Πέμπτη, 29 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Histopathological pattern of prostate lesions in patients suffering from prostatism

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Mohammad Sajjad Khattak, Zardali Khan, Mohammad Akram.
Objective: To study the histopathological pattern of prostatic lesions in patients suffering from prostatism. Methodology: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted in Pathology Department Bannu Medical College, Bannu, Khyber Pakhthunkhwa, Pakistan and included 157 prostate biopsies in form of open Trans Vesical Prostatectomy (TVP), Trans Urethral Resections of Prostate (TURP) and needle biopsies performed from January 2013 to December 2015. All biopsy slides were processed for H&E staining and mounted. A minimum of four and maximum of ten sections were taken from each specimen. Insufficient autolysed specimen and those biopsies where immunohistochemistry was required were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 157 prostatic biopsy specimens were received in pathology laboratory with mean age of 58.68±12.71 years (range 40 to 85 years). Amongst these, benign lesions were 142 (90.44%), malignant tumors were 15 (9.56%). Benign to malignant ratio was 9.46:1. Conclusion: Benign prostatic hyperplasia alone and in combination with chronic prostatitis was the commonest non neoplastic lesions followed by neoplastic lesion of adenocarcinoma.


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Immunoprophylaxis in Rh Incompatibility

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Sadia Fahim, Muntiha Sarosh, Nikhat Ahsan.
Objective: To investigate the frequency of Rhive patients and effectiveness of Rh immunization, comparing antibody titer before and after immunization. Methodology: This comparative cross sectional study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, from January 2013 to June 2014. Fifty primigravid women with Rh ve blood group and their husbands with Rh +ve blood group were included in the study. The antibody titer through indirect Coombs test was checked in all the patients at 28 weeks gestation. If ve titers, AntiD 1500 IU for prophylaxis was given between 28-34 weeks. After delivery, if baby was Rh +ve, AntiD was given within 72 hrs. Antibody titer was again measured at 6 weeks postpartum. Results: Out of 50 primigravidae, 68% were B ve, 30% were A ve and 2% were O ve. At 28 wks, 78% showed 1:4 dilution, 22% showed 1:8 dilution and no one reached up to 1:16 dilution. Six weeks postnatally, when antibody titers were repeated, there was no significant increase in titer. Conclusion: The antibody titers are independent of AntiD IgG and immunization did not affect the level of antibody titer. Anti D IgG is thus the only and most effective prophylaxis against the Rh incompatability disease.


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Frequency of prostate cancer in clinically benign prostate in patients underging transuretheral resection of prostate

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Asad ur Rehman, Durre Shohab, Mohammad Imran Jamil, Saeed Akhter.
Objective: To determine frequency of cancer of prostate in patients undergoing Trans urethral resection of prostate (TURP) for clinically benign prostate in our setup. Methodology: This is a retrospective analysis of 189 patients who underwent TURP in Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant, Shifa International hospitals, Islamabad, Pakistan. All had normal PSA and clinically benign prostate on digital rectal examination. Data regarding patients age, presenting symptoms and histopathological examination of TURP chips was collected on specified proforma. Results: Mean age of patients was 62.12±2.34 years. Eleven out of 189 (5.8%) patient had adenocarcinoma, one had PIN, 177 (93.7%) patients have benign prostatic hyperplasia on histopathology. Out of 11 patients with ca-prostate, six had Gleason score of 6, four had Gleason score of 7 and one had Gleason score of 9. Conclusion: There is risk of Ca prostate even in presence of normal digital examination and normal PSA.


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Frequency of intracranial and intraorbital extension in fungal sinonasal polyposis: a study at Civil Hospital, Karachi

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Tarique Zahid Khan, Zeba Ahmed, Murtaza Ahsan Ansari.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of intraorbital and intracranial extension of fungus-related sinonasal polyposis at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan between August 2013 to August 2014. Only those cases were included in the study whose diagnosis of nasal polyp with fungal infection was confirmed by the clinical examination and post operative histopathological investigation. A Questionnaire was designed and filled by investigators after validation and reliability assessment. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 98 cases of fungal nasal polyposis were included in this study. Overall, 13.3% of the patients had intracranial extension, 27.6 % had intraorbital extension and the combined erosion rate was 39.8 %. Patients of age group 20-30 years had the highest complication rate among all i.e. 28.6%. No statistically significant gender preponderance was noted. Conclusion: Fungal nasal polyposis has significant incidence of serious complications relating to eyeball and cranium. Most patients seek help late due to lack of awareness about the severity of complications. There is a need to increase the skills of general practitioners to diagnose nasal polyposis and early referral of the patients to the rhinologists.


