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Σάββατο, 10 Δεκεμβρίου 2016

Edible Camphor-induced Histopathological Changes in Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex Following Oral Administration into Rats

2016-12-10T15-20-04Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Oluwatobi T Somade, Damilola M. Ogunberu, Toyin T. Fakayode, Adeola O. Animashaun.
Introduction: Raw edible camphor (EC), and as component of herbal infusions are widely used to treat pile, back pain, erectile dysfunction, and as an aphrodisiac especially in preparation for sexual intercourse by men. It has been traced in umbilical cord, blood, fetal, adipose, and other tissues including brain, where it bioaccumulates. Methods: The study, therefore, investigated the possible histopathological changes in brain, heart, and spleen that may result following EC administration in rats. Thirty animals were used for the study and were divided into six groups of five rats each. Group I animals served as normal control, Group II animals served as vehicle control and were orally administered 6 mL/kg corn oil daily for 7 days, while Groups III-VI animals were orally administered 1, 2, 4, and 6 g/kg EC for 7 days daily. Results and Conclusions: Following the administrations of various doses of EC, the histopathological changes seen in the cerebral cortex of the brain include mild submeningeal spongiosis, mild diffuse spongiosis of the parenchyma, a very mild diffuse gliosis, and presences of gitter cells, while in hippocampus, there were mild diffuse gliosis and disruption of the progression of the hippocampal horns, as well as foci of spongiosis around the hippocampal horns, and neuronal cells have open faced nuclei. No effect was seen in heart and spleen except 4 g/kg of EC that revealed moderate diffuse congestion in spleen only. In conclusion, EC may not have any toxic effects on the cardiac and splenic cells, but had toxic effects on the brain hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and may lead to brain cell damage.


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Prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria

2016-12-10T06-13-12Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Sonu Chauhan, Mrinmay Ghosh, Pramod Kumar Agrawal, Mrityunjay Pratap Singh, Wasim Alam.
Background: The study was designed to assess the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in asymptomatic patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without microalbuminuria, by the exercise electrocardiography and to assess the role of microalbuminuria as a marker for detecting silent coronary artery disease (CAD) and role of other conventional CAD risk factors in diabetic patients in development of SMI. Methods: A total of 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were dipstick negative for macroalbuminuria and had no history suggestive of CAD or ECG abnormality were taken. Out of 60 patients 30 patients were positive for microalbuminuria by Micral Test® II sticks and 30 were tested negative for microalbuminuria. Subsequently, they were divided into case and control groups. Results: The risk of undetected CAD was increased in male Type 2 diabetics (p


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The reliability and validity of Indian version of Chinese restaurant syndrome scale

2016-12-10T05-30-36Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Selvaraj Irulankudi, Preethi Selvaraj, Pradeep Selvaraj.
Background: Universally people relish and appreciate attractive foods from the restaurants. Chinese restaurant syndrome (CRS) includes nexus web of symptoms such as numbness at the back of neck which is gradually radiating to upper limbs, general weakness, and palpitation. Hence, developing a cost-effective tool to assess the CRS among general population was our key research priority. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale to assess the CRS. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study for which parameters for assessing CRS were identified and reviewed by experts in the area of scale construction. Designed questionnaire was given to the 131 study subjects with objectives explained, triad of symptoms (chest pain, numbness, and burning sensation) were analyzed and the confidentiality of the data and results were been assured and a final scale including three domains including 25 item check-list was constructed. Data were analyzed for factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbachα), test-retest reliability using SPSS v 22.0 software. Results: The reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbachs alpha which was 0.91 and the intra class correlation coefficient was 0.90; 95% CI (0.898, 0.936), P

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Prevalence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus species isolated from urine samples in a tertiary care hospital, Western India

2016-12-10T05-30-36Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Mitali R Maradia, Kanksha Mehta, Khyati Prajapati, Minesh Vadsmiya, Pranay Shah, Mahendra Vegad.
Background: Enterococci have emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistance Enterococcus is a major obstacle for treatment. Objective: The present study was carried out to determine the species of Enterococci isolated from urine samples and to determine its multidrug-resistant pattern. Materials and Methods: Enterococcus spp. were isolated and identified from urine samples between February 2014 and June 2015 by the standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Result: Among the 156 isolates, Enterococcus faecium constituted the predominant isolate. They were found to be susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin with least sensitive to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: Routine speciation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterococcus in urine samples are emphasized due to the prevalence of a wide variety of Enterococcus species and also appearance of high-resistant strains.


