splenic sequestration (0.6 vs. 2.4 vs. 1.9), and meningitis (0.8 vs. 0 vs. 0.1) revealed significantly more frequent complications among ST.

Conclusions

SCD-related complications are more frequent in Indian children than that observed in CSSCD. Further study is indicated to define SCD phenotype in India.



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Former SFX CEO Robert Sillerman Speaks Out for the First Time About His Company's Implosion: 'I Don't Begrudge ... - Billboard


Former SFX CEO Robert Sillerman Speaks Out for the First Time About His Company's Implosion: 'I Don't Begrudge ...
Billboard
He speaks in a raspy voice, the result of a 2001 struggle with tongue cancer, and he takes nutrition through a feeding tube because he lost the ability to swallow. Now, he says, he feels fine, although given the ill will that SFX's bankruptcy has ...

and more »


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Investigation for Paediatric Cushing's Syndrome Using Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Free Cortisol Determination

Objective: Paediatric Cushing's syndrome (CS) remains a challenge to diagnose and exclude. We assessed the accuracy of 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) determination in children referred for suspected CS. Design: We conducted a retrospective study of paediatric patients referred to our centre with suspected CS between 1982 and 2014. Patients: Of 66 subjects (mean age 12.9 years; range 4.4-16.9), there were 47 cases of CS (29 males), which included Cushing's disease (CD; 39 patients, 25 males), primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (8 patients, 4 males) and 19 ‘controls' (6 males) in whom the diagnosis of CS was excluded. Measurements: The subjects had between one and five 24-hour UFC collections analysed by radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data were normalised, corrected for body surface area (m2) and assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and an independent two-tailed t test. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of 24-hour UFC for CS was excellent (area under the curve 0.98, 95% CI 0.946-1.00, sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%). Conclusions: Twenty-four-hour UFC is a reliable and practical investigation with high diagnostic accuracy for paediatric CS. However, further investigations may be required if the UFC is normal but there is a high diagnostic suspicion of CS.
Horm Res Paediatr

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Erratum to: Variants of EVER1 and EVER2 ( TMC6 and TMC8 ) and human papillomavirus status in patients with mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck



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Erratum to: Patterns and correlates of accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary time among colon cancer survivors



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Presbynasalis

Background

As with all systems in the body, the nose and paranasal sinuses change in time as we age. Some of these changes have been individually studied, but a unified description of current research has not been published since 1996. Since that time, a great deal has changed in our understanding of the aging nose.

Methods

The English language literature was examined using a combination of PubMed and Google Scholar search inquiries. The focus was on articles published since 1996 that described sinonasal changes or disease processes within the advanced-age population.

Results

Publications since 1996 were prioritized for discussion. Of the 50 articles selected, manuscripts were grouped into categories of allergy and cellular-level change, rhinorrhea, mechanical and airflow change, olfactory change, and sinusitis.

Conclusion

Understanding the normal aging process is essential for otolaryngologists for patient education. We propose use of the term presbynasalis for description of the aging nose, paranasal sinuses, and olfactory system. Several points are consistent across the literature. The immune system becomes less responsive with age, a process known as immunosenescence. The incidence of rhinorrhea increases as the population ages. Though nasal volumes increase with age, other age-related changes may result in the perception of increasing nasal obstruction with age. There is a trend toward diminished olfaction in the elderly, and in some patients, this may be an early manifestation of neurodegenerative conditions. Sinusitis treatment should be similar in the elderly population, and the data demonstrates the safety of surgery when needed.



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Analyzing the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test using item response theory

Background

The 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) is a widely applied patient-reported outcome instrument used to assess the severity of symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement performance of the SNOT-22 instrument on an item-level basis, in a sample of patients awaiting elective surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Methods

This study involved secondary analysis of SNOT-22 data that was prospectively collected from patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and awaiting endoscopic sinus surgery in Vancouver, Canada. This study used classic test theory and a 2-parameter graded-response model to evaluate the SNOT-22 items’ abilities to measure the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis in terms of patients’ self-reported symptoms. This approach models each item's discriminability and difficulty, which provides insight into how well they respectively measure symptoms related to chronic rhinosinusitis.

