Παρασκευή, 29 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) versus conventional fractionated radiation therapy (CRT) for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. A propensity score matched analysis

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Radiotherapy and Oncology
Author(s): Pierina Navarria, Federico Pessina, Ciro Franzese, Stefano Tomatis, Matteo Perrino, Luca Cozzi, Matteo Simonelli, Lorenzo Bello, Elena Clerici, Marco Riva, Armando Santoro, Marta Scorsetti
BackgroundThe current treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma consists of surgery followed by conventional radiotherapy (CRT) with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) has been investigated and it resulted feasible and safe. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HFRT can be comparable to CRT.Materials and methodsThe analysis included newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated with CRT 60 Gy/30 fractions or HFRT 60 Gy/15 fractions. A propensity score matching analysis (PSM) was performed using a logistic regression that considered age, KPS, extent of surgery, MGMT and IDH status.ResultsA total of 267 patients were included; before PSM 169 were in CRT-group and 98 in HRFT-group. After 1:1 matching, 82 patients resulted in each group. The median OS time was 17.9 months for the CRT-group and 16.7 months for the HFRT-group; the 1, 2, 3-year OS rates were 75.6%, 32.7%, and 15.5% for the CRT-group, and 75.6%, 33.3%, and 18.9% for the HFRT-group (p value = 0.8). No statistically significant differences were recorded between the two radiation therapy treatments performed.ConclusionsA short course of radiation therapy would seem comparable to CRT in terms of outcome and less burdensome for these poor prognosis patients.



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Oral potentially malignant disorders: risk of progression to malignancy.

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Paul M. Speight, Syed Ali Khurram, Omar Kujan
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) have a stastically increased risk of progessing to cancer, but the risk varies according to a range of patient or lesion related factors. It is difficult to predict the risk of progression for any individual patient and the clinician must make a judgement based an assessment of each case. The most commonly encountered OPMD is leukoplakia, but others including lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and erythroplakia may also be seen. Factors associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation include gender, the site and type of lesion, habits such as smoking and alcohol and the presence of epithelial dysplasia on histologic examination. In this review we attempt to identify the important risk factors, and present a simple algorithm that can be used as a guide for risk assessment at each stage of the clinical evaluation of a patient.



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Clinical complications in the application of polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin glue after resection of mucosal lesions in oral cavity

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Kohei Okuyama, Souichi Yanamoto, Tomofumi Naruse, Yuki Sakamoto, Satoshi Rokutanda, Seigo Ohba, Izumi Asahina, Masahiro Umeda
Objectives.Covering open wounds with a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet using fibrin glue after resection of oral mucosal lesions is reportedly useful. We focused on clinical complications of this procedure: development of marked granuloma-like neoplasm (GLN) and abnormal postoperative bleeding (APB) on the resected region.Study Design.The characteristics of 100 cases with PGA sheet application after the resection of oral mucosal lesion were examined retrospectively by the medical records and/or oral photographs at our department between 2010 and 2016.Results.These included 8 cases of GLN development and 7 cases of APB. There was a significantly higher risk of GLN development when the PGA sheet was applied to the raw surface of the tongue. There were no immediate APBs, but 4 APBs occurred several hours after surgery. All APB cases involved the tongue.ConclusionsBoth GLNs and APBs are minor complications. Although 8 cases of GLNs did not involve the recurrence of a tumor, follow-up with incisional or excisional biopsy should be performed. APB in the oral cavity induced by the PGA sheet peeling due to fluctuating adhesive force of the PGA sheets and fibrin glue can sometimes induce life-threatening events.



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OOOO as required reading in the dental school curriculum: an opportunity to both guide the curriculum and reinforce the relationship between biomedical science education and dental practice?

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Paul C. Edwards




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Radiological correlation between the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa and that of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Rafael Crovetto-Martínez, Carlos Vargas, Iñigo Lecumberri, Amaia Bilbao, Miguel Crovetto-De la Torre, Jaime Whyte-Orozco
ObjectivesDehiscence of the superior semicircular canal (SSC) has been associated with alteration of the temporomandibular joint, although data explaining this association are lacking. The present study examined the correlations between the presence of dehiscences and thickness of the bone covering the SSC and the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF).Study designComputed tomography was used in a cross-sectional analysis of the presence of dehiscences and thickness of the bone overlying the SCC and RGF in 156 temporal bones of 78 patients. The correlations of the presence of dehiscences in the SSC and ipsilateral RGF and the thickness of bone covering the SSC and RGF were analyzed with the chi-squared or Fisher exact test. The relationship between the thickness of the bone overlying the SCC and RGF was analyzed by the Spearman correlation coefficient and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The relationship of the thickness of the RGF to the covering of the SCC and to age and gender was analyzed with the general linear model.ResultsSignificant correlations were found between the presence of dehiscences and thickness of the bone overlying the SSC and RGF (p<0.001).ConclusionsThere is a morphological relationship between the structure of the SSC and RGF.



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Advantages of submandibular gland preservation surgery over submandibular gland resection for proximal submandibular stones

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Jin-Qing Xiao, Hai-Jiang Sun, Qi-Hui Qiao, Xin Bao, Chuan-Bin Wu, Qing Zhou
ObjectivesThis study sought to compare surgical outcomes after the removal of submandibular gland (SMG) stones via two different surgical methods.Materials and MethodsFrom June 2015 to July 2016, a total of 40 patients with SMG stones were selected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University (Shenyang, China), and were randomly assigned to two groups. Twenty patients underwent sialendoscopy-assisted stone removal via extraoral incision with preservation of the SMG, and 20 patients underwent traditional SMG resection. The outcomes of the two surgical procedures were assessed.ResultsThe operation time and hospital stay were shorter in the SMG preservation group than the SMG resection group. There were no significant differences in stone size or location between the groups. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was lower in the SMG preservation group than the SMG resection group. All patients in the SMG resection group exhibited varying degrees of scarring and concave deformity on the face and neck, whereas all patients in the SMG preservation group retained intact facial morphology.ConclusionsSialendoscopy-assisted stone removal with preservation of the SMG exhibited many advantages relative to traditional SMG resection.



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Patient morbidity among residents extracting third molars: does experience matter?

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Mohmedvasim Momin, Timothy Albright, Jennie Leikin, Michael Miloro, Michael R. Markiewicz
ObjectiveTo evaluate the complication rates for third molar extractions based upon resident level within an OMFS program, and identify the risk factors associated with postoperative complications following third molar extractions.Study DesignRecords of 1,992 subjects (5,466 third molar extractions) over a 5-year period were reviewed. The data was collected using appropriate CDT codes from July 1, 2011 – June 30, 2016. The cases were analyzed using demographic statistics, Pearson Chi-square test, and regression analysis.Results1,855 patients had sufficient data available for analysis and inclusion in the study. There were 146 adverse outcomes. The common complication was alveolar osteitis. Nerve injuries and retained root tips were encountered less frequently. There was a significant association between the depth of impaction and developing a postoperative complication. There was a direct correlation between the level of resident training and the likelihood of an adverse outcome.ConclusionThe study indicates that there are identifiable risk factors associated with postoperative complications following third molar extraction in an OMFS residency program. These factors include location, depth of impaction, use of a surgical drill, and level of resident training, which are correlated directly with the development of negative outcomes following third molar extractions.



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Historical perspective and nomenclature of potentially malignant or potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions with emphasis on leukoplakia; some suggestions for modifications

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Isaäc van der Waal
Of the potentially (pre)maligant oral epithelial lesions leukoplakia is the most common one. A brief overview is presented of the various definitions of leukoplakia that have been used in the past. A proposal has been made to adjust the presently existing definition. Clinically, leukoplakias have been subdivided for decades in homogeneous and non-homogeneous leukoplakias, being further divided in different subtypes. A proposal has been made to slightly rearrange these subtypes. Furthermore, attention has been paid to a number of keratotic lesions that have been reported in the literature.In view of the increasing knowledge on carcinogenesis, including the various genetic aspects, it is expected that this knowledge will be reflected in the definition of oral potentially (pre)malignant lesions in the near future.



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Mandibular pain, trismus, and weight loss in a 75-year-old man

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Hiroshi Yamazaki, Takatsugu Suzuki, Yuya Denda, Yasuhiro Nakanishi, Masahiro Uchibori, Rena Kojima, Yusuke Kondo




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Electromagnetic navigated condylar positioning after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible: a guided method to attain pristine temporomandibular joint conditions?

