Τετάρτη, 23 Ιανουαρίου 2019

Ophthalmology

EDITORIAL 

Driving blind - Should tests of visual function be mandatory for driving license? Highly accessed articlep. 193
Santosh G Honavar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_150_19  
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ONE MINUTE OPHTHALMOLOGYTop

Just another chalazion?p. 195
Jonathan McLaughlin, Sara E Lally, Carol L Shields
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_18_19  
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REVIEW ARTICLETop

Visual function assessment, ocular examination, and intervention in children with developmental delay: A systematic approach. Part 1p. 196
Meenakshi Swaminathan, Deiva Jayaraman, Namita Jacob
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_524_18  
Children with special needs form a unique subset with regards to visual function and examination techniques needed to assess them. With more awareness among the general public, neurologists, and pediatricians, these children are referred for assessment to the ophthalmologist or optometrist and sometimes even to the rehabilitation professional at an early age. This clinical practice guideline and review gives a systematic approach for examining the visual functions of a child with special needs. It outlines the procedures to be followed with equipment needed in clinical practice. Functional vision assessment guidelines are also included. This is the first part in a two-part series, with the first part presenting clinical examination guidelines and the second presenting intervention and vision enhancement techniques.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLESTop

Causes of visual impairment in applications for blindness certificates in a tertiary center of Bihar and its role in health planningp. 204
Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Shalini Sinha, Bibhuti P Sinha, Gyan Bhasker
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_837_18  
Purpose: To analyze applications for blindness certificates to find causes of visual impairment (VI), handicap, and blindness in a tertiary hospital of Bihar. Methods: Applications for blindness certificates were analyzed over a two-year period. The main cause of blindness, visual handicap, and VI in these applications was ascertained by age group and etiology. VI disability percentages and definitions proposed by Governmen of India (category 0–4; 20–100%) were used to categorize and give percentage to all applicants. Results were compared with data from studies on blindness certificates and population based studies. Results: In total, 203 applicants were reviewed. Mean age was 23.5 ± 7.9 years. Overall, most common cause of visual handicap (40–100% impairment) and blindness (75–100% impairment) was macular pathology (P <.05), while most common cause of overall VI (20–100% impairment) was amblyopia. In age group 0–15 years, most common causes of blindness/visual handicap were congenital globe and hereditary retinal or optic nerve disorders (P = 0.016). In age group 16–30 years, macular pathology was the most common cause of visual handicap [P = 0.007], while amblyopia was the most common cause of VI [P = 0.00]. Between 31 and 45 years of age group, corneal scar in one eye was the most common cause of VI, while macular scar in both eyes was the most common cause of visual handicap. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the most common causes of blindness/visual handicap between 46 and 65 years and above 65 years of age, respectively. Data about causes of VI such as amblyopia, complicated cataract surgery, and one eyed blindness could not be ascertained by analyzing blindness certificate alone. Conclusion: Data from applications for blindness certificates provide valuable information regarding different causes of VI that might otherwise not be eligible for blindness certification and provide an insight into the overall trends in disease profile and service delivery.
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Iris and knot configuration after Single Pass Four Throw (SFT) pupilloplasty as imaged by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographyp. 209
Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Amar Agarwal, Radhika Chandrasekar, Nagaraj Jaganathasamy
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_885_18  
Purpose: To analyze the morphological changes in the iris-knot complex configuration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) following the single pass four throw (SFT) pupilloplasty. Methods: In this retrospective case series, eyes with SFT pupilloplasty were examined by SD-OCT (Optovue). Iris morphology compared to the normal iris, presence of specific patterns (single hump, double humps, peaks and valleys, tethering), prolene suture, knot complex (length and orientation), and intraocular lens (IOL) vault were evaluated. Results: Overall, 41 knots of 26 patients with a mean time duration of 3.1 ± 2 months from surgery were analyzed. Iris configurations seen were single hump (n = 28, 63.8%), double humps (n = 7, 17%), loop (n = 2, 4.8%), flat (n = 3, 7.3%), and mulberry (n = 1, 2.4%). The mean length