Δευτέρα, 1 Ιανουαρίου 2018

Learning curves of two different techniques for the intra-articular injection of the knee joint under fluoroscopic guidance

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study was to compare the learning curves of three beginner operators using two different techniques of intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach.

Materials and methods

In total, 177 consecutive patients (72 females (40.7%) and 105 males (59.3%), mean age 42.2 ± 15.0 years) scheduled for a computed tomography (CT) arthrography and without joint effusion on the lateral X-rays were enrolled. They underwent an intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with a superolateral approach. Patients were randomly assigned to three different operators, including a junior supervisor and two first-year residents in radiology who never performed an intra-articular injection of the knee before the present study. Procedures in lateral or supine position were randomly assigned to three operators.

Results

There was a higher rate of successful injections with the lateral position (92.1%) than with supine position (80.2%) (odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–14.0). A significant learning effect was observed for the supine position, while none was observed for the lateral position. Pain and time of fluoroscopy did not differ between the two procedures (p = 0.85 and p = 0.10, respectively). Junior supervisor had a higher rate of successful intra-articular injection compared with the other two operators (p = 0.0072). There was a statistically significant higher rate of extravasation with the supine position (66.3%) than with lateral position (19.7%) (p < 0.0001, OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.06–0.25).

Conclusion

The intra-articular injection of the knee under fluoroscopic guidance with the patient in lateral position is an easy technique for operators in training with a low rate of extravasation. Lateral position does not require a supplementary irradiation and does not increase the procedural pain. Personal operator's skill is an independent factor in determining the success of the training.



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Agitation thrombolysis and catheter-directed thrombolysis for normotensive patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism

Abstract

Objective

To assess the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of agitation thrombolysis and catheter-directed thrombolysis (AT–CDT) in the treatment of normotensive patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Methods

A total of 37 consecutive patients of normotensive PTE were treated by AT–CDT between October 2011 and January 2016. Clinical outcomes and mortality were evaluated after the treatment, and follow-up was carried out after hospital discharge.

Results

AT–CDT was technically successful in 93.7% (36/37) patients, with one case died from respiratory failure during procedure. The clinical success rate was 91.9% (34/37), one patient died from intracranial hemorrhage 9 days after agitation, and one case showed no improvement. A total of 83.8% (31/37) cases were clinical cured and 8.1% (3/37) cases were relieved during hospitalization. Three cases died of respiratory failure caused by PTE, and two cases died of diseases unrelated to PTE (lung carcinoma/hemoptysis) during a 20–1524 days of follow-up.

Conclusion

AT–CDT may be a feasible, effective, and safe treatment for normotensive patients with acute PTE.



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2017/2018



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European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)



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Temporal lobe epilepsy due to meningoencephaloceles into the greater sphenoid wing: a consequence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

Abstract

Purpose

Antero-inferior temporal lobe meningoencephaloceles are a rare, but increasingly recognized cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In order to evaluate whether these lesions are related to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), we analyzed clinical and MRI findings of a cohort of patients undergoing presurgical work-up.

Methods

Seizure onset in the anterior temporal lobe was proven by EEG electrodes in 22 patients, and in 21 patients, anterior temporal lobectomy (mostly with sparing of the hippocampus) was performed. MRI signs of IIH (in particular empty sella) and the volumes of the ventricles and external CSF spaces were determined and related to the body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcome.

Results

Six of seven obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) compared to four of 15 non-obese patients had partial empty or empty sella (p = 0.007). Bilateral lesions were found in all obese and 11 patients. Seizure freedom (Engel class 1A) was achieved in 12 of 21 patients (5 obese compared to 7 non-obese patients). BMI was related to the volume of the external CSF spaces (r = 0.467), and age at seizure onset was higher in obese patients.

Conclusion

Roughly a third of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy due to antero-inferior meningoencephaloceles is obese and has MRI signs of idiopathic intracranial hypertension.



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2017/2018



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Added value of multiphase CTA imaging for thrombus perviousness assessment

Abstract

Purpose

Thrombus perviousness has been associated with favorable functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Measuring thrombus perviousness on CTA may be suboptimal due to potential delay in contrast agent arrival in occluded arteries at the moment of imaging. Dynamic sequences acquired over time can potentially overcome this issue. We investigate if dynamic CTA has added value in assessing thrombus perviousness.

Methods

Prospectively collected image data of AIS patients with proven occlusion of the anterior or posterior circulation with thin-slice multi-phase CTA (MCTA) and non-contrast CT were co-registered (n = 221). Thrombus attenuation increase (TAI; a perviousness measure) was measured for the arterial, venous, and delayed phase of the MCTA and time-invariant CTAs (TiCTA). Associations with favorable clinical outcome (90-day mRS ≤ 2) were assessed using univariate and multivariable regressions and calculating areas under receiver operating curves (AUC).

Results

TAI determined from the arterial phase CTA was superior in the association with favorable outcome with OR = 1.21 per 10 HU increase (95%CI 1.04–1.41, AUC 0.62, p = 0.014) compared to any other phase (venous 1.14(95%CI 1.01–1.30, AUC 0.58, p = 0.033), delayed 1.046(95%CI 0.919–1.19, AUC 0.53, p = 0.50)), and TiCTA (1.15(95%CI 1.02–1.30, AUC 0.60, p = 0.022). In the multivariable model, only TAI on arterial phase was significantly associated with favorable outcome (aOR 1.59, 95%CI 1.04–2.43, p = 0.032).

Conclusion

Association between TAI with functional outcome was optimal on arterial-phase CTA such that dynamic CTA imaging has no additional benefits in current thrombus perviousness assessment, thereby suggesting that the delay of contrast arrival at the clot is a key variable for patient functional outcome.



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European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)



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Functional brain networks involved in decision-making under certain and uncertain conditions

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18–35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs. In one condition of the task, the participant was certain of the rule to apply to match the cards; in the other condition, the participant was uncertain. We performed cluster-based comparison of the two conditions using FSL fMRI Expert Analysis Tool and network-based analysis using MATLAB.

Results

The uncertain > certain comparison yielded three clusters—a midline cluster that extended through the midbrain, the thalamus, bilateral prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and bilateral parietal/occipital clusters. The certain > uncertain comparison yielded bilateral clusters in the insula, parietal and temporal lobe, as well as a medial frontal cluster. A larger, more connected functional network was found in the uncertain condition.

Conclusion

The involvement of the insula, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex of the certain condition reinforces the notion that certainty is inherently rewarding. For the uncertain condition, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal involvement was expected, as these are areas involved in resolving uncertainty and rule updating. The involvement of occipital cortical involvement and midbrain involvement may be attributed to increased visual attention and increased motor control.



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Loco-regional extensions of central nervous system germ cell tumors: a retrospective radiological analysis of 100 patients

Abstract

Purpose

The current staging system of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) includes a binary classification in "localized" or "metastatic" disease based on the absence or presence of leptomeningeal dissemination. Loco-regional tumor dissemination has been barely described whereas its accurate definition might be useful in terms of prognosis and treatment, especially for radiation therapy planning. Our purpose was therefore to describe MR patterns and prevalence of loco-regional extensions of these tumors.

Methods

One hundred consecutive patients (median age 16.3 years, range 7–41 years, sex ratio 7:1) with a histologically or biologically proven CNS GCT were retrospectively included. Brain and spinal MRI at diagnosis were reviewed by two neuroradiologists focusing on MR patterns of primaries and loco-regional extensions. When available, follow-up MR exams were analyzed.

Results

Pure germinoma represented 84/100 cases. Primaries were unifocal pineal (n = 49/100), bifocal pineal and supra-sellar (n = 27/100), isolated supra-sellar (n = 21/100), isolated basal ganglia (n = 2/100) or trifocal pineal, supra-sellar, and basal ganglia (n = 1/100). Metastatic disease occurred in 6/100 patients (depicted by MRI in two and CSF cytology in four). Loco-regional extensions were observed in all patients and classified as follows: third ventricle (n = 88/100), thalamus (n = 47/100), midbrain (n = 42/100), distant sub-ependymal areas (n = 19/100), optic pathways (n = 19/100), lateral ventricles (n = 7/100), cavernous sinus (n = 6/100), corpus callosum (n = 4/100), and fourth ventricle (n = 3/100).

Conclusion

CNS GCT present with specific loco-regional extensions at diagnosis. Improving their recognition will be helpful to further understand their prognostic value and potentially to optimize the treatment.