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Mental Health Promotion or Public Mental Health: The Time Demanded Area

2016-12-10T04-17-32Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
S.M. Yasir Arafat.



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UTILIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN PHARMACOVIGILANCE: RELEVANCE, SCOPE AND CHALLENGES

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Dr. Aby Mathews M, Dr. Rohini N Kathavate.
The universalisation of the web and online networking in the course of recent years has prompted a progressive movement in how individuals are communicating with each other today. Online networking stages and applications are quickly becoming the most preferred communication method. The increased uses of tablets, mobile phones and other hand held smart devices have led to the rapid increase of users of social media. Advanced media is utilized by biopharmaceutical organizations for correspondence with patients to gather information about infections and medicines, clinical trial enlistments, patient support programs etc. This paper analyses the scope importance and challenges of data mining with social media as a source for the process of Pharmacovigilance (PV) and the potential impact of the same in the larger arena of population and public health.


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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLONIC MICROSPHERES OF GLIPIZIDE BY IONIC GELATION METHOD

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Goyal Gourav*, Garg Payal, Singh Gurdev, Saini Sapna, Beniwal Renu, Rathi Jyoti, Arora Sunaina.
The present study delineates synthesis and characterization of Glipizide microspheres using tragacanth gum, inulin and HPMC as polymers for colon-specific delivery for better treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, avoiding the side effects. The Glipizide microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique by the use of various cross linking agents. The polysaccharides reacted with sodium alginate in the presence of various cross linking agents to form microspheres with a polyelectrolyte complex membrane by electrostatic interaction between the two oppositely charged polymers. The microspheres were then studied for entrapment efficiency, drug-polymer compatibility and surface morphology. In vitro drug release pattern was studied in buffer medium using USP dissolution apparatus. Further, kinetics modelling was employed to find out release mechanisms. Glipizide microspheres showed high entrapment efficiency (87.75%) and the microspheres were free flowing, non aggregated and spherical, between 500-700 μm in diameter. The FT-IR spectrum showed that there is no interaction between the polymer and drug. The in vitro release study found to be affected by using various cross linking agent. The microspheres with Barium chloride as cross linking agent showing no drug release at acidic pH but show maximum release at the end of 12th hour in simulated intestinal fluid. The rate of drug release follows koresmeyer-peppas model and zero order kinetics. It was seen from the observation data that the cumulative percentage release from all the drug loaded batches of microspheres fell within the range of 47.73% to 64.14% in 12 hours study and it was found that the % cumulative release in microspheres encapsulated with tragacanth gum was maximum for Batch GA2 (64.14%) and minimum for Batch GC3 (47.73%).The study reveals that Glipizide loaded inulin microspheres can be used effectively for colon targeting.


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POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN THE FLOWER EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA AND ITS THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES. EVIDENCE FOR ANTIOXIDANT and NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Radha S & Sreelatha .S*.
Research has demonstrated the importance of dietary plants in daily life. Moringa oleifera a multipurpose green leafy vegetable plays an important role in sustainable communities due to its high nutritional quality and adaptability to diverse environment. Moringa oleifera plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases, as most of them find use in a number of pharmaceutical compounds. The present study was designed to study the therapeutic potential of the flower extracts by screening its biological activity under oxidative stress conditions in vitro and to understand the molecular insights taking place. To understand the assault and its protection, three different membrane systems like RBC ghosts, liver homogenate and liver slices were used and the oxidant induced cell injury was quantified as the extent of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. In order to investigate its role in immune response the activity of the flower extracts were studied against the cyclophosphamide stress in mice and the level of hematological parameters like RBC, WBC count and differential count were recorded. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were also determined. The extract showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils and substantially enhanced cellular immune response, humoral immune response, neutrophil index in doses of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical and TLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids and further showed a significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity.Quercetin and kaempferol were identified as the major components by HPTLC in the extract. Additionally high levels of minerals like iron, magnesium, zinc and trace amounts of selenium were quantified in the flower extracts by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study indicate that flower extracts contain active components and minerals that stimulate the immunomodulatory activity by enhancing both cellular and humoral response and have the potential for the maintenance of general immune health and this plant can be exploited for the production of new drugs, industrial products and phytopharmaceuticals.


