Κυριακή, 16 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Giant Cell Fibroma in a Two-Year-Old Child

The giant cell fibroma is a benign nonneoplastic fibrous tumor of the oral mucosa. It occurs in the first three decades of life in the mandibular gingiva, predominantly, showing predilection for females. This article reports a case of giant cell fibroma in a 2-year-old girl, which is an uncommon age for this lesion. The patient was brought for treatment at the Research and Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth, where practice for the Discipline of Pediatric Dentistry (Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Brazil) takes place. During clinical examination, a tissue growth was detected on the lingual gingival mucosa of the lower right primary incisors teeth. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia and submitted to histological examination at the Oral Pathology Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, which confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. There was no recurrence after 20 months of monitoring. This instance reinforces the importance of oral care from the very first months of life in order to enable doctors to make precocious diagnosis and offer more appropriate treatments for oral diseases, as well as to promote more efficient oral health in the community.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVKQdS
via IFTTT

Ultrasound-Guided Genicular Nerve Thermal Radiofrequency Ablation for Chronic Knee Pain

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most common joint diseases affecting adults in the United States. For elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who do not wish to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lifestyle modification, pharmacologic management, and injections are the mainstay of therapy. Previously, pain management interventions were limited to intra-articular joint injections and viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid. Fluoroscopic-guided techniques for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the genicular nerves have been previously described and a recent cadaveric study suggests that ultrasound-guided genicular nerve blocks can be performed accurately. We performed an ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of the genicular nerves in 88-year-old woman who had deferred surgical management given her age. Following successful ultrasound guided diagnostic genicular nerve blocks, she proceeded to RFA using the same ultrasound guided technique. The procedure resulted in significant pain relief and improvement in overall function for greater than 6 months. The use of ultrasound provides a relatively rapid and noninvasive method to directly visualize genicular nerves and surrounding vasculature. Our case suggests that, for genicular nerve blockade and RFA, ultrasound may be a useful alternative to fluoroscopy. Not only did the procedure result in significant pain relief that has persisted for greater than 6 months but also more importantly her function status and quality of life were improved.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ekQogb
via IFTTT

A Comparative CFD Study on Simulating Flameless Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Pilot-Scale Furnace

The current study presents a method to model the flameless oxy-fuel system, with a comparative approach, as well as validation of the predictions. The validation has been done by comparing the predicted results with previously published experimental results from a 200 kW pilot furnace. A suction pyrometer has been used to measure the local temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 at 24 different locations. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed and the validity of using different submodels describing turbulence and chemical reactions was evaluated. The standard model was compared with the realizable model for turbulence, while Probability Density Function (PDF) with either chemical equilibrium or the Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM) was evaluated for combustion. Radiation was described using a Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM) with weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model (WSGGM). The smallest deviation between predictions and experiments for temperature (1.2%) was found using the realizable model and the SLFM. This improvement affects the prediction of gaseous species as well since the deviation between predictions and experiments for CO2 volume percentages decreased from 6% to 1.5%. This provides a recommendation for model selections in further studies on flameless oxy-fuel combustion.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVH1W1
via IFTTT

Axitinib Has Antiangiogenic and Antitumorigenic Activity in Myxoid Liposarcoma

Myxoid liposarcoma is a rare form of soft-tissue sarcoma. Although most patients initially respond well to treatment, approximately 21% relapse, highlighting the need for alternative treatments. To identify novel treatment regimens and gain a better understanding of myxoid liposarcoma tumor biology, we screened various candidate and approved targeted therapeutics and chemotherapeutics against myxoid liposarcoma cell lines. Therapeutics that target angiogenesis showed antitumor activity. The small molecule inhibitor axitinib, which targets angiogenesis by inhibiting the VEGFR and PDGFR families and c-Kit, inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in vitro, as well as having significant antitumor activity against MLS 1765 myxoid liposarcoma xenografts in mice. Axitinib also displayed synergistic antitumor activity in vitro when combined with the potassium channel ionophore salinomycin or the BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Another angiogenesis-targeting therapeutic, 4EGI-1, which targets the oncoprotein eIF4E, significantly decreased angiogenic ligand expression by myxoid liposarcoma cells and reduced tumor cell growth. To verify this oncogenic addiction to angiogenic pathways, we utilized VEGFR-derived ligand traps and found that autocrine VEGFR signaling was crucial to myxoid liposarcoma cell survival. Overall, these findings suggest that autocrine angiogenic signaling through the VEGFR family is critical to myxoid liposarcoma cell survival and that further study of axitinib as a potential anticancer therapy is warranted.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ekRPeB
via IFTTT

A Model Reference Adaptive Control/PID Compound Scheme on Disturbance Rejection for an Aerial Inertially Stabilized Platform

This paper describes a method to suppress the effect of nonlinear and time-varying mass unbalance torque disturbance on the dynamic performances of an aerial inertially stabilized platform (ISP). To improve the tracking accuracy and robustness of the ISP, a compound control scheme based on both of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and PID control methods is proposed. The dynamic model is first developed which reveals the unbalance torque disturbance with the characteristic of being nonlinear and time-varying. Then, the MRAC/PID compound controller is designed, in which the PID parameters are adaptively adjusted based on the output errors between the reference model and the actual system. In this way, the position errors derived from the prominent unbalance torque disturbance are corrected in real time so that the tracking accuracy is improved. To verify the method, the simulations and experiments are, respectively, carried out. The results show that the compound scheme has good ability in mass unbalance disturbance rejection, by which the system obtains higher stability accuracy compared with the PID method.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVLPdN
via IFTTT

Research on Cooperative Innovation Behavior of Industrial Cluster Based on Subject Adaptability

From the perspective of the interactive cooperation among subjects, this paper portrays the process of cooperative innovation in industrial cluster, in order to capture the correlated equilibrium relationship among them. Through the utilization of two key tools, evolutionary stable strategy and replicator dynamics equations, this paper considers the cost and gains of cooperative innovation and the amount of government support as well as other factors to build and analyze a classic evolutionary game model. On this basis, the subject’s own adaptability is introduced, which is regarded as the system noise in the stochastic evolutionary game model so as to analyze the impact of adaptability on the game strategy selection. The results show that, in the first place, without considering subjects’ adaptability, their cooperation in industrial clusters depends on the cost and gains of innovative cooperation, the amount of government support, and some conditions that can promote cooperation, namely, game steady state. In the second place after the introduction of subjects’ adaptability, it will affect both game theory selection process and time, which means that the process becomes more complex, presents the nonlinear characteristics, and helps them to make faster decisions in their favor, but the final steady state remains unchanged.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ekQiFg
via IFTTT

Can progression of odontogenic infections to cervical necrotizing soft tissue infections be predicted?

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): K. Zemplenyi, B. Lopez, M. Sardesai, J.K. Dillon
The progression of odontogenic infections to necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) is unknown. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score is used to predict risk of NSTI. This study aimed to (1) estimate the frequency at which odontogenic infections progress to NSTIs, (2) measure the value of LRINEC in predicting progression to NSTI, and (3) estimate the charges associated with managing NSTIs. This retrospective cohort study enrolled all subjects admitted for the management of odontogenic infections from 2001 to 2013. The primary predictor was the LRINEC score. The primary outcome was NSTI. The secondary outcome was billing charges. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed, with significance set at a P-value of <0.05. Of 479 odontogenic infections, (1.0%) progressed to NSTI. The mean LRINEC for NSTI was 5.8 and for odontogenic infection was 3.4 (P=0.043). LRINEC parameters for the prediction of NSTIs had 60% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity, 20% positive predictive value, and 92.9% negative predictive value. The mean charge for NSTI was $319,337 and for odontogenic infections was $19,291 (P=0.051). One percent of odontogenic infections progressed to NSTIs. The LRINEC score was not able to identify all NSTIs. NSTIs are 16 times more costly.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ekQwfJ
via IFTTT


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://tidsskriftet.no/
via IFTTT

Editorial Board

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: December 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics, Volume 1864, Issue 12





from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dGolGG
via IFTTT

Comparative higher-order structure analysis of antibody biosimilars using combined bottom-up and top-down hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

Publication date: December 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics, Volume 1864, Issue 12
Author(s): Jingxi Pan, Suping Zhang, Christoph H. Borchers
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technique for higher-order structural characterization of antibodies. Although the peptide-based bottom-up HDX approach and the protein-based top-down HDX approach have complementary advantages, the work done so far on biosimilars has involved only one or the other approach. Herein we have characterized the structures of two bevacizumab (BEV) biosimilars and compared them to the reference BEV using both methods. A sequence coverage of 87% was obtained for the heavy chain and 74% for the light chain in the bottom-up approach. The deuterium incorporation behavior of the peptic peptides from the three BEVs were compared side by side and showed no differences at various HDX time points. Top-down experiments were carried out using subzero temperature LC-MS, and the deuterium incorporation of the intact light chain and heavy chain were obtained. Top-down ETD was also performed to obtain amino acid-level HDX information that covered 100% of the light chain, but only 50% coverage is possible for the heavy chain. Consistent with the intact subunit level data, no differences were observed in the amino acid level HDX data. All these results indicate that there are no differences between the three BEV samples with respect to their high-order structures. The peptide level information from the bottom-up approach, and the residue level and intact subunit level information from the top-down approach were complementary and covered the entire antibody.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e8ByvC
via IFTTT