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In vitro activity of tetracyclines against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Afreenish Hassan, Javaid Usman, Fatima Kaleem, Maria Mushtaq Gill, Ali Khalid, Muhammad Iqbal.
Objective: To assess the in vitro sensitivity of multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A.baumannii) against four tetracyclines. Methodology: Routine clinical specimens were received from various wards of a tertiary care hospital from December 2009 to August 2010. A. baumannii was identified by using standard microbiological procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by using E-strips (AB-Biodisk) of tetracycline, minocycline, doxycyline and tigecycline for each isolate. Results were analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0. Results: A total of fifty MDR Acinetobacter baumannii were analyzed during the study period. Among the four tetracyclines tested, minocycline was the most effective against MDR A. baumannii. Forty seven (94%) of the isolates were susceptible to minocycline with an MIC90 value 4 ug/mL. Conclusion: Among tetracyclines, minocycline is an appropriate option against infections caused by MDR A. baumannii. This study will help our clinicians in finding a suitable treatment against such resistant bacteria.


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Association of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with neurofibromatosis type 1

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Nabeela Iqbal, Shamima Hanif, Syed Khalid Shah, Mir Zaman Kasi.
Oncogenic hypophostphatemic osteomalacia is rare form of osteomalacia with few cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by later onset in adulthood, renal phosphate loss with hypophosphatemia and poor bone mineralization. The syndrome is associated with mesenchymal tumours or prostatic CA. We report a case of oncogenic hypophosphatemic ostoemalacia associated with neurofibromatosis.


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Bioequivalence study of Atorvastatin by HPLC with UV-detection

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Imrana Maqsood Khan, Bushra Tayyaba Khan, Muzammil Hasan Najmi, Shahzadi Sabah, Tausif Ahmed.
Objectives: To estimate bioequivalence of two atorvastatin formulations, Lipitor & Orvastin in healthy Pakistani volunteers. Methodology: It was single dose, randomized, crossover study, which was carried out in 24 healthy male volunteers, who received single dose of 80 mg tablet of test formulation (Orvastin) and same dose of originator product (Lipitor). Blood samples were taken up to 48 hours post dose and concentrations of atorvastatin were determined by HPLC. Progesterone was used as internal standard. Plasma concentration-time curves were prepared to determine the AUC and bioequivalence. Statistical analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters and reference formulation was performed using one compartmental model of software APO, MW PHARM version 3.60. Results: Administration of tablet Lipitor showed a maximum concentration Cmax of atorvastatin 23.97±7.0 µg/l and the time to achieve maximum concentration Tmax was 3.29±0.25 hours, while tablet Orvastin showed a maximum concentration Cmax of atorvastatin 26.69±6.67 µg/l and the time to achieve maximum concentration Tmax was 3.33±0.41 hours. The AUC(0-∞) for tablet Lipitor was 174.28±62.50h/µg/l and for tablet Orvastin, it was 208.74±71.51 h/µg/l. The AUC(0-t) for tablet Lipitor was 175.24±59.28 h/µg/l and for the tablet Orvastin, it was 208.77±67.49 h/µg/l. Conclusion: The two atorvastatin formulations, i.e. test formulation of atorvastatin and reference preparation were bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.