Results

Factor analyses indicated that there are 5 domains of measurement in the SNOT-22. The majority of items demonstrated strong discriminability between symptom severities. Likewise, most of the items demonstrated strong difficulty measuring the symptoms across their range of levels. The exception was those items related to psychological symptoms. Differential item functioning demonstrated that very few of the SNOT-22 items were answered significantly differently by gender or age subgroups.

Conclusion

This item-level analysis demonstrates that, in general, the SNOT-22 is a strong instrument. Items related to psychological symptoms require further investigation and warrant a supplemental patient-reported outcome instrument.



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Editorial Board

Publication date: August 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics, Volume 1864, Issue 8





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Plant Proteomics: a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production

Publication date: August 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics, Volume 1864, Issue 8
Author(s): Hans-Peter Mock




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Characterization of the conformational preference and dynamics of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of beclin 1 by NMR spectroscopy

Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics
Author(s): Shenggen Yao, Erinna F. Lee, Anne Pettikiriarachchi, Marco Evangelista, David W. Keizer, W. Douglas Fairlie
Beclin 1 is a 450 amino acid protein that plays critical roles in the early stages of autophagosome formation. We recently reported the successful expression, purification and structural characterisation of the entire N-terminal region of Beclin 1 (residues 1-150), including its backbone NMR chemical shift assignments. Based on assigned backbone NMR chemical shifts, it has been established that the N-terminal region of Beclin 1 (1-150), including the BH3 domain (112-123), is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its interaction partners. Here, a detailed study of its conformational preference and backbone dynamics obtained from an analysis of its secondary structure populations using the δ2D method, and the measurements of effective hydrodynamic radius as well as 1H temperature coefficients, 1H solvent exchange rates, and 15N relaxation parameters of backbone amides using NMR spectroscopy is reported. These data provide further evidence for the intrinsically disordered nature of the N-terminal region of Beclin 1 and support the view that the helical conformation adopted by the Beclin 1 BH3 domain upon interaction with binding partners such as BCL-2 pro-survival proteins is likely induced rather than pre-existing.

Graphical abstract

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Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; ). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS.

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FRTL-5 Rat Thyroid Cells Release Thyroglobulin Sequestered in Exosomes: A Possible Novel Mechanism for Thyroglobulin Processing in the Thyroid

Exosomes are 30–100 nm, membrane-bound vesicles containing specific cellular proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs that take part in intercellular communication between cells. A possible role for exosomes in thyroid function has not been fully explored. In the present study, FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells were grown to confluence and received medium containing either thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), exogenous bovine thyroglobulin (bTg), or neither additive for 24 or 48 hours followed by collection of spent medium and ultracentrifugation to isolate small vesicles. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting for CD9 indicated the presence of exosomes. Western blotting of exosome extract using a monoclonal anti-Tg antibody revealed a Tg-positive band at ~330 kDa (the expected size of monomeric Tg) with a higher density in TSH-treated cells compared to that in untreated cells. These results are the first to show that normal thyroid cells in culture produce exosomes containing undegraded Tg.

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Immediate Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Brain Nitrotyrosine Formation in a Piglet Asphyxia Model

Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention that could be administered as an alternative to cooling in cases of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In the current study we hypothesized that RIPostC in the piglet model of birth asphyxia confers protection by reducing nitrosative stress and subsequent nitrotyrosine formation, as well as having an effect on glial immunoreactivity. Postnatal day 1 (P1) piglets underwent HI brain injury and were randomised to HI (control) or HI + RIPostC. Immunohistochemistry assessment 48 hours after HI revealed a significant decrease in brain nitrotyrosine deposits in the RIPostC-treated group (). This was accompanied by a significant increase in eNOS expression () and decrease in iNOS (), with no alteration in nNOS activity. Interestingly, RIPostC treatment was associated with a significant increase in GFAP () and IBA1 (), markers of astroglial and microglial activity, respectively. The current study demonstrates a beneficial effect of RIPostC therapy in the preclinical piglet model of neonatal asphyxia, which appears to be mediated by modulation of nitrosative stress, despite glial activation.