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Moritz Berger, Igor Nova, Sebastian Kallus, Oliver Ristow, Urs Eisenmann, Hartmut Dickhaus, Michael Engel, Christian Freudlsperger, Jürgen Hoffmann, Robin Seeberger
ObjectivesReproduction of the exact preoperative proximal-mandible position after osteotomy in orthognathic surgery is difficult to achieve. This clinical pilot study evaluates an electromagnetic navigation (EM) system for condylar positioning after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy.Study DesignFollowing high oblique sagittal split osteotomy as part of two-jaw surgery, the position of ten condyles was intraoperatively guided by an EM navigation system. As a control, 10 proximal segments were positioned by standard manual replacement. Accuracy was measured by pre- and postoperative cone beam computer tomography imaging.ResultsOverall, EM condyle repositioning was equally accurate compared with manual repositioning (p>0.05). Subdivided into the three axis, significant differences could be identified (p<0.05). Nevertheless, no significantly and clinically relevant dislocations of the proximal segment of either the EM or the manual repositioning method could be shown (p>0.05).ConclusionThis pilot study introduces a guided method for proximal segment positioning, after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy, by applying the intraoperative EM system. The data demonstrate the high accuracy of EM navigation, although manual replacement of the condyles could not be surpassed. However, EM navigation can avoid clinically hidden, severe malpositioning of the condyles.



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Treatment of enucleated odontogenic jaw cysts. a systematic review.

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Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): M. Buchbender, F.W. Neukam, R. Lutz, C. Schmitt
ObjectivesIn this systematic review, we aimed to assess the impact of filling or not filling enucleated odontogenic jaw cysts on bony defect consolidation. In terms of filling we aimed to assess which is the best filling material based on current evidence.Study designAn electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases with the logical operators: "odontogenic cysts" AND "jaw cysts" AND "treatment AND therapy".ResultsThirteen studies with primary enucleation (6 with filling and 7 without filling) were included. In terms of filling either synthetic bone substitutes or autologous bone were used. The primary outcome was bony regeneration judged by radiographic follow-up measurements. 2D radiographic follow-up measurements (densitometry) revealed a bone density increase and comparable bone regeneration in both groups.ConclusionsDue to the low number of studies and the heterogeneity of the included data, evidence based treatment recommendations cannot be given at this time. Also outcomes based on 2D measurements should be interpreted with caution. However, the following factors are suggested having an impact on bony defect consolidation: defect size, defect configuration, the preservation of the periosteum and localization (upper or lower jaw). Prospective comparable clinical studies with a 3D follow-up are needed.



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Climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessment of solid radioactive waste disposal: Results of an initiative of the IAEA

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Publication date: March 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 183
Author(s): T. Lindborg, M. Thorne, E. Andersson, J. Becker, J. Brandefelt, T. Cabianca, M. Gunia, A.T.K. Ikonen, E. Johansson, V. Kangasniemi, U. Kautsky, G. Kirchner, R. Klos, R. Kowe, A. Kontula, P. Kupiainen, A.-M. Lahdenperä, N.S. Lord, D.J. Lunt, J.-O. Näslund, M. Nordén, S. Norris, D. Pérez-Sánchez, A. Proverbio, K. Riekki, A. Rübel, L. Sweeck, R. Walke, S. Xu, G. Smith, G. Pröhl
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel on-going research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The project is due to be described in detail in a forthcoming IAEA report. Noting the multi-disciplinary nature of post-closure safety assessments, here, an overview of the work is given to provide researchers in the broader fields of radioecology and radiological safety assessment with a review of the work that has been undertaken. It is hoped that such dissemination will support and promote integrated understanding and coherent treatment of climate change and landscape development within an overall assessment process.The key activities undertaken in the project were: identification of the key processes that drive environmental change (mainly those associated with climate and climate change), and description of how a relevant future may develop on a global scale; development of a methodology for characterising environmental change that is valid on a global scale, showing how modelled global changes in climate can be downscaled to provide information that may be needed for characterising environmental change in site-specific assessments, and illustrating different aspects of the methodology in a number of case studies that show the evolution of site characteristics and the implications for the dose assessment models.Overall, the study has shown that quantitative climate and landscape modelling has now developed to the stage that it can be used to define an envelope of climate and landscape change scenarios at specific sites and under specific greenhouse-gas emissions assumptions that is suitable for use in quantitative post-closure performance assessments. These scenarios are not predictions of the future, but are projections based on a well-established understanding of the important processes involved and their impacts on different types of landscape. Such projections support the understanding of, and selection of, plausible ranges of scenarios for use in post-closure safety assessments.



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Transit time corrected arterial spin labeling technique aids to overcome delayed transit time effect

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of transit time corrected cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps based on multi-phase arterial spin labeling MR perfusion imaging (ASL-MRP).

Methods

The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. Written informed consent was waived. Conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs and dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion imaging (DSC-MRP) were acquired for 108 consecutive patients. Vascular territory-based volumes of interest were applied to CBF and time to peak (TTP) maps obtained from DSC-MRP and CBF maps obtained from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs. The concordances between normalized CBF (nCBF) from DSC-MRP and nCBF from conventional and transition time corrected CBF maps from multi-phase ASL-MRP were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. In addition, the dependence of difference between nCBF (ΔnCBF) values obtained from DSC-MRP and conventional ASL-MRP (or multi-phase ASL-MRP) on TTP obtained from DSC-MRP was also analyzed using regression analysis.

Results

The values of nCBFs from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs had lower values than nCBF based on DSC-MRP (mean differences, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively). The values of ΔnCBF were dependent on TTP values from conventional ASL-MRP technique (F = 5.5679, P = 0.0384). No dependency of ΔnCBF on TTP values from multi-phase ASL-MRP technique was revealed (F = 0.1433, P > 0.05).

Conclusion

The use of transit time corrected CBF maps based on multi-phase ASL-MRP technique can overcome the effect of delayed transit time on perfusion maps based on conventional ASL-MRP.



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Transit time corrected arterial spin labeling technique aids to overcome delayed transit time effect

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of transit time corrected cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps based on multi-phase arterial spin labeling MR perfusion imaging (ASL-MRP).

Methods

The Institutional Review Board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. Written informed consent was waived. Conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs and dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion imaging (DSC-MRP) were acquired for 108 consecutive patients. Vascular territory-based volumes of interest were applied to CBF and time to peak (TTP) maps obtained from DSC-MRP and CBF maps obtained from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs. The concordances between normalized CBF (nCBF) from DSC-MRP and nCBF from conventional and transition time corrected CBF maps from multi-phase ASL-MRP were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. In addition, the dependence of difference between nCBF (ΔnCBF) values obtained from DSC-MRP and conventional ASL-MRP (or multi-phase ASL-MRP) on TTP obtained from DSC-MRP was also analyzed using regression analysis.

Results

The values of nCBFs from conventional and multi-phase ASL-MRPs had lower values than nCBF based on DSC-MRP (mean differences, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively). The values of ΔnCBF were dependent on TTP values from conventional ASL-MRP technique (F = 5.5679, P = 0.0384). No dependency of ΔnCBF on TTP values from multi-phase ASL-MRP technique was revealed (F = 0.1433, P > 0.05).

Conclusion

The use of transit time corrected CBF maps based on multi-phase ASL-MRP technique can overcome the effect of delayed transit time on perfusion maps based on conventional ASL-MRP.



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Patient morbidity among residents extracting third molars: does experience matter?

To evaluate the complication rates for third molar extractions based upon resident level within an OMFS program, and identify the risk factors associated with postoperative complications following third molar extractions.

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Treatment of enucleated odontogenic jaw cysts. a systematic review.

In this systematic review, we aimed to assess the impact of filling or not filling enucleated odontogenic jaw cysts on bony defect consolidation. In terms of filling we aimed to assess which is the best filling material based on current evidence.

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Advantages of submandibular gland preservation surgery over submandibular gland resection for proximal submandibular stones

This study sought to compare surgical outcomes after the removal of submandibular gland (SMG) stones via two different surgical methods.

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Oral potentially malignant disorders: risk of progression to malignancy.

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) have a stastically increased risk of progessing to cancer, but the risk varies according to a range of patient or lesion related factors. It is difficult to predict the risk of progression for any individual patient and the clinician must make a judgement based an assessment of each case. The most commonly encountered OPMD is leukoplakia, but others including lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and erythroplakia may also be seen. Factors associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation include gender, the site and type of lesion, habits such as smoking and alcohol and the presence of epithelial dysplasia on histologic examination.