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A newborn with thoracic and lumbosacral meningoceles without neurological deficit

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Hashem E Aqrabawi, Ra'ed M Aljubour, Abdallah H Almhairat, Omer A Alelwan, Emad ALdeen S AL-Shara.
Thoracic meningocele and myelomeningocele are rare neural tube defects unlike lumbosacral neural tube defects; sometimes there no neurologic deficits and thus the subtle features of cervical cord tethering may be overlooked on imaging. The presence of neural tube defects at multiple (two or more) sites along the vertebral axis is a very rare event occurring in less than 1% of cases. Up to our best knowledge less than 10 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of multiple neural tube defects (thoracic and lumber) in same patient with no any neurological deficit found.


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Views of patients regarding services provided by Basic Health Units of Larkana District, Pakistan

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Khurshid Ahmed Abbasi, Shankar Lal, Arbab Ali Junejo, Saeed Ahmed Sheikh, Prih Korai, Shabir Larik.
Objective: To determine the views of patients regarding services provided by Basic Health Units (BHU) of Larkana, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2011 to January 31, 2011 at 22 BHUs of Larkana district. Universal sampling type was used as we had taken all the BHUs of Larkana district. A pretested questionnaire was used. Every BHU was visited in morning hours and interviews were taken from patients in regarding services provided by BHUs. Results were then analyzed by using SPSS version 12. Results: In 82.6% cases, BHUs were easily approachable; doctors were almost available in all BHUs except 5%. In 3.08% of the BHUs, doctors asked for personal fees from the patients. Almost all the patients (98.8%) were satisfied with the behavior of the doctor, almost all of the patients (96%) preferred BHUs as compared to other health facility for seeking medical advice. Conclusion: People prefer to use BHUs for seeking medical treatment and almost all patients were satisfied with the behavior of doctors but very few doctors who are still charging personal fees at BHUs, which should be discouraged.


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Research barriers and facilitators of physical therapists of Pakistan

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Arshad Nawaz Malik, Sahreen Anwar, Furqan Ahmed Siddiqi.
Objective: To determine the research barriers & facilitators among physical therapist in Pakistan. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted from June 2014 to June 2015. A self designed questionnaire was circulated to Physical therapist with list of barriers. Out of 500, only 234 filled questionnaires were returned (response rate was 47%). The likert scale with 1-5 score was used to assess the perception. Results: The 234 Physical therapists were included; 71% male and 29% females. The ranking of barriers to research showed that Lack of Training in curriculum got the highest mean score 4.05, Lack of Supervision 3.88, Lack of time 3.76 , Lack of Finance 3.58 and Lack of free access to literature 3.41. The main research facilitator was the level of Motivation with mean score of 2.47. Conclusion: The lack of training and supervision are the major barriers along with time and financial constraint. It is essential to enhance the research activity to promote evidence based practice.


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Household Food Insecurity and Its Impact on Children Health in Rural Faisalabad

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Farkhand Anjum, Muhammad Asim, Kanwal Asghar Awan, Aqeela Saghir, Yasir Nawaz.
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of household food insecurity on child health. Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted in Faisalabad. Multistage sampling technique was used for data collection. The sample size of present study was comprised of 120 household respondents who have at least one child under five year age. Data were collected through an interview schedule which was developed in the light of research objectives. The collected data was analyzed through SPSS. Results: The result showed a significant and strong association between socio-economic status of the respondents and impact of food insecurity on physiological deficiencies and abnormal health of their children. A huge majority of the respondents 93.3% had opinion that poverty was a main cause of food insecurity. The respondents who had opinion that food insecurity affected the normal growth of height in their children were 93.3%, while 94.2% of them though that food insecurity affected the normal growth of weight and 92.5% of the respondents told that the food insecurity affected the activeness of child. Conclusion: It is concluded that household food insecurity negatively affect the childrens physical growth and the children from poor families were suffering malnutrition. It is suggested that government and NGOs should take necessary steps for kinder the awareness about malnutrition in children.