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Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is defined by clinical criteria of increased intracranial pressure, elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and exclusion of other causes such tumors, vascular abnormalities, or infections. The association of PTC with levothyroxine (LT4) has been reported. A 12-year-old boy has been followed up for autoimmune thyroiditis under LT4. Family history was irrelevant for endocrine or autoimmune diseases. A TSH level of 4.43 μUI/mL (0.39–3.10) motivated a LT4 adjustment from 75 to 88 μg/day. Five weeks later, he developed horizontal diplopia, convergent strabismus with left eye abduction palsy, and papilledema. Laboratorial evaluation revealed elevated free thyroxine level (1.05 ng/dL [0.65–1.01]) and low TSH, without other alterations. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF opening pressure was 24 cm H2O with normal composition. Blood and CSF cultures were sterile. Brain MRI was normal. LT4 was temporarily discontinued and progressive improvement was observed, with a normal fundoscopy at day 10 and reversion of diplopia one month later. LT4 was restarted at lower dose and gradually titrated. The boy is currently asymptomatic. This case discloses the potential role of LT4 in inducing PTC. Despite its rarity and unclear association, PTC must be seen as a potential complication of LT4, after excluding all other intracranial hypertension causes.

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Chelatococcus thermostellatus sp. nov., a new thermophile for bioplastic synthesis: comparative phylogenetic and physiological study

The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, accumulating thermophilic strain MW9T, isolated from an aerobic organic waste treatment plant, was characterized by detailed physiological and phylogenetic studies. The strain is...

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Metabolome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and optimization of culture medium for S-adenosyl-l-methionine production

S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is a fine chemical used as a nutritional supplement and a prescription drug. It is industrially produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to its high SAM...

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Dr Daisy Fancourt describes her paper on singing and cancer in our latest author interview: https://t.co/Ni0DObot38 https://t.co/AHxLKXC1gl

Dr Daisy Fancourt describes her paper on singing and cancer in our latest author interview: https://t.co/Ni0DObot38 https://t.co/AHxLKXC1gl

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Michael Marmot discussing reducing cancer risk inequalities at @IARCWHO 's meeting, video coming soon @MichaelMarmot https://t.co/WFbgkyBk8T

Michael Marmot discussing reducing cancer risk inequalities at @IARCWHO 's meeting, video coming soon @MichaelMarmot https://t.co/WFbgkyBk8T

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Prof Twardowski & @ProfMcVie comment on current treatment approaches in advanced prostate cancer https://t.co/qmnCN2Ew2y #ASCO16

Prof Twardowski & @ProfMcVie comment on current treatment approaches in advanced prostate cancer https://t.co/qmnCN2Ew2y #ASCO16

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Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a consequence of immunosuppression resulting from inhibiting TNF? https://t.co/nQlYPA1OKV

Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a consequence of immunosuppression resulting from inhibiting TNF? https://t.co/nQlYPA1OKV

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Improvement in OS with olaparib for patients with platinum sensitive ovarian cancer https://t.co/2ii0hFvi6K #ASCO16 https://t.co/oVvB7TOYd1

Improvement in OS with olaparib for patients with platinum sensitive ovarian cancer https://t.co/2ii0hFvi6K #ASCO16 https://t.co/oVvB7TOYd1

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 580: Survival and Risk Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni on Various Processed Meat Products

The objective of this study was to investigate survival kinetics of Campylobacter jejuni on various processed meat products (dry-cured ham, round ham with/without sodium nitrite, garlic seasoned ham with/without sodium nitrite, and sausage without sodium nitrite). Additionally, a semi-quantitative risk assessment of C. jejuni on various processed meat products was conducted using FDA-iRISK 1.0. Inoculated processed meat products with 6.0 ± 0.5 log CFU/g of C. jejuni were vacuum packed and stored at 4, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C. Survival curves were fitted to the Weibull model to obtain the delta values of C. jejuni on various processed meat products. The most rapid death of C. jejuni was observed on dry-cured ham, followed by sausage without sodium nitrite. The results of semi-quantitative risk assessment indicate that dry-cured ham represented the lowest risk among all samples. C. jejuni on processed meats presented a greater risk at 4 °C than at 10 °C. The risk of ham was greater than the risk of sausage, regardless of type. Among all samples, the highest risk of C. jejuni was observed in round ham without sodium nitrite. Overall, our data indicates that risk of processed meat products due to C. jejuni is relatively low.