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Historical perspective and nomenclature of potentially malignant or potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions with emphasis on leukoplakia; some suggestions for modifications

Of the potentially (pre)maligant oral epithelial lesions leukoplakia is the most common one. A brief overview is presented of the various definitions of leukoplakia that have been used in the past. A proposal has been made to adjust the presently existing definition. Clinically, leukoplakias have been subdivided for decades in homogeneous and non-homogeneous leukoplakias, being further divided in different subtypes. A proposal has been made to slightly rearrange these subtypes. Furthermore, attention has been paid to a number of keratotic lesions that have been reported in the literature.

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Mandibular pain, trismus, and weight loss in a 75-year-old man

A 75-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Oral Surgery at Tokai University Hospital with a painful second right mandibular molar. The patient had received root canal treatment at another dental clinic 2 months previously, but the pain did not improve. Because mandibular osteomyelitis was suspected, he was referred to our department. His weight was 68 kg. He had been on treatment for diabetes for 20 years, and he had smoked 40 cigarettes per day for more than 25 years.

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Electromagnetic navigated condylar positioning after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible: a guided method to attain pristine temporomandibular joint conditions?

Reproduction of the exact preoperative proximal-mandible position after osteotomy in orthognathic surgery is difficult to achieve. This clinical pilot study evaluates an electromagnetic navigation (EM) system for condylar positioning after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy.

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Radiological correlation between the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa and that of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal

Dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal (SSC) has been associated with alteration of the temporomandibular joint, although data explaining this association are lacking. The present study examined the correlations between the presence of dehiscences and thickness of the bone covering the SSC and the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF).

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OOOO as required reading in the dental school curriculum: an opportunity to both guide the curriculum and reinforce the relationship between biomedical science education and dental practice?

As health sciences educators, we're all well aware of three closely related recurring challenges in predoctoral dental education: motivating our students to appreciate the importance of the basic sciences and biomedical curriculum to their future clinical practice; ensuring that this content is of clear relevance to dental practice and making sure that our graduates can translate this knowledge to clinical practice. No doubt, the Commission on Dental Accreditation and high stakes examinations like the (Integrated) National Board Dental Examination provide broad guidelines and potential metrics, but, very appropriately, much is still left to the individual institution as to what is covered and how students are assessed.

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Clinical complications in the application of polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin glue after resection of mucosal lesions in oral cavity

Covering open wounds with a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet using fibrin glue after resection of oral mucosal lesions is reportedly useful. We focused on clinical complications of this procedure: development of marked granuloma-like neoplasm (GLN) and abnormal postoperative bleeding (APB) on the resected region.

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Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) versus conventional fractionated radiation therapy (CRT) for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. A propensity score matched analysis

The current treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma consists of surgery followed by conventional radiotherapy (CRT) with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) has been investigated and it resulted feasible and safe. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HFRT can be comparable to CRT.

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Self-authorship in Radiology Education

Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
Source:Academic Radiology
Author(s): Richard B. Gunderman, Jakob A. Weaver




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Prediction of malignancy of submandibular gland tumors with apparent diffusion coefficient

Abstract

Objective

This study was performed to predict malignancy of submandibular gland tumors using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).

Methods

In total, 31 patients (19 male, 12 female; age, 16–71 years) with solid submandibular gland tumors were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the submandibular gland region. ADC maps of the submandibular gland were reconstructed. The ADC value of the submandibular gland tumors was calculated. A freehand region of interest encompassing the homogenous tumor and solid part of the heterogeneous tumor was established.

Results

The mean ADC for submandibular gland malignancy (1.15 ± 0.09 × 10−3 mm2/s) was significantly lower than that for benignancy (1.55 ± 0.25 × 10−3 mm2/s, P = 0.001). An ADC of 1.26 × 10−3 mm2/s could predict malignancy of submandibular gland tumors with an area under the curve of 0.869, accuracy of 84%, sensitivity of 88%, and specificity of 81%.

Conclusion

The ADC is a noninvasive imaging parameter that can be used for prediction of malignancy of submandibular gland tumors.



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An array of substrates for CDK4 and 6 have been identified - potentially leading to drug target discovery. Learn mo… https://t.co/puHi11yLCX

An array of substrates for CDK4 and 6 have been identified - potentially leading to drug target discovery. Learn mo… https://t.co/puHi11yLCX

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Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Cytomegaloviruses in a Community of Wild Nonhuman Primates in Taï National Park, Côte D’Ivoire

Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Cytomegaloviruses in a Community of Wild Nonhuman Primates in Taï National Park, Côte D’Ivoire

Viruses doi: 10.3390/v10010011

Authors: Augustin Anoh Sripriya Murthy Chantal Akoua-Koffi Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann Fabian Leendertz Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer Bernhard Ehlers

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are known to infect many mammals, including a number of nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, most data available arose from studies led on captive individuals and little is known about CMV diversity in wild NHPs. Here, we analyzed a community of wild nonhuman primates (seven species) in Taï National Park (TNP), Côte d’Ivoire, with two PCR systems targeting betaherpesviruses. CMV DNA was detected in 17/87 primates (4/7 species). Six novel CMVs were identified in sooty mangabeys, Campbell’s monkeys and Diana monkeys, respectively. In 3/17 positive individuals (from three NHP species), different CMVs were co-detected. A major part of the glycoprotein B coding sequences of the novel viruses was amplified and sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed that included three previously discovered CMVs of western red colobus from TNP and published CMVs from other NHP species and geographic locations. We find that, despite this locally intensified sampling, NHP CMVs from TNP are completely host-specific, pinpointing the absence or rarity of cross-species transmission. We also show that on longer timescales the evolution of CMVs is characterized by frequent co-divergence with their hosts, although other processes, including lineage duplication and host switching, also have to be invoked to fully explain their evolutionary relationships.



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Impact of alcohol dehydrogenase-aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism on clinical outcome in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer

Abstract

Background

The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) survival.

Methods

We genotyped ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 85 Japanese male patients with hypopharyngeal SCC. The independent prognostic values of ADH1B-ALDH2 genotypes were analyzed by univariate and multivariate proportional hazard Cox regression, taking well-known clinical risk factors into account.

Results

Heavy drinkers with ALDH2*2 allele resulted in significantly worse overall survival (OS; P = .028) and disease-free survival (DFS; P = .029) compared with other patients. Heavy drinkers with ALDH2*2 allele remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis for OS and DFS, indicating independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio [HR] 2.251; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.018-4.975 and HR 2.261; 95% CI 1.021-5.006, respectively).

Conclusion

We conclude that heavy drinkers with the ALDH2*2 allele are associated with poor outcome in hypopharyngeal SCC.



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Computer-aided system for diagnosing thyroid nodules on ultrasound: A comparison with radiologist-based clinical assessments

Abstract

Background

The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of a thyroid ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with that of 1 radiologist.

Methods

This study retrospectively reviewed 342 surgically resected thyroid nodules from July 2013 to December 2013 at our center. The nodules were assessed on typical ultrasound images using the CAD system and reviewed by 1 experienced radiologist. The radiologist stratified the risk of malignancy using the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (TIRADS) and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines.

Results

The radiologist, using TI-RADS and ATA guidelines, performed better than the CAD system (P < .01). The sensitivity of the CAD system was similar to that of an experienced radiologist (P > .05; P < .01; and P > .05). However, we found that the CAD system had lower specificity (P < .01).

Conclusion

The sensitivity of a thyroid ultrasound CAD system in differentiating nodules was similar to that of an experienced radiologist. However, the CAD system had lower specificity.



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In vitro biofilm growth on modern voice prostheses

Abstract

Background

Biofilm formation on voice prostheses in laryngectomized patients usually limits the lifetime of the device. The purpose of this study was to compare the biofilm resistance of different valve flaps of modern voice prostheses in an in vitro simulation of an oropharyngeal biofilm.

Methods

Growth of biofilm deposits on valve flaps (n = 12) removed from Provox 2, Provox Vega, Provox ActiValve, Blom Singer Advantage, and Phonax voice prostheses was evaluated and compared to medical-grade silicone (n = 12) in an in vitro biofilm model (22 days) after incubation with a multispecies bacterial-fungal biofilm composition.