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Postoperative iatrogenic radial nerve palsy in open reduction internal fixation of humeral shaft fractures

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Muhammad Inam, Ismail Khan, Ihsanullah, Mohammad Saeed.
Objective: To determine the frequency of postoperative iatrogenic radial nerve palsy in open reduction internal fixation of humeral shaft fractures. Methodology: In this descriptive cross sectional study, a total of 41 humerus shaft fractures were treated surgically at Orthopedic Department, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan over a period of one year from September 2014 to august 2015. The frequency of postoperative iatrogenic radial nerve palsy were noted among these patients. Results: Of the 41 patients, 10 were female and 32 were male. The median age was 32 years (range, 20-65 years). Out of these, 35 patients had been treated with dynamic compression plates and six with locking compression plates. All fractures were diaphyseal, at the middle or distal third level. Four (9.8%) patients developed iatrogenic radial nerve palsy. In them, the radial nerve was in continuity and no macroscopic lesions were noted. The median time to the beginning of clinical recovery was 16 weeks (range, 525 weeks). The timing and pattern of radial nerve recovery in this situation was similar to that seen in primary radial nerve palsy. Conclusion: Post-operative radial nerve palsy is almost always transient and recovers with the passage of time with patient reassurance and dynamic splint in extend position of the wrist and fingers. Open reduction internal fixation provides greater patient comfort and is a good alterna-tive to conservative treatment, as unnecessary avoidance of open reduction internal fixation in fear of iatrogenic radial nerve palsy, unemployment of the patient and prolongs limb rehabilitation.


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Monitored anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine for subxiphoid pericardiostomy with Patient State Index monitoring

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Eunsu Kang, Ki Hwa Lee, Sehun Kim.
Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) refers to a service in which anesthesiologists provide a monitoring of patients vital sign during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, while administering anxiolytics and analgesics. The demands for MAC during various surgical procedures are increasing at operating room and non-operating room. In this case, MAC was provided with dexmedetomidine during a subxiphoid pericardiostomy. A subxiphoid pericardiostomy is an invasive procedure, and MAC can provide a high degree of satisfaction to patients, surgeons, and anesthesiologists. The Patient State Index (PSI) is less familiar electroencephalographic monitor than the bispectral index (BIS), and there are few reports of PSI in patient who has received MAC. We report the experience of MAC, when using dexmedetomidine and PSI monitoring.


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Importance of Vitamin K prophylaxis in prevention of antibiotic induced coagulopathy

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Tooba Riaz, Bushra Saeed, Jaweria Faisal, Aneela Shaheen, Saima Batool.
Objectives: To determine the efficacy of vitamin K prophylaxis in prevention of antibiotic induced coagulopathy in children on long-term (10 days) antibiotic therapy. Methodology: It was a randomized controlled trial conducted at Pediatric ward of Nawaz Sharif social security Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan over a period of six months from December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014. A total of 60 patients were included in this study and were divided into two groups. Both groups were given ceftriaxone for 10; Group-A was given vitamin K, 5mg intravenously single dose on day third of antibiotic therapy and Group-B served as control and vitamin K was not given. Results: Mean age was 1.84±2.5 and 1.16±1.0 in group-A and B, respectively. Protime (PT) was within normal range in all patients (100.0%) of group A and 22 patients (73.3%) in group B. APTT was normal in all patients (100.0%) in group-A and 22 patients (73.3%) in group-B. Coagulopathy was prevented in all patients (100%) in group-A and in 22 patients (73.3%) in group-B. The difference between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: PT and APTT should be monitored and Vitamin K should be administered to all patients on prolonged antibiotics to prevent coagulopathy. Patients under one year and with poor nutritional status are more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency and coagulopathy.


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Frequency of placental infarct and fetal outcome in hypertensive primigravidas

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Samra Yousaf Butt, Sara Ejaz, Khadija Waheed.
Objective: To determine the frequency and type of placental infarcts in primigravidas having Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and to determine the fetal outcome in hypertensive primigravidas with placental infarcts. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Services Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from July, 2014 to December, 2014 and included 350 patients with PIH. After delivery, the placenta of all the patients was sent for pathology and they were assessed for determination of presence or absence of placental infarct. Regarding fetal outcome, the newborns were assessed for birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and still birth. Results: Placental infarcts were found in 113 (32.2%) patients. Out of these, focal infarcts were in 71 (62.8%) and multi focal infarcts in 42 (37.2%) patients. Stillbirths was found in 11 cases (3.2%) while SGA was found in 6 cases (1.7%). Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for strata of PIH and was found significant for sever PIH. Conclusion: Sever PIH is a risk factor for SGA and placental infarcts among primigravida. Therefore, significant effort is needed to prevent primigravida for these grave complications due to PIH.