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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM ORANGE AND POMEGRANATE PEEL

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
G.Prameela, K. Priya Dharshini, M.Chidanandappa.K.Kamala*.
The enzymes from microbial sources are more stable and obtained cheaply. Amylases are among the most important enzymes and are of great significance in present day industry. Starch degrading bacteria are most important for industries such as food, fermentation, textile and paper. Thus isolating and manipulating pure culture from various soils has manifold importance for various biotechnology industries. Amylase production from bacteria is economical as the enzyme production rate is higher in bacteria as compared to other microorganism. The aim of the current study was to isolate amylase producing bacteria from the soil samples collected. The isolation was done by serial dilution and plating method. Characteristic feature of the strains indicates them as Bacillus sps. Bacterial isolates were screened for amylolytic activity by starch agar plate method. The optimum ph for production was 7, whereas maximum growth was observed at 1gm Orange Peel and pomegranate Powder. The concentration of enzyme increases with increase in substrate concentration. The pH range was found to be 7 and incubation time 48hrs with 1ml as inoculum for optimum growth.


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FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS CONTAINING PARACETAMOL

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Maddela. Sudhir*, M. Mounika, N. Jyothi, SK. Liakhat Ali, T. Joshi Anand, M. Komili.
The present work was aimed with the objective of formulating fast dissolving films of paracetamol to enhance the convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients. The films were prepared by incorporating the prepared paracetamol physical mixtures so as to achieve the aimed percent drug release (using cyclodextrins, sucrose and polaxomer 188) in different film forming agents (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose E5 &E15). Particular attention was given to the selection of the suitable taste masking agents. The large dose of the drug offered the greatest challenge in optimization of film formula leading to the thickness of the film and further altering the drug release from the film. The films were characterized in term of paracetamol content, mechanical properties, and disintegration time and dissolution test. The promising film F2 having the optimal formula showing the greatest dissolution and satisfactory in in-vitro disintegration time and physico-mechanical properties compared with a reference marketed product (Paracip tablets). FT-IR studies revealed that there is no interaction between the drug and the polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference between the test films and the reference product, indicated that the test formulations F1, F3, F4, and F5 exhibited enhanced percentage T90 profiles, F2 and F6 showed comparable profiles with reference.


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UNCONTROLLED ASTHMA AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ADULT ASTHMATIC PATIENTS ON FOLLOW-UP AT CHEST CLINIC OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, SOUTH-WEST ETHIOPIA.

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Korinan Fanta, Fekede Bekele Daba*.
Poor asthma control is common and remains a frequent cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with uncontrolled asthma among adult patients on follow up at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A facility based cross-sectional study involving patient interview and chart review was conducted among asthmatic patients aged 18 years and older who were attending chest clinic of JUSH for at least 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to examine the association between variables. One hundred ninety seven asthmatic patients were included in the study. More than 57% were females. The mean age of the patients was 41.75 (±15.54). Twenty four percent of the patients had one or more comorbid conditions. According to the classification by Global Initiative for Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA), 33.6% and 18.7% of study participants had moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma, respectively. Among the patients who received asthma medications, only 21% was according to GINA guideline recommendation. Accordingly, 127 respondents (64.5 %) were found to have uncontrolled asthma. Low monthly income (p=0.023), presence of comorbidity (p=0.007), moderate persistent asthma (p=0.027), severe persistent asthma (p=0.03) and use of SABA (short acting beta2 agonist) alone as anti-asthmatic medication (p=0.000) were significantly associated with uncontrolled asthma. In conclusion, majority of the patients had uncontrolled asthma and this was significantly associated with low income, presence of comorbid condition, asthma severity and use of SABA alone as anti-asthmatic medication. Clinicians adherence to the available asthma management guidelines is paramount important.


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VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF EZETIMIBE IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Eman M. Hafez, Ragaa El Shiekh, Alaa S. Amin and Ayman A. Gouda,*.
Two sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric methods has been developed for estimation of ezetimibe (EZT) in pure and dosage forms. The proposed methods is based on oxidation reaction of EZT with a known excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) or cerium(IV) ammonium sulphate (CAS) as an analytical reagents in acid medium followed by determination of unreacted oxidant by adding a fixed amount of amaranth (AM), methylene blue (MB), indigocarmine (IC) or orange G (OG) dyes followed by measuring the absorbance at 520, 664, 610 or 478 nm, respectively. The experimental conditions affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The beers law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 2.0-20, 2.0-12, and 2.0-12 μg mL-1 in case of NBS using AM, IC and MB dye, respectively and and 2.0-18, 2.0-12 and 2.0-15 μg mL-1 in case of CAS using AM, OG and MB dye, respectively with a correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9992. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 0.7855× 104, 0.7255 × 104, and 2.7204 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for method A using AM, MB and IC dyes, respectively and 0.9246 × 104, 1.3612× 104 and 0.8658 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for method B using AM, MB and OG dyes, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were reported. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision of the methods have been evaluated. No interference was observed from the additives and the applicability of the method was tested by analyzing the pharmaceutical preparations containing the investigated drug. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of EZT in tablet preparations and the results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying Students t-test and F-test. The reliability of the methods was further ascertained by performing recovery studies using the standard addition method.