Results

The Provox ActiValve and the Blom Singer Advantage prostheses showed significantly less surface biofilm formation than the other prostheses and then silicone.

Conclusion

The use of silver oxide and Teflon as valve flap materials proves to reduce long-term biofilm formation in vitro. The applied model allows rapid screening for novel biofilm-inhibitive materials and durable coatings designated for more biofilm resistant medical devices.



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Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck: A 17-year single institution experience and review of the National Cancer Data Base

Abstract

Background

Leiomyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to present our single-institution case series of head and neck leiomyosarcoma and a review of cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).

Methods

Patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma at the University of Pennsylvania and in the NCDB were identified. Demographic characteristics, tumor factors, treatment paradigms, and outcomes were evaluated for prognostic significance.

Results

Nine patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma from the institution were identified; a majority had high-grade disease and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, with a 5-year survival rate of 50%. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with leiomyosarcoma were found in the NCDB; macroscopic positive margins and high-grade disease were associated with poor prognosis (P < .01), and positive surgical margins were related to adjuvant radiation (P < .001).

Conclusion

Head and neck leiomyosarcoma presents at a high grade and is preferentially treated with surgery. Several demographic and tumor-specific factors are associated with outcomes and prognosis.



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health technology; +115 new citations

115 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

health technology

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/29

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 98: Fibrocytes: A Novel Stromal Cells to Regulate Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Cancer Progression

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 98: Fibrocytes: A Novel Stromal Cells to Regulate Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Cancer Progression

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19010098

Authors: Hisatsugu Goto Yasuhiko Nishioka

An adequate blood supply is essential for cancer cells to survive and grow; thus, the concept of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has been applied to cancer therapy, and several drugs are already in clinical use. It has been shown that treatment with those anti-angiogenic drugs improved the response rate and prolonged the survival of patients with various types of cancer; however, it is also true that the effect was mostly limited. Currently, the disappointing clinical results are explained by the existence of intrinsic or acquired resistance to the therapy mediated by both tumor cells and stromal cells. This article reviews the mechanisms of resistance mediated by stromal cells such as endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts and myeloid cells, with an emphasis on fibrocytes, which were recently identified as the cell type responsible for regulating acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. In addition, the other emerging role of fibrocytes as mediator-producing cells in tumor progression is discussed.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 101: Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Potato and Their Potential Role in Tuber Sprouting Process

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 101: Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Potato and Their Potential Role in Tuber Sprouting Process

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19010101

Authors: Xiaodong Hou Yongmei Du Xinmin Liu Hongbo Zhang Yanhua Liu Ning Yan Zhongfeng Zhang

Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed the changes in the morphology and expression of lncRNAs in potato tubers during sprouting. Meristematic cells of potato tuber apical buds divided continuously and exhibited vegetative cone bulging and vascularisation. In all, 3175 lncRNAs were identified from the apical buds of potato tubers, among which 383 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 340 were down-regulated during sprouting. The GO enrichment analysis revealed that sprouting mainly influenced the expression of lncRNAs related to the cellular components of potato apical buds (e.g., cytoplasm and organelles) and cellular metabolic processes. The KEGG enrichment analysis also showed significant enrichment of specific metabolic pathways. In addition, 386 differentially expressed lncRNAs during sprouting were identified as putative targets of 235 potato miRNAs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results agreed with the sequencing data. Our study provides the first systematic study of numerous lncRNAs involved in the potato tuber sprouting process and lays the foundation for further studies to elucidate their precise functions.



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Rebuilding Science Education in Puerto Rico

Two hurricanes devastated the territory in September, but rebuilding could create opportunities for positive change

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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health technology; +115 new citations

115 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

health technology

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/29

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.



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Duodenal membranes: a late diagnosis evidenced by foreign bodies

Abstract
One of the causes of congenital incomplete duodenal obstruction is the presence of duodenal membranes. This condition requires a high index of suspicion for an early and accurate diagnosis. We present two cases of duodenal obstruction with initial diagnosis of foreign bodies that were surgically intervened and where incomplete duodenal membranes were an incidental finding. The clinical course of these patients had a different pattern than expected and thus, it is imperative to use a multidisciplinary approach in this group of patients and separate them from other subtypes of duodenal obstruction.

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Elevated homocysteine and N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor antibodies as a cause of behavioural and cognitive decline in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Abstract
A 19-year-old male with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome presented with a 4-year history of cognitive decline and symptoms suggestive of atypical psychosis. Potential for elevated homocysteine and NMDA-receptor antibodies in the pathogenesis of his symptoms was investigated. He had elevated blood homocysteine level (18.7 μmol/l), low-normal vitamin B12 and folate levels and was positive for NMDA-receptor antibodies. Treatment with daily folinic acid (0.8 mg) and vitamin B12 (1 mg) led to dramatic improvement in his cognitive and behavioural presentation. Subsequent plasma exchange resulted in a further, significant clinical improvement. Homocysteine levels and NMDA-R antibodies should be investigated as potential causes of behavioural and cognitive symptoms in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Conglomerate mediastinal mass of a different etiology

Abstract
Streptococcus intermedius is a Gram-positive commensal of the oral cavity with tendency to cause brain and liver abscesses. Mediastinal involvement from S. intermedius is very rare. We present a case of 22-year-old male with newly detected mediastinal conglomerate nodal mass. On his way for bronchoscopy, he developed seizures and was found to have three brain lesions. The aspirate from brain biopsy grew S. intermedius whereas the aspirate from mediastinum showed only acute inflammation. Follow up imaging after antibiotic treatment showed interval resolution of brain abscesses and the mediastinal mass. We believe that the patient had aspiration pneumonia from S. intermedius which then metastasized to mediastinum and brain. Our aim is to make physicians aware of this unusual presentation of S. intermedius infection as a mediastinal mass. A strong effort should be made to isolate the organism from the involved body sites and fluid cavities to confirm the diagnosis.

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Fremanezumab for Preventive Treatment of Migraine

Fremanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP). It is administered monthly via SQ injection.

In this NEJM study, fremanezumab was effective as a preventive treatment for chronic migraine: http://ift.tt/2k9DoB2

Posted at Clinical Cases and Images. Stay updated and subscribe, follow us on Twitter and connect on Facebook.


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Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast

Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic...

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135 La as an Auger-electron emitter for targeted internal radiotherapy

135 La has favorable nuclear and chemical properties for Auger-based targeted internal radiotherapy. Here we present detailed investigations of the production, emissions, and dosimetry related to 135 La therapy. 135 La was produced by 16.5 MeV proton irradiation of metallic nat Ba on a medical cyclotron, and was isolated and purified by trap-and-release on weak cation-exchange resin. The average production rate was 407  ±  19 MBq µ A −1 (saturation activity), and the radionuclidic purity was 98% at 20 h post irradiation. Chemical separation recovered  >  98 % of the 135 La with an effective molar activity of 70  ±  20 GBq µ mol −1 . To better assess cellular and organ dosimetry of this nuclide, we have calculated the x-ray and Auger emission spectra using a Monte Carlo model accounting for effects of multiple vacancies during the Auger cascade. The generated Auger spectrum was used to calculate ...

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Topology-guided deformable registration with local importance preservation for biomedical images

The demons registration (DR) model is well recognized for its deformation capability. However, it might lead to misregistration due to erroneous diffusion direction when there are no overlaps between corresponding regions. We propose a novel registration energy function, introducing topology energy, and incorporating a local energy function into the DR in a progressive registration scheme, to address these shortcomings. The topology energy that is derived from the topological information of the images serves as a direction inference to guide diffusion transformation to retain the merits of DR. The local energy constrains the deformation disparity of neighbouring pixels to maintain important local texture and density features. The energy function is minimized in a progressive scheme steered by a topology tree graph and we refer to it as topology-guided deformable registration (TDR). We validated our TDR on 20 pairs of synthetic images with Gaussian noise, 20 phantom PET images wi...

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Evaluation of latent variances in Monte Carlo dose calculations with Varian TrueBeam photon phase-spaces used as a particle source

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the latent variance (LV) of Varian TrueBeam photon phase-space files (PSF) for open 10  ×  10 cm 2 and small stereotactic fields and estimate the number of phase spaces required to be summed up in order to maintain sub-percent LV in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc software was used to transport particles from Varian phase-space files (PSF A ) through the secondary collimators. Transported particles were scored into another phase-space located under the jaws (PSF B ), or transported further through the cone collimators and scored straight below, forming PSF C . Phase-space files (PSF B ) were scored for 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV beams with 10  ×  10 cm 2 field size, and PSF C were scored for 6 MV beam under circular cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, and 1 cm diameter. Both PSF B and PSF C were transported into a water phan...