Polyols (Glycerol and Ethylene glycol) mediated amorphous aggregate inhibition and secondary structure restoration of metalloproteinase-conalbumin (ovotransferrin)

Publication date: January 2017
Source:International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 94, Part A
Author(s): Mohsin Vahid Khan, Mohd Ishtikhar, Gulam Rabbani, Masihuz Zaman, Ali Saber Abdelhameed, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Under physical or chemical stress, proteins tend to form aggregates either highly ordered (amyloid) or unordered (amorphous) causing many pathological disorders in human and loss of proteins functionality in both laboratory conditions and industries during production and storage at commercial level. We investigated the effect of increasing temperature on Conalbumin (CA) and induced aggregation at 65°C. The enhanced Thioflavin T (ThT) and ANS (1-anilinonaphtalene 8-sulfonic acid) fluorescence intensity, show no shift on Congo red binding, additionally, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM) (SEM) reveal amorphous morphology of the aggregate. Our investigation clearly demonstrated that polyols namely Glycerol (GL) and Ethylene glycol (EG) are so staunch to inhibit amorphous aggregates via restoring secondary conformation. Addition of polyols (15% GL and 35% EG) significantly decrease the turbidity, Rayleigh scattering ThT and ANS fluorescence intensity. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) data show that hydrodynamic radii (Rh) of the aggregates is ∼20 times higher than native CA while nearly similar for GL and EG protected CA due to condensation of core size with little difference.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVCkM0
via IFTTT

Structural characterization of a lectin from Canavalia virosa seeds with inflammatory and cytotoxic activities

Publication date: January 2017
Source:International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 94, Part A
Author(s): Vinicius Jose Silva Osterne, Jose Caetano Silva-Filho, Mayara Queiroz Santiago, Vanir Reis Pinto-Junior, Alysson Chaves Almeida, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa Barreto, Ingrid Alessandra Victoria Wolin, Ana Paula Machado Nascimento, Renata Morais Ferreira Amorim, Bruno Anderson Matias Rocha, Plinio Delatorre, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy, Kyria Santiago Nascimento, Benildo Sousa Cavada
A lectin from Canavalia virosa, Diocleinae subtribe, was purified by affinity chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix and named ConV. The primary structure of ConV was obtained by mass spectrometry and crystals were obtained by the vapor diffusion method at 293K and belonged to orthorhombic space group P21221 with two molecules in its asymmetric unit. The structure obtained presented Rfactor and Rfree of 18.91% and 24.92% respectively, with no residues in nonallowed regions of Ramachandran plot. The crystal structure was solved at 2.53Å and was demonstrated to be very similar to other lectins from the same subtribe. In inflammatory tests, ConV elicited paw edema, but incubation of lectin with glucose beforehand was able to reduce the edematogenic effect, indicating the involvement of the carbohydrate recognition domain in this process. The lectin also showed toxicity to rat C6 glioma cells, disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm) and decreasing cell viability, indicating an anticancer potential for ConV. In silico studies confirmed that ConV interacts strongly with carbohydrates that comprise the N-glycans of glycoproteins. This finding corroborates the hypothesis which holds that the lectin domain interacts with glycans in molecular targets and that this contributes to the effects observed in biological activities.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ekLzUb
via IFTTT

Immunomodulatory effect of APS and PSP is mediated by Ca2+-cAMP and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophage

Publication date: January 2017
Source:International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 94, Part A
Author(s): Zhixue Wang, Zijing Liu, Lijng Zhou, Tingting Long, Xing Zhou, Yixi Bao
ObjectiveThis study is to investigate the role of second messengers and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in the immunomodulatory activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in macrophages.MethodsRAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with APS, PSP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or NiCl2. Power-spectral method was used to detect protein kinase C (PKC) and Griess reaction to detect nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was conducted to detect cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), diglycerides (DAG), inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to detect calcium level. qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to detect mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB.ResultsAPS and PSP significantly increased the concentrations of intracellular second messengers (NO, cAMP, DAG, IP3, Ca2+) and the activity of PKC in macrophages (p<0.05).The intracellular NF-κB mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in macrophages treated by APS and PSP (p<0.05), whereas those were significantly decreased after NiCl2 incubation (p<0.05). Similarly, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased by the treatment of NiCl2.ConclusionOur findings strongly suggest that Ca2+-cAMP and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways are, at least partly, involved in APS and PSP mediated immunomodulatory activities in macrophages.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVDYND
via IFTTT

Editorial Board

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: November 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, Volume 1859, Issue 11





from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dkGV6i
via IFTTT


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://tidsskriftet.no/
via IFTTT

Generating -Commutator Identities and the -BCH Formula

Motivated by the physical applications of -calculus and of -deformations, the aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we prove the -deformed analogue of the celebrated theorem by Baker, Campbell, and Hausdorff for the product of two exponentials. We deal with the -exponential function , where denotes, as usual, the th -integer. We prove that if and are any noncommuting indeterminates, then , where is a sum of iterated -commutators of and (on the right and on the left, possibly), where the -commutator has always the innermost position. When , this expansion is consistent with the known result by Schützenberger-Cigler: . Our result improves and clarifies some existing results in the literature. Secondly, we provide an algorithmic procedure for obtaining identities between iterated -commutators (of any length) of and . These results can be used to obtain simplified presentation for the summands of the -deformed Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Formula.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTKUJW
via IFTTT

Looking forward to Dr Carmen Criscitiello’s presentation of clinical data from breast trials tomorrow at #EONS2016 https://t.co/95uBJfjGcU

Looking forward to Dr Carmen Criscitiello’s presentation of clinical data from breast trials tomorrow at #EONS2016 https://t.co/95uBJfjGcU

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/787644367796396032
via IFTTT

Experimental Research on Quick Structural Health Monitoring Technique for Bridges Using Smartphone

In the recent years, with the development and popularization of smartphone, the utilization of smartphone in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has attracted increasing attention owing to its unique feature. Since bridges are of great importance to society and economy, bridge health monitoring has very practical significance during its service life. Furthermore, rapid damage assessment of bridge after an extreme event such as earthquake is very important in the recovery work. Smartphone-based bridge health monitoring and postevent damage evaluation have advantages over the conventional monitoring techniques, such as low cost, ease of installation, and convenience. Therefore, this study investigates the implementation feasibility of the quick bridge health monitoring technique using smartphone. A novel vision-based cable force measurement method using smartphone camera is proposed, and, then, its feasibility and practicality is initially validated through cable model test. An experiment regarding multiple parameters monitoring of one bridge scale model is carried out. Parameters, such as acceleration, displacement, and angle, are monitored using smartphone. The experiment results show that there is a good agreement between the reference sensor and smartphone measurements in both time and frequency domains.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dg6QRs
via IFTTT

Dynamical Analysis and Simulation Validation of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspended Swinging System Driven by Two Cables

The flexibility of the suspension multicables and driven length difference between two cables cause the translation and rotation of the platform in the incompletely restrained cable-suspended system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2), which are theoretically investigated in this paper. The suspension cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method (AMM) and the equations of motion are derived from Lagrange equations of the first kind. Considering all the geometric matching conditions are approximately linear with external actuator, the differential algebraic equations (DAEs) are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Using linear boundary conditions of the suspension cable, the current method can obtain not only the accurate longitudinal displacements of cable and posture of the platform, but also the tension between the platform and cables, and the current method is verified by ADAMS simulation.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTMvz9
via IFTTT

Triflumuron Effects on the Physiology and Reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus Adult Females

We evaluated the efficacy of the growth regulator triflumuron (TFM) in inducing mortality and disrupting both oviposition and egg hatching in Rhodnius prolixus adult females. TFM was administered via feeding, topically or by continuous contact with impregnated surfaces. Feeding resulted in mild biological effects compared with topical and impregnated surfaces. One day after treatment, the highest mortality levels were observed with topical surface and 30 days later both topical and impregnated surfaces induced higher mortalities than feeding. Oral treatment inhibited oviposition even at lower doses, and hatching of eggs deposited by treated females was similarly affected by the three delivery modes. Topical treatment of eggs deposited by nontreated females significantly reduced hatching. However, treatment per contact of eggs oviposited by untreated females did not disrupt eclosion. Additionally, oral treatment increased the number of immature oocytes per female, and topical treatment reduced the mean size of oocytes. TFM also affected carcass chitin content, diuresis, and innate immunity of treated insects. These results suggest that TFM acts as a potent growth inhibitor of R. prolixus adult females and has the potential to be used in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dgata6
via IFTTT