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DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Kataria Mahesh Kumar*, Bilandi Ajay, Bala Saroj.
Glimepiride, an oral hypoglycemic second generation drug, has problems in bioavailability and bioequivalence due to its poor water solubility. An attempt was made to improve the bioavailability with an improvement in dissolution of glimepiride through the formulation of tablet containing solid dispersion of glimepiride- polymers i.e. Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) / Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose (HPC)/ Crosscarmellose Sodium (CCS)/Eudragit E-100. The binary systems of glimepiride i.e. both physical mixture as well as solid dispersions were prepared with drug and polymers. The solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method using methanol as solvent. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify any physicochemical interaction between the drug and the carrier(s). The dissolution profile of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), marketed product and solid dispersion were compared. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of solid dispersion elucidate that the crystal structure of glimepiride was converted into amorphous form. The optimized formulation was compressed with different excipients into tablet dosage form. The tablets formulation under investigation was then characterized for their various physicochemical properties such as weight variation, % friability, disintegration and in vitro dissolution profiles. It was observed that solid dispersions were better than physical mixture in dissolution. The result showed no interaction between the drug and polymer, percentage yield of 69.80% to 96.50%, amorphous state of solid dispersion and significant improvement in dissolution upto 98.81% with drug: SSG in 1:3 ratio. Thus, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of dissolution of glimepiride.


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SOLID DISPERSIONS: AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
R. Santosh Kumar*, T. Naga Satya Yagnesh.
Solid dispersions have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs. By reducing drug particle size to the absolute minimum, and hence improving drug wettability, bioavailability may be significantly improved. Solid dispersion have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and hence the bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs. Most of the newly invented chemical entities are poorly water soluble. As a result formulating them as oral solid dosage forms is a hurdle to the specialists. Many techniques have been exercised to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. Among several methods, solid dispersion has attracted attention of the researchers for previous 50 years. Different formulation strategies have been taken to prepare solid dispersions. It is evident that solid dispersions improve solubility of drug particles thus enhancing dissolution characteristics of drugs they increase the oral bioavailability. This article reviews the various preparation techniques for solid dispersions, carriers used in the formulation of solid dispersions and pharmaceutical applications of solid dispersions which can give an overall knowledge of enhancing the solubility of poorly soluble drugs.


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“IMPACT OF PHARMACIST PROVIDED EDUCATION ON KNOWLEDGE AND MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN HIV PATIENTS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL”

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Soumya .S .M*, Vedha.K.H, S. Geetha, Shivasharanappa .J .Allad.
Human Immuno deficiency Virus Infection /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The Highly Active Anti Retro-Viral Therapy (HAART) is a complex therapy due to which the patient will be non adherent. Non adherence to the medications and lack of knowledge about disease is a major challenge to the effective management of HIV/AIDS. The reasons for non-compliance include factors such as complexity of treatment regimen, forgetfulness, patient beliefs about therapy and other socio- psychological factors. This may further lead to morbidity, mortality and many opportunistic infections. The study aims to assess, knowledge and medication adherence by means of structured knowledge assessment questionnaires and modified moriskys medication adherence questionnaires and improve the HIV patients disease knowledge and medication adherence which will improve the therapeutic outcomes. A prospective, interventional study was conducted for a period of 6 months at the ART Center District hospital gulbarga . A total of 113 patients were enrolled into the study, among them only109 patients subjects, among them male patients were (53.21%) compared to females (46.78%) age group of 18-28years (27.52%). The assessment of patients disease knowledge and medication adherence showed that there was a statistical significant improvement (P


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SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY AND METABOLIC ENGINEERING: A WORKHORSE FOR NOVEL DRUGS GENERATIONS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Dipankar Ghosh.
Several high value added therapeutic biomolecules and their precursors exist in nature but yet to be discovered to fight against severe deadly diseases. Rapid emergence of drug resistance phenomena creates additional alarming situation and driving force to alleviate novel drug discoveries as earliest. Microscopic bugs, animals, and medicinal plants are the major source of novel therapeutic biomolecules generations following extraction, characterization, screening, and large scale production. However, conventional methodologies have not yet been shown great efficacy to generate novel drugs as far economical and industrial standpoints. To this end, the current review has shown a promising route that is combinatorial approach of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for novel drug discovery. Though synthetic microbial metabolism is in its infancy but holds an enormous potential to battle against antibiotic resistance via providing high value added therapeutic biomolecules in near future. In conclusion, synthetic biology and metabolic engineering could be a potential avenue for novel drugs generations.