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Non-rigid CT/CBCT to CBCT registration for online external beam radiotherapy guidance

Image-guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) allows radiation dose deposition with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Guidance is usually achieved by estimating the displacements, via image registration, between cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and computed tomography (CT) images acquired at different stages of the therapy. The resulting displacements are then used to reposition the patient such that the location of the tumor at the time of treatment matches its position during planning. Moreover, ongoing research aims to use CBCT–CT image registration for online plan adaptation. However, CBCT images are usually acquired using a small number of x-ray projections and/or low beam intensities. This often leads to the images being subject to low contrast, low signal-to-noise ratio and artifacts, which ends-up hampering the image registration process. Previous studies addressed this by integrating additional image processing steps into the registration procedure. H...

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A microvascular compartment model validated using 11 C-methylglucose liver PET in pigs

The standard compartment model (CM) is widely used to analyse dynamic PET data. The CM is fitted to time–activity curves to estimate rate constants that describe the transport of a tracer between well-mixed compartments. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a more realistic microvascular compartment model (MCM) that includes capillary tracer concentration gradients, backflux from cells into the perfused capillaries and multiple re-uptakes during the passage through a capillary. The MCM incorporates only parameters with clear physiological meaning, it is easy to implement, and it does not require numerical solution. We compared the MCM and CM for the analysis of 3 min dynamic PET data of pig livers ( N   =  5) following injection of 11 C-methylglucose. During PET scans, the tracer concentrations in blood were measured in the abdominal aorta, portal vein and liver vein by manual sampling. We found that the MCM outperformed the CM and that dynamic...

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PDT dose dosimetry for Photofrin-mediated pleural photodynamic therapy (pPDT)

Photosensitizer fluorescence excited by photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment light can be used to monitor the in vivo concentration of the photosensitizer and its photobleaching. The temporal integral of the product of in vivo photosensitizer concentration and light fluence is called PDT dose, which is an important dosimetry quantity for PDT. However, the detected photosensitizer fluorescence may be distorted by variations in the absorption and scattering of both excitation and fluorescence light in tissue. Therefore, correction of the measured fluorescence for distortion due to variable optical properties is required for absolute quantification of photosensitizer concentration. In this study, we have developed a four-channel PDT dose dosimetry system to simultaneously acquire light dosimetry and photosensitizer fluorescence data. We measured PDT dose at four sites in the pleural cavity during pleural PDT. We have determined an empirical optical property correction...

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Positioning of head and neck patients for proton therapy using proton range probes: a proof of concept study

To exploit the full potential of proton therapy, accurate and on-line methods to verify the patient positioning and the proton range during the treatment are desirable. Here we propose and validate an innovative technique for determining patient misalignment uncertainties through the use of a small number of low dose, carefully selected proton pencil beams (‘range probes’) (RP) with sufficient energy that their residual Bragg peak (BP) position and shape can be measured on exit. Since any change of the patient orientation in relation to these beams will result in changes of the density heterogeneities through which they pass, our hypothesis is that patient misalignments can be deduced from measured changes in Bragg curve (BC) shape and range. As such, a simple and robust methodology has been developed that estimates average proton range and range dilution of the detected residual BC, in order to locate range probe positions with optimal prediction power for detecting misalignmen...

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Numerical assessment of low-frequency dosimetry from sampled magnetic fields

Low-frequency dosimetry is commonly assessed by evaluating the electric field in the human body using the scalar potential finite difference method. This method is effective only when the sources of the magnetic field are completely known and the magnetic vector potential can be analytically computed. The aim of the paper is to present a rigorous method to characterize the source term when only the magnetic flux density is available at discrete points, e.g. in case of field measurements. The method is based on the solution of the discrete magnetic curl equation. The system is restricted to the independent set of magnetic fluxes and circulations of magnetic vector potential using the topological information of the computational mesh. The solenoidality of the magnetic flux density is preserved using a divergence-free interpolator based on vector radial basis functions. The analysis of a benchmark problem shows that the complexity of the proposed algorithm is linearly dependent on ...

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Improvement of single detector proton radiography by incorporating intensity of time-resolved dose rate functions

Proton radiography, which images patients with the same type of particles as those with which they are to be treated, is a promising approach to image guidance and water equivalent path length (WEPL) verification in proton radiation therapy. We have shown recently that proton radiographs could be obtained by measuring time-resolved dose rate functions (DRFs) using an x-ray amorphous silicon flat panel. The WEPL values were derived solely from the root-mean-square (RMS) of DRFs, while the intensity information in the DRFs was filtered out. In this work, we explored the use of such intensity information for potential improvement in WEPL accuracy and imaging quality. Three WEPL derivation methods based on, respectively, the RMS only, the intensity only, and the intensity-weighted RMS were tested and compared in terms of the quality of obtained radiograph images and the accuracy of WEPL values. A Gammex CT calibration phantom containing inserts made of various tissue substitute mate...

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Comparison of efficacies of fetal bovine sera from different suppliers in cell culture experiments

Abstract

Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used as a culture medium supplement. A high degree of variations is observed among FBS samples produced by different suppliers. The purpose of the present study was to compare between the quality and characteristics of FBS produced at Avicenna Research Institute (ARI-FBS) and a commercial FBS. Blood samples were taken from 50 healthy bovine fetuses at 2–9 months of age. Following clotting of the blood, samples were centrifuged. Their sera were collected under sterile conditions. After irradiation, to investigate the performance and quality assurance of the serum samples, some biological properties in cell culture applications, including capacities in supporting single cell growth, proliferation, and cell viability were examined by cell cloning, MTT assay, and flow cytometry analysis. Comparison of ARI-FBS with commercial FBS showed that both of them were expedient and reliable for use in culture studies. However, significant differences in growth rates of different cell lines were observed between them. Results of MTT assay showed that L929 cell line had a significantly better viability in ARI-FBS. Conversely, PC3 and SW480 cell lines were more viable in commercial FBS. In cloning experiments and flow cytometry, both sera showed similar efficiencies. ARI-FBS supported cell growth and maintained cell viabilities in a similar manner to the commercial FBS. ARI-FBS may thus be a proper alternative for commercial FBS as a growth-promoting component for successful culture of cell lines.



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quality of care; +660 new citations

660 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

quality of care

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/29

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.



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Morin hydrate mitigates rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced neurobehavioural impairments and loss of viable neurons in the hippocampus of mice.

Morin hydrate mitigates rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced neurobehavioural impairments and loss of viable neurons in the hippocampus of mice.

Behav Brain Res. 2017 Dec 25;:

Authors: Olonode ET, Aderibigbe AO, Adeoluwa OA, Eduviere AT, Ben-Azu B

Abstract
Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation distorts the body's homeostasis and results in oxidative breakdown which may be responsible for a variety of neurological disorders. Some naturally occurring compounds of plant origin with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties are known to attenuate the detrimental effects of REM sleep deprivation. Morin hydrate, a flavonoid from Mulberry has demonstrated antioxidant and neuroprotective activities but its effect in sleep disturbed mice is unknown. The study was designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of Morin hydrate on 48 hr. REM sleep deprivation-induced behavioural impairments and neuronal damage in mice. Mice were allotted into six treatment groups (n = 6): groups 1 and 2 received vehicle (10 ml/kg normal saline), groups 3-5 received Morin hydrate (5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p) while group 6 received ginseng (25 mg/kg) which served as the reference drug. Treatment was performed daily for 5 days and animals were sleep-deprived on the last 48 hrs. Various behavioural tests (Elevated plus maze, Y-maze, locomotor activity) followed by oxidative parameters (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione) and histolopathological changes in the Cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus were assessed. Data were analysed using ANOVA at α0.05. Morin hydrate (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) significantly enhanced memory performance, improves anxiolytic-like behaviour, reverses hyperlocomotion, restored depleted reduced glutathione, attenuated raised malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels as compared to control animals and protects against loss of hippocampal neurons. Results of this present study suggest that Morin hydrate possess neuroprotective effects against sleep deprivation-induced behavioural impairments, oxidative stress and neuronal damage.

PMID: 29284109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Resistance Exercise Training is More Effective than Interval Aerobic Training in Reducing Blood Pressure During Sleep in Hypertensive Elderly Patients.