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Effects of gender in automated urinalysis test results as predictors of true urinary tract infection in infants

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Kağan Huysal, Yasemin Üstündağ Budak, Murat Tutanc, Nihat Kutluay, Hakan Erdoğan.
Objective: We sought to evaluate whether there is a gender difference for IRIS IQ200 test results as rapid diagnostic test in rouling out culture positivity in infants in a routine hospital laboratory. Methodology: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from 2159 unselected consecutive patients aged 1 month to 1 year, who attended the Sevket Yilmaz Research and Education Hospital from January to December 2014 and received both urinalysis and culture for suspected UTI. A sample was considered culture-positive if it contained a pure culture of ≥ 50,000 104 CFU/mL. 272 patients, 39 culture positive and 233 culture negative females (median age 6 months), and 280 male patients, 28 culture positive and 252 culture negative, (median age 4 months) were evaluated. Results: Nitrite alone had a PPV of 95% and an NPV of 90.9% in the infant group. PPV and SP were 100% in male infants. A positive leukocyte count (≥4 cells/HPF) had a specificity of 90%, a PPV of 46.6% and an NPV of 94.5% in infants, which was 94.3 in boys. LE alone had higher specifity (95.1%), PPV (53.8%) and NPV (94.4%) in boys compared to girls, 89.2%, 50.0% and 94.4% Conclusions: The results of urine tests should not be used alone for the diagnosis of UTI in infant without gender difference.


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Etiology of cirrhosis among adults in Karachi- perspective from three tertiary care hospitals

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Wajahat Fareed, Abubakar Tauseef, Sadia Wasay, Tanveer Alam, Raisa Altaf, Zunaira nawaz.
Objective: To determine the etiology of cirrhosis in adults in from three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center and Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Data were collected from August 26, 2014 to December 10, 2014. The study included 377 individuals. Data were analyzed by using SPSS v. 16.0. Results: Out of 377 individuals, 211(55.97%) were males and 166(44.03%) were females. Among males, hepatitis C and hepatitis B has outnumbered all other causes. Similarly, hepatitis C and hepatitis B outnumbered all other causes among females related to cirrhosis. Conclusion: There are multiple causes of cirrhosis, out of which hepatitis B and C were among the most common causes of cirrhosis in both genders. Special attention should be paid to prevent intra venous drug abuse and frequent unscreened blood transfusion as by preventing these. We can reduce the patients of hepatitis B and C, ultimately cutting down the cases of cirrhosis.


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Anatomical variations: Dangerous culprits behind difficult cholecystectomies

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Bushra Shaikh, Imammudin Balkhani Baloach, Saima Athar Shaikh.
Objective: To detect the frequency of anatomical variations of gallbladder, biliary tree and biliary vasculature during open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methodology: In our study, 994 patients underwend open/Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: 55 patients had anomalous anatomy of extra hepatic biliary tree (EHBT). These variations were intrahepatic gall bladder in 12 cases, floating gall bladder in 2 cases, phyragian cap gall bladder in 3 cases, short cystic duct in 10 cases, long cystic duct in 7 cases, accessory cholecystohepatic duct in 5 cases, Moynihans hump in 2 cases, cystic artery anterior to cystic duct in 5 cases, cystic artery posterior to cystic duct in 4 cases, short cystic artery in 2 cases and aberrant cystic artery in 3 cases. Operative difficulties were encountered in 9 out of 50 patients in whom these anomalies were well recognized during surgery. In remaining 5 patients, anatomical variations remained unrecognized during surgery and lead to complications like bleeding and biliary leak. Conclusion: Congenital anatomical variations in EHBT are not an uncommon happening as is usually considered; it is only that they are not well recognized during surgery.