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Protruding anterior medial meniscus–An indirect sign of posterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

Publication date: Available online 1 January 2018
Source:European Journal of Radiology
Author(s): Anagha P. Parkar, Kristiane Bleskestad, Susanne Løken, Miraude Eapm Adriaensen, Eirik Solheim
Backgroundto examine if PROTruding of the Anterior Medial Meniscus (PROTAMM) could be an indirect sign of PCL deficiency by comparing PROTAMM to passive posterior tibial sagging (PSS) for chronic PCL rupture on routine MRI.MethodsPatients with PCL reconstruction between 2011-2016 were included in a case control study. Primarily cases with combined ACL/PCL injury were excluded. Secondary exclusion criteria were bony fractures, medial meniscus pathology and poor quality MRIs.Three (blinded) observers reviewed the pre-operative MRIs according to a pre-defined protocol.ResultsAfter applying the inclusion and primary exclusion criteria 16 patients were identified in the PCL rupture group. The control group consisted of 15 patients. After reviewing the MRIs, 6 were excluded due secondary exclusion criteria.Mean PPS measured 4.8 mm (± 4.4 mm) in the PCL rupture group and 1.8 mm (±2.9 mm) in the control group, p = 0.05. Mean PROTAMM was 3.6 mm (±0.6 mm) in the PCL rupture group and 0.7 mm (±0.9 mm) in the control group, p = 0.004.ConclusionWe found a mean PROTAMM of 3.6 mm in patients with PCL rupture. We suggest that this sign, after knee injury in an otherwise normal medial meniscus, is a promising indirect sign of PCL deficiency compared to PPS. Implementation of this sign in clinical practice may improve the sensitivity of routine non-weight bearing MRI in identifying PCL deficient knees.



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Rerouting the internal thoracic pedicle: a novel solution for maxillofacial reconstruction in vessel-depleted situations? A preliminary anatomic study.

Related Articles

Rerouting the internal thoracic pedicle: a novel solution for maxillofacial reconstruction in vessel-depleted situations? A preliminary anatomic study.

Surg Radiol Anat. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Morel F, Crampon F, Adnot J, Litzler PY, Duparc F, Trost O

Abstract
PURPOSE: Microsurgical reconstruction in a vessel-depleted neck is a challenge due to the lack of reliable vessels in or nearby the host site. The use of the internal thoracic pedicle (ITP) by rib section or sparring is a limited option due to the small length of the pedicle of some flaps. However, in cardiac surgery, the internal thoracic artery (ITA) is widely used for myocardial revascularization, providing a long and versatile pedicle. We aimed at determining precise anatomical bases for the use of the ITP, approached by sternotomy and rerouted in the neck, as recipient vessels for free-flap facial reconstructions.
METHODS: We performed a descriptive single centre anatomical study on 20 formalin-embalmed cadavers. The ITP was harvested on both sides from the emergence of the artery under the brachiocephalic vein to its terminal division. The level reached by the ITP in the cervicofacial area was described. Distal arterial and venous diameters, pedicle length and other parameters were measured.
RESULTS: In at least 85% of the cases, the ITP reached the mandibular angle. The mean diameter at the distal extremity for the ITA was 2.36 ± 0.15, and 2.48 ± 0.19 mm for the committing vein. The mean length of the ITP was 177.3 mm.
CONCLUSION: Rerouting the ITP towards the cervicofacial area could provide a reliable pedicle for free-flap reconstructions in patients with a vessel-depleted neck but it should be limited to selected patients. This novel solution for situations where current techniques are unfeasible warrants further clinical research.

PMID: 29289988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Experimental Investigation into Corrosion Effect on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Bars under Dynamic Loadings

The tensile behaviors of corroded steel bars are important in the capacity evaluation of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The present paper studies the mechanical behavior of the corroded high strength reinforcing steel bars under static and dynamic loading. High strength reinforcing steel bars were corroded by using accelerated corrosion methods and the tensile tests were carried out under different strain rates. The results showed that the mechanical properties of corroded high strength steel bars were strain rate dependent, and the strain rate effect decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. The decreased nominal yield and ultimate strengths were mainly caused by the reduction of cross-sectional areas, and the decreased ultimate deformation and the shortened yield plateau resulted from the intensified stress concentration at the nonuniform reduction. Based on the test results, reduction factors were proposed to relate the tensile behaviors with the corrosion degree and strain rate for corroded bars. A modified Johnson-Cook strength model of corroded high strength steel bars under dynamic loading was proposed by taking into account the influence of corrosion degree. Comparison between the model and test results showed that proposed model properly describes the dynamic response of the corroded high strength rebars.

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A Novel Edge Detection Algorithm for Mobile Robot Path Planning

A novel detection algorithm for vision systems has been proposed based on combined fuzzy image processing and bacterial algorithm. This combination aims to increase the detection efficiency and reduce the computational time. In addition, the proposed algorithm has been tested through real-time robot navigation system, where it has been applied to detect the robot and obstacles in unstructured environment and generate 2D maps. These maps contain the starting and destination points in addition to current positions of the robot and obstacles. Moreover, the genetic algorithm (GA) has been modified and applied to produce time-based trajectory for the optimal path. It is based on proposing and enhancing the searching ability of the robot to move towards the optimal path solution. Many scenarios have been adopted in indoor environment to verify the capability of the new algorithm in terms of detection efficiency and computational time.

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A Review on Applications of Two-Dimensional Materials in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, have been attracting wide interest in surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy. This perspective gives an overview of recent developments in 2D materials’ application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This review paper focuses on the applications of using bare 2D materials and metal/2D material hybrid substrate for Raman enhancement. The Raman enhancing mechanism of 2D materials will also be discussed. The progress covered herein shows great promise for widespread adoption of 2D materials in SERS application.

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Circulating CD3+CD4+CD161+ Cells Are Associated with Early Complications after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma

The aim of this study was to explore if measurement of pretransplant circulating CD161-expressing cells, in addition to clinical risk factors, could predict mucositis and infections in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). To determine if CD161-expressing cells are likely to predict early complications, namely, mucositis (≥grade 3), infections, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, we prospectively examined CD161-expressing cells (CD3+CD4+CD161+ and CD3+CD8+CD161+) in peripheral blood samples from 108 patients with MM undergoing ASCT. After adjusting for factors identified by univariate analysis that predicted mucositis (≥grade 3), infection before engraftment, and CMV reactivation, multivariate analyses revealed that the low proportion of CD3+CD4+CD161+ cells in peripheral blood was an independent predictor of mucositis (≥grade 3) (), infections before engraftment (), and CMV reactivation (). In addition, we found that female sex and decreased glomerular filtration rate were independent factors for predicting mucositis. Female sex and severe pulmonary comorbidity were independent factors for predicting infection before engraftment. We found that the proportion of circulating CD3+CD4+CD161+ cells is useful for predicting the occurrence of early complications, including mucositis and infections, after ASCT in patients with MM.

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Saliency Aggregation: Multifeature and Neighbor Based Salient Region Detection for Social Images

The popularity of social networks has brought the rapid growth of social images which have become an increasingly important image type. One of the most obvious attributes of social images is the tag. However, the sate-of-the-art methods fail to fully exploit the tag information for saliency detection. Thus this paper focuses on salient region detection of social images using both image appearance features and image tag cues. First, a deep convolution neural network is built, which considers both appearance features and tag features. Second, tag neighbor and appearance neighbor based saliency aggregation terms are added to the saliency model to enhance salient regions. The aggregation method is dependent on individual images and considers the performance gaps appropriately. Finally, we also have constructed a new large dataset of challenging social images and pixel-wise saliency annotations to promote further researches and evaluations of visual saliency models. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method performs well on not only the new dataset but also several state-of-the-art saliency datasets.

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Tadpole-Shaped POSS-Based Copolymers and the Aggregation Behavior at Air/Water Interface

The aggregation behavior of three tadpole-shaped Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) based block copolymers using different blocks poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PTFEMA) with different block sequence and ratio (POSS-PTFEMA161-b-PMMA236, POSS-PMMA277-b-PTFEMA130, and POSS-PMMA466-b-PTFEMA172) was investigated on the air-water interface. The interfacial rheology of three block copolymers was studied by surface pressure isotherm, compression modulus measurements, and compression and expansion hysteresis analysis on the Langmuir trough. The block sequence and ratio play a great role in self-assembly behavior at the interface. Based on surface pressure isotherm analysis, a thin film with low elasticity was achieved for the POSS-PTFEMA161-b-PMMA236. Moreover, for the block copolymer with same segment sequence (POSS-PMMA2-b-PTFEMA), the thin film compression capability is increased with increasing the PMMA ratio. The morphology of the deposited LB thin film was illustrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We observed that a thin film was composed by crater-shaped quasi-2D micelles for POSS-PTFEMA-b-PMMA, while it was proved that only flaky texture was observed for both POSS-PMMA277-b-PTFEMA130 and POSS-PMMA466-b-PTFEMA172. The thickness and area of flaky aggregates were greatly related to PMMA ratio. The different interface self-assembly structure evolution was proposed based on the interfacial rheology and thin film morphology studies.