Generating -Commutator Identities and the -BCH Formula

Motivated by the physical applications of -calculus and of -deformations, the aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we prove the -deformed analogue of the celebrated theorem by Baker, Campbell, and Hausdorff for the product of two exponentials. We deal with the -exponential function , where denotes, as usual, the th -integer. We prove that if and are any noncommuting indeterminates, then , where is a sum of iterated -commutators of and (on the right and on the left, possibly), where the -commutator has always the innermost position. When , this expansion is consistent with the known result by Schützenberger-Cigler: . Our result improves and clarifies some existing results in the literature. Secondly, we provide an algorithmic procedure for obtaining identities between iterated -commutators (of any length) of and . These results can be used to obtain simplified presentation for the summands of the -deformed Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Formula.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTKUJW
via IFTTT

Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI), resin composite (RC), glass ionomer (GI), resin urethane-based (RUB), and compomer cement (CC). Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%). GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N) and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N). The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI) if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC) for a specific clinical situation.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dga6fP
via IFTTT

Diagnosis and Management of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTJPli
via IFTTT

Retrieval Research in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dga2wF
via IFTTT

Investigation of an Autofocusing Method for Visible Aerial Cameras Based on Image Processing Techniques

In order to realize the autofocusing in aerial camera, an autofocusing system is established and its characteristics such as working principle and optical-mechanical structure and focus evaluation function are investigated. The reason for defocusing in aviation camera is analyzed and several autofocusing methods along with appropriate focus evaluation functions are introduced based on the image processing techniques. The proposed autofocusing system is designed and implemented using two CMOS detectors. The experiment results showed that the proposed method met the aviation camera focusing accuracy requirement, and a maximum focusing error of less than half of the focus depth is achieved. The system designed in this paper can find the optical imaging focal plane in real-time; as such, this novel design has great potential in practical engineering, especially aerospace applications.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTLWpm
via IFTTT

Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dg6OJk
via IFTTT

Public Debt and External Reserve: The Nigerian Experience (1981–2013)

Nigeria is confronted with the issue of limited capital and has to resort to foreign debt in order to augment domestic savings, balance of payment deficits, and shortfall in revenue which induce continuous raise in the debt stock at an alarming rate. In the light of this, this study assesses the impact of public debt on external reserve in Nigeria. The objectives of this study include the assessment of the trends and relationship between public debt and external reserve in Nigeria, using the Johansen cointegration and FMOLS technique on the secondary data from 1981 to 2013. The result revealed that public debt has a positive and significant effect on external reserve stock in the long run suggesting that the nation’s debt crisis can be attributed to both exogenous and endogenous factors such as the nature of the economy, economic policies, high dependence on oil, and swindling foreign exchange receipt. This study recommends that the federal government should employ more superior method to negotiate for fixed interest payment and varying amortization schemes, as well as seek multiyear rescheduling rather than year by year basis.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTLhUC
via IFTTT

Beyond DNA: An Integrated and Functional Approach for Classifying Germline Variants in Breast Cancer Genes

Genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer is an integral part of individualized care in the new era of precision medicine. The accuracy of an assay is reliant on not only the technology and bioinformatics analysis utilized but also the experience and infrastructure required to correctly classify genetic variants as disease-causing. Interpreting the clinical significance of germline variants identified by hereditary cancer testing is complex and has a significant impact on the management of patients who are at increased cancer risk. In this review we give an overview of our clinical laboratory’s integrated approach to variant assessment. We discuss some of the nuances that should be considered in the assessment of genomic variants. In addition, we highlight lines of evidence such as functional assays and structural analysis that can be useful in the assessment of rare and complex variants.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dg7MoT
via IFTTT

A new validation technique for estimations of body segment inertia tensors: principal axes of inertia do matter

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
Source:Journal of Biomechanics
Author(s): Marcel M. Rossi, Jacqueline Alderson, Amar El-Sallam, James Dowling, Jeffrey Reinbolt, Cyril J. Donnelly
The aims of this study were to: (i) establish a new criterion method to validate inertia tensor estimates by setting the experimental angular velocity data of an airborne objects as ground truth against simulations run with the estimated tensors, and (ii) test the sensitivity of the simulations to changes in the inertia tensor components. A rigid steel cylinder was covered with reflective kinematic markers and projected through a calibrated motion capture volume. Simulations of the airborne motion were run with two models, using inertia tensor estimated with geometric formula or the compound pendulum technique. The deviation angles between experimental (ground truth) and simulated angular velocity vectors and the root mean squared deviation angle were computed for every simulation. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to assess the sensitivity of simulations to changes in magnitude of principal moments of inertia within ±10% and to changes in orientation of principal axes of inertia within ±10° (of the geometric-based inertia tensor). Root mean squared deviation angles ranged between 2.9° and 4.3° for the inertia tensor estimated geometrically, and between 11.7° and 15.2° for the compound pendulum values. Errors up to 10% in magnitude of principal moments of inertia yielded root mean squared deviation angles ranging between 3.2° and 6.6°, and between 5.5° and 7.9° when lumped with errors of 10° in principal axes of inertia orientation. The proposed technique can effectively validate inertia tensors from novel estimation methods of body segment inertial parameter. Principal axes of inertia orientation should not be neglected when modelling human/animal mechanics.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2eFYbYV
via IFTTT

Uncertainty quantification of wall shear stress in intracranial aneurysms using a data-driven statistical model of systemic blood flow variability

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
Source:Journal of Biomechanics
Author(s): Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Toni Lassila, Ali Gooya, Arjan J. Geers, Alejandro F. Frangi
Adverse wall shear stress (WSS) patterns are known to play a key role in the localisation, formation, and progression of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Complex region-specific and time-varying aneurysmal WSS patterns depend both on vascular morphology as well as on variable systemic flow conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed for characterising WSS patterns in IAs; however, CFD simulations often rely on deterministic boundary conditions that are not representative of the actual variations in blood flow. We develop a data-driven statistical model of internal carotid artery (ICA) flow, which is used to generate a virtual population of waveforms used as inlet boundary conditions in CFD simulations. This allows the statistics of the resulting aneurysmal WSS distributions to be computed. It is observed that ICA waveform variations have limited influence on the time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) on the IA surface. In contrast, in regions where the flow is locally highly multidirectional, WSS directionality and harmonic content are strongly affected by the ICA flow waveform. As a consequence, we argue that the effect of blood flow variability should be explicitly considered in CFD-based IA rupture assessment to prevent confounding the conclusions.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e9qj3V
via IFTTT


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://tidsskriftet.no/
via IFTTT

Measurement of Rank and Other Properties of Direct and Scattered Signals

We have designed an experiment for low-cost indoor measurements of rank and other properties of direct and scattered signals with radar interference suppression in mind. The signal rank is important also in many other applications, for example, DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation, estimation of the number of and location of transmitters in electronic warfare, and increasing the capacity in wireless communications. In real radar applications, such measurements can be very expensive, for example, involving airborne radars with array antennas. We have performed the measurements in an anechoic chamber with several transmitters, a receiving array antenna, and a moving reflector. Our experiment takes several aspects into account: transmitted signals with different correlation, decorrelation of the signals during the acquisition interval, covariance matrix estimation, noise eigenvalue spread, calibration, near-field compensation, scattering in a rough surface, and good control of the influencing factors. With our measurements we have observed rank, DOA spectrum, and eigenpatterns of direct and scattered signals. The agreement of our measured properties with theoretic and simulated results in the literature shows that our experiment is realistic and sound. The detailed description of our experiment could serve as help for conducting other well-controlled experiments.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dYassT
via IFTTT

Left Atrial Enlargement on Transthoracic Echocardiography Predicts Left Atrial Thrombus on Transesophageal Echocardiography in Ischemic Stroke Patients

Background. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is superior to transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) in detecting left atrial thrombus (LAT), a risk factor for stroke, but is costly and invasive, carrying a higher risk for complications. Aims. To determine the utility of using left atrial enlargement (LAE) on TTE to predict LAT on TEE. Methods. AIS patients who presented in and underwent both TTE and TEE were identified from our prospective stroke registry. Analysis consisted of multivariate logistic regression with propensity score adjustment and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analyses. Results. 219 AIS patients underwent both TTE and TEE. LAE on TTE was detected in 113 (51.6%) of AIS patients. Patients with LAE on TTE had higher proportion of LAT on TEE (8.4% versus 1.0%, ). LAE on TTE predicted increased odds of LAT on TEE (, 95% CI 1.04–74.83, ). The sensitivity and specificity for LAT on TEE by LAE on TEE were 88.89% and 52.20%, respectively (, 95% CI 0.5906–0.8202). Conclusions. LAE on TTE can predict LAT detected on TEE in nearly 90% of patients. This demonstrates the utility of LAE on TTE as a potential screening tool for LAT, potentially limiting unneeded costs and complications associated with TEE.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ec1IdS
via IFTTT