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Life on the edge: Saving the world’s hotbeds of evolution

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It's a radical new approach to saving nature: don't obsess about individual species, safeguard the places on the bleeding edge of evolutionary change instead

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Association of a PARK2 Germline Variant and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in a Southern Brazilian Population

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most common cancer among women in Brazil and seventh in the world population. OC has a high mortality rate and is difficult to diagnose. Currently, OC detection most often occurs at an advanced stage of the disease due to its silent progression, which contributes to the high mortality rate. Available genetic markers are not considered specifically enough for an initial and definite diagnosis. The association with new genes involved with OC can provide a better understanding of this pathology as well as contribute to the development of a marker scenario, providing an improvement in the treatment and survival of patients. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between the PARK2 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Accordingly, we conducted a study for which 25 patients and 87 controls were recruited. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the four studied tag SNPs (rs2803073, rs6930532, rs1040079, and rs2276201) were independent. Our results using the multivariate analysis between the additive and dominant model demonstrated that tag SNP rs2803073 of PARK2 is associated with susceptibility to EOC (p = 0.018, OR = 0.42). These findings suggest that hereditary variation in the PARK2 gene could influence EOC development mechanisms.
Oncology

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Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

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The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd 2 SiO 5 ), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12 C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u −1 . Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highes...

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Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis

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In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event ...

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Shear wave dispersion behaviors of soft, vascularized tissues from the microchannel flow model

The frequency dependent behavior of tissue stiffness and the dispersion of shear waves in tissue can be measured in a number of ways, using integrated imaging systems. The microchannel flow model, which considers the effects of fluid flow in the branching vasculature and microchannels of soft tissues, makes specific predictions about the nature of dispersion. In this paper we introduce a more general form of the 4 parameter equation for stress relaxation based on the microchannel flow model, and then derive the general frequency domain equation for the complex modulus. Dispersion measurements in liver ( ex vivo ) and whole perfused placenta (post-delivery) correspond to the predictions from theory, guided by independent stress relaxation measurements and consideration of the vascular tree structure.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 849: Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model of d-Galactose-induced Aging

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Stem cell senescence is an important and current hypothesis accounting for organismal aging, especially the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of ginseng, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. This study explored the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging. The mimetic aging mouse model was induced by continuous injection of d-gal for 42 days, and the C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with ginsenoside Rg1, Vitamin E or normal saline after 7 days of d-gal injection. Compared with those in the d-gal administration alone group, ginsenoside Rg1 protected Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs by decreasing SA-β-Gal and enhancing the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-Mix), and adjusting oxidative stress indices like reactive oxygen species (ROS), total anti-oxidant (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 decreased β-catenin and c-Myc mRNA expression and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), phospho-histone H2A.X (r-H2A.X), 8-OHdG, p16Ink4a, Rb, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p53 in senescent Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs. Our findings indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve the resistance of Sca-1+ HSC/HPCs in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging through the suppression of oxidative stress and excessive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and reduction of DNA damage response, p16Ink4a-Rb and p53-p21Cip1/Waf1 signaling.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 916: Prolonged Morphine Exposure Induces Increased Firm Adhesion in an in Vitro Model of the Blood–Brain Barrier

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The blood–brain barrier (BBB) has been defined as a critically important protective barrier that is involved in providing essential biologic, physiologic, and immunologic separation between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Insults to the BBB can cause overall barrier damage or deregulation of the careful homeostasis maintained between the periphery and the CNS. These insults can, therefore, yield numerous phenotypes including increased overall permeability, interendothelial gap formation, alterations in cytokine and chemokine secretion, and accelerated cellular passage. The current studies expose the human brain microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, to prolonged morphine exposure and aim to uncover the mechanisms underlying alterations in barrier function in vitro. These studies show alterations in the mRNA and protein levels of the cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule that correlate with an increased firm adhesion of the CD3+ subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overall, these studies suggest that prolonged morphine exposure may result in increased cell migration into the CNS, which may accelerate pathological processes in many diseases that involve the BBB.