Resistance Exercise Training is More Effective than Interval Aerobic Training in Reducing Blood Pressure During Sleep in Hypertensive Elderly Patients.

J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Bertani RF, Campos GO, Perseguin DM, Bonardi J, Ferriolli E, Moriguti JC, Lima NKC

Abstract
An appropriate fall in blood pressure (BP) during sleep is known to be related to a lower cardiovascular risk. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different types of training on hypertensive elderly patients under treatment in terms of pressure variability assessed by the nocturnal decline in BP. Hypertensive elderly subjects under pharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training (CA), interval aerobic training (IA), resistance training (R), or control (C). All subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring prior to and 24 hours after the last exercise session. The results were assessed using the mixed effects model. A greater nocturnal decline in diastolic BP compared to the wakefulness period was observed in R in comparison to C (11.0±4.1 vs. 6.0±5.7 mmHg, p=0.01) and to IA (11.0±4. vs. 6.5±5.1 mmHg, p=0.02). No fall in BP during a 24-hour period was observed in training groups compared to C, perhaps because the subjects were mostly non-dippers, for whom the effect of training on BP is found to be lower. In conclusion, resistance training promoted a greater nocturnal fall in BP among hypertensive elderly subjects under treatment compared to IA subjects.

PMID: 29283931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Measuring Sleep in Vulnerable Older Adults: A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Measures.

Measuring Sleep in Vulnerable Older Adults: A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Measures.

Clin Gerontol. 2017 Dec 08;:1-13

Authors: Hughes JM, Song Y, Fung CH, Dzierzewski JM, Mitchell MN, Jouldjian S, Josephson KR, Alessi CA, Martin JL

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study compared subjective (questionnaire) and objective (actigraphy) sleep assessments, and examined agreement between these methods, in vulnerable older adults participating in a Veterans Administration Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program.
METHODS: 59 ADHC participants (95% male, mean age = 78 years) completed sleep questionnaires and 72 continuous hours of wrist actigraphy. Linear regression was used to examine agreement between methods and explore discrepancies in subjective/objective measures.
RESULTS: Disturbed sleep was common, yet there was no agreement between subjective and objective sleep assessment methods. Compared with objective measures, one-half of participants reported worse sleep efficiency (SE) on questionnaires while one-quarter over-estimated SE. Participants reporting worse pain had a greater discrepancy between subjective and objective SE.
CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerable older adults demonstrated unique patterns of reporting sleep quality when comparing subjective and objective methods. Additional research is needed to better understand how vulnerable older adults evaluate sleep problems.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Objective and subjective sleep measures may represent unique and equally important constructs in this population. Clinicians should consider utilizing both objective and subjective sleep measures to identify individuals who may benefit from behavioral sleep treatments, and future research is needed to develop and validate appropriate sleep assessments for vulnerable older adults.

PMID: 29283797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Omentin-A Novel Adipokine in Respiratory Diseases.

Omentin-A Novel Adipokine in Respiratory Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Dec 28;19(1):

Authors: Zhou Y, Zhang B, Hao C, Huang X, Li X, Huang Y, Luo Z

Abstract
Adipokines, secreted by the adipose tissue, are extensively involved in the regulation and maintenance of various physiological and pathological processes, including insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory activity, neuroendocrine activity, immunity, cancer, homeostasis, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, breeding and bone metabolism, and all functions of the endocrine-reproductive system axis. Omentin is a recently identified adipokine, which has become a research hotspot due to its pleiotropic effects on various diseases. However, the specific receptor for omentin has not been identified so far. In this study, we report that omentin levels fluctuate in various diseases. In addition, we have focused on the pleiotropic roles of omentin in pulmonary diseases, as it may act as a biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and is related to disease severity. Omentin may play significant roles in other pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review summarizes the advances in current knowledge and future trends, which may provide a concise and general view on omentin and its effects on pulmonary biology.

PMID: 29283409 [PubMed - in process]



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Missed medical appointments during shifts to and from daylight saving time.

Missed medical appointments during shifts to and from daylight saving time.

Chronobiol Int. 2017 Dec 28;:1-5

Authors: Ellis DA, Luther K, Jenkins R

Abstract
Transitions into and out of Daylight Saving Time (DST) can provide insights into how a minor change to a regular sleep-wake cycle can inadvertently affect health. We examined the relationship between DST and missed medical appointments. Using a large dataset, the proportion of missed appointments were examined prior and post spring and autumn clock changes. As predicted, the number of missed medical appointments significantly increased following the spring (forward) clock change and the week of the clock change. This trend was reversed following the transition out of DST. The implications of scheduling appointments around DST to increase attendance are discussed.

PMID: 29283286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Epidemiology of objectively measured bedtime and chronotype in US adolescents and adults: NHANES 2003-2006.

Epidemiology of objectively measured bedtime and chronotype in US adolescents and adults: NHANES 2003-2006.

Chronobiol Int. 2017 Dec 28;:1-19

Authors: Urbanek JK, Spira AP, Di J, Leroux A, Crainiceanu C, Zipunnikov V

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We propose a method for estimating the timing of in-bed intervals using objective data in a large representative US sample, and quantify the association between these intervals and age, sex, and day of the week.
METHODS: The study included 11,951 participants 6 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006, who wore accelerometers to measure physical activity for seven consecutive days. Participants were instructed to remove the device just before the nighttime sleep period and put it back on immediately after. This nighttime period of non-wear was defined in this paper as the objective bedtime (OBT), an objectively estimated record of the in-bed interval. For each night of the week, we estimated two measures: the duration of the OBT (OBT-D) and, as a measure of the chronotype, the midpoint of the OBT (OBT-M). We estimated day-of-the-week-specific OBT-D and OBT-M using gender-specific population percentile curves. Differences in OBT-M (chronotype) and OBT-D (the amount of time spent in bed) by age and sex were estimated using regression models.
RESULTS: The estimates of OBT-M and their differences among age groups were consistent with the estimates of chronotype obtained via self-report in European populations. The average OBT-M varied significantly by age, while OBT-D was less variable with age. In the reference group (females, aged 17-22 years), the average OBT-M across 7 days was 4:19 AM (SD = 30 min) and the average OBT-D was 9 h 19 min (SD = 12 min). In the same age group the average OBT-D was 18 minutes shorter for males than for females, while the average OBT-M was not significantly different between males and females. The most pronounced differences were observed between OBT-M of weekday and weekend nights. In the reference group, compared to the average OBT-M of 3:50 am on Monday through Thursday nights, there was a 57-minute delay in OBT-M on Friday nights (entering the weekend), a 69-minute delay on Saturday nights (staying in the weekend), and a 23-minute delay on Sunday night (leaving the weekend). For both OBT-M and OBT-D, in most age groups and for most days of the week, there were no statistically significant differences between males and females, except for OBT-D on Wednesdays and Thursdays, with males having 31 (p-value < 0.05) and 45 (p-value < 0.05) minutes shorter OBT-D, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed measures, OBT-D and OBT-M, provide useful information of time in bed and chronotype in NHANES 2003-2006. They identify within-week patterns of bedtime and can be used to study associations between the bedtime and the large number of health outcomes collected in NHANES 2003-2006.

PMID: 29283283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Continuous spike-wave during sleep: treating an epilepsy without seizures.

Continuous spike-wave during sleep: treating an epilepsy without seizures.

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Varadkar S

PMID: 29283182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Nucleus Accumbens, a new sleep-regulating area through the integration of motivational stimuli.

Nucleus Accumbens, a new sleep-regulating area through the integration of motivational stimuli.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Valencia Garcia S, Fort P

PMID: 29283174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Safety limits of antidepressant use plus combinations: focus on cardiovascular function.

Safety limits of antidepressant use plus combinations: focus on cardiovascular function.