Transparent UWB Antenna with IZTO/Ag/IZTO Multilayer Electrode Film

Ultra-wide band (UWB) antennas with transparent indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO)/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrode films are presented. The geometry of the radiator of the proposed UWB antenna is a simple semicircular shape, and acryl is used for the transparent substrate. Three types of proposed antennas are used for the comparison: first, an UWB antenna with a copper sheet only (CUWB); second, a transparent UWB antenna with a transparent radiator only (TRUWB); and, third, an entirely transparent UWB antenna (TUWB). The IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrode is fabricated by a physical vapor deposition process in the highly maintained vacuum. The transmittance of the multilayer film at 550 nm wavelength is over 80%, and the conductivity is 3,960,000 S/m. The proposed CUWB, TRUWB, and TUWB have peak gains of 4.17, 3.14, and 0.74 dBi and radiation efficiency levels of 84.8, 64.5, and 42.1% at the center frequency of UWB service (6.5 GHz), respectively.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dYascn
via IFTTT

Xiao Yao San against Corticosterone-Induced Stress Injury via Upregulating Glucocorticoid Receptor Reaction Element Transcriptional Activity

Previous studies have revealed that uncontrollable stress can impair the synaptic plasticity and firing property of hippocampal neurons, which influenced various hippocampal-dependent tasks including memory, cognition, behavior, and mood. In this work, we had investigated the effects and mechanisms of the Chinese herbal medicine Xiao Yao San (XYS) against corticosterone-induced stress injury in primary hippocampal neurons (PHN) cells. We found that XYS and RU38486 could increase cell viabilities and decrease cell apoptosis by MTT, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry assays. In addition, we observed that XYS notably inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR and upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions levels of Caveolin-1, GR, BDNF, TrkB, and FKBP4. However, XYS downregulated the FKBP51 expressions. Furthermore, the results of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and double luciferase reporter gene detection indicated that FKBP4 promotes the transcriptional activity of GR reaction element (GRE) by binding with GR, and FKBP51 processed the opposite action. The in vivo experiment also proved the functions of XYS. These results suggested that XYS showed an efficient neuroprotection against corticosterone-induced stress injury in PHN cells by upregulating GRE transcriptional activity, which should be developed as a potential candidate for treating stress injury in the future.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ebYWFN
via IFTTT

Somatic Comorbidity in Chronic Constipation: More Data from the GECCO Study

Background. Comorbidity in chronic constipation has rarely been investigated, despite the fact that constipation can occur as one symptom in a number of neurological, systemic, and other nonintestinal and intestinal disorders. Methods. Of 1037 individuals with constipation identified during a telephone survey, 589 returned a postal questionnaire with valid data, asking for sociographic data, clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, medication intake, and health care behavior related to constipation. Among them, 245 reported some somatic diagnoses and another 120 regular medication intake. They were compared to individuals without comorbid condition and presumed functional constipation (). Results. Individuals reporting a somatic comorbid condition and/or regular medication were significantly older than those with functional constipation ( and years, resp., ) and had lower health and social status (both ), but similar general life satisfaction (n.s.). Their quality-of-life was lower for the physical () but not for the mental health domain (n.s.), while among those with functional constipation, the mental health domain distinguished IBS-C individuals from those with functional constipation but without pain (). Conclusion. In an unselected population sample with constipated individuals, those with a somatic comorbid condition outnumber those with functional constipation alone and are distinctly different with respect to age and health status.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dY8BV6
via IFTTT

Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal

At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate). Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L) and copper sulfate (30 μM) in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, , , and , determined using 2,2′-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min−1, respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dg26LG
via IFTTT

Cystic Artery: Morphological Study and Surgical Significance

The cystic artery is the key structure sought to be clipped or ligated during laparoscopic or conventional cholecystectomy. The possible complications like hemorrhage or hepatobiliary injury are always centered on the search, dissection, and clipping or ligation of the cystic artery, many a time because of possibility of variations in its course and relations to the biliary ducts. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of the cystic artery to contribute to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 82 cadavers revealed cystic artery with mean length of 16.9 mm (ranged between 2 mm and 55 mm) and mean diameter of 1.6 mm (range between 1 mm and 5 mm). The origin of cystic artery from celiac right hepatic artery was found in 79.3% and in the remaining 20.7% it was replaced. Single cystic artery was present in 72% and double cystic artery in 28%. Considering the site of origin of the cystic artery with reference to Calot’s triangle, it was observed within the triangle in 62.2% and outside it in 37.8%. All the cystic arteries passed through Calot’s triangle except for 3.6%. The cystic artery crossed the common hepatic duct anteriorly in 26.8% and posteriorly in 6.1%. It crossed common bile duct anteriorly in 1.2% and posteriorly in 3.7%. The knowledge of such variations and its awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications during cholecystectomy.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ebXz9M
via IFTTT

Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn’s disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dY8toy
via IFTTT

Comparison and Prognostic Analysis of Adjuvant Radiotherapy versus Salvage Radiotherapy for Treatment of Radically Resected Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Objective. To compare adjuvant radiotherapy and salvage radiotherapy after radical resection for treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods. Data from 155 patients with locally advanced ESCC who underwent radical resection and received postoperative radiotherapy from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed. Seventy-nine patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and 76 received salvage radiotherapy after locoregional recurrence. Results. The median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher in the adjuvant radiotherapy group than the salvage radiotherapy group (DFS 25.73 months versus 10.73 months, ; OS 33.33 months versus 26.22 months, ). The independent prognostic factors for DFS were performance status (PS) before radiotherapy and pathological stage in the adjuvant radiotherapy group, compared with lymph node metastasis, tumor location, and adjuvant chemotherapy in the salvage radiotherapy group. The independent prognostic factors for OS were age and PS in both groups. No differences in median DFS and OS between the groups were observed in patients aged > 65 years or with PS ≥ 2. Conclusion. Compared to salvage radiotherapy, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy can prolong DFS and OS for patients with radically resected local advanced ESCC but cannot improve survival for patients aged > 65 years or with PS ≥ 2.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTGq5W
via IFTTT

Numerical Investigation of Water Entry of Half Hydrophilic and Half Hydrophobic Spheres

A numerical simulation to investigate the water entry of half-half sphere which is hydrophobic on one hemisphere and hydrophilic on the other is performed. Particular attention is given to the simulation method based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with VOF (volume of fluid) method and CSF (continuum surface force) method. Numerical results predicted experimental results, validating the suitability of the numerical approach to simulate the water entry problem of sphere under different wetting conditions. Numerical results show that the water entry of the half-half sphere creates an asymmetric cavity and “cardioid” splash, causing the sphere to travel laterally from the hydrophobic side to the hydrophilic side. Further investigations show that the density ratio and mismatch of asymmetric in wetting condition affect the trajectory, velocity, and acceleration of the half-half sphere during water entry. In addition, the total hydrodynamic force coefficient is investigated as a result of the forces acting on the sphere during water entry dictated by the cavity formation.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ebXdA2
via IFTTT

Xenic Cultivation and Genotyping of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoeba from Public Water Supply Sources in Uganda

Studies on waterborne parasites from natural environment and domestic water sources in Uganda are very scarce and unpublished. Water dwelling free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria are often responsible for causing morbidities and mortalities in individuals with recent contact with contaminated water, but their presence in Uganda’s public water supply sources is not known. We cultivated and genotyped FLA from natural and domestic water from Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA) and Kampala (KLA). The cultivated parasites were observed microscopically and recorded. The overall prevalence of FLA in QEPA (Acanthamoeba spp., 35%; Hartmannella spp., 18.9%; Naegleria spp., 13.5%) and KLA (Acanthamoeba spp., 28.3%; Naegleria spp., 16.6%; Hartmannella spp., 23.1%) were not significantly different. The highest prevalence across water sources in QEPA and KLA was observed for Acanthamoeba spp., followed by Hartmannella spp., and Naegleria spp. Overall FLA mean (±SE) and mean (±SE) across water sources were highest for Acanthamoeba spp. compared to other FLA but were not statistically significant ( > 0.05). Analysis of the FLA sequences produced 1 Cercomonas, 1 Nuclearia, 1 Bodomorpha, 2 Hartmannella, 5 Echinamoeba, and 7 Acanthamoeba partial sequences, indicating a muliplicity of water contaminants that need to be controlled by proper water treatment.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dYb1Tr
via IFTTT

Predictors of Increased Daytime Sleepiness in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background. Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) suffer from increased daytime sleepiness. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors of subjective daytime sleepiness with special regard to sleep-related breathing disorder and nocturnal activity. Methods. COPD patients were recruited at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. COPD risk groups A–D were determined according to spirometry and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Breathing disorder evaluation was performed with the ApneaLink device. Nocturnal energy expenditure was measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband. Subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results. Twenty-two patients (36%) were in COPD risk group A, 28 patients (45%) in risk group B, and 12 patients (19%) in risk groups C + D (). Eleven patients (18%) had a pathological ESS ≥ 10/24. ESS correlated positively with CAT (, ) and inversely with age (, ). In multiple linear regression age (, ), AHI (, ) and CAT score (, ) were independent predictors of ESS, while nocturnal energy expenditure showed no significant association (). Conclusion. These findings provide evidence that daytime sleepiness in COPD patients may partly be attributable to nocturnal respiratory disturbances and it seems to mostly affect younger patients with more severe COPD symptoms.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ec1545
via IFTTT