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Soliton Solutions of the Coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq Equations for Kerr Law Nonlinearity

In this paper, the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq equations (SBE) will be solved by the sech, tanh, csch, and the modified simplest equation method (MSEM). We obtain exact solutions of the nonlinear for bright, dark, and singular 1-soliton solution. Kerr law nonlinearity media are studied. Results have proven that modified simple equation method does not produce the soliton solution in general case. Solutions may find practical applications and will be important for the conservation laws for dispersive optical solitons.

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Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Set-Valued Maps with Set Optimization

Optimality conditions are studied for set-valued maps with set optimization. Necessary conditions are given in terms of -derivative and contingent derivative. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions are shown for set-valued maps under generalized quasiconvexity assumptions.

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Infants Born Large for Gestational Age and Developmental Attainment in Early Childhood

Objectives. To investigate if an association exists between being born large for gestational age (LGA) and verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems at ages 4-5 years. Method. A secondary analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, including singleton births in 2004-2005 followed till 4-5 years . LGA was defined as a birth weight > 90th percentile. Outcomes included poor verbal ability (scoring 90th percentile on externalizing behaviour scales). Multivariable logistic regression with longitudinal standardized funnel weights and bootstrapping estimation were used. Results. Infants born LGA were not found to be at increased risk for poor verbal ability (aOR: 1.16 and aOR: 0.83 for girls and boys, resp.) or externalizing behaviour problems (aOR: 1.24 and aOR: 1.24 for girls and boys, resp.). Social factors were found to impact developmental attainment. Maternal smoking led to an increased risk for externalizing behaviour problems (aOR: 3.33 and aOR: 2.12 for girls and boys, resp.). Conclusion. There is no evidence to suggest that infants born LGA are at increased risk for poor verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems.

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Comment on “On the Carleman Classes of Vectors of a Scalar Type Spectral Operator”

The results of three papers, in which the author inadvertently overlooks certain deficiencies in the descriptions of the Carleman classes of vectors, in particular the Gevrey classes, of a scalar type spectral operator in a complex Banach space established in “On the Carleman Classes of Vectors of a Scalar Type Spectral Operator,” Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2004 (2004), no. 60, 3219–3235, are observed to remain true due to more recent findings.

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Aumann Fuzzy Improper Integral and Its Application to Solve Fuzzy Integro-Differential Equations by Laplace Transform Method

We introduce the Aumann fuzzy improper integral to define the convolution product of a fuzzy mapping and a crisp function in this paper. The Laplace convolution formula is proved in this case and used to solve fuzzy integro-differential equations with kernel of convolution type. Then, we report and correct an error in the article by Salahshour et al. dealing with the same topic.

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Understanding Dengue Control for Short- and Long-Term Intervention with a Mathematical Model Approach

A mathematical model of dengue diseases transmission will be discussed in this paper. Various interventions, such as vaccination of adults and newborns, the use of insecticides or fumigation, and also the enforcement of mechanical controls, will be considered when analyzing the best intervention for controlling the spread of dengue. From model analysis, we find three types of equilibrium points which will be built upon the dengue model. In this paper, these points are the mosquito-free equilibrium, disease-free equilibrium (with and without vaccinated compartment), and endemic equilibrium. Basic reproduction number as an endemic indicator has been found analytically. Based on analytical and numerical analysis, insecticide treatment, adult vaccine, and enforcement of mechanical control are the most significant interventions in reducing the spread of dengue disease infection caused by mosquitoes rather than larvicide treatment and vaccination of newborns. From short- and long-term simulation, we find that insecticide treatment is the best strategy to control dengue. We also find that, with periodic intervention, the result is not much significantly different with constant intervention based on reduced number of the infected human population. Therefore, with budget limitations, periodic intervention of insecticide strategy is a good alternative to reduce the spread of dengue.

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Preparation and Evaluation of Doxorubicin-Loaded Micelles Based on Glycyrrhetinic Acid Modified Gelatin Conjugates for Targeting Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent fatal diseases and the incidence of HCC is increasing worldwide. Polymeric micelles with targeting groups have drawn great attention as carriers for drug delivery in HCC therapy. Herein, novel glycyrrhetinic acid modified gelatin (GA-GEL) conjugates with three substitution degrees were synthesized and characterized. Doxorubicin (DOX) was applied as a model drug. DOX-loaded GA-GEL (DOX/GA-GEL) micelles were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The mean diameters of DOX/GA-GEL micelles were in the range of 195–235 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of DOX/GA-GEL micelles was 63.6%–96.2%, and the loading content was 8.3%–12.5%. Drug release from DOX-loaded micelles exhibited a biphasic manner in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.4. DOX/GA-GEL could be efficiently accumulated into human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The IC50 values of DOX/GA-GEL-2 and DOX·HCl in HepG2 cells were 0.33 and 0.66 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that the fluorescence signals of DiR-labeled GA-GEL-2 micelles were mainly distributed in liver and H22 orthotopic tumor, indicating that GA-GEL had the liver-targeting activity. Compared to DOX·HCl, DOX/GA-GEL-2 exhibited better antitumor activity in H22 orthotopic mice. Therefore, these results indicated that GA-GEL could be used as carrier of hydrophobic drug for targeting HCC.

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HIV-TB Coinfection among 57 Million Pregnant Women, Obstetric Complications, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, and Depression

Objective. HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. Method. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. Results. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Conclusions. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.

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An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

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A Comparison of Pd0 Nanoparticles and Pd2+ Modified Bi2O2CO3 for Visible Light-Driven Photocatalysis

As two effective approaches to increase the visible light-absorption capacities of photocatalysts, ion doping and metallic nanoparticles loading are compared in this work. Palladium was selected to modify Bi2O2CO3. Compared to dispersing palladium nanoparticles on the photocatalyst surface, it was more effective for the method of doping with palladium to shift the energy level within the bandgap of Bi2O2CO3 in improving its photocatalytic activity under visible light. This might be because doping with Pd2+ narrows the band gap of Bi2O2CO3 so as to increase the absorption capacity of visible light photons. Pd nanoparticles on the other hand can absorb photons to produce electrons which are then utilized by Bi2O2CO3 for photocatalytic reactions. Different mechanisms resulted in significant differences, and this work provides solid evidence that ion doping may be a more effective method to improve the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O2CO3.

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VHDL-AMS Simulation Framework for Molecular-FET Device-to-Circuit Modeling and Design

We concentrate on Molecular-FET as a device and present a new modular framework based on VHDL-AMS. We have implemented different Molecular-FET models within the framework. The framework allows comparison between the models in terms of the capability to calculate accurate - characteristics. It also provides the option to analyze the impact of Molecular-FET and its implementation in the circuit with the extension of its use in an architecture based on the crossbar configuration. This analysis evidences the effect of choices of technological parameters, the ability of models to capture the impact of physical quantities, and the importance of considering defects at circuit fabrication level. The comparison tackles the computational efforts of different models and techniques and discusses the trade-off between accuracy and performance as a function of the circuit analysis final requirements. We prove this methodology using three different models and test them on a 16-bit tree adder included in Pentium 4 that, to the best of our knowledge, is the biggest circuits based on molecular device ever designed and analyzed.

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Sialendoscopy in treatment of adult chronic recurrent parotitis without sialolithiasis.

Sialendoscopy in treatment of adult chronic recurrent parotitis without sialolithiasis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Jokela J, Haapaniemi A, Mäkitie A, Saarinen R

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of sialendoscopy in the management of adult chronic recurrent parotitis without sialolithiasis. In addition, preliminary results of an initial randomized placebo-controlled trial of single-dose intraductal steroid injection given concurrently with sialendoscopy, are presented.
METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with chronic recurrent parotitis without sialoliths were included in this study. They underwent sialendoscopy and were randomized to receive either a concurrent intraductal injection of isotonic saline solution or 125 mg of hydrocortisone. Symptom severity was evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS) and by recording symptom frequency and course with a multiple-choice questionnaire completed preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure.
RESULTS: The mean VAS score was 5.6 preoperatively and dropped to 2.9 at 3 months, 3.0 at 6 months, and 2.7 at 12 months after the procedure. The VAS score and the frequency of symptoms were significantly lower at 3 (p < 0.001), 6 (p < 0.001) and 12 (p < 0.001) months after the procedure when compared with the preoperative scores indicating that sialendoscopy reduces the symptoms of recurrent parotitis. However, complete permanent resolution of symptoms was rare. Single-dose steroid injection concomitant to sialendoscopy provided no additional benefit, but the current study is not sufficiently powered to determine a clinical difference between the steroid and non-steroid groups.
CONLUSION: Sialendoscopy appears to reduce the symptoms of chronic recurrent parotitis. While total permanent symptom remission is rare, sialendoscopy can be considered a safe and relatively efficacious treatment method for this patient group.