and the height of the knot complex was 784.1 ± 433.7 μm and 317.7 ± 110.4 μm, respectively. Knot positions were at 3 clock hours in 9 eyes (21.9%), 9 in 8 eyes (19.5%), and others in 24 eyes (58.5%). Cut end of the prolene suture was detectable in 26 eyes (63.4%) as hyper-reflective line, and the mean cut length was 465.8 ± 321.1 μm. The suture was predominantly vertically oriented (80.6%) to the iris with a mean distance of 3.6 ± 0.3 mm (2.6–4 mm) away from corneal endothelium. The mean distance from the knot complex and the IOL was 289.2 ± 146 μm and the mean anterior chamber depth was 4.1 ± 0.1 mm. Conclusion: A significant change in iris configuration was noted after SFT pupilloplasty, and vertically oriented retained prolene suture was predominant with good endothelial vault.
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Perceived difficulties and complications in learners of phacoemulsification: A principal component analysis modelp. 213
Sagnik Sen, Mukesh Patil, Rohit Saxena, Atul Kumar, Sreelakshmi P Amar, Deepsekhar Das, Anand Singh Brar, Pragya Saini
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1133_18  
Purpose: To evaluate the difficulty perceived of each step of phacoemulsification and analyze the factors affecting them. Methods:Overall, 12 trainee residents were allotted 10 cases of phacoemulsification of eyes with senile cataract, under a single observer, and the steps of each surgery were rated from very easy to very difficult with a questionnaire. The completion rates of steps and complications of each surgery were noted. Principal component analysis of the responses to the difficulty level questionnaire was conducted to obtain factors resulting in the perceived difficulty. Results: The lowest difficulty scores were for initial step of incision creation (1.63 ± 0.84), followed by intraocular lens insertion (2.51 ± 0.8). The most difficult step was divide/chop of the nucleus (3.74 ± 0.97) followed by phacoemulsification (3.32 ± 0.82). Highest completion rates were seen for the initial steps of the surgery and the lowest for divide/chop. We identified two major patterns of difficulty among the trainees – one for steps involving high amount of binocularity and the other, for steps involving high precision of hand control. The rate of complication of our study was within acceptable range. Conclusion: Although trainees have practiced phacoemulsification steps on simulation, real-life situation may bring in unprecedented level of difficulty and challenges, which may be documented and used for targeted improvement of surgical skills. Stereopsis and hand control training should form a major part of training modules of cataract surgery both on simulation and real-life scenarios.
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Retrospective study on outcomes of terminal chop technique of nuclear fragmentation in phacoemulsification and combined surgery: An observational studyp. 217
Arvind K Morya, Sahil Bhandari, Anushree Naidu
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_711_18  
Purpose: Terminal chop, a new technique of nuclear segmentation, has been recently described in literature. The technique is considered to be a safe and effective option. Methods: We did a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of terminal chop. Patients operated for terminal chop (phacoemulsification with or without trabeculectomy) from October 2016 to July 2018 were included in the study. Results: In all, 933 patients were included in the study. The grade of nuclear sclerosis ranged from 2 to 5. All the patients had a significant visual improvement at 1 month postop. Around 3.4% had pseudoexfoliation and 8.89% of the eyes underwent combined surgery. Cumulative dissipated energy showed a proportionate relation with the grade of nucleus. Intraoperative complication rate was 0.08%. Postoperative complication rate was 3.50%. Conclusion: Terminal chop proved to be a safe, reproducible, and effective technique of nuclear segmentation in different grades of cataract.
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Frequency and surgical difficulties associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome among Indian rural population scheduled for cataract surgery: Hospital-based datap. 221
Rajesh S Joshi, Sonali V Singanwad
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_931_18  
Purpose: To study the frequency and intraoperative difficulties associated with pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome at a tertiary eye care center in a rural central India. Methods: This study included patients scheduled for cataract surgery who were diagnosed with PXF syndrome. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including slit-lamp examination, tonometry, gonioscopy, and ophthalmoscopy before the surgery. Cataract surgeries were performed by a single surgeon who reported the intraoperative difficulties. Results: In total, 1022 phakic eyes of 1823 patients were evaluated, 226 of whom (22.1%) were diagnosed with PXF syndrome. Most eyes (n = 81, 35.8%) with PXF syndrome were ≥81 years old. Eighty-six eyes (38.1%) had bilateral involvement, whereas 70 (30.9%) had right or left eye involvement. Further, PXF material was distributed on the iris, pupil, and lens in 70 eyes (30.9%) and on the pupillary margin in 36 eyes (15.9%). The mean pupillary dilation was 5.1 (±1.4) mm in patients with PXF syndrome compared with 7.2 (±1.6) mm in those without it (P = 0.03). Grade VI cataract was observed in 93 eyes (41.2%) and hypermature cataract was the most commonly observed cataract stage. Twenty-one eyes (9.3%) had increased intraocular pressure. Intraoperative difficulties were encountered in 62 eyes (27.4%) with poor pupillary dilation being the most common problem (32 eyes, 14.2%), followed by zonular dehiscence (18 eyes, 8%). Conclusion: This hospital-based study showed that PXF syndrome is common in Indian rural population and that the intraoperative complication rate in these patients is high.
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Quantification of RAPD by an automated pupillometer in asymmetric glaucoma and its correlation with manual pupillary assessmentp. 227
Manju R Pillai, Sapna Sinha, Pradeep Aggarwal, Ravilla D Ravindran, Claudio M Privitera
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_648_18  
Purpose: The relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) is an important sign of asymmetrical retinal ganglion cell damage. The purpose of this study was to quantify RAPD by a pupillometer (RAPiDo, Neuroptics) and assess its correlation with asymmetric glaucoma and manual pupillary assessment. Methods: A total of 173 subjects were enrolled in the study and categorized into glaucoma, n = 130, and control, n = 43. Subjects were all recruited in the Glaucoma Clinic of the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai during their follow-up. They were 18 years and older, with best corrected visual acuity of 6/36 or better. Exclusion criteria included all retinal pathologies, optic atrophies, ocular injuries, severe uveitis, cloudy corneas, dense cataracts, or use of mydriatics or miotic drugs. RAPD was assessed in all subjects using an automated pupillometer and the results were compared with the swinging flash light test conducted on the same subjects by an experienced ophthalmologist. We looked at the correlation between RAPD and the intereye difference in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), mean deviation (MD) of visual field testing, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) analysis. Results: Glaucoma patients had significant RAPD (0.55 ± 0.05 log units) when compared with the controls (0.25 ± 0.05 log units), P < 0.001. Significant intereye differences in CDR, MD, and RNFL between glaucoma and control (P < 0.001) were seen. There was a good correlation between the magnitude and sign of RAPD and these intereye differences in CDR (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), MD (r = 0.44, P < 0.001) and RNFL thickness (r = 0.59, P < 0.001). When compared with the experienced ophthalmologist, AUROC was 0.94, with 89% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Conclusion: The good correlation between the magnitude of RAPD, as measured by the automated pupillometer, and intereye differences in MD, CDR, and RNFL thickness in glaucomatous, and the good sensitivity and specificity when compared with the experienced ophthalmologist, suggest that pupillometry may be useful as a screening tool to assess asymmetric glaucoma.
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Intermediate-term outcome of Aurolab aqueous drainage implantp. 233
Reji Philip, Premanand Chandran, Nabeed Aboobacker, Mrunali Dhavalikar, Ganesh V Raman
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_675_18  
Purpose: To report the intermediate-term safety and efficacy of Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI) in patients with glaucoma. Methods: Retrospective review of patients who underwent AADI between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients aged >16 years and with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included. Success was defined as complete when the intraocular pressure was ≥6 and ≤21 mmHg without antiglaucoma medication and as qualified if those requiring additional antiglaucoma medications were included. Results: The study included 55 patients (55 eyes) with a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 47.3 ± 18.1 years with a mean follow-up of 16.7 ± 11.4 months. Mean intraocular pressure reduced from 30.8 ± 11.1 mmHg to 13.1 ± 4.7, 14.1 ± 4.8, 15.7 ± 2.5 (P < 0.001) mmHg at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications reduced from 3.4 ± 1 to 0.8 ± 1.2, 0.7 ± 1.1, 0.8 ± 1 (P < 0.001) at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. The cumulative probability of complete and qualified success was 62% and 100% at 6 months, 54% and 92% at 1 year, and 43% and 88% at 2 years, respectively. Four patients failed during the follow-up period. Postoperative complication occurred in 28 eyes (51%), of which 17 eyes (31%) required intervention. Conclusion: AADI is a safe and effective treatment for the control of intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma.
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COMMENTARYTop