Fractal Model for Acoustic Absorbing of Porous Fibrous Metal Materials

To investigate the changing rules between sound absorbing performance and geometrical parameters of porous fibrous metal materials (PFMMs), this paper presents a fractal acoustic model by incorporating the static flow resistivity based on Biot-Allard model. Static flow resistivity is essential for an accurate assessment of the acoustic performance of the PFMM. However, it is quite difficult to evaluate the static flow resistivity from the microstructure of the PFMM because of a large number of disordered pores. In order to overcome this difficulty, we firstly established a static flow resistivity formula for the PFMM based on fractal theory. Secondly, a fractal acoustic model was derived on the basis of the static flow resistivity formula. The sound absorption coefficients calculated by the presented acoustic model were validated by the values of Biot-Allard model and experimental data. Finally, the variation of the surface acoustic impedance, the complex wave number, and the sound absorption coefficient with the fractal dimensions were discussed. The research results can reveal the relationship between sound absorption and geometrical parameters and provide a basis for improving the sound absorption capability of the PFMMs.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dY8QPQ
via IFTTT

Transcriptional Regulation of lncRNA Genes by Histone Modification in Alzheimer’s Disease

Increasing studies have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are not transcriptional noise but play important roles in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes, and the dysregulation of lncRNA genes is associated with disease development. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. However, little is known about the roles of lncRNA genes in AD and how the lncRNA genes are transcriptionally regulated. Herein, we analyzed RNA-seq data and ChIP-seq histone modification data from CK-p25 AD model and control mice and identified 72 differentially expressed lncRNA genes, 4,917 differential peaks of H3K4me3, and 1,624 differential peaks of H3K27me3 between AD and control samples, respectively. Furthermore, we found 92 differential peaks of histone modification H3K4me3 are located in the promoter of 39 differentially expressed lncRNA genes and 8 differential peaks of histone modification H3K27me3 are located upstream of 7 differentially expressed lncRNA genes, which suggest that the majority of lncRNA genes may be transcriptionally regulated by histone modification in AD.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTG0fH
via IFTTT

Stochastic Effects for the Reaction-Duffing Equation with Wick-Type Product

We construct new explicit solutions of the Wick-type stochastic reaction-Duffing equation arising from mathematical physics with the help of the white noise theory and the system technique. Based on these exact solutions, we also discuss the influences of stochastic effects for dynamical behaviors according to functions , , and Brownian motion which are the solitary wave group velocities.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e8pY3F
via IFTTT

Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors

In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent’s level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent’s level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ebZvPN
via IFTTT

Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in Sudan

Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant malaria species that infects humans in the African continent. A recent WHO report estimated 95% and 5% of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria cases, respectively, in Sudan. However many laboratory reports from different areas in Sudan indicated otherwise. In order to verify, we selected four hundred suspected malaria cases from Aljabalain area located in the White Nile state, central Sudan, and diagnosed them with quality insured microscopy and species-specific nested PCR. Our results indicated that the proportion of P. vivax infections among suspected malaria cases was high. We found that on average 20% and 36.5% of malaria infections in both study areas were caused by P. vivax using both microscopy and PCR, respectively. This change in pattern is likely due to the recent demographic changes and high rate of immigration from neighbouring countries in the recent years. This is the first extensive clinical study of its kind that shows rising trend in P. vivax malaria cases in White Nile area, Sudan.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dYaS2m
via IFTTT

Mum thinks she has a cold – ends up battling extremely rare cancer TWICE - Nottingham Post


Nottingham Post

Mum thinks she has a cold – ends up battling extremely rare cancer TWICE
Nottingham Post
A mum has spent the past two years battling a rare cancer – which she originally thought was a common cold. Heather Longdon was diagnosed with stage three larynx cancer last August after having a constant cough, sore throat and heart palpitations for ...

and more »


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e9oTGH
via IFTTT

Stochastic Effects for the Reaction-Duffing Equation with Wick-Type Product

We construct new explicit solutions of the Wick-type stochastic reaction-Duffing equation arising from mathematical physics with the help of the white noise theory and the system technique. Based on these exact solutions, we also discuss the influences of stochastic effects for dynamical behaviors according to functions , , and Brownian motion which are the solitary wave group velocities.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2e8pY3F
via IFTTT

LOCAL INFILTRATION TECHNIQUE IN UNILATERAL TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ardeshna A Nishita, Bashwanth Pasupulati, Dr. Basavaraj CM, Dr. Vinay Pawar.
INTRODUCTION: The most effective treatment for osteoarthritis is TKR and THR but sizeable patient experience chronic pain causing discomfort. There has been shift in the usage of local anesthesia technique (LIA) over the general anesthesia in orthopedic surgeries mainly TKR. Pain control is important post surgery which includes opioid use, and other analgesics. LIA technique has taken increased focus due to early rehabilitation in patients with TKR and THR. METHOD: It was prospective, non-interventional and observational study. RESULTS: Outcomes were assessed with regards to the pain score and analgesic use post LIA. Patients with this technique experienced early mobilization and better pain control after surgery. There was decreased in the opioid usage and increased patient satisfaction. Break-through pain was also found to have decreased with LIA comparatively with only analgesic usage. CONCLUSION: The use of preoperative patient education as an important component in their fast-track recovery program. LIA protocol can achieve meaningful results and can be easily implemented both in tertiary care centers & community hospitals.


http://ift.tt/2dkyms2

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND POSSIBLE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF Citrus limonum METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Atluri Bhavana*, P. Shilpa, G. Naveen, G. Laxmi, N. Varalaxmi, T. Satyanarayana.
Plants are important for their medicinal value because they contain numerous compounds with therapeutic value. Is widely used in traditional system of medicine. Citrus limonum is screened for antimicrobial activity and antihelminthic. The antifungal and antibacterial activity of leaf extract was determined by well method. The methanolic leaf extract had showed significant antibacterial activity at 100 μg/ml on E.coli when compared to that of standard drug streptomycin. In case of antifungal activity the zone of inhibition is not seen at any concentrations of 25 μg/ml, 50μg/ml, 75μg/ml and100μg/ml of the leaf extract. The present activity also includes anthelminthic activity performed on methanolic extracts concentrations at 10 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml & 50 mg/ml of leaf extract Citrus limonum by using pheretima posthuma as test worms. The time paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperzine citrate as reference standard. Dose dependent activity was observed in the extracts. This study provides an explicit perception about the presence of portion (leaf), to which one has more number of phytochemicals. The methanolic extract of the leaf of Citrus limonum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, steroids, volatile oils, tannins are present.


http://ift.tt/2eensu0

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ANGIOGENIC ACTIVITY OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA.

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Narayanan Nikhitha, Garge Vaibhavi N, Kadam Vilasrao J..
Chick Embryo Chorio Allantoic Membrane [CAM] is an extra embryonic membrane used mainly for gas exchange and transport of calcium from the egg shells to the embryo during its development. It is used to study new blood vessel formation and its inhibition in response to tissues, cells or soluble factors such as antibodies. CAM is broadly used in oncology, biology, pharmacy and tissue regeneration research. There are 46 morphologically distinct stages of chick development beginning with a freshly laid egg and ending with a fully developed and hatched chick. These stages help provide consistency and coordination between the various areas that use the chick embryo model. It is a novel technique to facilitate the discovery and development of newer drugs, circumventing the use of animals. Due to its ease of availability, extensive vascularisation, and immuno deficient environment, it is used to study morpho functional aspects of angiogenesis process in vivo. Progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events. Cell line studies have attained utmost importance due to advanced technologies and are used as an alternative to animal experiments. Jurkat cells derived from T Lymphocyte have been developed to provide a link between the Immunomodulatory and anti angiogenic aspect of the drug. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-angiogenetic activity of crude extract of Anogeissus latifolia using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and cell line models. Direct drug injection and disc impregnation methods were followed for chick embryo. Sulphorhodamine B assay was followed for cell line study. Reduction in the blood vessel branching was observed in chorio allantoic membrane and reduction in cell number was observed for cell line studies indicating that the drug possess anti angiogenic activity.


http://ift.tt/2dkwkIA

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND FLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF POSACONAZOLE IN DOSAGE FORM AND SPIKED HUMAN PLASMA