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CURRENT PROGRESSIONS IN MUCOADHESIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Harshada M. Phalak.
In the course of recent decade, extensive research has been carried out to develop a gastroretentive dosage form (GDF). This sort of dosage form can enhance the delivery and execution of drugs that are locally active in the stomach, in light of the fact that the GDF allows the drug to stay in the stomach for an adequate time interim. Distinctive methodologies have been used to develop the efficient GDFs such as low density systems, high density systems, super-porous hydrogels, hydrodynamically balanced systems, gas generating systems, super-porous hydrogels raft forming systems, swelling and expanding systems, floating systems, and ion exchange resins. However, these kinds of systems possess both advantages and disadvantages. Intra-individual and inter-individual differences in gastric physiology are impediments in the development of efficient GDFs. Examples of these individual differences include gastric pH and gastric motility, which have a significant impact on gastric retention time and drug delivery. Some of these hindrances can be overcome by building up a novel mucoadhesive floating drug delivery system (MFDDS). The MFDDS is characterized by intimate contact of the mucoadhesive dosage form with the mucosal layer, thereby increasing the localized absorption of the drug.


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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS FREQUENTLY USED IN MARKETED ANTI DANDRUFF HERBAL SHAMPOOS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ms. Shalini Sharma, Dr. U. M. Upadhayay, Ms. Palak Landge, Dr. Sunil Mistry, Siddhi Upadhyay.
Superficial skin infections are very common in general practice and are caused by bacteria and fungi one of the most common skin infection is dandruff. The increasing antimicrobial resistance exhibited by microorganisms causing superficial skin infections has led to extensive research on the therapeutic potential of anti dandruff herbal shampoos. These herbal shampoos contain many active constituents which are effective against many microbial infections. We tested the antimicrobial activity of twenty-six drugs against some dermatophytes. The water extracts of these selected 26 drugs were tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, E.Coli, S.aureus,) and Kiebsiella. We also observed that out of 26 drugs the nine extracts were effective against methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistant .we suggest that infection caused by S. aureus MRSA may be cured by decoction of these active herbs.


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HYPOGLYCEMIC AND LIPID PROFILE IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH GLIBENCLAMIDE, METFORMIN AND TWO POLYHERBAL BITTERS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Etim, Emmanuel I., Udodok, Idara N., Akwaowoh, Akpabio E., Udo, Nsikan M..
The polyherbal bitters are herbal galenicals commonly used by diabetic patients, because they are claimed to have antidiabetic potentials. Promoters of the bitters claim that, the bitters being of natural origin could be concurrently administered with conventional therapeutic drugs with no adverse effects. This research was aimed at assessing the effect(s) or otherwise of the co-administration of two popular bitters in Nigeria market Swedish bitter (SB) and Yoyo bitters (YB) and two therapeutic antidiabetic drugs metformin (MET) and glibenclamide (GLI) on the hypoglycemic and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Fifty four diabetic rats of both sexes weighing between 160g to 230g were divided into nine groups with six animals per group. Therapeutic doses of the bitters alone and in combination with GLI and MET corresponding to the body weight of the animals were administered orally to the different groups daily for 14 days. After an overnight fast, fasting blood glucose levels were obtained by tail tipping method on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 and 14. On the 14th day the rats were sacrificed and blood collected by cardiac puncture. The blood was centrifuged and the plasma collected was analyzed for lipid profile. The results obtained indicated that GLI, MET, SB and YB all caused a significant decrease (p


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KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF ANEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN A GOVERNTMENT HOSPITAL

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ranjith Chacko*, Unnimaya Premkumar, Merin Joseph, Josna James, Sneha Prabha, Merlin K Jacob, Dr. T Sivakumar.
Anemia is a severe public health problem and nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Iron deficiency anemia accounts about 50% in all cases of anemia and is common during pregnancy and can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Our aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of anemia among pregnant women in a rural set up. A total of 216 pregnant women are participated in our study. From the total of 216, about 169 do not attend any awareness programme of maternal health and pregnancy during their lifetime. Half of the sample size (50%) is illiterate and they dont have the knowledge regarding anemia and antenatal visit. From our study we assessed that proper awareness and education programme regarding diet and lifestyle pattern during pregnancy can reduce the prevalence rate of anemia to some extent. The study also showed that education and awareness of anemia in pregnant women is considerably low and can be a major cause to pregnancy related problems.