Commentary on: Glaucoma drainage devices: Boon or banep. 238
Sushmita Kaushik
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1234_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLESTop

Renewal of driving license in India and glaucoma: A study of prevalent practice and its lacunaep. 240
Gowri J Murthy, Ajinkya V Deshmukh, Ayyappa R Mallidi, Praveen R Murthy, Jyoti S Kattige, Vinay R Murthy
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_776_18  
Purpose: Glaucoma affects different aspects of vision including visual field. This prospective observational study aims to collect details of driving license (DL) renewal procedure (in an urban metro in India) among patients with diagnosed glaucoma and the method of reporting of vision-related requirements during renewal. Methods: One-hundred patients with diagnosed glaucoma above 40 years, having valid DL (with at least one renewal cycle), were included. Patients with other ocular comorbidities were excluded. Driving Habits Questionnaire and a questionnaire about license renewal were administered. Driving eligibility was compared to international guidelines. Results: Study population included patients with 69% early, 29% moderate, and 2% advanced glaucoma. Sixteen percent of patients had stopped driving. Legal license renewal procedure was bypassed by 45%. Form-1 was not submitted by 43% and 49% did not submit Form-1A at the time of renewal. Only 7.01% mentioned about glaucoma in the self-declaration form. None were asked about their visual field during renewal. Among 61 patients who submitted a medical certificate, the undersigning doctor was an ophthalmologist in only six patients. Thirty percent patients with valid Indian DL would not have satisfied International College of Ophthalmologists guidelines. Driving difficulties were experienced by 44%, more so in advanced glaucoma (F (1, 82) = 22.12, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Vision-related testing at the time of renewal of DL is inadequate in India. Chronic eye diseases such as glaucoma are commonly not self-declared or detected at pre-renewal testing. Clear-cut guidelines about visual requirements and implementation are required to prevent road traffic events because of vision-related errors.
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Clinical profile of uveitis patients developing central serous chorioretinopathy: An experience at a tertiary eye care center in Indiap. 247
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Nitin Menia, Sridharan Sudharshan, Chetan Rao, Sudha K Ganesh, Jyotirmay Biswas
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_831_18  
Purpose: To evaluate clinical profile of patients with uveitis who developed central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods:Retrospective case series of consecutive patients of uveitis with CSC managed at a tertiary eye care center in India between 1994 and 2014. The data about clinical features, investigations, treatment, and outcomes were obtained from their medical records. Results: A total of 31 eyes of 26 patients with uveitis with a diagnosis of CSC between June 1994 and May 2014 were included in the study. The mean age of presentation was 42.8 ± 9.2 years, and 88.4% of the patients were male. CSC was bilateral in 19.2% of the patients, and in 38.4% patients uveitis was because of infectious etiology. CSC developed in 23 (88.5%) patients when they were on oral corticosteroid. The most common cause of uveitis in our study was choroiditis (48.4%), followed by retinal vasculitis (12.9%). The mean time for resolution of CSC was relatively less in patients with uveitis because of infectious etiology. In 10% eyes vision remained the same and deterioration of vision was noted in 19% eyes. Best corrected visual acuity of the patients at the time of presentation with CSC was 0.56 ± 0.34 and after the resolution of CSC was 0.48 ± 0.5 (P < 0.0005). Conclusion: Patients with choroidal inflammations are more prone to develop CSC compared with other subtypes of uveitis. Management of CSC in uveitis can be challenging.
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Choroidal thickness in normal Indian eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography Highly accessed articlep. 252
Amber A Bhayana, Vinod Kumar, Akshay Tayade, Mahesh Chandra, Parijat Chandra, Atul Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_668_18  
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide normative database for subfoveal choroidal thickness in Indian eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based at a tertiary eye care center in Northern India. Two hundred and thirty eight eyes of 119 healthy subjects were examined in terms of axial length, spherical equivalent, and choroidal thickness. Inclusion criteria included age 19–60 years, no retinal or choroidal disorder, and patients with clear media and good fixation. Patients with high hypermetropia (>4 D) or myopia (>6 D) or any systemic disease likely to affect choroidal thickness were excluded. Twelve radial line scans were obtained centered on the fovea that were used to calculate choroidal and retinal thickness in 9 early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) zones. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 28.70 ± 11.28 years; mean axial length was 23.63 ± 1.96 mm, and mean spherical equivalent was − 0.92 ± 3.08 D. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 299.10 ± 131.2 μ and mean foveal thickness was 239.92 ± 48.16 μ. A negative correlation was found between subfoveal choroidal thickness and age (r = −0.0961, P = 0.1392) and axial length (r = −0.3166, P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between subfoveal choroidal thickness and refractive error (r = 0.2393, P = 0.0002). Conclusion: This study provides normative database for subfoveal choroidal thickness and foveal thickness using swept-source optical coherence tomography. The choroidal thickness measured with swept-source platform is slightly higher than that reported with spectral domain platforms.
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COMMENTARYTop