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Maha A. Sultan, Maha M. Abou El-Alamin, Mostafa A. Atia*, Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein.
Highly sensitive, simple and economic spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of posaconazole (POS) in pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma through solvent solvent extraction technique. The proposed methods are based on measuring the absorbance of the drug in methanol at 262 nm and the native fluorescence intensity in isopropanol at 378 nm after excitation at 262 nm. The absorbance concentration plot and fluorescence intensity-concentration plot were rectilinear over the range 0.612-17.500 μg/ml and 22-550 ng/ml with a lower detection limit of 0.202 μg/ml for the spectrophotometric and 7 ng/ml for the fluorimetric analysis and the mean percent recovery were found to be 100.192 and 100.002 for spectrophotometric and fluorimetric techniques respectively. Both methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and showed good accuracy and precision with no significant difference compared with the reported HPLC method. It can be concluded that these methods can be used for determination of POS in dosage form and spiked human plasma.


http://ift.tt/2eemTkg

PERSPECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF LEUCAS ASPERA: AN INDIGENOUS PLANT SPECIES

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Suganthi Nagarasan, M. Boominathan*.
The leaves of Leucas aspera which was belonging to the family Lamiaceae has distributed throughout the South Asia. It was used traditionally as insecticide and antipyretic. It has various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. This species has some phytochemicals such as hydroxytetratriacontan-4- one, aliphatic ketones, nicotine, farnesene, thujene, and menthol. In the present study we clearly investicate the invitro activity of Leucas aspera against bacteria, fungi and oxidative stress. Our research reveals that the alcoholic extracts shows maximum inhibitory effect against various bacteria and fungi. In addition to that we proved that these extracts also has antioxidant activity.


http://ift.tt/2dkxLXr

SYNTHESIS, AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW 1, 5-BENZOTHIAZEPINES USING LANTHANUM NITRATE AS A CATALYST

2016-10-16T06-25-49Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Bushra Ahmed Kateb,, Abdulkareem Ali Hussien-, M. A. Basser*.
We applied simple and convenient procedure for the synthesis of optically active1,5- benzothiazepine derivatives by reaction of 2-aminothiophenol with newly synthesized Chalcones under mild conditions in the presence of catalytic amount of Lanthanum Nitrate in short reaction time with excellent yield(75-85%). The compounds (4a-l) were tested for purity by TLC and characterized by M.P, IR and 1H NMR and Mass spectral studies. The synthesized compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus gram +ve, Escherichia coli gram ve Bacillus subtilis gram +ve, Salmonella typhi gram ve, and antifungal activity against Aspergillus oryzoe, Aspergillus niger, using disc diffusion method. The compounds show the moderate to good activity against bacteria and fungui.


http://ift.tt/2eelMRv



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://tidsskriftet.no/
via IFTTT

John Laws' wife diagnosed with cancer and said to be in fragile health - Herald Sun


John Laws' wife diagnosed with cancer and said to be in fragile health
Herald Sun
In recent weeks the couple have started informing their closest friends but a shattered Laws, known as the Golden Tonsils, has thrown a protective wall around the woman who first caught his eye at the tender age of 14 when Laws, then 16, met the young ...



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ebQbeC
via IFTTT

Prof Theresa Wiseman of @HSciences be chairing the breast cancer symposium tomorrow at #EONS2016 https://t.co/vYZVPv0UrJ

Prof Theresa Wiseman of @HSciences be chairing the breast cancer symposium tomorrow at #EONS2016 https://t.co/vYZVPv0UrJ

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://twitter.com/ecancer/status/787610369330143232
via IFTTT

Immune thrombocytopenia and its association with lymph node tuberculosis – A dilemma!

2016-10-16T05-23-22Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Sangita Deepak Kamath, Neeraj Jain, Saurabh Pathak, Ballamudi Srinivas Rao.
Background: Although various hematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune mediated thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in TB is rare; only 27 cases have been reported so far. Case: We report a case of axillary lymph node tuberculosis who presented with immune thrombocytopenia. An eighteen year old girl was admitted to our hospital with excessive vaginal bleed of one week duration followed by the development of petechial lesions and ecchymosis over legs, hands and mouth. She also had solitary, firm, left axillary lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of immune mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) was made from peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination. Intravenous methylprednisolone (30mg/kg body weight) followed by oral prednisolone (1mg/kg) failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the left axillary lymphadenopathy done later revealed tuberculosis. After two weeks of starting anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet count returned to normal and she was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the causal association between immune thrombocytopenia and tuberculosis.


http://ift.tt/2dXYQWZ

Pleural effusion in advanced liver disease

2016-10-16T05-23-22Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Cyriac Abby Philips Lovkesh Anand, Apurva Pande.
We present the case of a decompensated cirrhotic in whom localized pleural effusion was managed on the lines of tubercular effusion inadvertently, with use of catheter drainage, leading to fatal complications. Pleural effusion in advanced cirrhosis must be evaluated in a step wise manner to minimize interventional treatments.


http://ift.tt/2ebMAxc

Time-Compact Scheme for the One-Dimensional Dirac Equation

Based on the Lie-algebra, a new time-compact scheme is proposed to solve the one-dimensional Dirac equation. This time-compact scheme is proved to satisfy the conservation of discrete charge and is unconditionally stable. The time-compact scheme is of fourth-order accuracy in time and spectral order accuracy in space. Numerical examples are given to test our results.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2eks7GN
via IFTTT

Recent Advances in the Understanding of Vestibular Migraine

Approximately 1% of the general population and 10% of patients with migraine suffer from vestibular migraine (VM). However, this condition remains relatively unknown; therefore, it is often underdiagnosed despite the recent adoption of international diagnostic criteria for VM. The diagnosis of VM is based on the symptoms, degree, frequency, and duration of the vestibular episodes, a history of migraine, the temporal association of migraine symptoms with vestibular episodes in at least 50% of cases, and the exclusion of other causes. Physical examination and laboratory findings are usually normal in patients with VM but can be used to rule out other vestibular disorders with similar symptoms. The pathophysiology of VM remains incompletely understood; however, several mechanisms link the trigeminal system, which is activated during migraine attacks, and the vestibular system. Because few controlled trials have specifically investigated VM, the treatment options for this order are largely the same as those for migraine and include antiemetics for severe acute attacks, pharmacological migraine prophylaxis, and lifestyle changes.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVelfO
via IFTTT

Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Its Associated Factors among Mothers of Infants Less Than Six Months of Age in Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is recommended by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. However, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is very low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Objectives. The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice and its associated factors among infants aged six months in Debre Tabor town. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was employed in the selection of participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Odds ratios with their 95% CI were computed and variables having value less than 0.05 in the multivariable logistic regression were considered as significantly associated with the dependent variable. Result. Of 470 mother-infant pair’s samples, 453 were included in the final analysis. The overall age appropriate rate of EBF practice was found to be 70.8%. Having an infant aged 2-3 months [AOR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.12, 6.42)], giving birth in the health facility [AOR = 3.8 (95% CI: 2.18, 7.32)], being a house wife in occupation [AOR = 2.4 (95% CI (1.22, 6.92)], receiving counseling/advice on infant feeding [AOR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.61, 5.41)], and colostrums feeding [AOR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.28, 7.98)] were found to be significantly associated with EBF practice. Conclusion and Recommendations. A small proportion of infants are exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months. Promoting institutional delivery, revising the leave after birth, advice and counseling pregnant mothers about EBF, and enabling every mother to encourage colostrum feeding were recommended in order to increase the proportion of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ektCVP
via IFTTT

Diffusion Strategies for Distributed Kalman Filter with Dynamic Topologies in Virtualized Sensor Networks

Network virtualization has become pervasive and is used in many applications. Through the combination of network virtualization and wireless sensor networks, it can greatly improve the multiple applications of traditional wireless sensor networks. However, because of the dynamic reconfiguration of topologies in the physical layer of virtualized sensor networks (VSNs), it requires a mechanism to guarantee the accuracy of estimate values by sensors. In this paper, we focus on the distributed Kalman filter algorithm with dynamic topologies to support this requirement. As one strategy of distributed Kalman filter algorithms, diffusion Kalman filter algorithm has a better performance on the state estimation. However, the existing diffusion Kalman filter algorithms all focus on the fixed topologies. Considering the dynamic topologies in the physical layer of VSNs mentioned above, we present a diffusion Kalman filter algorithm with dynamic topologies (DKFdt). Then, we emphatically derive the theoretical expressions of the mean and mean-square performance. From the expressions, the feasibility of the algorithm is verified. Finally, simulations confirm that the proposed algorithm achieves a greatly improved performance as compared with a noncooperative manner.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dVd2h3
via IFTTT


from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://tidsskriftet.no/
via IFTTT

Analysis of Gene Expression in an Inbred Line of Soft-Shell Clams (Mya arenaria) Displaying Growth Heterosis: Regulation of Structural Genes and the NOD2 Pathway