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CLINICAL PHARMACIST INTERVENTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
K. Sai Supraja, Ayemen Almeen, Mariya Kauser, Aiswarya Roy .P, Sarvan Kumar .G, Surender .N.
Chronic renal failure is a slow progressive loss of kidney function over a period of several years. The main role of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. The loss of function may be so slow that may not have symptoms until kidneys have almost stopped working. Chronic kidney disease is much more common than people realize, and often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced and kidney failure is fairly imminent. As kidney failure advances and the organ's function is seriously impaired, dangerous levels of waste and fluid can rapidly build up in the body. Treatment is aimed at stopping or slowing down the progression of the disease - this is usually done by controlling its underlying cause.The final stage of CKD is called end stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal transplant. Eventually the patient has permanent kidney failure patients with chronic kidney disease have multiple co - morbidities and require complicated therapeutic regimen. Clinical pharmacists specifically manage lab tests, follow up, adapt drug dosage according to guidelines and evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and decline in renal function. The purpose of the study was to summarize the available evidence regarding the role and impact of clinical pharmacy services for these patient populations. The ultimate goal of intervention in patients with chronic kidney failure is to improve the quality of life of patients.


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PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FACIAL SCRUB

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
K. Suganya, Y. Maheswari, X. Fatima Grace*, S. Shanmuganathan.
The main objective of the present study was to prepare a polyherbal scrub incorporated into gel. Nowadays cosmetics have become an important part in the day to day life for both man and women to lead a happy and confident life. Cosmetics are the product applied topically to beautify and cleanse the human body. At present scenario consumers are very particular about the product benefits without any side effects, hence herbal cosmetics are in peak of demand. Herbal cosmeceuticals are product used against skin problems. The use of natural ingredients to fight against acne, wrinkle and also to control secretion of oil is known as natural or herbal cosmetics. Herbal cosmeceuticals usually contain the plant parts which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti aging properties. Herbal cosmetics are the safest product to use routine with no side effects and cosmeceuticals are the product which influences the biological function of skin. In this preparation Malus domestica (green), millet, cinnamon and honey is used as active ingredients and incorporated into the gel which is prepared with carbopol of different grades. Other ingredients like propylene glycol, Triethanolamine; methyl parahydroxy benzoate was added along with sodium lauryl sulfate into the gel. The prepared gel was evaluated for various parameters such as appearance, pH, viscosity, Spreadability, washability, irritability and found to be satisfied with all required characterizations. Thus, the developed formulation can be used as an effective scrub for using it to bear a healthy and glowing skin.


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ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACISTS IN MAINTAINANCE OF QUALITY OF LIFE IN ALCOHOL ABUSE PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ayemen Almeen, Aiswarya Roy, Sai Supraja, Sarvan Kumar.G, Kiran Kumar.Y, Dr.P.Venkateswar Rao.
Alcohol abuse is defined as pattern of drinking that result in harm to a persons health, well-being, relationships, and productivity. A person who abuses drugs and alcohol is not necessarily an addict. However, abuse of these substances is a risk factor for developing an addiction because continuous abuse can lead to physical and psychological dependence. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that pharmacists have the unique knowledge, skills, and responsibilities for assuming an important role in alcohol abuse prevention, education, and assistance. Pharmacists, as health care providers, should be actively involved in reducing the negative effects that alcohol abuse has on society, health systems, and the pharmacy profession. Pharmacists have unique, comprehensive knowledge about the safe and effective use of medications and about the adverse effects of their inappropriate use. The provision of pharmaceutical care to individual patients involves pharmacists assessing the appropriateness of pharmacotherapy, counselling, and monitoring medication-use outcomes. Furthermore, pharmacists have legal and organizational responsibilities for medication distribution and control across the continuum of practice settings within health care organizations. With this combination of knowledge and organizational responsibilities, pharmacists are prepared to serve in leadership and service roles in alcohol abuse prevention and education and assist in a variety of patient care, employee health, and community activities.