Commentary: Choroidal thickness in the era of swept-source optical coherence tomographyp. 256
Aniruddha Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1893_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLETop

Outcome of delayed adjustable strabismus surgery in children using a bow-tie optional adjustable techniquep. 258
R Muralidhar, Lal Churawan, M Sekar, AP Chidambaram, P Mugdha, D Ramamurthy
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_398_18  
Purpose: The aim of this article is to study the feasibility of a delayed adjustable technique of strabismus surgery in children using an optional adjustable suture technique. Methods: The retrospective study included patients <12 years of age. Recessions were done using an optional adjustable bow-tie technique and resections were done by the conventional technique. Patients were evaluated on the third postoperative day and adjustments done when needed. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2010®. Results: The study included 11 patients with exotropia and 16 patients with esotropia. The mean age of the patients was 5.2 years (range 1–11 years). The mean preoperative distance deviation was 46.7 ± 10.4 prism diopters (PD) for exotropic patients and 47.1 ± 16.9 PD for esotropic patients. The mean preoperative near deviation was 46.6 ± 11 PD for exotropic patients and 52.4 ± 17.1 PD for esotropia. Two patients with exotropia (18.2%) and four patients with esotropia (25%) were adjusted under intravenous ketamine in the operating room under anesthetist supervision. No difficulty was encountered in advancing/recessing the muscles. The success rate at 1 month was 100% for exotropia and 87.5% for esotropia. The success rate at the final follow-up was 81.8% for patients with exotropia and 68.7% for patients with esotropia. Conclusions: This delayed optional adjustable strabismus surgery technique provides good short-term results and lower adjustment rates.
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COMMENTARYTop

Commentary: Adjustable strabismus surgeryp. 263
Rohit Saxena, Rebika Dhiman
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1000_18  
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SURGICAL TECHNIQUETop

Modified Faden operation –A new surgical techniquep. 264
Manjula Jayakumar, Suganya Vel, Amar Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_952_18  
Faden operation was first described in 1912. It weakens the muscle in its field of action without much slackening and alteration in the primary position. When combined with recession the weakening effect is more. It is a useful surgery in esotropia with high accommodative convergence, nystagmus blockage syndrome, dissociated vertical deviation, Duane's retraction syndrome with up or downshoots, and in sixth nerve paresis, where it is performed on the contralateral normal yoke muscle to increase the field of binocular vision. The conventional procedure is cumbersome due to small working space, entanglement of sutures, and posterior location of Faden site which is not easily accessible. We have modified the Faden operation by using a single 5-0 double-armed polyester suture, which is much easier and simpler to perform, and have done it in a series of small angle esotropias combined with recession. This paper demonstrates the surgical technique so that this surgery can be performed with ease by more surgeons.
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PHOTO ESSAYTop

Ocular argyrosis: A case with silver deposits in cornea and lensp. 267
Lakshey Dudeja, Ishani Dudeja, Anuja Janakiraman, Manohar Babu
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_730_18  
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Anterior chamber migration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in glued intraocular lensp. 268
Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Atul Dhawan, Soumya Narayanan, Amar Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_841_18  
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Hyperpigmented torpedo maculopathyp. 270
PC Ranjith, Anantharaman Giridhar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_886_18  
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Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy Highly accessed articlep. 271
Saurabh Deshmukh, Dipankar Das, Hemalata Deka, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Awaneesh Upadhyay, Krati Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1202_18  
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A rare case having hemi-retinal artery occlusion in one eye and hemi-retinal vein occlusion in the other: Diverse manifestations of retinal vascular occlusionp. 273
Pulak Agarwal, Vinod Agarwal, Shorya Azad
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_987_18  
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OPHTHALMIC IMAGESTop

Bilateral vitritis as an initial presentation of primary central nervous system lymphomap. 275
Nitin K Menia, Ranjan Behera, Reema Bansal, Nalini Gupta, Astha Takkar, Vivek Lal
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_773_18  
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A complication of ischemic branch retinal vein occlusionp. 276
PC Ranjith, Anantharaman Giridhar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_882_18  
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Congenital tortuous retinal vesselsp. 277
Mohit Dogra, Mangat R Dogra
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1281_18  
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Autofluorescence of optic disc drusensp. 278
Nitin K Menia, Swati Kiran, Reema Bansal
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_888_18  
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Endoscopic view of mascara laden lacrimal sac with canalicular involvementp. 279
Nishi Gupta, Smriti Bansal, Arpan Gandhi
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1348_18  
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CASE REPORTSTop

Consecutive cyclic esotropia – A case reportp. 280
Niranjan K Pehere, Usha B Kommineni, Ramesh Kekunnaya
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1018_18  
Cyclic esotropia, a rare condition of obscure etiology characterized by regularly alternating periods of esotropia and orthophoria. We present a case of a 7-year-old boy who underwent surgical correction for intermittent exotropia elsewhere and developed esotropia with cyclic pattern post-operatively. Initially the cycle was of half-day orthophoria and half-day esotropia, which later became one full day of esotropia and one day of orthophoria. During re-surgery, right lateral rectus was found to have a stretched scar which was resected and then advanced and medial rectus was recessed. Post-surgery the child was orthophoric without cyclic pattern.
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Human ocular thelaziasis caused by gravid Thelazia callipaeda – A unique and rare case report Highly accessed articlep. 282
Meenakshi Sharma, Dipankar Das, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Saidul Islam, Nilutparna Deori, Gayatri Bharali, Sumegha Tomar, Priyank Bhola, Apurba Deka
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1110_18  
An 80-year-old male reported to the clinic with complaints of diminished vision, foreign body sensation, and occasionally some black object moving in front of the right eye. Detailed ocular examination revealed three slender creamy white live worms in the conjunctival sac of the right eye. Total three worms were retrieved and sent to the pathology department for detailed examination. The worm was identified as gravid Thelazia callipaeda. As per the search results in PubMed and Cochrane search engine, this is the first report of human case of gravid Thelazia infestation with simultaneous existence of embryonated or ensheathed eggs and primary-stage larvae in the same worm.
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Uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma – an alarming manifestation of chronic myeloid leukemia on imatinib therapy – a case report and review of literaturep. 285
Prakhyat Roop, Dewang Angmo, Neha Kamble, Ankit S Tomar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1288_18  
A 45-year-old diabetic male, with diabetic retinopathy and medically uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma (NVG) underwent intracameral bevacizumab followed by trabeculectomy, with controlled intraocular pressures (IOP) post-operatively, OD: 12 mmHg; OS: 14 mmHg. Patient was referred to hematology, where he was diagnosed as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and started on imatinib mesylate. Thereafter, he presented with recurrence of neovascularization and vascularization of the bleb along with OS vitreous hemorrhage at 6 weeks follow-up. While he was planned for OS vitreo-retinal surgery, he presented with OD spontaneous hyphema with raised IOP (OD: 38 mmHg, OS: 16 mmHg). He had maintained a tight glycemic control. Following imatinib therapy, there was a rapid progression and recurrence of neovascularization, eventually leading to failure of trabeculectomy OD and bilateral severe loss of vision. Imatinib may be implicated in the worsening of NVG in CML patients, especially with co-existing diabetes and thus, such patients should receive regular thorough ophthalmic evaluation as long as imatinib continues.
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Suprachoroidal hemorrhage after removal of releasable suture with globe massage post-trabeculectomyp. 287
Jyoti Shakrawal, Shreyas Temkar, Ramanjit Sihota, Pradeep Venkatesh
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_452_18  
A 19-year-old female, having aniridia with secondary glaucoma, presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right eye (RE) on maximal topical and systemic medications. On examination, RE had a subluxated cataractous lens with advanced cupping. She underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. On postoperative day 1, as the IOP was 32 mmHg, one releasable suture was removed followed by gentle bleb massage. On postoperative day 2, suprachoroidal hemorrhage was noted, for which the patient underwent two drainage procedures. Hemorrhagic choroidals resolved completely 4 weeks after drainage.
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Macular toxicity after short-term hydroxychloroquine therapyp. 289
Isil Pasaoglu, Funda E Onmez
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_732_18  
We report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity after only 2 months of starting the treatment. A 42-year-old woman presented with visual impairment. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a bull's eye pattern in both eyes which was more prominent in the left eye. She had received HCQ therapy (400 mg/day) for 1 month, and had been taking 200 mg/day for 1 month for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. HCQ macular toxicity is rarely seen in short-term use, before 5 years, and to our knowledge, there is only one other case reported in the literature.
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Quetiapine associated Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Implicit role of serotonin and dopamine pathwaysp. 292
Manish Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_929_18  
A 30-year-old insomniac, an off-label user of quetiapine, presented with blurring of central vision, eventually diagnosed as central serous chorioretinopathy. A potential association was suspected based on the drug's actions on the autonomic nervous system. He showed improvement on drug withdrawal; then he unwittingly resumed quetiapine and had a recurrence. Possible underlying mechanisms that include alteration in choroidal perfusion through serotonin and dopamine receptors are discussed. Although retinal vein occlusions and pigment epithelial detachment have been described with quetiapine, to the author's knowledge, this is the first case report of quetiapine-associated central serous chorioretinopathy.
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Multicolor imaging findings in torpedo maculopathyp. 295
Ramesh Venkatesh, Bharathi Bavaharan, Naresh K Yadav
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1317_18  
We describe the multicolor imaging findings in two cases of Torpedo maculopathy (TM). Multicolor imaging can be a useful tool in identifying the level of retinal and choroidal layer involvement in TM. This imaging modality further confirms the hypothesis that TM is a localized congenital abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium pigmentation which leads to outer retinal and inner choroidal degeneration.
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Optical coherence tomography angiography features of retinitis post-rickettsial feverp. 297
Mahesh Shanmugam, Vinaya Kumar Konana, Rajesh Ramanjulu, KC Divyansh Mishra, Pradeep Sagar, Dilip Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_799_18  
The intraocular manifestations of rickettisial retinitis include retinal vasculitis, maculopathy, optic neuritis, and neurosensory detachment. Extensive leakage of dye on the fundus fluorescein angiography may obscure visualization in eyes with retinitis. We report the vascular changes in eyes with rickettsial retinitis and its response to treatment using optical coherence tomography angiography. The microvascular abnormalities we noted were, capillary drop out areas corresponding to retinitis patches, vascular loops, and pruning of vessels. The choriocapillary slabs showed signal void areas. Post-treatment there was vascular remodeling with decrease in non-perfused area, appearance of new vascular lateral branching, and appearance of collaterals.
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In vivo diagnosis of intraocular osseous metaplasia in neovascular age-related macular degenerationp. 300
Hibba Quhill, Stephen Stewart, Ian G Rennie
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1076_18  
A 75-year-old man presented with deterioration of right eye vision for 6 months. He had no relevant medical history. Fundus examination revealed subretinal fluid, fibrosis, and subretinal hemorrhages. Ocular coherence tomography of the right macula illustrated an underlying subretinal lesion with internal lamellae, resembling trabecular bone elsewhere in the body. Bruch's membrane was clearly intact beneath the lesion, indicating an extrachoroidal location. The lesion appeared highly reflective on B-scan ultrasonography, consistent with ossification. Although initially misdiagnosed as choroidal osteoma, this lesion represents in-vivo intraocular osseous metaplasia at the site of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The authors believe that similar lesions may have been misdiagnosed as "atypical" osteoma caused by failure to identify their extrachoroidal location.
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Do oblate eyeballs exist? A rare case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an elliptical globep. 302
M Dheepak Sundar, Prakhyat Roop, Atul Kumar, Rohan Chawla, Nasiq Hasan
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1150_18  
A patient, being a moderate myope with an axial length of 24.71 mm, presented to us with a fresh rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and marked peripheral chorioretinal degeneration. Difficulty in maneuvering with the standard 23 gauge vitrectomy cutter, inability to identify the break due to poor peripheral contrast, inadequate laser uptake, and an unusual large silicon oil fill (7.3 ml) were a few findings raising suspicion. Postoperative ocular ultrasonography showed an oblate eyeball with a relatively longer oblique axis (26.1 mm) as compared to the axial length confirming our suspicion. Oblateness should be suspected when the chorioretinal degenerations are more marked in the periphery as compared to the posterior pole. Intraoperative difficulties should be kept in mind while operating such cases.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITORTop

Mr. Jack J. Kanski (1939-2019): A tributep. 306
Suresh K Pandey, Vidushi Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_37_19  
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Commentary: Pseudopestalotiopsis theae keratitisp. 307
Prashant Garg
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1490_18  
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Vitamin D supplementation in patients with xeroderma pigmentosump. 308
Ashik Mohamed, Archana Bhargava, Sunita Chaurasia
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1319_18  
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Changes in pattern electroretinogram after application of 0.01% atropine eye dropsp. 309
Mihir Kothari, Deepak Bhat, Nitu Khadse, Rishika Jain, Vivek Rathod, Pallavi Aru
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_989_18  
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Comment on: Validating the pachychoroid disease spectrum using multimodal imagingp. 310
Jay U Sheth, Anantharaman Giridhar
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1460_18  
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Response to comment on: Validating the pachychoroid disease spectrum using multimodal imagingp. 312
Guruprasad Ayachit, Apoorva Ayachit, Harsha Nadgir, Shrinivas Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1870_18  
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Comment on: Bilateral combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in a 3-year-old child with nephrotic syndromep. 312
Anamika Dwivedi, Sujata Lakhtakia
DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_1633_18  
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