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Delivery of dexamethasone from bioactive nanofiber matrices stimulates odontogenesis of human dental pulp cells through integrin/BMP/mTOR signaling pathways

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Large disparities found in BRCA testing across ethnicities, Dr Tuya Pal told ecancertv at #ASCO2016 https://t.co/0zZ7X9tUhZ

Large disparities found in BRCA testing across ethnicities, Dr Tuya Pal told ecancertv at #ASCO2016 https://t.co/0zZ7X9tUhZ

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Ahead of print: Evaluation der mittels Chemilumineszenztest gemessenen Blut-Progesteronkonzentration...

Gegenstand und Ziel: Durch den Hersteller vorgenommene Änderungen von Testsystemen, die in der Veterinärmedizin zur Bestimmung von Hormonkonzentrationen eingesetzt werden, können eine Anpassung von Referenzbereichen notwendig machen. Material und Methode: Es erfolgten Vergleichsmessungen mit einem ursprünglich verwendeten und 2012 veränderten Chemilumineszenz-Testsystem zur Progesteronmessung. Zudem wurden interne und externe Qualitätskontrollen vor dem Hintergrund der Änderung des Tests ausgewertet. Ferner wurde mit dem veränderten Testsystem die Progesteronkonzentration bei Hündinnen zum Zeitpunkt der sonographisch verifizierten Ovulation gemessen, um die Referenzwerte bezüglich ihrer Eignung für die Ovulationsbestimmung zu überprüfen. Ergebnisse: In einem Konzentrationsbereich von 0–6 ng/ml ergab die Messung mit der veränderten Testcharge deutlich niedrigere Progesteronkonzentrationen als der ursprünglich gelieferte Test. Nationale und internationale Kontrollen zeigten aber, dass die mit dem abgeänderten Testverfahren gemessenen Progesteronwerte laborübergreifend eine gute Vergleichbarkeit aufweisen. Die mittlere Progesteronkonzentration zum Zeitpunkt der sonographisch detektierten Ovulation betrug 3,4 ± 0,9 ngBitte komplette Angabe des Werts auf eine Zeile bringen./ml (2,0–4,5 ng/ml, n = 7 Hündinnen). Schlussfolgerung: Der als Indikator für den Ovulationszeitpunkt und zur Festlegung des Decktermins vormals weit verbreitete Progesteronbereich von 5–8 ng/ml musste auf ~ 3,5 ng/ml angeglichen werden. Dieser Fall zeigt, dass regelmäßige Referenzwertevaluationen gerade in der veterinärmedizinischen Endokrinologie unumgänglich sind und zur guten Laborpraxis gehören. Der hier vorgestellte Referenzwert ist laborspezifisch und sollte in anderen Laboren, die mit demselben Testsystem arbeiten, vor der Verwendung validiert werden. Klinische Relevanz: Die Grenzwerte zur Beurteilung des Ovulationszeitpunkts der Hündin sollten vom Labor zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Von einer Beurteilung der Werte im Vergleich zu Literaturdaten wird dringend abgeraten....

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Ahead of print: Bakterielle Harnwegsinfektionen bei Katzen