PMID: 29290052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Decreased plasma DEK Oncogene Levels Correlate with p16-Negative Disease and Advanced Tumor Stage in a Case-Control Study of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Decreased plasma DEK Oncogene Levels Correlate with p16-Negative Disease and Advanced Tumor Stage in a Case-Control Study of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Transl Oncol. 2017 Dec 28;11(1):168-174

Authors: Wise-Draper T, Sendilnathan A, Palackdharry S, Pease N, Qualtieri J, Butler R, Sadraei NH, Morris JC, Patil Y, Wilson K, Mark J, Casper K, Takiar V, Lane A, Privette Vinnedge L

Abstract
Head and neck cancer (HNC) remains the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and survival upon recurrence and/or metastasis remains poor. HNSCC has traditionally been associated with alcohol and nicotine use, but more recently the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has emerged as a favorable prognostic risk factor for oropharyngeal HNSCC. However, further stratification with additional biomarkers to predict patient outcome continues to be essential. One candidate biomarker is the DEK oncogenic protein, which was previously detected in the urine of patients with bladder cancer and is known to be secreted by immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated if DEK could be detected in human plasma and if DEK levels correlated with clinical and pathological variables of HNSCC. Plasma was separated from the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed, untreated HNSCC patients or age-matched normal healthy controls and analyzed for DEK protein using ELISA. Plasma concentrations of DEK protein were lower in p16-negative tumors compared to both normal controls and patients with p16-positive tumors. Patients with lower plasma concentrations of DEK were also more likely to have late stage tumors and a lower white blood cell count. Contrary to previously published work demonstrating a poor prognosis with high intratumoral DEK levels, we show for the first time that decreased concentrations of DEK in patient plasma correlates with poor prognostic factors, including HPV-negative status as determined by negative p16 expression and advanced tumor stage.

PMID: 29289845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Zinc Deficiency via a Splice Switch in Zinc Importer ZIP2/SLC39A2 Causes Cystic Fibrosis-Associated MUC5AC Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells.

Zinc Deficiency via a Splice Switch in Zinc Importer ZIP2/SLC39A2 Causes Cystic Fibrosis-Associated MUC5AC Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells.

EBioMedicine. 2017 Dec 20;:

Authors: Kamei S, Fujikawa H, Nohara H, Ueno-Shuto K, Maruta K, Nakashima R, Kawakami T, Matsumoto C, Sakaguchi Y, Ono T, Suico MA, Boucher RC, Gruenert DC, Takeo T, Nakagata N, Li JD, Kai H, Shuto T

Abstract
Airway mucus hyperproduction and fluid imbalance are important hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians. Dysregulated expression and/or function of airway ion transporters, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), have been implicated as causes of CF-associated mucus hypersecretory phenotype. However, the contributory roles of other substances and transporters in the regulation of CF airway pathogenesis remain unelucidated. Here, we identified a novel connection between CFTR/ENaC expression and the intracellular Zn2+ concentration in the regulation of MUC5AC, a major secreted mucin that is highly expressed in CF airway. CFTR-defective and ENaC-hyperactive airway epithelial cells specifically and highly expressed a unique, alternative splice isoform of the zinc importer ZIP2/SLC39A2 (ΔC-ZIP2), which lacks the C-terminal domain. Importantly, ΔC-ZIP2 levels correlated inversely with wild-type ZIP2 and intracellular Zn2+ levels. Moreover, the splice switch to ΔC-ZIP2 as well as decreased expression of other ZIPs caused zinc deficiency, which is sufficient for induction of MUC5AC; while ΔC-ZIP2 expression per se induced ENaC expression and function. Thus, our findings demonstrate that the novel splicing switch contributes to CF lung pathology via the novel interplay of CFTR, ENaC, and ZIP2 transporters.

PMID: 29289532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Effect of carrier bandwidth on integration of simulations of acoustic and electric hearing within or across ears.

Effect of carrier bandwidth on integration of simulations of acoustic and electric hearing within or across ears.

J Acoust Soc Am. 2017 Dec;142(6):EL561

Authors: Fu QJ, Galvin JJ, Wang X

Abstract
Differences in current spread and/or spread of excitation may differently affect integration of acoustic and electric hearing within (electric-acoustic stimulation, or EAS) or across ears (bimodal). In this study, vowel recognition was measured in normal-hearing subjects listening to simulations of cochlear implant (CI), EAS, and bimodal listening. Residual acoustic hearing was limited between 0.1 and 0.6 kHz. The carrier bandwidth in the CI simulations was varied across carriers: broad-band noise, narrow-band noise, and sine waves. Results showed that reducing the bandwidth (and the inherent noise fluctuations) in the CI simulations significantly affected CI-only and bimodal performance, but not EAS performance.

PMID: 29289073 [PubMed - in process]



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Predictive modeling of inpatient mortality in departments of internal medicine.

Predictive modeling of inpatient mortality in departments of internal medicine.

Intern Emerg Med. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Schwartz N, Sakhnini A, Bisharat N

Abstract
Despite overwhelming data on predictors of inpatient mortality, it is unclear which variables are the most instructive in predicting mortality of patients in departments of internal medicine. This study aims to identify the most informative predictors of inpatient mortality, and builds a prediction model on an individual level, given a constellation of patient characteristics. We use a penalized method for developing the prediction model by applying the least-absolute-shrinkage and selection-operator regression. We utilize a cohort of adult patients admitted to any of 5 departments of internal medicine during 3.5 years. We integrated data from electronic health records that included clinical, epidemiological, administrative, and laboratory variables. The prediction model was evaluated using the validation sample. Of 10,788 patients hospitalized during the study period, 874 (8.1%) died during admission. We find that the strongest predictors of inpatient mortality are prior admission within 3 months, malignant morbidity, serum creatinine levels, and hypoalbuminemia at hospital admission, and an admitting diagnosis of sepsis, pneumonia, malignant neoplastic disease, or cerebrovascular disease. The C-statistic of the risk prediction model is 89.4% (95% CI 88.4-90.4%). The predictive performance of this model is better than a multivariate stepwise logistic regression model. By utilizing the prediction model, the AUC for the independent (validation) data set is 85.7% (95% CI 84.1-87.3%). Using penalized regression, this prediction model identifies the most informative predictors of inpatient mortality. The model illustrates the potential value and feasibility of a tool that can aid physicians in decision-making.

PMID: 29290047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Specialized Plant Metabolism Characteristics and Impact on Target Molecule Biotechnological Production.

Specialized Plant Metabolism Characteristics and Impact on Target Molecule Biotechnological Production.

Mol Biotechnol. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Matsuura HN, Malik S, de Costa F, Yousefzadi M, Mirjalili MH, Arroo R, Bhambra AS, Strnad M, Bonfill M, Fett-Neto AG

Abstract
Plant secondary metabolism evolved in the context of highly organized and differentiated cells and tissues, featuring massive chemical complexity operating under tight environmental, developmental and genetic control. Biotechnological demand for natural products has been continuously increasing because of their significant value and new applications, mainly as pharmaceuticals. Aseptic production systems of plant secondary metabolites have improved considerably, constituting an attractive tool for increased, stable and large-scale supply of valuable molecules. Surprisingly, to date, only a few examples including taxol, shikonin, berberine and artemisinin have emerged as success cases of commercial production using this strategy. The present review focuses on the main characteristics of plant specialized metabolism and their implications for current strategies used to produce secondary compounds in axenic cultivation systems. The search for consonance between plant secondary metabolism unique features and various in vitro culture systems, including cell, tissue, organ, and engineered cultures, as well as heterologous expression in microbial platforms, is discussed. Data to date strongly suggest that attaining full potential of these biotechnology production strategies requires being able to take advantage of plant specialized metabolism singularities for improved target molecule yields and for bypassing inherent difficulties in its rational manipulation.

PMID: 29290031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Physicochemical characterization of sterilized muds for pharmaceutics/cosmetics applications.

Physicochemical characterization of sterilized muds for pharmaceutics/cosmetics applications.

Environ Geochem Health. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Kamitsou MD, Sygouni V, Kanellopoulou DG, Gardikis K, Koutsoukos PG

Abstract
Clays and muds have been used for centuries as cosmetics or pharmaceutical products for various therapies. The suitability of muds and clays for health- and beauty-related applications depends on their physicochemical properties, mineralogical composition, particle characteristics and toxicity. In this work, the physicochemical characterization of 12 mud specimens from different natural spa resorts in Greece and one from Israel (Dead Sea) is presented. All specimens were sterilized at 121 °C for 20 min, because of their intended use. The Greek mud specimens were collected from various locations in Macedonia, Western Greece and Northeast Aegean. All muds were characterized concerning their mineralogical, chemical components as well as their morphological characteristics using appropriate methods [powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen absorption specific surface area measurements (BET), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy]. The concentrations of F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- anions at equilibrium with the mud specimens were measured by ion chromatography. Total calcium concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the concentration of total N, C, H and S in the solids was measured using elemental analysis. Moreover, total phenolic concentration (TPC) in distilled water equilibrated with the mud specimens was measured as an index for their antioxidant properties. Several muds were found to present high TPC. Several of the examined mud specimens were found to have the potential use as pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. Based on the physicochemical characteristics of the mud specimens examined, possible improvement in their use and applicability has been suggested.

PMID: 29290013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Helicobacter pylori infection and prevalence of high blood pressure among Chinese adults.

Helicobacter pylori infection and prevalence of high blood pressure among Chinese adults.

J Hum Hypertens. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Wan Z, Hu L, Hu M, Lei X, Huang Y, Lv Y

Abstract
Epidemiological studies demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. However, the association between H. pylori infection and hypertension remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and prevalence of hypertension among Chinese adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 5246 adult participants who were recruited from a health manage center. All participants underwent a 13C-urea breath test and a routine health check-up. Logistic and liner regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension in relation to H. pylori infection. Of the 5168 study participants aged 18-70 years, 2034 (39.4%) were females and 955 (18.5%) had hypertension. After adjustment for potential confounders, H. pylori infection was associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.46). In addition, compared with participants not infected with H. pylori, those with H. pylori infection had an increase of 0.735 mmHg (95% CI, 0.101, 1.369) for diastolic blood pressure and 0.723 mmHg (95% CI, 0.034, 1.413) for mean arterial pressure. There was no significant interaction between H. pylori infection and age, sex, and body mass index on the prevalence of hypertension (all P values for interaction >0.05). Findings from this study demonstrate that H. pylori infection was positively associated with prevalence of hypertension among Chinese adults. More well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

PMID: 29289960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Wait a minute? An observational cohort study comparing iron stores in healthy Swedish infants at 4 months of age after 10-, 60- and 180-second umbilical cord clamping.

Wait a minute? An observational cohort study comparing iron stores in healthy Swedish infants at 4 months of age after 10-, 60- and 180-second umbilical cord clamping.

BMJ Open. 2017 Dec 29;7(12):e017215

Authors: Askelöf U, Andersson O, Domellöf M, Fasth A, Hallberg B, Hellström-Westas L, Pettersson K, Westgren M, Wiklund IE, Götherström C

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable stem cell source used for transplantation. Immediate umbilical cord (UC) clamping is widely practised, but delayed UC clamping is increasingly advocated to reduce possible infant anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate an intermediate UC clamping time point and to evaluate iron status at the age of 4 months in infants who had the UC clamped after 60 s and compare the results with immediate and late UC clamping.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study with two historical controls.
SETTING: A university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and a county hospital in Halland, Sweden.
METHODS: Iron status was assessed at 4 months in 200 prospectively recruited term infants whose UC was clamped 60 s after birth. The newborn baby was held below the uterine level for the first 30 s before placing the infant on the mother's abdomen for additional 30 s. The results were compared with data from a previously conducted randomised controlled trial including infants subjected to UC clamping at ≤10 s (n=200) or ≥180 s (n=200) after delivery.
RESULTS: After adjustment for age differences at the time of follow-up, serum ferritin concentrations were 77, 103 and 114 µg/L in the 10, 60 and 180 s groups, respectively. The adjusted ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the 60 s group compared with the 10 s group (P=0.002), while the difference between the 60 and 180 s groups was not significant (P=0.29).
CONCLUSION: In this study of healthy term infants, 60 s UC clamping with 30 s lowering of the baby below the uterine level resulted in higher serum ferritin concentrations at 4 months compared with 10 s UC clamping. The results suggest that delaying the UC clamping for 60 s reduces the risk for iron deficiency.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01245296.

PMID: 29289934 [PubMed - in process]



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Regeneration of complex oral organs using 3D cell organization technology.

Regeneration of complex oral organs using 3D cell organization technology.

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2017 Dec 28;49:84-90

Authors: Oshima M, Ogawa M, Tsuji T

Abstract
The development of organoid techniques for regenerative therapy has progressed remarkably with the use of tissue-derived stem cells and pluripotent stem cells based on stem cell biology and tissue engineering technology. To realize whole-organ replacement therapy as next-generation regenerative medicine, it is expected that fully functional bioengineered organs can be reconstructed using an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered organ germ and organoids by stem cell manipulation and self-organization. In this mini-review, we focused on substantial advances of 3D bioengineering technologies for the regeneration of complex oral organs with the reconstruction of 3D bioengineered organ germ using organ-inductive potential embryo-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells. These bioengineering technologies have the potential for realization of future organ replacement therapy.

PMID: 29289879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields.

Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields.

Environ Res. 2017 Dec 28;162:81-96

Authors: Thielens A, Van den Bossche M, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Benke G, Martens L, Joseph W

Abstract
The aims of this study were to: i) investigate the repeatability and representativeness of personal radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure measurements, across different microenvironments, ii) perform simultaneous evaluations of personal RF-EMF exposures for the whole body and the head, iii) validate the data obtained with a head-worn personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) against those obtained with an on-body worn personal exposimeter (PEM). Data on personal and head RF-EMF exposures were collected by performing measurements across 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia. A body-worn PEM and a head-worn PDE were used for measuring body and head exposures, respectively. The summary statistics obtained for total RF-EMF exposure showed a high representativeness (r2 > 0.66 for two paths in the same area) and a high repeatability over time (r2 > 0.87 for repetitions of the same path). The median head exposure in the 900MHz downlink band ranged between 0.06V/m and 0.31V/m. The results obtained during simultaneous measurements using the two devices showed high correlations (0.42 < r2 < 0.94). The highest mean total RF-EMF exposure was measured in Melbourne's central business district (0.89V/m), whereas the lowest mean total exposure was measured in a suburban residential area (0.05V/m). This study shows that personal RF-EMF microenvironmental measurements in multiple microenvironments have high representativeness and repeatability over time. The personal RF-EMF exposure levels (i.e. body and head exposures) demonstrated moderate to high correlations.

PMID: 29289859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications.

Electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications.

Biosens Bioelectron. 2017 Dec 22;103:113-129

Authors: Maduraiveeran G, Sasidharan M, Ganesan V

Abstract
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface. The advantageous attributes such as low-cost, miniaturization, energy efficient, easy fabrication, online monitoring, and the simultaneous sensing capability are the driving force towards continued growth of electrochemical biosensing platforms, which have fascinated the interdisciplinary research arenas spanning chemistry, material science, biological science, and medical industries. The electrochemical biosensor platforms have potential applications in the early-stage detection and diagnosis of disease as stout and tunable diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The key aim of this review is to emphasize the newest development in the design of sensing and biosensing platforms based on functional nanomaterials for biological and biomedical applications. High sensitivity and selectivity, fast response, and excellent durability in biological media are all critical aspects which will also be wisely addressed. Potential applications of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms based on advanced functional nanomaterials for neuroscience diagnostics, clinical, point-of-care diagnostics and medical industries are also concisely presented.

PMID: 29289816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Screening of organic pollutants in pet hair samples and the significance of environmental factors.

Screening of organic pollutants in pet hair samples and the significance of environmental factors.

Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 28;625:311-319

Authors: González-Gómez X, Cambeiro-Pérez N, Martínez-Carballo E, Simal-Gándara J

Abstract
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes. Concentrations from different classes of organochlorine, and organophosphate pesticides (OCPs, and OPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs and DL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were identified in the selected pet hair samples from Ourense (NW, Spain). We detected most of these pollutants in the selected hair pets. The mean concentrations found ranged from 89 to 6556ng/g for OPEs, from 8.6 to 1031ng/g for PAHs, from 8.6 to 256ng/g for PBDEs, from 29 to 184ng/g for OPPs, from 0.29 to 139 for OCPs, from 0.30 to 59ng/g for NDL-PCBs and from 1.2 to 14ng/g for DL-PCBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of OPs in pets from North-West Spain and it could provide baseline information for future monitoring of OPs in the area.

PMID: 29289779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Technology-assisted risk of bias assessment in systematic reviews: A prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the RobotReviewer machine learning tool.

Technology-assisted risk of bias assessment in systematic reviews: A prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the RobotReviewer machine learning tool.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Gates A, Vandermeer B, Hartling L

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of RobotReviewer's risk of bias judgments.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In this prospective cross-sectional evaluation, we used RobotReviewer to assess risk of bias among 1,180 trials. We computed reliability with human reviewers using Cohen's kappa coefficient and calculated sensitivity and specificity. We investigated differences in reliability by risk of bias domain, topic, and outcome type using the Chi-square test in meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Reliability (95% CI) was moderate for random sequence generation (0.48 (0.43, 0.53)), allocation concealment (0.45 (0.40, 0.51)), and blinding of participants and personnel (0.42 (0.36, 0.47)); fair for overall risk of bias (0.34 (0.25, 0.44)); and slight for blinding of outcome assessors (0.10 (0.06, 0.14)), incomplete outcome data (0.14 (0.08, 0.19)), and selective reporting (0.02 (-0.02, 0.05)). Reliability for blinding of participants and personnel (p<0.001), blinding of outcome assessors (p=0.005), selective reporting (p<0.001), and overall risk of bias (p<0.001) differed by topic. Sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) ranged from 0.20 (0.18, 0.23) to 0.76 (0.72, 0.80) and from 0.61 (0.56, 0.65) to 0.95 (0.93, 0.96), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Risk of bias appraisal is subjective. Compared to reliability between author groups, RobotReviewer's reliability with human reviewers was similar for most domains and better for allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, and overall risk of bias.

PMID: 29289761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Next-generation sequencing characterization of HLA in multi-generation families of Kuwaiti descent.

Next-generation sequencing characterization of HLA in multi-generation families of Kuwaiti descent.

Hum Immunol. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Ameen R, Shemmari SA, Askar M

Abstract
The frequency of HLA genes in one population may not accurately represent frequencies in other populations. In this study, we characterized extended human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes in several families of Kuwaiti descent by high-resolution typing using next-generation technology. A total 81 members (including patients and related donors) from 21 families were enrolled. No haplotypes were shared among multiple families. Of 77 haplotypes identified, 23 were not listed in the HaploStats database. Two haplotypes were most common in African Americans, six in Asian Pacific Islanders, three in Caucasians, three in Hispanics, and three in Native Americans. The remaining identified haplotypes were not among the most common 200 HLA haplotypes in any of the five major populations. This cohort had 202 (19%) unique alleles, including 20 rare alleles, 16 very rare alleles, and 2 novel ones. Furthermore, no frequency data were available for 30% (23/77) of the observed haplotypes, and 6% (3/49) of B∼C blocks identified were not available in the HaploStats database. Kuwaiti individuals carry unique HLA haplotypes that are not shared by the majority of individuals historically reported to the US National Marrow Donor Program registry.

PMID: 29289738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Conductive nanofibrous composite scaffolds based on in-situ formed polyaniline nanoparticle and polylactide for bone regeneration.

Conductive nanofibrous composite scaffolds based on in-situ formed polyaniline nanoparticle and polylactide for bone regeneration.

J Colloid Interface Sci. 2017 Dec 24;514:517-527

Authors: Chen J, Yu M, Guo B, Ma PX, Yin Z

Abstract
Conducting polymers and biodegradable polylactide (PLA) scaffolds are both promising biomaterials applied in bone tissue engineering. It is necessary to develop a composite scaffold combining their properties of osteogenic differentiation promotion and three-dimension matrix. To conquer the problem of poor processability of conductive polymers, we use a novel in-situ polymerization/thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) method to fabricate conductive nanofibrous PLA scaffolds with well-distributed polyaniline (PANI) nano-structures. The simple preparation technique provides the possibility to scale-up production of these conductive nanofibrous composite scaffolds. The scaffold structure and content of in-situ formed polyaniline nanoparticles was thoroughly characterized with 1H NMR, FT-IR, XPS, TGA, SEM and UV-vis, and the conductivity/electrochemical properties of the composite scaffolds were controlled with varied feed ratios of aniline to PLA. Meanwhile, the good cytocompatibility of these composite scaffolds was evaluated by culturing bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on them. The effect of conductive nanofibrous scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation was studied with expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Ocn) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) during the culture of BMSCs for three weeks. The calcium mineralization of BMSCs is determined by alizarin red staining. These results indicated that a moderate content of PANI in the conductive nanofibrous scaffolds significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs for engineering bone tissues.

PMID: 29289734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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An engineered cell line lacking OGG1 and MUTYH glycosylases implicates the accumulation of genomic 8-oxoguanine as the basis for paraquat mutagenicity.

An engineered cell line lacking OGG1 and MUTYH glycosylases implicates the accumulation of genomic 8-oxoguanine as the basis for paraquat mutagenicity.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Tajai P, Fedeles BI, Suriyo T, Navasumrit P, Kanitwithayanun J, Essigmann JM, Satayavivad J

Abstract
Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl, 4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride; PQ), a widely used herbicide, is toxic to mammals through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. Epidemiological data suggest that PQ is also mutagenic and carcinogenic, especially in high doses. The toxic and mutagenic properties of PQ are attributed to the ability of the molecule to redox-cycle, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress. ROS also cause oxidative DNA damage such as 8-oxoguanine (8OG), a mutagenic base that, when replicated, causes G to T transversion mutations. The present study employed the CHO-derived cell line AS52 to quantify the mutagenic properties of low doses of PQ. By containing a functional, chromosomally-integrated copy of the bacterial gpt gene, AS52 cells a facile system for evaluating the mutagenic properties of genotoxicants. To bolster the sensitivity of this system for detecting mutagenesis of weak mutagens like PQ, and to provide a tool for mechanistic evaluation of the mutagenic process, we constructed a new AS52-derived cell line defective for 8OG DNA repair. Specifically, we employed CRISPR-Cas9 technology to knock out 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and MUTYH glycosylase, two key enzymes involved in the base excision repair of 8OG. The double knock-out (DKO) AS52 cells were found to be more sensitive to PQ toxicity than the parental (WT) AS52 cell line. They experienced higher levels of ROS, which translated into more DNA double-strand breaks, which explained the PQ toxicity. The increased ROS levels also led to more 8OG genomic accumulation, and a higher level of mutations in the DKO cells, suggesting that PQ mutagenesis is mediated primarily by 8OG genomic accumulation. Consistent with this view, antioxidant co-treatment lowered induced cellular ROS and PQ-induced mutagenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate the strong protective role of OGG1 and MUTYH against PQ-induced mutagenesis. Moreover, our experiments establish the engineered OGG1-/-MUTYH-/- AS52 cell line and associated methods as a versatile cellular system for studying in quantitative terms the mutagenesis of other agents, environmental or endogenous, that induce oxidative stress.

PMID: 29289706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Study protocol for Log2Lose: A feasibility randomized controlled trial to evaluate financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring and interim weight loss in adults with obesity.

Study protocol for Log2Lose: A feasibility randomized controlled trial to evaluate financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring and interim weight loss in adults with obesity.

Contemp Clin Trials. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Voils CI, Levine E, Gierisch JM, Pendergast J, Hale SL, McVay MA, Reed SD, Yancy WS, Bennett G, Strawbridge EM, White AC, Shaw RJ

Abstract
The obesity epidemic has negative physical, psychological, and financial consequences. Despite the existence of effective behavioral weight loss interventions, many individuals do not achieve adequate weight loss, and most regain lost weight in the year following intervention. We report the rationale and design for a 2×2 factorial study that involves financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring (yes vs. no) and/or interim weight loss (yes vs. no). Outpatients with obesity participate in a 24-week, group-based weight loss intervention. All participants are asked to record their daily dietary and liquid intake on a smartphone application (app) and to weigh themselves daily at home on a study-provided cellular scale. An innovative information technology (IT) solution collates dietary data from the app and weight from the scale. Using these data, an algorithm classifies participants weekly according to whether they met their group's criteria to receive a cash reward ranging from $0 to $30 for dietary self-monitoring and/or interim weight loss. Notice of the reward is provided via text message, and credit is uploaded to a gift card. This pilot study will provide information on the feasibility of using this novel IT solution to provide variable-ratio financial incentives in real time via its effects on recruitment, intervention adherence, retention, and cost. This study will provide the foundation for a comprehensive, adequately-powered, randomized controlled trial to promote short-term weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. If efficacious, this approach could reduce the prevalence, adverse outcomes, and costs of obesity for millions of Americans. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT02691260.

PMID: 29289702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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TGF-β signalling pathways in different compartments of the lower airways of stable COPD patients.

TGF-β signalling pathways in different compartments of the lower airways of stable COPD patients.

Chest. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Di Stefano A, Sangiorgi C, Gnemmi I, Casolari P, Brun P, Ricciardolo FL, Contoli M, Papi A, Maniscalco P, Ruggeri P, Girbino G, Cappello F, Pavlides S, Guo Y, Chung KF, Barnes PJ, Adcock IM, Balbi B, Caramori G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The expression and localization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway proteins in different compartments of the lower airways of stable COPD patients is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To determine TGF-β pathway protein expression in patients with stable COPD.
METHODS: The expression and localization of TGF-β pathway components was measured in the bronchial mucosa and peripheral lung of patients with stable COPD (n=44), control smokers with normal lung function (n=24) and control non-smoking subjects (n=11) using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: TGF-β1, TGF-β3 and CCN2 expression were significantly decreased in the bronchiolar epithelium, with TGF-β1 also decreased in alveolar macrophages, of stable COPD patients compared to control smokers with normal lung function. TGF-β3 expression was increased in the bronchial lamina propria of both control smokers with normal lung function and mild/moderate stable COPD compared to control non-smokers and correlated significantly with pack-years. However, TGF-β3+ cells decreased in severe/very severe COPD compared to control smokers. LTBP-1 expression was increased in the bronchial lamina propria in stable COPD of all severities compared with control smokers with normal lung function. BAMBI expression in the bronchial mucosa was significantly increased in stable COPD of all severities compared to control subjects. No other significant differences were observed between groups for all the other molecules studied either in the bronchial mucosa and peripheral lung.
CONCLUSION: Expression of TGF-βs and their regulatory proteins is distinct within different lower airway compartments in stable COPD. Selective reduction in TGF-β1 and enhanced BAMBI expression may be associated with the increase in autoimmunity in COPD.

PMID: 29289685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Efficacy and Safety of On-Demand Use of 2 Treatments Designed for Different Etiologies of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: 3 Randomized Clinical Trials.

Efficacy and Safety of On-Demand Use of 2 Treatments Designed for Different Etiologies of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: 3 Randomized Clinical Trials.

J Sex Med. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Tuiten A, van Rooij K, Bloemers J, Eisenegger C, van Honk J, Kessels R, Kingsberg S, Derogatis LR, de Leede L, Gerritsen J, Koppeschaar HPF, Olivier B, Everaerd W, Frijlink HW, Höhle D, de Lange RPJ, Böcker KBE, Pfaus JG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In women, low sexual desire and/or sexual arousal can lead to sexual dissatisfaction and emotional distress, collectively defined as female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD). Few pharmaceutical treatment options are currently available.
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of 2 novel on-demand pharmacologic treatments that have been designed to treat 2 FSIAD subgroups (women with low sensitivity for sexual cues and women with dysfunctional over-activation of sexual inhibition) using a personalized medicine approach using an allocation formula based on genetic, hormonal, and psychological variables developed to predict drug efficacy in the subgroups.
METHODS: 497 women (21-70 years old) with FSIAD were randomized to 1 of 12 8-week treatment regimens in 3 double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding studies conducted at 16 research sites in the United States. Efficacy and safety of the following on-demand treatments was tested: placebo, testosterone (T; 0.5 mg), sildenafil (S; 50 mg), buspirone (B; 10 mg) and combination therapies (T 0.25 mg + S 25 mg, T 0.25 mg + S 50 mg, T 0.5 mg + S 25 mg, T 0.5 mg + S 50 mg, and T 0.25 mg + B 5 mg, T 0.25 mg + B 10 mg, T 0.5 mg + B 5 mg, T 0.5 mg + B 10 mg).
OUTCOMES: The primary efficacy measure was the change in satisfying sexual events (SSEs) from the 4-week baseline to the 4-week average of the 8-week active treatment period after medication intake. For the primary end points, the combination treatments were compared with placebo and the respective monotherapies on this measure.
RESULTS: In women with low sensitivity for sexual cues, 0.5 mg T + 50 mg S increased the number of SSEs from baseline compared with placebo (difference in change [Δ] = 1.70, 95% CI = 0.57-2.84, P = .004) and monotherapies (S: Δ = 1.95, 95% CI = 0.44-3.45, P = .012; T: Δ = 1.69, 95% CI = 0.58-2.80, P = .003). In women with overactive inhibition, 0.5 mg T + 10 mg B increased the number of SSEs from baseline compared with placebo (Δ = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.17-1.82, P = .019) and monotherapies (B: Δ = 1.52, 95% CI = 0.57-2.46, P = .002; T: Δ = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.17-1.78, P = .018). Secondary end points followed this pattern of results. The most common drug-related side effects were flushing (T + S treatment, 3%; T + B treatment, 2%), headache (placebo treatment, 2%; T + S treatment, 9%), dizziness (T + B treatment, 3%), and nausea (T + S treatment, 3%; T + B treatment, 2%).
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: T + S and T + B are promising treatments for women with FSIAD.
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The data were collected in 3 well-designed randomized clinical trials that tested multiple doses in a substantial number of women. The influence of T + S and T + B on distress and the potentially sustained improvements after medication cessation were not investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: T + S and T + B are well tolerated and safe and significantly increase the number of SSEs in different FSIAD subgroups. Tuiten A, van Rooij K, Bloemers J, et al. Efficacy and Safety of On-Demand Use of 2 Treatments Designed for Different Etiologies of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: 3 Randomized Clinical Trials. J Sex Med 2017;XX:XXX-XXX.

PMID: 29289554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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LDL Receptor Gene-ablated Hamsters: A Rodent Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia With Dominant Inheritance and Diet-induced Coronary Atherosclerosis.

LDL Receptor Gene-ablated Hamsters: A Rodent Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia With Dominant Inheritance and Diet-induced Coronary Atherosclerosis.

EBioMedicine. 2017 Dec 15;:

Authors: Guo X, Gao M, Wang Y, Lin X, Yang L, Cong N, An X, Wang F, Qu K, Yu L, Wang Y, Wang J, Zhu H, Xian X, Liu G

Abstract
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused mainly by LDL receptor (Ldlr) gene mutations. Unlike FH patients, heterozygous Ldlr knockout (KO) mice do not show a dominant FH trait. Hamsters, like humans, have the cholesteryl ester transfer protein, intestine-only ApoB editing and low hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Here, we generated Ldlr-ablated hamsters using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Homozygous Ldlr KO hamsters on a chow diet developed hypercholesterolemia with LDL as the dominant lipoprotein and spontaneous atherosclerosis. On a high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCHF) diet, these animals exhibited severe hyperlipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and coronary arteries. Moreover, the heterozygous Ldlr KO hamsters on a short-term HCHF diet also had overt hypercholesterolemia, which could be effectively ameliorated with several lipid-lowering drugs. Importantly, heterozygotes on 3-month HCHF diets developed accelerated lesions in the aortas and coronary arteries. Our findings demonstrate that the Ldlr KO hamster is an animal model of choice for human FH and has great potential in translational research of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease.

PMID: 29289533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Radiologist Professional Payments After Mitigation of CMS's Multiple-Procedure Payment Reduction Initiatives.

Radiologist Professional Payments After Mitigation of CMS's Multiple-Procedure Payment Reduction Initiatives.

J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Sadigh G, Hughes D, Wang W, Allen B, McGinty GB, Silva E, Duszak R

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of ACR evidence-based advocacy on radiologist professional reimbursement from individual-provider CMS multiple-procedure payment reduction (MPPR) initiatives.
METHODS: CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use Files and 5% research-identifiable file carrier claims files from 2012 through 2014 were used to identify individual-provider MPPR-eligible services for radiologists (group practice linking unavailability in either dataset precluded quantification of different provider discounting) and then compare actual payments to Medicare Physician Fee Schedule national professional reimbursement rates to identify MPPR-discounted services. Payments attributed to MPPR-affected services and average radiologist annual MPPR discounts were calculated to estimate incremental individual radiologist payment restoration as a result of evidence-based advocacy.
RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2014, a mean of 803 to 836 advanced imaging services per radiologist were potentially affected by individual-provider MPPR discounting. Approximately 23% of these services were discounted by individual-provider MPPR, resulting in approximately $2,524 to $2,893 lost per radiologist per year. The MPPR rollback from 25% to 5% is thus estimated to return $55 million to $64 million to radiologists each year for the individual component of MPPR alone.
CONCLUSIONS: Individual-provider MPPR discounting resulted, on average, in more than $2,500 in lost payments per radiologist per year. Its rollback, associated with ACR evidence-based advocacy efforts, is estimated to return well over $50 million in Medicare professional payments to radiologists each year for individual-component MPPR discounting alone.

PMID: 29289509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Monitoring loads and non-contact injury during the transition from club to National team prior to an international football tournament: A case study of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2015 Asia Cup.

Monitoring loads and non-contact injury during the transition from club to National team prior to an international football tournament: A case study of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2015 Asia Cup.

J Sci Med Sport. 2017 Dec 20;:

Authors: McCall A, Jones M, Gelis L, Duncan C, Ehrmann F, Dupont G, Duffield R

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Injured and non-injured national team footballers were compared for external and internal loads during transition from club to National team training camp.
DESIGN: Prospective Case Study.
METHODS: Load and injury data were collected from the same National team prior to and during training camps of 2 tournaments; World (n=17) and Asian Cups (n=16). External (number sessions) and internal (s-RPE) loads were collected 4-weeks prior to and during camps. The acute:chronic load ratio was calculated for the first week of camp based on the mean of previous 4-weeks. Respective loads and ratios were compared between injured and non-injured players for non-contact injuries occurring during camp.
RESULTS: Seven non-contact injuries occurred during World Cup camp and 1 during Asian Cup (preventing statistical analyses). Small-to-moderate effect sizes were found for lower chronic internal loads (ES=0.57; 90% CI: 0.39-1.08) and higher acute:chronic ratio (ES=0.45; 90% CI: 0.31-0.87) for injured compared to non-injured players. Moderate-large effects (ES=0.83; 90% CI: 0.56-1.60) were evident for increased acute:chronic ratio for number of sessions in injured compared to non-injured players. However, small-moderate effect sizes were present for lower chronic training and match loads (ES=0.55; 90% CI: 0.38-1.06) in injured players prior to the World Cup camp, alongside an increased number of sessions in week 1 of camp (ES=0.47; 90% CI: 0.33-0.91).
CONCLUSIONS: Players incurring non-contact injury during training camp prior to an international tournament performed less prior chronic external and internal load and a concomitant higher relative increase in camp, thus representing a practical marker to monitor in national teams.

PMID: 29289497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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On the studies of time periods in head and neck cancer diagnosis and treatment.

On the studies of time periods in head and neck cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Oral Oncol. 2017 Dec 27;:

Authors: Varela-Centelles P, García-Martín JM, Seoane-Romero J

PMID: 29289443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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JDB, Vol. 6, Pages 2: The Biology of SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases in Drosophila Development, Immunity, and Cancer

JDB, Vol. 6, Pages 2: The Biology of SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases in Drosophila Development, Immunity, and Cancer

Journal of Developmental Biology doi: 10.3390/jdb6010002

Authors: Mona Abed Eliya Bitman-Lotan Amir Orian

The ubiquitin and SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathways modify proteins that in turn regulate diverse cellular processes, embryonic development, and adult tissue physiology. These pathways were originally discovered biochemically in vitro, leading to a long-standing challenge of elucidating both the molecular cross-talk between these pathways and their biological importance. Recent discoveries in Drosophila established that ubiquitin and SUMO pathways are interconnected via evolutionally conserved SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) proteins. STUbL are RING ubiquitin ligases that recognize SUMOylated substrates and catalyze their ubiquitination, and include Degringolade (Dgrn) in Drosophila and RNF4 and RNF111 in humans. STUbL are essential for early development of both the fly and mouse embryos. In the fly embryo, Dgrn regulates early cell cycle progression, sex determination, zygotic gene transcription, segmentation, and neurogenesis, among other processes. In the fly adult, Dgrn is required for systemic immune response to pathogens and intestinal stem cell regeneration upon infection. These functions of Dgrn are highly conserved in humans, where RNF4-dependent ubiquitination potentiates key oncoproteins, thereby accelerating tumorigenesis. Here, we review the lessons learned to date in Drosophila and highlight their relevance to cancer biology.



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Corrigendum to “Slip Effect on MHD Chemically Reacting Convictive Boundary Layer Flow with Heat Absorption”



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Antimicrobial Nanocomposites Prepared from Montmorillonite/Ag+/Quaternary Ammonium Nitrate

Nanocomposites of Ag with organic montmorillonite (Ag-OMMT), Ag with montmorillonite (Ag-MMT), and organic montmorillonite (OMMT) were successfully prepared via a one-step solution-intercalated method. Sodium MMT, silver nitrate, and dimethyl octadecyl hydroxy ethyl ammonium nitrate were used as precursors. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the MMT layers were intercalated, and Ag+ was partly reduced to silver nanoparticles with diameters within 10–20 nm in Ag-OMMT. The decomposition temperature of the organic cations in OMMT and Ag-OMMT increased to 220°C, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites was tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and killing rate. The MICs of Ag-OMMT against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were 0.313, 2.5, and 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Because of the presence of quaternary ammonium nitrate, Ag-OMMT has a better MIC against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. OMMT did not show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. In 2 h, 0.0125 mg/mL Ag-OMMT could kill 100% of S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans in solution, and Ag-MMT could kill 99.995% of S. aureus, 90.15% of E. coli, and 93.68% of C. albicans. These antimicrobial functional nanocomposites have the potential for application in the area of surface decoration films.

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Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on sleep and quality of life in patients with pulmonary resection.

Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on sleep and quality of life in patients with pulmonary resection.

Sleep Breath. 2017 Dec 30;:

Authors: Aksu NT, Erdogan A, Ozgur N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The inadequate quality and nature of sleep is a commonly reported problem among hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of progressive muscle relaxation training program on sleep quality, sleep state, pain, and quality of life in patients who underwent pulmonary resection.
METHODS: Our study was planned as a single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted on 26 patients who underwent surgery by using posterolateral thoracotomy method. Progressive muscle relaxation training were given to the training group with a therapist two times a day. Sleep quality, daytime sleeping, pain, and quality of life were respectively evaluated in the morning before the surgery and 1 week after the surgery by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, visual analogue scale, and Euro Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D).
RESULTS: There is no significant difference between preoperative groups in the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Euro Quality of Life-5D, and visual analogue scale scores (p > 0.05). The intra-group change in the study group showed a significant deterioration in the Euro Quality of Life-5D and visual analogue scale scores (p < 0.05). There was a significant deterioration in the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, EQ-5D, and visual analogue scale scores in the control group (p < 0.05). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Euro Quality of Life-5D scores showed significant improvements in the relaxation training group after treatment at 1 week (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Progressive muscle relaxation prevents a decline in patient-reported sleep quality following pulmonary resection.

PMID: 29290053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The influence of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep quality in depression.

The influence of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep quality in depression.

Psychiatr Pol. 2017 Oct 29;51(5):845-857

Authors: Antczak JM, Poleszczyk A, Wichniak A, Rakowicz M, Parnowski TJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. In this study we investigated whether the depression-related insomnia is modulated by this therapeutic method.
METHODS: We examined 13 patients (mean age 50.6±13.9; 11 women) with bipolar or unipolar depression. During 20 consecutive days, excluding Saturdays and Sundays, they underwent 20 daily sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Outcome measurement included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the 21item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) as well as sleep diary and actigraphy.
RESULTS: After rTMS, the CGI and HDRS total score decreased significantly. Also, the insomnia-related items of HDRS improved. The AIS showed trend towards decrease. No significant changes were present in sleep diaries and actigraphy.
CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of rTMS on the mood in depression has been confirmed. The rest of the results suggest high frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC does not have strong effects on sleep quality in patients with depression. Additional interventions or modification of the rTMS protocol should be considered to improve insomnia in these patients.

PMID: 29289965 [PubMed - in process]



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Subjective daytime functioning assessment in people with insomnia.

Subjective daytime functioning assessment in people with insomnia.

Psychiatr Pol. 2017 Oct 29;51(5):833-843

Authors: Grabowski K, Nowicka-Sauer K, Zdrojewski T, Rutkowski M, Bandosz P, Nowicki Z

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of subjective daytime functioning impairment among people with insomnia complaints. Another goal was to establish its relationships with age, gender, type and duration of subjective insomnia.
METHODS: Study group consisted of NATPOL study participants - 2,413 people (1,245 women and 1,168 men) aged 18-79. We extracted group with declared insomnia complaints, consisting of 1,221 people (736 women and 485 men) aged 18-79. Data on insomnia symptoms characteristics, their duration and subjective functioning impairment were further analyzed.
RESULTS: Functioning impairment was declared by 825 people (67.7% of those who declared subjective insomnia) and it was more common in women. It was most common among people with insomnia complaints lasting over two weeks - 72.4%. In people with symptoms lasting less than two weeks or for a few days it was 70.7% and 64.9% respectively. People with insomnia symptoms lasting over two weeks accounted for 20% of group with severe functioning impairment. For shorter duration of symptoms it was 8.6% and 6.9% respectively. Among people with mild functioning impairment, persons with symptoms lasting for a few days and less than two weeks were predominant - 32.5% and 35.3% respectively. In people aged 18-24 years mild functioning impairment was predominant (66.66%).
CONCLUSIONS: Subjective daytime functioning impairment is common in people declaring insomnia symptoms. It is more common in women and its prevalence and intensity are greater in people with longer duration of sleep problems. Its prevalence is not correlated with age and it is the mildest in people aged 18-24.

PMID: 29289964 [PubMed - in process]



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Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep - Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep - Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment.

Psychiatr Pol. 2017 Oct 29;51(5):815-832

Authors: Wichniak A, Jankowski KS, Skalski M, Skwarło-Sońta K, Zawilska JB, Żarowski M, Poradowska E, Jernajczyk W

Abstract
AIM: Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children.
METHOD: Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine. Researchers participating in the guidelines preparation were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association based on their significant contribution to the circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of these disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies.
RESULTS: Patients with endogenous CRSWD are often misdiagnosed and treated for insomnia or hypersomnia. Therefore, each patient reporting sleep-wake disorders should be interviewed about the quality of sleep and its timing during free days (e.g. weekends, holidays). Avalid CRSWD diagnosis can be also established by using sleep diaries/logs and actigraphy. The treatment of choice for CRSWD is chronotherapy, which involves melatonin application, light therapy, and behavioral interventions. Sleep disorders associated with shift work and time zone changes are a growing health problem. Interventions for these disorders should primarily focus on prevention.
CONCLUSIONS: The main problem in the treatment of CRSWD is an invalid diagnosis. Hypnotics and/or psychostimulants are often used instead of chronotherapeutic interventions, what can alleviate symptoms but is not an effective treatment.

PMID: 29289963 [PubMed - in process]



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