Curr Drug Metab. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Stella F, Loureiro JC, Pais MV, Canineu PR, Florenza OV

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants have been widely prescribed for depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in the management of behavioural symptoms of adult-old patients. Although generally safe, newer generation antidepressants are not devoid of the risk of inducing clinically relevant adverse events.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between newer generation antidepressants and the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse events and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities.
METHODS: Studies were included in the review according to the following criteria: a) clinical trials (placebo-controlled or not) or case reports; b) short- or long-term interventions with antidepressants; c) prescription of newer generation antidepressants as first-line treatment; d) samples of adult or adult-old patients. From a total of 301 articles addressing the association between antidepressants and cardiovascular adverse events as primary or secondary outcomes, we selected 30 controlled clinical trials and 10 case reports.
RESULTS: In most clinical studies, the effects of antidepressants on cardiac function are usually computed as secondary outcome variables, however with limited information. Conversely, case reports tend to present more comprehensive sets of clinical and laboratorial parameters, but the generalization of such data is limited by the small number of observations. The occurrence of QTc prolongation (with increased risk of torsade de pointes) has been reported. Aging, higher dosages of antidepressants, drug interaction, and pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities were found as risk factors for the aforementioned cardiovascular and ECG abnormalities.
CONCLUSION: Prescribing antidepressants requires caution given their potential impact on cardiac function, and the clinician should carefully monitor cardiovascular and ECG parameters particularly in cases with underlying heart disease.

PMID: 29283067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Links between sleep and daytime behaviour problems in children with Down syndrome.

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Links between sleep and daytime behaviour problems in children with Down syndrome.

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Esbensen AJ, Hoffman EK, Beebe DW, Byars KC, Epstein J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the general population, sleep problems have an impact on daytime performance. Despite sleep problems being common among children with Down syndrome, the impact of sleep problems on daytime behaviours in school-age children with Down syndrome is an understudied topic. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports of daytime behaviour problems among school-age children with Down syndrome.
METHOD: Thirty school-age children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Their parent and teacher completed a battery of measures to assess daytime behaviour.
RESULTS: Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, but not actigraph-measured sleep efficiency, was predictive of parent and teacher behavioural concerns on the Nisonger Child Behaviour Rating Form and the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales. Actigraph-measured sleep period and parent-reported sleep duration on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was predictive of daytime parent-reported inattention. Actigraph-measured sleep period was predictive of parent-reported hyperactivity/impulsivity.
CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that sleep problems have complex relationships to both parent-reported and teacher-reported daytime behaviour concerns in children with Down syndrome. These findings have implications for understanding the factors impacting behavioural concerns and their treatment in school-age children with Down syndrome.

PMID: 29282827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Effects of pain treatment on sleep in nursing home patients with dementia and depression: A multicenter placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

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Effects of pain treatment on sleep in nursing home patients with dementia and depression: A multicenter placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Blytt KM, Bjorvatn B, Husebo B, Flo E

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pain treatment on sleep in nursing home (NH) patients with dementia and depression.
METHODS: A multicenter, 2-armed, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted between August 2014 and September 2016. One hundred six long-term patients from 47 NHs in Norway with dementia and depression according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia were included. Patients received stepwise pain treatment in which those who did not use analgesics were randomized to receive either paracetamol (3 g/day) or placebo tablets; those who already used pain treatment were allocated to buprenorphine transdermal system (max. 10 μg/h/7 days) or placebo transdermal patches. Sleep was assessed continuously for 14 days by actigraphy, 1 week of baseline measurement, and 1 week of ongoing treatment. The following sleep parameters were evaluated: total sleep time, sleep efficiency (SE), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset, early morning awakening (EMA), and number of wake bouts.
RESULTS: In the intervention group (paracetamol/buprenorphine), SE (70%-72%), SOL (32-24 min), and EMA (50-40 min) improved compared with the control group (SE, 70%-67%; SOL, 47-60 min; EMA, 31-35 min). Treatment effects were significant (P < .01, P < .05, and P < .05, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, pain treatment improved sleep as measured with actigraphy. This implies that sleep, pain, and depression in NH patients should be critically evaluated and that pain treatment should be considered to be a potentially beneficial treatment.

PMID: 29282768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at ~ 3000 m altitude.

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Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at ~ 3000 m altitude.

Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Horiuchi M, Endo J, Handa Y, Nose H

Abstract
We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure (P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at ~ 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively. P B gradually decreased during the night at the speed of approximately - 0.5 hPa/h. We found that HR during sleep decreased linearly as P B decreased in all subjects, with significance (r = 0.492-0.893; all, P < 0.001). Moreover, cross correlation analysis revealed that HR started to decrease after ~ 15 min following the decrease in P B, on average. SpO2 was 93.8 ± 1.7% at 2305 m before climbing, then decreased significantly to 90.2 ± 2.2% at the lodge before going to bed, and further decreased to 87.5 ± 2.7% after waking (all, P < 0.05). Four of the 19 subjects showed a symptom of AMS after waking (21%). Further, the decrease in HR in response to a given decrease in P B (ΔHR/ΔPB) was negatively related with a decrease in SpO2 from before going to bed to after waking at 3000 m (r = - 0.579, P = 0.009) and with total AMS scores after waking (r = 0.489, P = 0.033).

PMID: 29282538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Presenting as Non-epileptic Spells: A Unique Combination.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Presenting as Non-epileptic Spells: A Unique Combination.

Cureus. 2017 Oct 24;9(10):e1800

Authors: Natteru P, Rupareliya C, Zhou X, Bollu PC

Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an increasingly prevalent sleep disorder, has been extensively studied in both clinical and scientific settings. In most cases, the diagnosis of sleep apnea is straightforward with patients having symptoms of snoring, choking or gasping for air while asleep and witnessed apneas. However, sleep apnea is known to present in some unusual ways. We present a case of a 61-year-old male, with recently diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (currently not on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) and a history of seizure-like events since the age of 18 years, who came to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for spell characterization of his frequent seizure-like episodes. A continuous video electroencephalogram (vEEG) performed in order to determine the semiology of these spells showed that all the spells were triggered by an arousal from sleep with an associated apneic event. He was started on positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, which resulted in the gradual decline in the number as well as the severity of his seizure-like spells. Based on the observations from vEEG monitoring and the patient's response, we concluded these seizure-like events as non-epileptic spells, triggered by apnea-related arousals in the context of OSA.

PMID: 29282444 [PubMed]



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Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Correlates and Impact on Caregiver Distress.

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Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Correlates and Impact on Caregiver Distress.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2017 Sep-Dec;7(3):354-365

Authors: Mukherjee A, Biswas A, Roy A, Biswas S, Gangopadhyay G, Das SK

Abstract
Aims: To evaluate the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), to determine their correlation with types and stages of dementia and patient demographics, and to assess the impact on caregiver distress.
Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited consecutive dementia patients and caregivers who attended our cognitive clinic. Standard criteria were used to classify types of dementia. BPSD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and its distress scale was used for caregiver distress.
Results: Of a total 107 patients, nearly all (99.1%) had at least one BPSD; 71% had ≥4 symptoms. Most frequent were apathy and agitation, followed by irritability, sleep and appetite disorders, and mood disorders; disinhibition and euphoria were least frequent. BPSD were less prominent with increasing age; males showed more agitation. Apathy and eating disorders were more prevalent in the rural community. BPSD were highest in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and least in vascular dementia. Hallucinations were more common in DLB, aberrant motor behaviour in FTD. All domains of BPSD, except for anxiety and euphoria, were more prominent with increasing severity of dementia. Increasing BPSD (except for euphoria) caused higher caregiver distress.
Conclusion: BPSD are universally present, bear correlates with dementia type and severity, and cause significant caregiver distress.

PMID: 29282408 [PubMed]



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Is sexual minority status associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents? Analysis of a national cross-sectional survey in Chinese adolescents.

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Is sexual minority status associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents? Analysis of a national cross-sectional survey in Chinese adolescents.

BMJ Open. 2017 Dec 26;7(12):e017067

Authors: Li P, Huang Y, Guo L, Wang W, Xi C, Lei Y, Luo M, Pan S, Deng X, Zhang WH, Lu C

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that sexual minorities are more likely to have poor sleep quality. This study aims to explore sleep quality among sexual minority adolescents and examines the association between sexual minority status and sleep quality.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: A total of 506 high schools in seven Chinese provinces.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 150 822 students in grades 7-12 completed the questionnaires, and 123 459 students who reported being aware of their sexual orientation were included in analyses.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, sexual attraction and school bullying victimisation.
RESULTS: Of the 123 459 students who were analysed, 5.00% self-reported as sexual minorities. Only 26.67% of sexual minority students slept 8 or more hours/day, which is less than their heterosexual peers (35.70%; χ2=130.04, P<0.001). Of the total sample, 22.41% of the students reported poor sleep quality, and this prevalence was significantly higher in sexual minority students than in heterosexual students (32.56% vs 21.87%; χ2=281.70, P<0.001). After controlling for social demographics, lifestyle and depressive symptoms, sexual minority students had higher odds of poor sleep quality (adjusted OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.51) than their heterosexual peers. The indirect effect of school bullying victimisation (standardised β estimate=0.007, 95% CI 0.006 to 0.009) was significant, indicating that school bullying victimisation partially mediated the association between sexual minority status and sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that poor sleep quality was common in sexual minority adolescents, and more attention should be paid to sleep problems in this population. Conducting interventions to reduce school bullying behaviours is an important step to improving sleep quality in sexual minority adolescents. Further, studies are warranted that focus on the risk factors and mechanisms of and interventions for sleep problems in sexual minority adolescents.

PMID: 29282258 [PubMed - in process]



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The effect of angiotensin II on blood pressure in patients with circulatory shock: a structured review of the literature.

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The effect of angiotensin II on blood pressure in patients with circulatory shock: a structured review of the literature.

Crit Care. 2017 Dec 28;21(1):324

Authors: Busse LW, McCurdy MT, Ali O, Hall A, Chen H, Ostermann M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Circulatory shock is a common syndrome with a high mortality and limited therapeutic options. Despite its discovery and use in clinical and experimental settings more than a half-century ago, angiotensin II (Ang II) has only been recently evaluated as a vasopressor in distributive shock. We examined existing literature for associations between Ang II and the resolution of circulatory shock.
METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, and Embase to identify all English literature accounts of intravenous Ang II in humans for the treatment of shock (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≤ 90 mmHg or a mean arterial pressure [MAP] ≤ 65 mmHg), and hand-searched the references of extracted papers for further studies meeting inclusion criteria. Of 3743 articles identified, 24 studies including 353 patients met inclusion criteria. Complete data existed for 276 patients. Extracted data included study type, publication year, demographics, type of shock, dosing of Ang II or other vasoactive medications, and changes in BP, lactate, and urine output. BP effects were grouped according to type of shock, with additional analyses completed for patients with absent blood pressure. Shock was distributive (n = 225), cardiogenic (n = 38), or from other causes (n = 90). Blood pressure as absent in 18 patients.
RESULTS: For the 276 patients with complete data, MAP rose by 23.4% from 63.3 mmHg to 78.1 mmHg in response to Ang II (dose range: 15 ng/kg/min to 60 mcg/min). SBP rose by 125.2% from 56.9 mmHg to 128.2 mmHg (dose range: 0.2 mcg/min to a 1500 mcg bolus). A total of 271 patients with complete data were determined to exhibit a BP effect which was directly associated with Ang II. Subgroups (patients with cardiogenic, septic, and other types of shock) exhibited similar increases in BP. In patients with absent BP, deemed to be cardiac arrest, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved, and BP increased by an average of 107.3 mmHg in 11 of 18 patients. The remaining seven patients with cardiac arrest did not respond.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous Ang II is associated with increased BP in patients with cardiogenic, distributive, and unclassified shock. A role may exist for Ang II in restoring circulation in cardiac arrest.

PMID: 29282149 [PubMed - in process]



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A novel integrative procedure for identifying and integrating three-dimensions of objectively measured free-living sedentary behaviour.

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A novel integrative procedure for identifying and integrating three-dimensions of objectively measured free-living sedentary behaviour.

BMC Public Health. 2017 Dec 28;17(1):979

Authors: Myers A, Gibbons C, Butler E, Dalton M, Buckland N, Blundell J, Finlayson G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The widely accepted definition of sedentary behaviour [SB] refers to any waking behaviour characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents [METs] while in a sitting or reclining posture. At present, there is no single field-based device which objectively measures sleep, posture and activity intensity simultaneously. The aim of this study was to develop a novel integrative procedure [INT] to combine information from two validated activity monitors on sleep, activity intensity and posture, the three key dimensions of SB.
METHODS: Participants in this analysis were initially recruited from a series of three studies conducted between December 2014 and June 2016 at the University of Leeds. Sixty-three female participants aged 37.1 (13.6) years with a body mass index of 29.6 (4.7) kg/m2 were continuously monitored for 5-7 days with the SenseWear Armband [SWA] (sleep and activity intensity) and the activPAL [AP] (posture). Data from both activity monitors were analysed separately and integrated resulting in three measures of sedentary time. Differences in Sedentary time between the three measurement methods were assessed as well as how well the three measures correlated.
RESULTS: The three measures of sedentary time were positively correlated, with the weakest relationship between SEDSWA (awake and <1.5 METs) and SEDAP (awake and sitting/lying posture) [r(61) = .37,p = .003], followed by SEDSWA and SEDINT (awake, <1.5 METs and sitting/lying posture) [r(61) = .58,p < .001], and the strongest relationship was between SEDAP and SEDINT [r(61) = .91,p < .001]. There was a significant difference between the three measures of sedentary time [F(1.18,73.15) = 104.70,p < .001]. Post-hoc tests revealed all three methods differed significantly from each other [p < .001]. SEDSWA resulted in the most sedentary time 11.74 (1.60) hours/day, followed by SEDAP 10.16 (1.75) hours/day, and SEDINT 9.10 (1.67) hours/day. Weekday and weekend day sedentary time did not differ for any of the measurement methods [p = .04-.25].
CONCLUSION: Information from two validated activity monitors was combined to obtain an objective measure of free-living SB based on posture and activity intensity during waking hours. The amount of sedentary time accumulated varied according to the definition of SB and its measurement. The novel data integration and processing procedures presented in this paper represents an opportunity to investigate whether different components of SB are differentially related to health end points.

PMID: 29282037 [PubMed - in process]



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Validation of the Farsi version of the revised Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr): a cross-sectional study.

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Validation of the Farsi version of the revised Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr): a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Dec 28;17(1):408

Authors: Chehri A, Khazaie H, Eskandari S, Khazaie S, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Brand S, Gerber M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Restoring sleep is associated with a broad variety of favorable cognitive, emotional, social and behavioral benefits during the day. This holds particularly true for adolescents, as maturational, social, cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes might unfavorably impact on adolescents' sleep. Among adolescents, poor sleep hygiene practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that can be addressed via appropriate interventions. Accordingly, having reliable and valid self-report measures to assess sleep hygiene practices is essential to gauge individual responses to behavioral interventions and evaluate sleep hygiene recommendations. The aim of the present study therefore was to translate and to test the psychometric properties (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial and concurrent validity) of the Farsi/Persian version of the revised version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr).
METHOD: A total of 1013 adolescents (mean age: M = 15.4 years; SD = 1.2; range: 12-19 years; 42.9% females) completed the ASHSr and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in their classroom during an official school lesson. Further, 20% completed the ASHSr 6 weeks later to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to examine internal consistency, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test factorial validity, whereas concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were examined via correlation analyses.
RESULTS: A first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) corroborated the six-factor structure of the ASHSr, including a physiological, behavioral arousal, cognitive/emotional, daytime sleep, sleep environment, and sleep stability factor. A second-order CFA showed that a higher-order sleep hygiene construct explained sufficient variance in each factor. Cronbach's alpha values ranged between .71 and .75, correlations for test-retest reliability between .82 and .87. Significant correlations were found between most ASHSr scales and the PSQI indices. However, the magnitude of these correlations was weak.
CONCLUSIONS: The Farsi/Persian version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale can be used as a reliable and valid tool for evaluation of sleep hygiene practices among Farsi/Persian-speaking adolescents.

PMID: 29282019 [PubMed - in process]



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Pathophysiology and Treatment of Memory Dysfunction After Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Pathophysiology and Treatment of Memory Dysfunction After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017 Jul;17(7):52

Authors: Paterno R, Folweiler KA, Cohen AS

Abstract
Memory is fundamental to everyday life, and cognitive impairments resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have devastating effects on TBI survivors. A contributing component to memory impairments caused by TBI is alteration in the neural circuits associated with memory function. In this review, we aim to bring together experimental findings that characterize behavioral memory deficits and the underlying pathophysiology of memory-involved circuits after TBI. While there is little doubt that TBI causes memory and cognitive dysfunction, it is difficult to conclude which memory phase, i.e., encoding, maintenance, or retrieval, is specifically altered by TBI. This is most likely due to variation in behavioral protocols and experimental models. Additionally, we review a selection of experimental treatments that hold translational potential to mitigate memory dysfunction following injury.

PMID: 28500417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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