Mya arenaria is a bivalve mollusk of commercial and economic importance, currently impacted by ocean warming, acidification, and invasive species. In order to inform studies on the growth of M. arenaria, we selected and inbred a population of soft-shell clams for a fast-growth phenotype. This population displayed significantly faster growth (), as measured by 35.4% greater shell size. To assess the biological basis of this growth heterosis, we characterized the complete transcriptomes of six individuals and identified differentially expressed genes by RNAseq. Pathways differentially expressed included structural gene pathways. Also differentially expressed was the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor pathway that contributes to determination of growth, immunity, apoptosis, and proliferation. NOD2 pathway members that were upregulated included a subset of isoforms of RIPK2 (mean 3.3-fold increase in expression), ERK/MAPK14 (3.8-fold), JNK/MAPK8 (4.1-fold), and NFκB (4.08-fold). These transcriptomes will be useful resources for both the aquaculture community and researchers with an interest in mollusks and growth heterosis.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dfWHV3
via IFTTT

Complications of Diabetes 2016



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dfUcC3
via IFTTT

Management of Stable Angina with Ivabradine as Safe Alternative to Patients with Myasthenia Gravis

Management of cardiac symptoms in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients can be challenging. The aim of this report is to describe the safe use of ivabradine for stable angina in MG patients. A 48 y.o. woman, with MG diagnosis, presented stable angina. Therapies choices were reduced considering concomitant disease as well as previous and unsuccessful cardiologic managements. Ivabradine showed unexpected results. The patient presented an improvement of neurological and cardiac symptoms, bringing ivabradine as one more therapeutic option to similar patients. In this report we recommend ivabradine as an effective and safe drug for treatment of stable angina in MG patients.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTwHwv
via IFTTT

Analysis of Gene Expression in an Inbred Line of Soft-Shell Clams (Mya arenaria) Displaying Growth Heterosis: Regulation of Structural Genes and the NOD2 Pathway

Mya arenaria is a bivalve mollusk of commercial and economic importance, currently impacted by ocean warming, acidification, and invasive species. In order to inform studies on the growth of M. arenaria, we selected and inbred a population of soft-shell clams for a fast-growth phenotype. This population displayed significantly faster growth (), as measured by 35.4% greater shell size. To assess the biological basis of this growth heterosis, we characterized the complete transcriptomes of six individuals and identified differentially expressed genes by RNAseq. Pathways differentially expressed included structural gene pathways. Also differentially expressed was the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor pathway that contributes to determination of growth, immunity, apoptosis, and proliferation. NOD2 pathway members that were upregulated included a subset of isoforms of RIPK2 (mean 3.3-fold increase in expression), ERK/MAPK14 (3.8-fold), JNK/MAPK8 (4.1-fold), and NFκB (4.08-fold). These transcriptomes will be useful resources for both the aquaculture community and researchers with an interest in mollusks and growth heterosis.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dfWHV3
via IFTTT

Preconditioning of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Enhance Their Regulation of the Immune Response

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted the attention of researchers and clinicians for their ability to differentiate into a number of cell types, participate in tissue regeneration, and repair the damaged tissues by producing various growth factors and cytokines, as well as their unique immunoprivilege in alloreactive hosts. The immunomodulatory functions of exogenous MSCs have been widely investigated in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and transplantation research. However, a harsh environment at the site of tissue injury/inflammation with insufficient oxygen supply, abundance of reactive oxygen species, and presence of other harmful molecules that damage the adoptively transferred cells collectively lead to low survival and engraftment of the transferred cells. Preconditioning of MSCs ex vivo by hypoxia, inflammatory stimulus, or other factors/conditions prior to their use in therapy is an adaptive strategy that prepares MSCs to survive in the harsh environment and to enhance their regulatory function of the local immune responses. This review focuses on a number of approaches in preconditioning human MSCs with the goal of augmenting their capacity to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTwhX1
via IFTTT

Photoelectrochemical Activity of Graphene Supported Titanium Dioxide

Thin TiO2 layers grown over few-layers graphene were prepared in order to evaluate the photoinduced chemical response of this composite. Graphene was grown over copper foils by decomposition of acetylene in a standard chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Graphene was subsequently transferred to a silicon substrate, on which the titanium dioxide was grown to form a TiO2/FLG/SiO2/Si composite. The formation of each layered material was verified by Raman spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical evaluation of the resulting composite, using it as a photoanode, was accomplished with a potentiostat, a solar simulator, and a three-electrode configuration. The electrochemical response indicates that the new composite preserves the average photoactive properties of the base material and at the same time shows a singular transient response where explicit benefits seem to be derived from the FLG/TiO2 combination.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dfZugE
via IFTTT

Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Rendezvous Drainage of Biliary Obstruction Using a New Flexible 19-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration Needle

Background and Aim. A successful endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) biliary drainage is dependent on accurate puncture of the bile duct and precise guide wire manipulation across the ampulla of Vater. We aim to study the feasibility of using a flexible 19-gauge fine aspiration needle in the performance of EUS-RV biliary drainage. Method. This is a retrospective case series of EUS-RV biliary drainage procedures at a single center. Patients who failed ERCP during the same session for benign or malignant biliary obstruction underwent EUS-RV using a flexible, nitinol covered, 19-gauge needle for biliary access and guide wire manipulation. Result. 24 patients underwent EUS-RV biliary drainage via extrahepatic access while 1 attempt was via intrahepatic access. The technical success rate was 80%, including 83.3% of cases via extrahepatic access. There was no significant difference in success rate of inpatient and outpatient procedures, benign or malignant indications, or type of guide wire used. Adverse events included mild pancreatitis (3 patients) and cholangitis (1 patient). Conclusion. A flexible 19-gauge needle for biliary access can be safe and effective when used to perform EUS-RV biliary drainage. Direct comparison between the nitinol needle and conventional metal needles in the performance of EUS guided biliary drainage is needed.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTx0Yg
via IFTTT

Solution of Singularly Perturbed Differential-Difference Equations with Mixed Shifts Using Galerkin Method with Exponential Fitting

Galerkin method is presented to solve singularly perturbed differential-difference equations with delay and advanced shifts using fitting factor. In the numerical treatment of such type of problems, Taylor’s approximation is used to tackle the terms containing small shifts. A fitting factor in the Galerkin scheme is introduced which takes care of the rapid changes that occur in the boundary layer. This fitting factor is obtained from the asymptotic solution of singular perturbations. Thomas algorithm is used to solve the tridiagonal system of the fitted Galerkin method. The method is analysed for convergence. Several numerical examples are solved and compared to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Graphs are plotted for the solutions of these problems to illustrate the effect of small shifts on the boundary layer solution.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dfVi0t
via IFTTT

Immunomodulatory Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

This review aims to summarize contemporary evidence of the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in promoting vascularized composite allotransplant (VCA) tolerance. An extensive literature review was performed to identify pertinent articles of merit. Prospective preclinical trials in mammal subjects receiving VCA (or skin allograft) with administration of MSCs were reviewed. Prospective clinical trials with intravascular delivery of MSCs in human populations undergoing solid organ transplant were also identified and reviewed. Sixteen preclinical studies are included. Eleven studies compared MSC monotherapy to no therapy; of these, ten reported improved graft survival, which was statistically significantly prolonged in eight. Eight studies analyzed allograft survival with MSC therapy as an adjunct to proven immunosuppressive regimens. In these studies, daily immunosuppression was transiently delivered and then stopped. In all studies, treatment-free graft survival was statistically significantly prolonged in animals that received MSC therapy. MSCs have been safely administered clinically and their use in renal transplant clinical trials provides evidence that they improve allograft transplant tolerance in clinical practice. There is potential for MSC induction therapy to overcome many of the obstacles to widespread VCA in clinical practice. Preclinical studies are needed before MSC-induced VCA tolerance becomes a clinical reality.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2dTwtFr
via IFTTT

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MICELLAR LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF COBICISTAT AND ELVITEGRAVIR IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Pulagurtha Bhaskararao*, Gowri Sankar Dannana.
The proposed method was carried out using on an Agilent Zorbax C18 (5μm, 15cm X 4.6mm) column. The composition of Mobile phase containing 0.05 M sodium lauryl sulphate and methanol (95:5 v/v) pH adjusted to 1.84 with orthophosphoric acid, is reported for the simultaneous estimation of Cobicistat & Elvitegravir in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. Operated on isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min along with 20 μl injection volume. Quantization was achieved by HPLC-UV detection at 265 nm. The developed method is validated over a concentration range 2.45 24.55 μg/mL for Elvitigravir & 2.52 25.22 μg/mL for Cobicistat. The linearity regression coefficient values were found (r2 >0.99).The method is validated as per ICH Guidelines. the proposed developed method was found to be accurate, precisely, reproducible and specific and can be successfully applied for the quantitative estimation of elvitegravir and cobicistat pharmaceutical formulations and routine analysis in quality control part.


http://ift.tt/2e84Qup

A REVIEW ON MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME OF CORONAVIRUS