Ziel: Ermittlung der Prävalenz prädisponierender Begleiterkrankungen (BE) bei Katzen mit bakteriellen Harnwegsinfektionen (HWI) und der Prävalenz von Bakterienspezies bei verschiedenen BE sowie deren Sensibilität gegenüber den bei HWI häufig eingesetzten Antibiotika Doxycyclin, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol (TMS), Amoxicillin-Clavulansäure (AMC), Cephalothin und Enrofloxacin. Material und Methoden: In die retrospektive Studie wurden Katzen mit positiver Urinkultur im Zeitraum 2003–2009 eingeschlossen. Basierend auf den Daten der Krankenakten erfolgte eine Einteilung in vier Gruppen: Katzen mit systemischen prädisponierenden BE, Katzen mit lokalen prädisponierenden BE, Katzen mit Harnblasendauerkathetern (HBDK) und Katzen ohne dokumentierte BE. Zur Ermittlung der wahrscheinlichen Effektivität der Antibiotika wurden deren antimikrobielle Impact-Faktoren berechnet. Ergebnisse: In die Studie gingen 194 Katzen mit 219 bakteriellen Isolaten ein. Davon wiesen 78,4% (152/194) eine BE auf. 49,5% (96/194) hatten eine systemische BE und 28,9% (56/194) hatten eine lokale BE oder einen HBDK. Katzen mit systemischen BE waren signifikant älter als Katzen der anderen Gruppen und häufiger weiblich als Katzen mit lokaler BE und HBDK. Mehr als 50% der Katzen mit systemischer BE zeigten keine klinischen Symptome einer Erkrankung des unteren Harntrakts. Escherichia (E.) coli, gefolgt von Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. und Enterococcus spp. waren die am häufigsten vorkommenden Isolate. Dabei lag der Anteil der E.-coli-Isolate bei Katzen mit systemischer BE signifikant höher, während bei Katzen mit HBDK und Katzen mit anderen lokalen BE der Anteil an Streptococcus- und Staphylococcus-spp.-Isolaten signifikant höher war. Bei Katzen mit lokaler BE und Katzen mit HBDK ergaben sich niedrigere antimikrobielle Impact-Faktoren als bei Katzen der anderen Gruppen. Schlussfolgerung und klinische Relevanz: Ein Großteil der Katzen mit HWI leidet unter einer prädisponierenden BE. Katzen mit systemischer BE zeigen häufig keine Symptome einer Erkrankung des unteren Harntrakts. AMC und TMS waren in dieser Katzenpopulation die Antibiotika mit den höchsten antimikrobiellen Impact-Faktoren....

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Erratum to: Development of a 68 Ga-peptide tracer for PET GnRH1-imaging



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When it's hard to breathe - AsiaOne


When it's hard to breathe
AsiaOne
The condition can be broadly divided into one side and both sides blockages of the nasal cavity. The causes can be almost similar except that some one-sided blockages are caused by cancers, foreign bodies (in children), antrochoanal polyps or deviated ...



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Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates

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Publication date: 15 September 2016
Source:Gene, Volume 590, Issue 1
Author(s): Liberata Mwita, Wai Yin Chan, Theresa Pretorius, Sylvester L. Lyantagaye, Svitlana V. Lapa, Lilia V. Avdeeva, Oleg N. Reva
Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. Active PGPR strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was studied in this research. RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant colonization. A significant stress caused by the root exudates on in vitro cultivated B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was noticed and discussed. Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. Some of these conflicted regulations could be explained by interference of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Search through differential expressed intergenic regions revealed 49 putative loci of ncRNA regulated by the root exudate stimuli. Possible target mRNA were predicted and a general regulatory network of B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 genome was designed.



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Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes

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Publication date: 15 September 2016
Source:Gene, Volume 590, Issue 1
Author(s): Hongyan Yin, Lina Ma, Guangyu Wang, Mengwei Li, Zhang Zhang
Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age.



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Editorial Board

Publication date: 1 September 2016
Source:Gene, Volume 589, Issue 1





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When should elective neck dissection be performed in maxillary gingival and alveolar squamous cell carcinoma with a cN0 neck? A systematic review

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Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): L. Tang, Y.Y. Leung
The purpose of this systematic review was to answer the clinical question “When should elective neck dissection be performed in maxillary gingival and alveolar squamous cell carcinoma with a cN0 neck?” A systematic review, designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, was conducted by two independent reviewers with three rounds of search and evaluation. Ten studies with 506 patients were included in the final review. The overall risk of cervical metastasis was 23.2% for those who did not receive an elective neck dissection (END), which was 3.4 times higher than that in the END group (6.8%). The 5-year survival rate was higher in those who had an END (80.3%) when compared to those who did not receive an END (67.4%). Overall, 14.1% of the cases with cN0 maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presented with positive node(s) in pathological specimens after END. The risk of occult cervical metastasis in a cN0 maxillary SCC case with pathological stage pT1, pT2, pT3, and pT4 was 11.1%, 12.1%, 20%, and 36.1%, respectively. It is therefore concluded that END is recommended in patients with cN0 maxillary SCC, especially in stage T3 or T4 cases.



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Bully particle beats up atoms to fix cosmic accounting glitch

A proposed particle could explain why there was less lithium than we thought at the big bang - and maybe dark matter too

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Book Review



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Tuberin Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species in Renal Proximal Cells, Kidney from Rodents and Kidney from TSC Patients

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Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important endogenous source of DNA damage and oxidative stress in all cell types. Deficiency in tuberin resulted in increase oxidative DNA damage in renal cells. In this study, role of tuberin in the regulating of ROS and NAD(PH)oxidases was investigated. ROS formation and NAD(P)H oxidases activity were significantly higher in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in primary culture of rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (RPTE) tuberin-deficient cells compared to wild type cells. In addition, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 (Nox isoforms) expression was higher in MEF and RPTE tuberin-deficient cells compared to wild type cells. Furthermore, NAD(P)H oxidases activity levels and protein expression of all Nox isoforms were higher in the renal cortex of rat deficient in tuberin. On the other hand, treatment of tuberin-deficient cells with rapamycin showed significant decrease in protein expression of all Noxs. Significant increase in PKCβII expression was detected in tuberin-deficient cells while inhibition of PKCβII by BMI resulted in decrease all Noxs protein expression. In addition, treatment of mice-deficient in tuberin with rapamycin resulted in significant decrease in all Noxs protein expression. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all Noxs were highly expressed in tumor kidney tissue of TSC patients compared to control kidney tissue of normal subjects. These data provide the first evidence that tuberin plays a novel role in regulating ROS generation, NAD(P)H oxidases activity and Noxs expression that may potentially involved in development of kidney tumor in TSC patients.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Warning about supplemental of Vitamin D in women looking for pregnancy

L'articolo Warning about supplemental of Vitamin D in women looking for pregnancy sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Non-invasive electrocardiographic methods for assessment of atrial conduction heterogeneity in ankylosing spondylitis

L'articolo Non-invasive electrocardiographic methods for assessment of atrial conduction heterogeneity in ankylosing spondylitis sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Supraventricular arrhythmia risk in ankylosing spondylitis patients

L'articolo Supraventricular arrhythmia risk in ankylosing spondylitis patients sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Continuation maintenance therapy with S-1 in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer

Summary

Objectives Maintenance therapy is a standard therapeutic strategy in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. However, there is no consensus regarding the benefit of maintenance therapy for patients with squamous cell lung cancer. We assessed maintenance therapy with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine agent, following induction therapy with carboplatin and S-1 in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Methods In this phase II trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients with squamous cell lung cancer were enrolled to induction therapy with four cycles of carboplatin (at an area under the curve of 5 on day 1) and S-1 (80 mg/m2/day on days 1–14) in a 28-day cycle. Patients who achieved disease control after induction therapy received maintenance therapy with S-1 in a 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after administration of maintenance therapy. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median progression-free survival from the start of maintenance therapy was 3.0 months (95 % confidence interval, 2.5–3.5). The most common toxicities associated with maintenance therapy were anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue, but they were not severe. Conclusion S-1 maintenance therapy might be a feasible treatment option in patients with squamous cell lung cancer.



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Multimodal imaging of the tricuspid valve: normal appearance and pathological entities

Abstract

The tricuspid valve, which is the atrioventricular valve attached to the morphological right ventricle, is affected by a wide range of pathological processes. Tricuspid valve diseases are now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is the most widely available and, hence, the first-line imaging modality used in the evaluation of tricuspid valve disorders; however, CT and MRI are also increasingly used for further evaluation and characterization of these entities. In this article, we first review the normal anatomy and embryology of the tricuspid valve, followed by a discussion of the role of multiple imaging modalities in the evaluation of tricuspid valve abnormalities. We then review and illustrate the imaging appearance of several congenital and acquired tricuspid valve abnormalities.

Main Messages

Tricuspid valve diseases have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality.

CT and MRI are increasingly used in the evaluation of tricuspid disorders.

CT and MRI help in diagnosis, functional evaluation, pre-surgical planning and post-surgical follow-up.

The most common cause of tricuspid regurgitation is functional.



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Access for All - A Personalised Approach

In December of last year, during the Luxembourg Presidency of the EU, the European Council issued its conclusions on personalised medicine for patients, highlighting how ‘the development of personalised medicine may offer new opportunities for the...

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Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes

Abstract

This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.



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