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DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF COMPRESSED TABLETS OF A HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC DRUG FOR PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Shameem Pasha MD, Agilandeswari D*, Atefeh Shabani, Vineeth Chandy.
The present work was to formulate and evaluate an oral pulsatile drug delivery system to achieve time release of Nicotinic Acid, based on chronopharmaceutical approach for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. As fat production takes place in night time is more than day time. Pulsatile delivery system is capable of delivering drug when and where it required most. Time-delayed tablets, designed to release drug after a predictable lag time, are intended for oral chronotherapy. The basic design consists of a core tablets prepared by wet granulation method. The tablets were press coated with polymer layer containing Eudragit S-100, Eudragit L-100 and Xanthum Gum (4:4:2) so that the variability in gastric emptying time can be overcome. The prepared pulsatile tablets were evaluated for the drug content, thickness and in-vitro release profile. In-vitro release profiles of pulsatile device during six hours studies were found to have very good sustaining efficacy. During the first six hours it shows no drug release and at the seventh hour immediate release was observed. Increasing the level of the rupturable layer increased mechanical strength and retarded the water uptake and thus prolonged the lag time. The lag time of the pulsatile tablets decreased with increasing amounts of Xanthum Gum in the Press coating layer. Stability studies proved that Press coating of tablets seems to decrease the effect of temperature and moisture on the degradation of Nicotinic Acid. The programmable pulsatile release has been achieved from a press coated tablet over a 6 hour period, consistent with the demands of chronotherapeutic drug delivery. The developed pulsatile drug delivery system released NA in a time dependent manner for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.


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SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING OF SOME NOVEL PYRROLE BENZOHYDRAZIDE DERIVATIVES FOR ANALGESIC, ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES IN RODENTS

2016-12-10T02-17-59Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
M.R. Pradeep Kumar*, Shrinivas D. Joshi .
With an objective of synthesizing potent analgesic and antiinflammatory agents, here we have synthesized some novel series of pyrrole derivatives. In this ethyl-4-pyrrole-1yl-benzoate (II) was synthesized by the reaction of benzocaine (I) with 2, 5-dimethoxy tetrahydrofuran in presence of glacial acetic acid. Compound (II) on treatment with hydrazine hydrate in presence of ethanol yielded 4-pyrrole-1-yl benzoic acid hydrazide (III). Compound (III) on treatment with chloroacetyl chloride yielded N1-(2-chloroacetyl)-4-(1H-pyrrole-1-yl) benzohydrazide (IV), compound (IV) on reaction with different aromatic amines and triethylamine yielded N1-[2-(substituted phenylamino) acetyl]-4-(1H-pyrrole-1-yl)-benzohydrazide derivatives (V a-t).Structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of physico-chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and Mass). All the synthesized compounds were screened for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using glacial acetic acid induced writhing and carageenan induced rat paw oedema method respectively. For analgesic and antiinflammatory activities screening aspirin and diclofenac are used as standard drugs respectively. Among the synthesized compounds V a, V d, V f, V i, V k, V m, V n, V o and V p have showed good anti-inflammatory activity and compound V a, V d, V h, V k and V s showed good analgesic activity. These results are encouraging and further enhancement in the pharmacological activity can be brought about by slight modification in the ring substituent.


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ASTHMA IN SAUDI ARABIA: RISK FACTORS AND PHARMACOTHERAPY

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Mohamed A. Hammad, Khaled M. Alakhali, Manal Hattan, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Abeer M. Kharshid, Ahmed A. Khamis.
Asthma is a chronic disease of airways; that is widely characterized by an increased responsiveness to a large variety of stimuli, airway inflammation and obstruction. Responsiveness to the treatment of asthma is good but sometimes resistance develops, and variability in symptoms also occurs due to the limited therapy adherence and awareness of patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Khamis Mushait, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, May 2014, to evaluate the risk factors of asthma and the pharmacotherapy used by patients. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by 207 asthmatic people aged ≥15 years. They responded to questions regarding demographics, risk factors for asthma, its severity, drug used for asthma therapy. Most of the asthma risk factors are an allergy (71.5%), and family history (60.9%). Some patients, especially the elderly use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (26.5%) and aspirin (5.8%). Most of the asthmatic patients had mild intermittent asthma (69.6%). Patients used an inhaler (61.4%), most of them prefer to use Ventolin inhaler (78.3%) and the majority of them non-compliance for pharmacotherapy (76%). Subjects in past month got shortness of breath once or twice in a week (61.4%). Patients wake up once or twice during the month because of asthma symptoms (20.3%). Nearly half of them have increased symptoms of asthma in winter (56.5%), and less than half of cases had proper control of asthma (48.3%). The majority of patients were non-compliance and used Ventolin. Most of respondents had allergy and family history of asthma.