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ch.Venkata Rohit Kumar*, Satyanarayana.V, J.N.Suresh Kumar.
The goal of this article is to provide with the most up to date information regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, management, imaging finding related to Middle East respiratory syndrome of corona viruse. The common symptoms are mainly cough, common cold, severe respiratory illness, fever affected seriously with the infection. The most human corona viruses are HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1, bat corona viruses HKU4 and HKU5 related to the MERS-CoV. The pathogenesis of MERS-CoV shows MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase) & apoptosis pathways. The confirmation of diagnosis is CDC. The management of mono therapy is ribavirin, chloroquine & corticosteroids oral dosing for in vitro MERS-CoV.


http://ift.tt/2dFRGkP

ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS: A PROFICIENT DRUG DELIVERANCE TOOL FOR ALL AGE’S PATIENTS

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ajay Aseri*,, Pradeep Kumar,, Sandeep Bhatia,, Shiv Garg.
Oral route is most expedient, financially viable, secure route of drug administration with excellent patient compliance. Orodispersible drug delivery Systems was an progression that gain limelight in early 1970s and rule over the use of long-established oral dosage forms such as conventional tablets, syrups, capsules. These Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are new-fangled tablets have acceptance by geriatric, bedridden , young patients particularly suffering with dysphagia, tremors problems, unconscious and paediatric patients at higher extent now days. It gets readily dissolve or disintegrate in the saliva less than a minute and no necessitate of water to swallow. This review contribute various Desired characteristics, advantages, limitations, Biopharmaceutical consideration/ Biotransformation, Release mechanism of drug, Patients counselling, drug candidates for ODTs, formulation aspects; Fillers, Super-disintegrate (Synthetic /Natural) employed, Co-processed excipients, Taste camouflaging agents/taste modifiers, Patented technologies developed for ODTs, Commercially authorized ODTs Holders.


http://ift.tt/2e81ya9

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL NASAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF RHINITIS

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Vaishali Potnis*, Manoj Kashid, Suchita Dhamne, Nitin Mogal.
The fast rate of urbanization, has considerably elevated the prevalence of upper respiratory tract diseases, especially that of allergic rhinitis (AR).More than 10-30 % of the population, world-wide, is found to be affected by AR. Conventional therapy of AR is dominated by oral dosage forms of H1 blocker anti-histaminic agents and nasal decongestants while the use of steroids is reserved only for severe and non-responsive cases. Frequent administration of these agents, the severity of their side effects, significantly contributes to poor compliance by the patients. In view of this, an in-situ gelling nasal system for combined and sustained delivery of Deslorantadine (DSL), a third generation antihistaminic and Phenylephrine hydrochloride, α1-adrenergic blocker has been designed. The mechanism employed for sustained release of APIS is based on in- situ transition of trigger sensitive polymeric solutions, into more viscous and muco-adhesive gel in the nasal passage. The sol and gel phases of the formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, muco-adhesive strength, contents and diffusion profiles of APIs. The formulation CP4H1K1DP, based on pH sensitive carbomer, possessed superior gelling characteristics, physiologically acceptable pH range, muco-adhesive strength (5865 dynes/cm2) and prolonged diffusion (in-vitro) over 6 hrs. The key stability parameters of this formulation were unaffected during the storage over 30 days, suggesting its suitability as an alternative to the existing treatment options for AR.


http://ift.tt/2dFRqSC

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NIFIDEPINE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET BY SUBLIMATION TECHNIQUE

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Mr. Hemant D. Patil, Mr. Sachin S. Rane, Prof. (Dr.) Rajesh Y. Chaudhari, Prof. (Dr.) Vijay R. Patil.
Nifedipine, the prototype of the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel antagonists which used to treat Prinzmetal's angina, hypertension and other vascular disorders by blocking the calcium channels. In such cases, mouth dissolving dosage forms will be an effective solution for patient compliance and efficient medicine regimen. In the present research, mouth dissolving tablet of Nifedipine was made using various tabletiing aids. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight, thickness, hardness, friability with disintegration time of less than 30 seconds and drug dissolution of about 75% achieved within 30 minutes. The prepared tablets were stability tested at 40°C having 75% Relative Humidity for 3 months and were found to be stable. Prepared mouth dissolving tablets of Nifedipine 10 mg was found to be bioequivalent under fasting and fed conditions.


http://ift.tt/2e83iQR

TIME KILL CURVE FOR EVALUATION OF RELATIVE EFFICACY OF ANTIBIOTICS IN SURGICAL WOUND INFECTIONS and DIABETIC FOOT ULCER

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Thakur Sajan Singh*, Mrs. Richa Saxena, Dr. Indu Kapur, Sai Krishna Paritala, Pravallika Rapolu, Mounica Bondalapati.
Background: A surgical site infection or SSI, is an infection of a wound developed from surgery which may affect either closed wounds or wounds that were left open to heal whereas, diabetic foot ulcers are caused by neuropathic (nerve) and vascular (blood vessel) complications of the disease. Treatment of wound site infections needs a multidimensional approach, includes the right choice of antibiotic, the cleanliness of wound site, choice of topical agent, rate of bacterial killing, plasma drug concentration(PDC) at site of infection and in diabetic cases glycemic control. Antibiotic therapy plays the most important role in management of wound site infections; the choice is made by performing culture sensitivity. The killing effect of an antimicrobial agent can be expressed as the rate of killing a fixed concentration of drug under controlled conditions. The resulting graphic depiction is known as "Time kill curve". Objectives: To determine 3log phase decrease between growth control and antibiotic serial dilutions and selecting drug of choice and also to compare 100 fold decrease between growth control and antibiotic plus add on therapy and further establishing time kill curve, by plotting CFU on Y-axis and time on X-axis. Method: Its an Observational and Comparative study carried out for 6 months, designed to study different antibiotics effect on 35 patients at different concentrations. Results: Viable colonies from those dilutions containing 5-50CFU were counted. The colony counts were multiplied with dilution factor to obtain CFU per milliliter. The results were tabulated as CFU per milliliter (y-axis) vs time (x-axis) on semi-log paper (CFU per milliliter can be converted to log10values).The antimicrobial agent concentration that showed 3log10CFU/ml fold decrease when compared with the growth control was determined. The time when the 3log10CFU/ml fold decrease occurred when compared with the growth control was determined. Conclusions: According to Time-Kill Curve we can conclude that Amoxicillin+Clavulanic acid is effective on Escherichia coli, Amikacin is effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ampicillin + Ciprofloxacin is effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Ampicillin + Sulbactam is effective on Klebsiella pneumonia. Time-Kill Curve method may be employed to establish the log phase difference in killing effect by the desired groups of antibiotics and therefore the Antibiotic that shows the highest log phase difference can be the selected as drug of choice to treat the condition.


http://ift.tt/2dFR4LL

A MASS-SPECTROMETRIC 96-WELL PLATE ASSAY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MIRABEGRON IN HUMAN PLASMA FOR THE APPLICATION IN PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES.

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Prashant Kale,*, Y. K. Agrawal.
A purpose was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, high throughput LC-MS/MS method for quantification of mirabegron in human plasma. Mirabegron is a selective agonist for human beta 3-adrenoceptor. The method involves solid-phase 96 well plate extraction using mirabegron-d5 as an internal standard (ISTD). Chromatographic separation was achieved on Unisol C18 3μ 100Ǻ 4.6 X 100mm column with a mobile phase consist of 0.1% ammonia solution (v/v) and methanol (40:60 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and the total run time was 4.0 min. Detection was carried out through positive electro-spray ionization mode by multiplexing of two product ions. Finally the method was developed with the lower limit of quantification as low as 0.1 ng/ml. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and stability. All the results were within the pre defined acceptance criteria. The method is ready to use in a pharmacokinetic studies.


http://ift.tt/2e85jN4

STUDY OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND Boerhavia diffusa FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

2016-10-16T02-20-53Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Thorat Rinku D, Joshi Yadhunath M*, Garge Vaibhavi N..
The present study was aimed at evaluation of pharmacodynamic interaction between Diclofenac sodium powder and Punarnava capsules containing Boerhavia diffusa extract using carrageenan induced rat paw edema for anti-inflammatory activity. Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) is one of the significant indigenous medicinal plants with a broad spectrum of therapeutic activity. The medicative value of this herb has been reported for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, anti-diabetic and diuretic properties. The inflammation induced with the help of carrageenan in hind paw of albino rats was measured using plethysmometer. For this activity treatment groups received disease control induced 1% Carrageenan (0.1 ml), Diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg), Boerhavia diffusa 200mg/kg and combination group Diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg) with Boerhavia diffusa (200mg/kg) .The anti-inflammatory activity is more effective in Group II Carrageenan induction with oral administration of Diclofenac sodium of 10mg/kg/i.p. compared to Group IV Carrageenan is subcutaneously induced along with the oral administration of combination of Diclofenac sodium of 10mg/kg/ip with Boerhavia diffusa of 200mg/kg/i.p.


http://ift.tt/2dFSRAv

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις