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Κυριακή, 16 Απριλίου 2017

Overlapping bioresorbable scaffolds seems safe for now

Key Points

  • Overlapping permanent scaffolds carries a long-term risk of target vessel failure due to late malapposition and the development of neoatherosclerosis.
  • Potentially, overlapping bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) may lead to lower long-term risk.
  • The GHOST-EU registry reported similar short- and mid-term risks in patients with and without BRS overlap.
  • Larger size studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the safety of BRS overlap.


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Issue Information - Copyright



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Heisenberg strikes again

Key Points

  • Systematic randomized clinical outcome data in BVS has largely been reported in straightforward lesions, and BVS performance in more complex anatomy is not well defined
  • In this study, OCT-analysis of imaging outcomes in lesions with variable degrees of calcification demonstrated similar acute performance between second-generation DES and BVS
  • Open questions as to the unintended effect of OCT-guidance on the results of the study as well as the longer-term clinical outcomes in these lesions remain


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Issue Information - TOC



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The many radial access learning curves

Key Points

  • The radial approach to endovascular procedures has a series of learning curves: diagnostic heart catheterization, low-risk settings and “straightforward” percutaneous coronary intervention, high-risk settings, and complex coronary intervention, and peripheral vascular angiography and intervention.
  • For diagnostic and low-risk interventional procedures, incremental improvements in technical success and safety are observed in the initial 200 procedures for most operators compared to highly experienced operators.
  • Formal didactic training and ongoing support/review from an experienced radial operator(s) may expedite surmounting the series of radial learning curves while maintaining optimal procedural success and safety.
  • Advances in technology and understanding will require the most experienced radial operators to continually embrace their next learning curve.


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Breaking the code: What is the best post-PCI MI definition?

Key Points

  • Various definitions of post-PCI MI have been recommended by different professional societies and studies.
  • This present study suggests that the troponin-based 3rd universal definition of post-PCI MI has prognostic value for recurrent MI but not mortality alone, unlike the CK-MB based SCAI definition.
  • Absent a consensus on the best definition, clinical trials should report outcomes based on multiple definitions of post-PCI MI.


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The Italian stallions of CLI “value care” delivery

Key Points

  • Critical Limb ischemia with long segment occlusive disease typically reserved for surgery can be treated with a high degree of success in expert centers via an endovascular approach
  • Nitinol woven stents appear to have high patency with proper deployment in all PAD groups
  • Increased early expense that is associated with decreased re-intervention can be cost effective


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The role of rotational atherectomy in contemporary chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention

Key Points

  • Rotational atherectomy is performed infrequently (∼3.5%) during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for two indications: treatment of balloon uncrossable and balloon undilatable lesions.
  • Use of rotational atherectomy in CTO PCI was associated with high success and acceptable complication rates.
  • Rotational atherectomy remains a “must have” device for interventional cardiologists performing complex PCI.


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Issue Information - Editorial Board



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More than 8 million people in the US have mental health problems

More Americans are experiencing serious psychological distress than ever before. At the same time, their access to mental health services is getting even worse

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More than 8 million people in the US have mental health problems

gettyimages-77059828.jpg

More Americans are experiencing serious psychological distress than ever before. At the same time, their access to mental health services is getting even worse

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HLA-HD: An accurate HLA typing algorithm for next-generation sequencing data

ABSTRACT

The accurate typing of HLA alleles is critical for a variety of medical applications, such as genomic studies of multifactorial diseases, including immune system and inflammation-related disorders, and donor selection in organ transplantation and regenerative medicine. Here we developed a new algorithm for determining HLA alleles using next-generation sequencing (NGS) results. The method consists of constructing an extensive dictionary of HLA alleles, precise mapping of the NGS reads, and calculating a score based on weighted read counts to select the most suitable pair of alleles. The developed algorithm compares the score of all allele pairs, taking into account variation not only in the domain for antigen presentation (G-DOMAIN), but also outside this domain. Using this method, HLA alleles could be determined with 6-digit precision. We showed that our method was more accurate than other NGS-based methods and revealed limitations of the conventional HLA typing technologies. Furthermore, we identified a novel HLA-A-like-pseudogene when we assembled NGS reads that had caused arguable typing, and confirmed it by direct sequencing. The accuracy of the HLA-A allele typing was improved after the pseudogene sequence was included in the HLA allele dictionary.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Lachnospiraceae shift in the microbial community of mice faecal sample effects on water immersion restraint stress

Stress, including both psychological and physical stimulation, can cause changes in the microbiota and mucosal function of the gastrointestinal system. There are few research studies available about the faecal...

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Characterization of the gut microbiota in the golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi)

The gut microbiota of mammals is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and the host’s health. The high throughput sequencing allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the bacte...

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Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

Abstract

Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were compared between clear cell (ccRCC; = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer in ccRCC patients and the hazard ratio of death was 0.71 for ccRCC patients. No differences in PFS or ORR were detected between type I and II PRCC in this limited dataset. The median OS for type I pRCC was 20.0 months while the median OS for type II was 12.6 months (= 0.096). The IMDC prognostic model was able to stratify pRCC patients into favorable risk (OS = 34.1 months), intermediate risk (OS = 17.0 months), and poor-risk groups (OS = 6.0 months). pRCC patient outcomes were inferior to ccRCC, even after controlling for IMDC prognostic factors. The IMDC prognostic model was able to effectively stratify pRCC patients.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

We show that pRCC patients have significantly worse outcomes than ccRCC patients, that no targeted therapy to date is superior to one-another, and that metastatic type I pRCC is far less common than type II but may convey a better survival outcome. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate that the IMDC prognostic model effectively stratifies pRCC patients into good, intermediate, or poor-risk groups, providing physicians with more evidence to inform patients of their expected prognosis.



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Differential expression profile of miRNAs in porcine muscle and adipose tissue during development

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Publication date: 30 June 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 618
Author(s): Qi Wang, Renli Qi, Jing Wang, Wenming Huang, Yongjiang Wu, Xiaofeng Huang, Feiyun Yang, Jinxiu Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in many biological processes. Previous studies have reported miRNAs that are associated with the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of myocytes and adipocytes in pigs. However, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between muscle and adipose tissues during porcine development are unknown. Muscle and adipose tissues are the two major organs that are crucial for dynamic energy balance in the development and metabolism. Identification of differential expression profile of miRNAs will be useful for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in growth, development and evolution of these two tissues, and the research results will provide theoretical basis to improve meat quality. Therefore, we applied Hiseq sequencing to profile miRNAs in muscle and adipose tissues during four development stage at 1, 30, 90 and 240-day-old to explore their regulatory patterns at critical growth stages of pigs. We slaughtered 6 pigs at each developmental stages (24 pigs in total), respectively, RNA of three individual pigs were pooled and duplicate samples at each time point were given to sequence. We obtained a total of 96 million clean reads, and identified 329 known miRNAs and 157 novel miRNAs from all the libraries. We detected 37 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between porcine muscle and adipose tissues; 17 miRNAs which differentially expressed at 30, 90 and 240-day-old were considered as core differentially expressed miRNAs, among them, three miRNAs (ssc-miR-128, -133a-5p, -489) were differentially expressed at all four stages. KEGG analysis revealed the target genes of 17 core differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in 27 significantly enriched pathways (P<0.01), including the MAPK, Wnt, TGF-beta, and Notch signaling pathways, which are known to regulate myogenesis or are related to lipogenesis. 8 and 11 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the muscle and adipose tissues, respectively, of 30, 90, and 240-day-old pigs compared with the tissues of 1-day-old pigs. We selected five miRNAs from 17 core differentially expressed miRNAs to validate the miRNA-seq results by RT-qPCR, the RT-qPCR expression results corresponded well with those from the miRNA-seq. This study analyzed differential expression miRNA profiles between porcine skeletal muscle and adipose tissues during development, and provided valuable information to investigate the regulation mechanism of functional miRNAs.



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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.28 No.2

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.19 No.2

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.39 No.2

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.40 No.2

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.39 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

Vol.76 No.1

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.37 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

Vol.76 No.3

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.22 No.2

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newly available online.BULLETIN of Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Language and Culture Studies



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The new issue is now available.Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

Vol.76 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

Vol.76 No.4

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.25 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Sedimentological Society of Japan

Vol.75 No.2

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The new issue is now available.The Journal of Cost Accounting Research

Vol.31 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Journal of The Japanese Society for Quality Control

Vol.45 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Shikaigaku

Vol.63 No.4

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The new issue is now available.Journal of The Japanese Society for Quality Control

Vol.45 No.4

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The new issue is now available.Shikaigaku

Vol.63 No.2

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The new issue is now available.Shikaigaku

Vol.63 No.1

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Targeting androgen receptor versus targeting androgens to suppress castration resistant prostate cancer

Publication date: 1 July 2017
Source:Cancer Letters, Volume 397
Author(s): Changcheng Guo, Shuyuan Yeh, Yuanjie Niu, Gonghui Li, Junhua Zheng, Lei Li, Chawnshang Chang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States and its progression is tightly associated with the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals. Men castrated before puberty (eunuchs) or men with inherited deficiency of type II 5α-reductase (with failure to convert testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone) (DHT) do not develop PCa. To date, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgen treatments to reduce or prevent androgens from binding to the AR remains the main therapeutic option for advanced PCa since its discovery by Huggins and Hodges in 1941. Multiple strategies related to surgical/chemical castration with combinations of various anti-androgens, including Cyproterone Acetate, Flutamide, Nilutamide, Bicalutamide (Casodex) and Enzalutamide, as well as some androgen synthesis blockers, including Abiraterone, have been used to control PCa progression. However, patients on ADT with anti-androgen treatment eventually develop resistance, which might be accompanied with the unwanted side effects of enhanced metastasis. New therapeutic approaches via directly targeting the AR with ASC-J9®, Cisplatin, EPI-001, Niclosamide, and VPC compounds as well as silencing AR with siRNAs or non-coding RNAs have been developed to further suppress PCa at the castration resistant stages.



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Effect of Surfactants on Gas Holdup in Shear-Thinning Fluids

In this study, the gas holdup of bubble swarms in shear-thinning fluids was experimentally studied at superficial gas velocities ranging from 0.001 to 0.02 m·s−1. Carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions of 0.2 wt%, 0.6 wt%, and 1.0 wt% with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant were used as the power-law (liquid phase), and nitrogen was used as the gas phase. Effects of SDS concentration, rheological behavior, and physical properties of the liquid phase and superficial gas velocity on gas holdup were investigated. Results indicated that gas holdup increases with increasing superficial gas velocity and decreasing CMC concentration. Moreover, the addition of SDS in CMC solutions increased gas holdup, and the degree increased with the surfactant concentration. An empirical correlation was proposed for evaluating gas holdup as a function of liquid surface tension, density, effective viscosity, rheological property, superficial gas velocity, and geometric characteristics of bubble columns using the experimental data obtained for the different superficial gas velocities and CMC solution concentrations with different surfactant solutions. These proposed correlations reasonably fitted the experimental data obtained for gas holdup in this system.

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Retinal Artery Occlusion Secondary to Buerger’s Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans)

Purpose. To report a case report of one patient suffering from retinal artery occlusion secondary to Buerger’s disease, in order to raise awareness to this etiology in the differential diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion. Methods. A retrospective case report of a patient with retinal artery occlusion secondary to Buerger’s disease. Data retrieved from the medical records included exposure, complaints, visual acuity, clinical findings and imaging, laboratory assessment, treatment, disease course, and visual outcome. Results. Diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion secondary to Buerger’s disease was established based on ruling out other causes of retinal artery occlusion. Inflammatory retinal vascular disease, permanent vision loss, and macular atrophy were shown in this case. Conclusion. The very first case of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in a 64-year-old male patient with Buerger’s disease. Although diagnosing CRAO based on both fundoscopic and fluorescein angiographic findings is not difficult, revealing underlying condition of CRAO occasionally could be challenging.

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Physical Analysis of the Initial Core and Running-In Phase for Pebble-Bed Reactor HTR-PM

The pebble-bed reactor HTR-PM is being built in China and is planned to be critical in one or two years. At present, one emphasis of engineering design is to determine the fuel management scheme of the initial core and running-in phase. There are many possible schemes, and many factors need to be considered in the process of scheme evaluation and analysis. Based on the experience from the constructed or designed pebble-bed reactors, the fuel enrichment and the ratio of fuel spheres to graphite spheres are important. In this paper, some relevant physical considerations of the initial core and running-in phase of HTR-PM are given. Then a typical scheme of the initial core and running-in phase is proposed and simulated with VSOP code, and some key physical parameters, such as the maximum power per fuel sphere, the maximum fuel temperature, the refueling rate, and the discharge burnup, are calculated. Results of the physical parameters all satisfy the relevant design requirements, which means the proposed scheme is safe and reliable and can provide support for the fuel management of HTR-PM in the future.

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Versatility of Chitosan-Based Biomaterials and Their Use as Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Chitosan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide obtained from chitin, present in abundance in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects. It has aroused great interest as a biomaterial for tissue engineering on account of its biocompatibility and biodegradation and its affinity for biomolecules. A significant number of research groups have investigated the application of chitosan as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. However, there is a wide variability in terms of physicochemical characteristics of chitosan used in some studies and its combinations with other biomaterials, making it difficult to compare results and standardize its properties. The current systematic review of literature on the use of chitosan for tissue regeneration consisted of a study of 478 articles in the PubMed database, which resulted, after applying inclusion criteria, in the selection of 61 catalogued, critically analysed works. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of chitosan-based biomaterials in 93.4% of the studies reviewed, whether or not combined with cells and growth factors, in the regeneration of various types of tissues in animals. However, the absence of clinical studies in humans, the inadequate experimental designs, and the lack of information concerning chitosan’s characteristics limit the reproducibility and relevance of studies and the clinical applicability of chitosan.

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The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Adaptation for the Prevention of Prediabetes in Adults: A Systematic Review

Diabetes prevalence is increasing exceptionally worldwide and with this come associated healthcare costs. The primary outcome of this systematic review was to assess glycaemic control and incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis after exercise and dietary intervention (measured with any validated scale). The secondary outcome assessed body mass index change, weight change, and physical exercise capacity after diet and exercise intervention (measured with any validated scale). 1,780 studies were identified from searching electronic databases. Relevant studies went through a selection process. The inclusion criteria for all studies were people with prediabetes diagnosed by either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Lifestyle adaptation reduced the incidence of diabetes development more than standard treatment. Furthermore, better glycaemic control, improved physical exercise capacity, and increased weight reduction were observed with lifestyle intervention over standard treatment. Finally, improvements over the long term deteriorated, highlighting problems with long-term adherence to lifestyle changes. Overall, cumulative incidence of diabetes is drastically reduced in the intervention groups compared to control groups (standard care). Furthermore, glycaemic control was improved in the short term, with many participants reverting to normoglycaemia.

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Left Atrial Myxoma in Pregnancy: Management Strategy Using Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach

This case report concerns a young woman who, during her pregnancy, suffered severe mitral regurgitation. It was discovered at the same time that she had a left atrial myxoma. During the early postpartum period she successfully underwent an anterior minithoracotomy to remove the left atrial myxoma in conjunction with repair of the mitral valve. The thoracotomy approach in this specific patient was chosen as it would give a better chance of successful mother-child bonding because the patient would be able to avoid the precautions which would have been necessary following a sternotomy, especially the limitation of her ability to hold her child during the first 4–6 weeks postoperatively.

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Intraplacental Choriocarcinoma: Rare or Underdiagnosed? Report of 2 Cases Diagnosed after an Incomplete Miscarriage and a Preterm Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery

Intraplacental choriocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor diagnosed after an abortion, an ectopic pregnancy, or a term or preterm pregnancy or following the diagnosis of a hydatidiform mole. During pregnancy, it may be more common than reported, as most patients are asymptomatic and placental choriocarcinomas are usually inconspicuous macroscopically and are often mistaken for an infarct. Based upon a case study methodology, we describe 2 cases of intraplacental choriocarcinoma: the first case was identified in the product of a uterine curettage following an incomplete miscarriage and the second in one of the placentas of a bichorionic twin pregnancy. Maternal investigation did not reveal evidence of metastatic disease and neither did the infants’ one in the second case. The two cases underwent maternal surveillance with serum hCG and remained disease-free until the present. In conclusion, intraplacental choriocarcinoma is easily underdiagnosed but with current treatment, even in the presence of metastasis, the prognosis is excellent. A routine microscopic examination of all the placentas and products of miscarriage can increase the real incidence of this entity and consequently improve its management.

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Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 82: Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era

Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for 7456 sequences) from 115 countries between 1954 and 2015. These analyses reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of global transmission of the virus, especially in Australia, China, India, Japan, the UK, and the USA in the period since 1990. The transmission is frequently observed, not only within the same region but also among distant and frequently visited areas. Frequencies of export from measles-endemic countries, such as China, India, and Japan are high but decreasing, while the frequencies from countries where measles is no longer endemic, such as Australia, the UK, and the USA, are low but slightly increasing. The world is heading toward measles eradication, but the disease is still transmitted regionally and globally. Our analysis reveals that countries wherein measles is endemic and those having eliminated the disease (apart from occasional outbreaks) both remain a source of global transmission in this measles elimination era. It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to monitor and eradicate measles globally.

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Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 81: Mechanisms of LTR‐Retroelement Transposition: Lessons from Drosophila melanogaster

Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occupy a special place among all mobile genetic element families. The structure of LTR retrotransposons that have three open reading frames is identical to DNA forms of retroviruses that are integrated into the host genome. Several lines of evidence suggest that LTR retrotransposons share a common ancestry with retroviruses and thus are highly relevant to understanding mechanisms of transposition. Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptionally convenient model for studying the mechanisms of retrotransposon movement because many such elements in its genome are transpositionally active. Moreover, two LTRretrotransposons of D. melanogaster, gypsy and ZAM, have been found to have infectious properties and have been classified as errantiviruses. Despite numerous studies focusing on retroviral integration process, there is still no clear understanding of integration specificity in a target site. Most LTR retrotransposons non‐specifically integrate into a target site. Site‐specificity of integration at vertebrate retroviruses is rather relative. At the same time, sequence‐specific integration is the exclusive property of errantiviruses and their derivatives with two open reading frames. The possible basis for the errantivirus integration specificity is discussed in the present review.

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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 428: The Effects of PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms on Emergency Room Visits for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases

A case-crossover study examined how PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms (ADS) affects the number of emergency room (ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs). Our data indicated that PM2.5 concentration from ADS was highly correlated with ER visits for CVDs and RDs. The odds ratios (OR) increased by 2.92 (95% CI: 1.22–5.08) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.30–2.91) per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 levels, for CVDs and RDs, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 from ADSs was significantly associated with an increase in ER visits for CVDs among those 65 years of age and older (an increase of 2.77 in OR) and for females (an increase of 3.09 in OR). In contrast, PM2.5 levels had a significant impact on RD ER visits among those under 65 years of age (OR = 1.77). The risk of ER visits for CVDs increased on the day when the ADS occurred in Taiwan and the day after (lag 0 and lag 1); the corresponding risk increase for RDs only increased on the fifth day after the ADS (lag 5). In Taiwan’s late winter and spring, the severity of ER visits for CVDs and RDs increases. Environmental protection agencies should employ an early warning system for ADS to reduce high-risk groups’ exposure to PM2.5.

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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 426: Health-Related Quality of Life of the General German Population in 2015: Results from the EQ-5D-5L

The EQ-5D-5L is a widely used generic instrument to measure health-related quality of life. This study evaluates health perception in a representative sample of the general German population from 2015. To compare results over time, a component analysis technique was used that separates changes in the description and valuation of health states. The whole sample and also subgroups, stratified by sociodemographic parameters as well as disease affliction, were analyzed. In total, 2040 questionnaires (48.4% male, mean age 47.3 year) were included. The dimension with the lowest number of reported problems was self-care (93.0% without problems), and the dimension with the highest proportion of impairment was pain/discomfort (71.2% without problems). Some 64.3% of the study population were identified as problem-free. The visual analog scale (VAS) mean for all participants was 85.1. Low education was connected with significantly lower VAS scores, but the effect was small. Depression, heart disease, and diabetes had a strong significant negative effect on reported VAS means. Results were slightly better than those in a similar 2012 survey; the most important driver was the increase in the share of the study population that reported to be problem-free. In international comparisons, health perception of the general German population is relatively high and, compared with previous German studies, fairly stable over recent years. Elderly and sick people continue to report significant reductions in perceived health states.

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Anterior Interosseous Nerve Neuropraxia Secondary to Shoulder Arthroscopy and Open Subpectoral Long Head Biceps Tenodesis

Arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair is a common elective procedure performed by trained orthopaedic surgeons with a relatively low complication rate. Specifically, isolated neuropraxia of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a very rare complication of shoulder arthroscopy. An analysis of peer-reviewed published literature revealed only three articles reporting a total of seven cases that describe this specific complication following standard shoulder arthroscopic procedures. This article reports on three patients diagnosed with AIN neuropraxia following routine shoulder arthroscopy done by a single surgeon within a three-year period. All three patients also underwent open biceps tenodesis immediately following completion of the arthroscopic procedures. The exact causal mechanism of AIN neuropraxia following shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis is not known. This case report reviews possible mechanisms with emphasis on specific factors that make a traction injury the most likely etiology in these cases. We critically analyze our operating room setup and patient positioning practices in light of the existing biomechanical and cadaveric research to propose changes to our standard practices that may help to reduce the incidence of this specific postoperative complication in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroscopy with biceps tenodesis.

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Cut-Off Value of Medial Meniscal Extrusion for Knee Pain

Purpose. Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) has attracted attention as an index of knee pain in conjunction with clinical symptoms that could be more useful than the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis on X-ray. However, the size of MME that would cause knee pain has not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cut-off value of MME for knee pain. Methods. A total of 318 knees were evaluated. The presence of current or past knee pain was confirmed by interview. Next, MME was measured using vertical sonographic images of the medial joint spaces during weightbearing. Results. Overall, 71 knees were painful (P-group), and 247 knees were not (N-group). MME was 5.9 ± 1.8 mm in the P-group and 2.9 ± 1.5 mm in the N-group (). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cut-off value of MME for knee pain was 4.3 mm, with sensitivity of 0.8451 and specificity of 0.8502. In addition, 64% of knees without pain cases at the time of examination whose MME exceeded this cut-off value had past knee pain. Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of MME for knee pain were very high with a cut-off value of 4.3 mm.

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PUVA Induced Bullous Pemphigoid in a Patient with Mycosis Fungoides

Background. Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease in which autoantibodies are directed against components of the basement membrane. The disease primarily affects the elderly people and in most of the patients inducing factors cannot be identified. Herein, we report a case of BP that occurred in a patient who was receiving PUVA therapy for the treatment of mycosis fungoides. Main Observation. A 26-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters while receiving PUVA therapy. On physical examination tense bullae on the normal skin, remnants of blisters, and erosions were observed on her breasts, the chest wall, and the upper abdomen. Histopathological investigations revealed subepidermal blisters with eosinophilic infiltration and in direct immunofluorescence examination linear deposition of IgG along the basement membrane zone was observed. The diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid was also confirmed by ELISA and BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence test. Conclusions. PUVA therapy is an extremely rare physical factor capable of inducing bullous pemphigoid. So the development of blistering lesions during PUVA therapy may be suggestive sign of a bullous disease such as bullous pemphigoid and it should be excluded with proper clinical and laboratory approaches immediately after withdrawal of PUVA therapy.

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Retrieval of Embolized Amplatzer Patent Foramen Ovale Occlusion Device: Issues Related to Late Recognition

Embolization of a percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure device is a rare but serious complication. While early, periprocedural device embolization can normally be managed with snare and percutaneous retrieval, late embolization requires a different management strategy due to inability of the device to deform to allow passage into a large caliber sheath. We present a case of asymptomatic device embolization recognized six months following implantation and discuss the challenges encountered in successfully retrieving the device.

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Uniformly Geometric Functions Involving Constructed Operators

This paper introduces classes of uniformly geometric functions involving constructed differential operators by means of convolution. Basic properties of those classes are studied, namely, coefficient bounds and inclusion relations.

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The Imbalance of B-Lymphocyte Subsets in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance: Relationship with Metabolic Parameter and Disease Status

B lymphocytes are involved in inflammation and are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated the phenotype and frequency of B-lymphocyte subsets in subjects recently diagnosed with T2D (), impaired glucose regulation (IGR, ), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, ) by flow cytometry. T2D subjects had an increased percentage of CD19+CD23+ (B-2) cells and a decreased percentage of CD19+CD23− (B-1) cells attributing to CD19+CD23−CD5− (B-1b) cells, but not CD19+CD23−CD5+ (B-1a) cells, compared to NGT and IGR subjects. The proportion of CD19+CD5+CD1dhi (B10) cells did not differ between the IGR or T2D group and NGT controls. Of note, HbA1c and triglyceride showed a positive correlation with B-2 cells but an inverse correlation with B-1 and B-1b cells, which were independently associated with the presence of T2D by logistic regression models. In summary, this study shows an unbalanced proinflammatory phenotype of B-cell subsets correlated with glycemia and lipidemia in patients with T2D. Our data provide new insight into chronic activation of the immune system and subclinical inflammation in T2D. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm our observations.

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Clinical prognostic markers in stage IIIC melanoma.

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Clinical prognostic markers in stage IIIC melanoma.

J Surg Oncol. 2017 Apr 15;:

Authors: Madu MF, Schopman JHH, Berger DMS, Klop WMC, Jóźwiak K, Wouters MWJM, van der Hage JA, van Akkooi ACJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although the EORTC 18071-trial has shown a clear survival benefit for adjuvant ipilimumab, accurately selecting patients for this toxic adjuvant therapy is important. We aimed to identify prognostic factors for death and disease recurrence in AJCC stage IIIC melanoma patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent lymph node dissection (LND) for stage IIIC melanoma in our institution between 2000 and 2016. Baseline characteristics, melanoma-specific survival (MSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed, and prognostic factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed using uni- and multivariable analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 205 patients were included. Median follow-up was 20 months (interquartile range 11-43 months), median MSS was 28 months, and median DFS was 11 months. Five-year MSS was 33% and 5-year DFS was 23%. N3 (≥4 involved lymph nodes) and extracapsular extension (ECE) carried an increased risk of disease recurrence after LND and death by melanoma. Patients with both N3 and ECE had virtually no long-term survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Although survival for patients with stage IIIC is poor in general, patients with both N3 disease and ECE constitute the group with the worst prognosis and should be considered for adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab or any other future effective adjuvant therapy (study).

PMID: 28411392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Prophylactic dissection of level V in primary mucosal SCC in the clinically N positive neck: A systematic review.

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Prophylactic dissection of level V in primary mucosal SCC in the clinically N positive neck: A systematic review.

Laryngoscope. 2017 Apr 14;:

Authors: McLean T, Kerr SJ, Giddings CEB

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for level V dissection in the management of previously untreated mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck presenting with nodal metastasis when level V is clinically uninvolved.
DATA SOURCE: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used to conduct a systematic review of the current literature, including all English language articles published after 1990. A literature search was performed on November 29, 2015, of Medline, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library.
REVIEW METHODS: The search yielded a total of 270 papers. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, leaving 20 eligible papers. Overall prevalence was calculated using random effect meta-analysis.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of level V occult disease in the node (N)-positive neck, irrespective of subsite, was 2.56% (95% confidence interval 1.29-3.84) (2,368 patients and 2,533 necks). The prevalence of occult level V metastasis was up to 7.7% for oral cavity and 8.3% for oropharyngeal tumors. Five studies reported regional recurrence rates over variable time periods. There is exceedingly limited data on outcomes, such as spinal accessory nerve function, quality of life, and perioperative complications.
CONCLUSION: Mucosal head and neck SCC presenting with nodal metastasis but with level V clinically uninvolved has a low prevalence of occult level V disease. Routine dissection of level V does not appear to be warranted; however, a definitive conclusion is unable to be drawn due to limited data on morbidity and oncological outcomes. Laryngoscope, 2017.

PMID: 28411387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Nomograms to estimate long-term overall survival and tongue cancer-specific survival of patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

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Nomograms to estimate long-term overall survival and tongue cancer-specific survival of patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Med. 2017 Apr 14;:

Authors: Li Y, Zhao Z, Liu X, Ju J, Chai J, Ni Q, Ma C, Gao T, Sun M

Abstract
The aim of this study was to construct nomograms to predict long-term overall survival (OS) and tongue cancer-specific survival (TCSS) of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients based on clinical and tumor characteristics. Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics of 12,674 patients diagnosed with TSCC between 2004 and 2013 were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. These patients were then divided into surgery and nonsurgery cohorts, and nomograms were developed for each of these groups. The step-down method and cumulative incidence function were used for model selection to determine the significant prognostic factors associated with OS and TCSS. These prognostic variables were incorporated into nomograms. An external cohort was used to validate the surgery nomograms. Seven variables were used to create the surgery nomograms for OS and TCSS, which had c-indexes of 0.709 and 0.728, respectively; for the external validation cohort, the c-indexes were 0.691 and 0.711, respectively. Nine variables were used to create the nonsurgery nomograms for OS and TCSS, which had c-indexes of 0.750 and 0.754, respectively. The calibration curves of the 5- and 8-year surgery and nonsurgery nomograms showed excellent agreement between the probabilities and observed values. By incorporating clinicopathological and host characteristics in patients, we are the first to establish nomograms that accurately predict prognosis for individual patients with TSCC. These nomograms ought to provide more personalized and reliable prognostic information, and improve clinical decision-making for TSCC patients.

PMID: 28411370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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MicroRNA expression profiling of Xp11 renal cell carcinoma.

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MicroRNA expression profiling of Xp11 renal cell carcinoma.

Hum Pathol. 2017 Apr 11;:

Authors: Marchionni L, Hayashi M, Guida E, Ooki A, Munari E, Jabboure FJ, Dinalankara W, Raza A, Netto GJ, Hoque MO, Argani P

Abstract
Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ). RCCs with Xp11 translocations comprise up to 1-4% of adult cases, frequently displaying papillary architecture with epithelioid clear cells. In order to better understand the biology of this molecularly distinct tumor subtype, we analyze the miRNA expression profiles of Xp11 Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared to normal renal parenchyma using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We further compare Xp11 RCC with other RCC histologic subtypes using publically available datasets, identifying common and distinctive microRNA (miRNA) signatures along with the associated signaling pathways and biological processes. Overall, Xp11 RCC more closely resemble clear cell rather than papillary RCC. Further, among the most differentially expressed miRNAs specific for Xp11 RCC, we identify miR-148a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-642a-5p to be up-regulated, while miR-133b and miR-658 were down-regulated. Finally, Xp11 RCC is most strongly associated with microRNA expression profiles modulating DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In summary, we describe here for the first time the miRNA expression profiles of a molecularly distinct type of renal cancer associated with Xp11.2 translocations involving the TFE3 gene. Our results might help understanding the molecular underpinning of Xp11 RCC, assisting in developing targeted treatments for this disease.

PMID: 28411178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Bacterial and histopathological findings in deep head and neck infections: a retrospective analysis.

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Bacterial and histopathological findings in deep head and neck infections: a retrospective analysis.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017 Feb 20;:

Authors: Cordesmeyer R, Kauffmann P, Markus T, Sömmer C, Eiffert H, Bremmer F, Laskawi R

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Deep neck infections are among the most dangerous acute diseases in the head and neck region. This analysis gives an overview of the bacterial and histopathologic findings of deep neck infections.
STUDY DESIGN: From January 2002 to December 2012, 63 patients were diagnosed with and treated for deep neck infections at the University Medical Center Göttingen. Bacterial and histopathologic examinations were made, and the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and histopathologic findings were analyzed.
RESULTS: The most commonly isolated aerobic gram-positive pathogen was Streptococcus viridans (26.7%); Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were each found in 16.7% of infections. The most commonly isolated aerobic gram-negative pathogens were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Haemophilus influenzae. In 1.6% of patients, a malignant cancer was detected.
CONCLUSION: For clear diagnosis and effective therapy, a bacteriologic investigation of deep neck infections is essential because of the heterogeneous spectrum of the detected bacteria. In contrast to Asia, where Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen, in South Lower Saxony, Germany, we discovered a dominating spectrum of aerobic gram-positive cocci. Biopsy obtained from an abscess cavity for histologic examination should always be part of the diagnostic process in order to exclude a malignant process.

PMID: 28411005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid fistula in the clivus.

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Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid fistula in the clivus.

Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2017 Apr 11;:

Authors: Codina Aroca A, Gras Cabrerizo JR, De Juan Delago M, Massegur Solench H

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas are infrequent and only 10 cases in the literature have been located in the clivus. We describe two new cases of CSF fistulas in this site and review the literature.
CASE REPORT: The first patient was a 52-year-old woman referred to our centre for intermittent rhinorrhea that had been diagnosed after an episode of meningitis. The second case was a 69-year-old man who was visited for rhinorrhea of one-year duration; he also developed meningitis during the preoperative study. In both cases, the spontaneous CSF fistula was diagnosed by beta-2-transferrin testing, CT scan and MRI. We performed an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach and used free grafts and vascularized flaps to close the clival defect. Treatment was successful in both cases.
DISCUSSION: The physiopathology of spontaneous CSF fistulas remains unknown. Possible explanations given to date in this location are pulsatility of the basilar artery, repeated Valsalva maneuvers and Marfan's disease, the two latter also related to CSF fistulas in other locations. Closure of a CSF leak towards the nasal cavity is mandatory due to potential complications. Our results support the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach using free grafts and/or pediculated flaps as a good alternative to open surgery.

PMID: 28410953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Response: Letter to the Editor.

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Response: Letter to the Editor.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Apr 06;:

Authors: Sztano B, Rovo L

PMID: 28410847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Dual-energy imaging method to improve the image quality and the accuracy of dose calculation for cone-beam computed tomography.

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Dual-energy imaging method to improve the image quality and the accuracy of dose calculation for cone-beam computed tomography.

Phys Med. 2017 Apr;36:110-118

Authors: Men K, Dai J, Chen X, Li M, Zhang K, Huang P

Abstract
PURPOSE: To improve the image quality and accuracy of dose calculation for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images through implementation of a dual-energy cone-beam computed tomography method (DE-CBCT), and evaluate the improvement quantitatively.
METHODS: Two sets of CBCT projections were acquired using the X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) system on a Synergy (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) system with 120kV (high) and 70kV (low) X-rays, respectively. Then, the electron density relative to water (relative electron density (RED)) of each voxel was calculated using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition method. As a comparison, single-energy cone-beam computed tomography (SE-CBCT) was used to calculate RED with the Hounsfield unit-RED calibration curve generated by a CIRS phantom scan with identical imaging parameters. The imaging dose was measured with a dosimetry phantom. The image quality was evaluated quantitatively using a Catphan 503 phantom with the evaluation indices of the reproducibility of the RED values, high-contrast resolution (MTF50%), uniformity, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Dose calculation of two simulated volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans using an Eclipse treatment-planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was performed on an Alderson Rando Head and Neck (H&N) phantom and a Pelvis phantom. Fan-beam planning CT images for the H&N and Pelvis phantom were set as the reference. A global three-dimensional gamma analysis was used to compare dose distributions with the reference. The average gamma values for targets and OAR were analyzed with paired t-tests between DE-CBCT and SE-CBCT.
RESULTS: In two scans (H&N scan and body scan), the imaging dose of DE-CBCT increased by 1.0% and decreased by 1.3%. It had a better reproducibility of the RED values (mean bias: 0.03 and 0.07) compared with SE-CBCT (mean bias: 0.13 and 0.16). It also improved the image uniformity (57.5% and 30.1%) and SNR (9.7% and 2.3%), but did not affect the MTF50%. Gamma analyses of the 3D dose distribution with criteria of 1%/1mm showed a pass rate of 99.0-100% and 85.3-97.6% for DE-CBCT and 73.5-99.1% and 80.4-92.7% for SE-CBCT. The average gamma values were reduced significantly by DE-CBCT (p< 0.05). Gamma index maps showed that matching of the dose distribution between CBCT-based and reference was improved by DE-CBCT.
CONCLUSIONS: DE-CBCT can achieve both better image quality and higher accuracy of dose calculation, and could be applied to adaptive radiotherapy.

PMID: 28410679 [PubMed - in process]



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Hemoptysis as primary manifestation in three women with choriocarcinoma with pulmonary metastasis: a case series

Gestational choriocarcinoma is the most common gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; it is often secondary to hydatidiform mole, as well as to abortion, ectopic pregnancy, premature delivery, or term delivery. ...

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A Hybrid Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm with Improved Decoding Scheme for a Robotic Flow Shop Scheduling Problem

We aim at solving the cyclic scheduling problem with a single robot and flexible processing times in a robotic flow shop, which is a well-known optimization problem in advanced manufacturing systems. The objective of the problem is to find an optimal robot move sequence such that the throughput rate is maximized. We propose a hybrid algorithm based on the Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) and genetic operators for solving the problem. The algorithm integrates three different decoding strategies to convert quantum individuals into robot move sequences. The Q-gate is applied to update the states of Q-bits in each individual. Besides, crossover and mutation operators with adaptive probabilities are used to increase the population diversity. A repairing procedure is proposed to deal with infeasible individuals. Comparison results on both benchmark and randomly generated instances demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more effective in solving the studied problem in terms of solution quality and computational time.

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Absence of Left Circumflex Artery: A Rare Congenital Disorder of Coronary Arteries

Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare occurrence and very few cases have been reported in literature. It is a benign incidental finding; however some patients present with sudden onset chest pain mimicking acute coronary syndrome often resulting in detection of this rare anatomy on coronary angiography. Coronary computed tomography angiography is a relatively new noninvasive imaging modality which can be used to confirm this suspicion and diagnose this unique morphology reliably.

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Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma

Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin) was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.

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Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w.) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day) reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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Some Stochastic Functional Differential Equations with Infinite Delay: A Result on Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions in a Concrete Fading Memory Space

This paper is devoted to existence and uniqueness of solutions for some stochastic functional differential equations with infinite delay in a fading memory phase space.

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Distortion Type Theorems for Functions in the Logarithmic Bloch Space

We establish distortion type theorems for locally schlicht functions and for functions having branch points satisfying a normalized Bloch condition in the closed unit ball of the logarithmic Bloch space . As a consequence of our results we have estimations of the schlicht radius for functions in these classes.

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IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 427: Advanced Stage at Presentation Remains a Major Factor Contributing to Breast Cancer Survival Disparity between Public and Private Hospitals in a Middle-Income Country

Background: Survival disparities in cancer are known to occur between public and private hospitals. We compared breast cancer presentation, treatment and survival between a public academic hospital and a private hospital in a middle-income country. Methods: The demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment and overall survival (OS) of 2767 patients with invasive breast carcinoma diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 in the public hospital were compared with 1199 patients from the private hospital. Results: Compared to patients in the private hospital, patients from the public hospital were older at presentation, and had more advanced cancer stages. They were also more likely to receive mastectomy and chemotherapy but less radiotherapy. The five-year OS in public patients was significantly lower than in private patients (71.6% vs. 86.8%). This difference was largely attributed to discrepancies in stage at diagnosis and, although to a much smaller extent, to demographic differences and treatment disparities. Even following adjustment for these factors, patients in the public hospital remained at increased risk of mortality compared to their counterparts in the private hospital (Hazard Ratio: 1.59; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.36–1.85). Conclusion: Late stage at diagnosis appears to be a major contributing factor explaining the breast cancer survival disparity between public and private patients in this middle-income setting.

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Det-WiFi: A Multihop TDMA MAC Implementation for Industrial Deterministic Applications Based on Commodity 802.11 Hardware

Wireless control system for industrial automation has been gaining increasing popularity in recent years thanks to their ease of deployment and the low cost of their components. However, traditional low sample rate industrial wireless sensor networks cannot support high-speed application, while high-speed IEEE 802.11 networks are not designed for real-time application and not able to provide deterministic feature. Thus, in this paper, we propose Det-WiFi, a real-time TDMA MAC implementation for high-speed multihop industrial application. It is able to support high-speed applications and provide deterministic network features since it combines the advantages of high-speed IEEE802.11 physical layer and a software Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based MAC layer. We implement Det-WiFi on commercial off-the-shelf hardware and compare the deterministic performance between 802.11s and Det-WiFi under the real industrial environment, which is full of field devices and industrial equipment. We changed the hop number and the packet payload size in each experiment, and all of the results show that Det-WiFi has better deterministic performance.

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Subacute Hypophysitis with Panhypopituitarism as First Presentation of HIV and Syphilis Coinfection

Infection by Treponema pallidum still represents a clinical challenge due to its various forms of presentation. HIV coinfection added diversity and changed the natural history of syphilis as a systemic infection. We present a rare case of subacute hypophysitis and panhypopituitarism due to an early active neurosyphilis in a previously unknown HIV coinfected patient.

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Graphene Oxide Modified Electrodes for Dopamine Sensing

Dopamine (DA) is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters that plays an important role in the central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Since its discovery, tremendous effort has been made and various techniques have been developed for the DA detection. Recently, graphene-based materials have attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and rapid response towards effective detection of DA. This review focuses on current advances of graphene-based materials for DA detection based on recent articles published in the last five years.

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Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

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Numerical Simulation of Projectile Oblique Impact on Microspacecraft Structure

In the present study, the microspacecraft bulkhead was reduced to the double honeycomb panel, and the projectile oblique hypervelocity impact on the double honeycomb panel was simulated. The distribution of the debris cloud and the damage of a honeycomb sandwich panel were investigated when the incident angles were set to be 60°, 45°, and 30°. The results showed that as incident angle decreased, the distribution of debris cloud was increased gradually, while the maximum perforation size of the rear face sheet was firstly increased with the decrease of the incident angle and then decreased. On the other hand, the damage area and the damage degree of the front face sheet of the second honeycomb panel layer were increased with the decrease of the incident angle. Finally, the critical angle of front and rear face sheets of the honeycomb sandwich panel was obtained under oblique hypervelocity impact.

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Changes in airway dimensions following functional appliances in growing patients with skeletal class II malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication date: June 2017
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 97
Author(s): MingLi Xiang, Bo Hu, Yang Liu, Jicheng Sun, Jinlin Song
ObjectivesThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the treatment effects of functional appliances (FAs) on upper airway dimensions in growing Class II patients with mandibular retrognathism.MethodsFive databases and the references of identified articles were electronically searched for relevant studies that met our eligibility criteria. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The effects of FAs on airway dimensions were combined by meta-analysis using the RevMan and STATA software.ResultsSeven studies (177 treated patients with mean age: 11.48 years and 153 untreated controls with mean age: 11.20 years) were included in this review. Compared to the control group, the oropharyngeal dimensions in the treatment group subjects were significantly increased at the superior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.73 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13–2.32 mm, P < 0.00001), middle pharyngeal space (MD = 1.68 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13–2.23 mm, P < 0.00001) and inferior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.21 mm/year, 95% CI, 0.48–1.95 mm, P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal dimensions and the position of hyoid bone (P > 0.05). Soft palate length and soft palate inclination were improved significantly in the treatment group (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe results showed that FAs can enlarge the upper airway dimensions, specifically in the oropharyngeal region, in growing subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusion. The early intervention for mandibular retrognathism with FAs may help enlarge the airway dimensions and decrease potential risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome for growing patients in the future.



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Brain Sciences, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience

The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters—either driven by a human or by a computer—allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature.

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Unlocking the online potential of disadvantaged young people

The Prince’s Trust is looking for volunteer e-mentors to help young people find their feet on the web and beyond

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What's the meaning of Easter Baskets?



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What's the meaning of Easter Baskets?



-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Unlocking the online potential of disadvantaged young people

princes_trust_39-800x533.jpg

The Prince’s Trust is looking for volunteer e-mentors to help young people find their feet on the web and beyond

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Identification of Functionally Interconnected Neurons Using Factor Analysis

The advances in electrophysiological methods have allowed registering the joint activity of single neurons. Thus, studies on functional dynamics of complex-valued neural networks and its information processing mechanism have been conducted. Particularly, the methods for identifying neuronal interconnections are in increasing demand in the area of neurosciences. Here, we proposed a factor analysis to identify functional interconnections among neurons via spike trains. This method was evaluated using simulations of neural discharges from different interconnections schemes. The results have revealed that the proposed method not only allows detecting neural interconnections but will also allow detecting the presence of presynaptic neurons without the need of the recording of them.

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Novel Biomarkers and the Future Potential of Biomarkers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

There is increasing importance placed upon noninvasive assessment of gut inflammation. These tools are likely to be the key in differentiating intestinal inflammatory disease from functional disorders and in monitoring the response to intervention in individuals with known inflammatory conditions. Although various noninvasive markers are currently available, they have limitations and do not provide ideal utility. This review focuses on emerging markers of gut inflammation, highlighting the potential of specific markers.

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Implementation and Monitoring of a Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Management Program in a Tertiary Hospital in Morocco: Opportunities and Challenges

Objective. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) management requires clear guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Unequal management skills among practitioners, inadequate treatment, irregular surveillance, and drop-out are common in resource-limited settings and can lead to life-threatening complications and morbidities. To address these challenges, we implemented a GTD Management Program at the National Center for Reproductive Health in Rabat, Morocco. Methods and Program Description. In-depth review of management protocols was carried out, and concise guidelines were developed, with targeted training for physicians. A physical space and a weekly fixed GTD consultation were set, and personalized follow-up was established for each patient. An electronic database documenting patients’ surveillance was created, allowing immediate outreach in case of irregularities. Results. During the period from October 2013 to June 2016, 50 patients were included in this program. Patients’ mean age was 33 years; 92% were illiterate and 82% had a low socioeconomic status. 68% had a positive evolution, while 32% developed gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, requiring 2 to 6 chemotherapy sessions. An average of 2.8 outreach reminders were necessary for each patient. 94% fully adhered to the program of care and completed properly their follow-up. Conclusion. Implementation and thorough monitoring of this program helped optimize patients’ care, avoiding drop-outs and delays in diagnosing and treating complications.

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Shin’iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang) Suppresses the Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the important pathogen that causes otolaryngeal diseases such as sinusitis. S. pneumoniae frequently forms the biofilm to prevent severe circumstances such as antimicrobial agents. Shin’iseihaito (xinyiqingfeitang) is a formula of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine that has 9 crude drugs and provides the medicinal usage for sinusitis. The objective of the present study is to reveal the mechanism of antibiofilm activity by Shin’iseihaito extract (SSHT). SSHT significantly inhibited the formation of biofilm from S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 in dose- and time-dependent manners. SSHT also significantly suppressed the biofilm formation by other five different cps types of S. pneumoniae clinical isolates. We found that the extracts of 8 out of 9 components in Shin’iseihaito had the inhibitory effects of biofilm formation, and the extract of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis had the strongest effect among the ingredients of Shin’iseihaito. We found that the capsule of SSHT-treated S. pneumoniae was significantly thinner than that of the untreated group and that SSHT reduced the hydrophobicity of bacterial cell surface. Our results suggest that Shin’iseihaito may be a useful agent for the treatment of S. pneumoniae-induced sinusitis because of the inhibition of biofilm formation of S. pneumoniae.

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Recent Advances in Symmetry Analysis and Exact Solutions in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics



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Methylene Blue Photocatalytic Degradation under Visible Irradiation on In2S3 Synthesized by Chemical Bath Deposition

In this work, we synthesized In2S3 powder through chemical bath deposition method (CBD) in acid medium; we used thioacetamide as sulphide source and InCl3 as indium ion source. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflection, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were used for In2S3 powder physicochemical characterization. Optical analysis indicated that In2S3 was active in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum; it had a band gap of 2.47 eV; the diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy suggested that powder had polycrystalline structure. Furthermore, we also studied the adsorption process of methylene blue (MB) on In2S3 powder; adsorption studies indicated that the Langmuir model describes experimental data. Finally, photocatalytic degradation of MB was studied under visible irradiation in aqueous solution; besides, pseudo-first-order model was used to obtain kinetic information about photocatalytic degradation; results indicated that the powder catalyst reduces 26% concentration of MB under visible irradiation.

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Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Methods in Ocular Surface and Corneal Diseases



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