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COMPARISON OF A SINGLE SYRINGE MIXTURE OF KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL (KETOFOL) AND PROPOFOL AS AN ANESTHETIC AGENT IN DIRECT LARYNGEAL BIOPSY PROCEDURE

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Dr. Kinna Shah, Dr. B.M Patel.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of ketofol on haemodynamic response and recovery parameters and to compare it with Propofol in direct laryngoscopic examination /biopsy (DLBX). Method: Three hundred fifteen patients posted for DLB were allocated in this prospective double blind study. Patients were randomly assigned to either Group KP (Ketamine 50 mg +Propofol 100mg in 10 cc) or Group P (100 mg in 10 cc).Inj. Succinylcholine 1mg/kg given in all patients. Pulse, BP and Spo2 were noted at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 minutes and after every 15 minutes interval up to discharge. Total volume of drug used and Ramsay sedation scale in each procedure was noted. Results: Time to eye opening was earlier in Group KP (10.56+/-4.22v/s 15.82+/-5.66 P value

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ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CAESALPINIA DIGYNA ROTTLER IN L-NAME INDUCED HYPERTENSIVE RATS

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Karuna M*, Ravindra Babu S.
Caesalpinia digyna rottler is used in the treatment of hypertension, inflammation, diabetes, hepatotoxicity. In the present study methanolic extract of Caesalpinia digyna Rottler root (MECD) at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was evaluated on N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats by observing blood pressure and heart rate. The anti hypertensive activity of the MECD were studied using a non-invasive rat tail-cuff blood pressure system.The MECD produced significant decrease (p


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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF pH TRIGGERED IN SITU OPHTHALMIC GEL OF MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Hemalata Dol*, Ashok Hajare, Vikram Shinde, Sanket Gandhi, Omprakash Gaja.
Antibiotics are the second most widely prescribed drugs in todays scenario due to the increasing rate of infections. Irrational prescriptions of antibiotics can lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and the present study was carried in our hospital surgery department with the objective to estimate the antibiotic prescribing pattern in surgery department.A prospective and observational study was carried out in 207 patients from October 2014 to March 2015. Relevant information was obtained from the interview as well the treatment chart of patients, by using case report form. Results from the study suggest that majority of the patients enrolled in study were females (72.94%).Among the study population majority were belonging 59-68 years age group (23.1%) in which majority was farmers (59.4%).Most of the subjects were diagnosed with Hernia(21.7%), Appendicitis (14.5%) in which surgery was done for 70.7%. After the treatment (96.1%) of the study population showed improvement and 26% patients had drug-drug interactions in which 20.7% the drug interaction was mild .3.8% of underwent with culture sensitivity test with blood and peritoneal fliud.Cephalosporins (63.8%) and Nitroimidazole (53.1%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. It can be concluded from the study that prescribing pattern of drugs antibiotics needs to be continuously evaluated in surgery department in order to promote the more rational prescribing to decrease morbidity and cost of therapy to the patient.


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BIOPROCESSING OF Α-AMYLASE PRODUCED BY BACILLUS SPAVMB1-EFFECT OF INDUCERS AND ENHANCERS

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
MounijaDidla, Amrutha V Audipudi*.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the significant difference in the rate of amylase production when different carbon, nitrogen and oil cakes were used for the amylase production. To this end, bacterial strain (AVMB1) isolated from Chilli rhizosphere was screened for Amylase production and identified as genus Bacillus by morphological, physical, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization by partial 16S r RNA gene sequencing. α-amylase enzyme production was quantitatively characterized from the Bacillus strain and optimized the culture conditions for bioprocessing under submerged fermentation with different organic sources. The production of amylase was increased by 35-60% under optimized conditions of 35°C, pH7.0 with maltose as carbon sources and yeast extract as nitrogen sources respectively after 48 hrs of incubation. Soya bean oil seed cake induced maximum amylase production.


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SYNTHESIS OF CARBAMATE AND SULFONAMIDE ANALOGUES OF 2-(PHENYLTHIO) ANILINE AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION

2016-12-10T00-22-31Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
K. Gowri, D. Srinivasulu*, M. Srinivasa Rao, VVPC. Narayana.
A series of new 2-(phenylthio) phenyl substituted carbamate (3a-d) and N-(2-(phenylthio) phenyl substituted sulfonamide derivatives (5a-d) were synthesized from 2-(phenylthio) aniline (1) using various pharmacologically active carbonochloridates (2a-d) and sulfonyl chlorides (4a-d) in the presence of a mild base. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by the IR, NMR (1H & 13C) and mass analysis. Further, all the synthesized compounds were screened for the antimicrobial activity. Among all the tested compounds, 3c and 5b showed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities and these compounds might be used as antibiotic drugs.


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