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Effect of preoperative lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirements in major laparotomy surgery

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
Jamal Rahaymeh, Mufeed Alkhalaileh, Abdulelah Meqbel, Balgees Almajali, Rawan Al Dabas.
Objective: To assess the effects of lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain. Methodology: Our study was done on 40 patients between the ages of 25-45 years who were previously healthy and underwent various abdominal surgeries. Patients were classified into case (A) and control (B) groups with randomized double blind fashion. Calculations of intra- and post-operative morphine consumption were done and pain was verbally assessed according to Visual Analogue scale (VAS) using pain score of 10. In group A 2% lidocaine was given in a dose of 1.5 mg/kg bolus IV half hour before induction followed by IV infusion 1.5mg/kg/hr before skin incision). InGroup B, saline was given. Results: The scale of pain among group A was significantly less in comparison to group B. Conclusion: Our study was consistent with previous studies about lidocaine, which showed significant decrease in pain by using lidocaine infusion.


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Liver abscess in a preterm neonate

2016-09-29T17-57-18Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
hashem Ezzat Aqrabawi, Najwa William Sonna.
Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn that was discovered accidentally on CXR and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.


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Pharmacotherapy of Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients: A Review

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Sadhana Nittur Holla, Meena Kumari Kamal Kishore, Mohan Babu Amberkar.
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, there has been a dramatic decrease in the morbidity and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Due to varying degree of immunosuppression, these patients are prone to various number of infections in their lifetime. Respiratory system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and the skin are the most susceptible for the organisms to be infected in opportunistic infections. Timely management of these microbial infections followed chemoprophylaxis is an important part of guidelines set for management of opportunistic infections in HIV. The development of drug toxicities and drug resistance in managing patients with HIV has always remained a clinical challenge. Consideration is given to the numerous known pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs used to treat and prevent opportunistic infections and antiretroviral drugs, and development of complications like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Clinicians must be knowledgeable about optimal strategies for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in order to improve health and to provide high quality of care for the patients.


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Analytical method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate and Metformin hydrochloride from it’s pharmaceutical dosage form by three different UV spectrophotometric methods

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ashim Kumar Sen, Denish N. Hinsu, Dhanya B. Sen, Aarti S. Zanwar, Rajesh A. Maheshwari, Vikas R. Chandrakar.
Three new UV spectrophotometric methods namely simultaneous equation, absorbance ratio and first derivative (zero crossing) spectroscopic methods were developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate and metformin hydrochloride in tablet formulation which were simple, sensitive, precise and accurate. In simultaneous equation method, absorbance was measured at 237 and 246 nm for both the drugs. Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate and metformin hydrochloride was estimated using 237 and 247.5 nm in absorbance ratio method. First derivative (zero crossing) method was based on the transformation of UV spectra in to first derivative spectra followed by measurement of first derivative signal at 237 and 246 nm for teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate and metformin hydrochloride, respectively using 2 nm as wavelength interval (Δλ) and 1 as scaling factor. Developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines including parameters viz., specificity, linearity and range, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. All the three methods showed linear response in the concentration range of 1-20 µg/ml for both the drugs. Results of method validation parameters follows ICH guideline acceptable limits. Based on the assay results obtained, methods were compared using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison tests (95% confidence level) using computer based fitting program (Prism, Graphpad version 5, Graphpad Software Inc). Outcome of the statistical analysis proved that there was no considerable dissimilarity between all the developed methods. Methods were found to be simple, fast, highly sensitive, cost effective and hence can be useful for simultaneous estimation of teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate and metformin hydrochloride in commercial tablet formulation for routine quality control analysis.


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Acute and Subchronic Toxicities of Indonesian Mistletoes Dendrophthoe pentandra L. (Miq.) Ethanol Extract

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Resmi Mustarichie, Sohadi Warya, Nyi Mekar Saptarini, Ida Musfiroh.
Traditionally mistletoes Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq known in Indonesia is to cure cough, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, ulcers, smallpox, diuretic, skin infection and after child-birth. Previously we reported its total flavonoid content and antiinflammatory properties. This article reports the acute and subchronic toxicity testing. Acute toxicity aims to determine the toxic dose of Dendrophthoe pentandra ethanol extract in mice that expressed in LD50 using probit log chart. Subchronic toxicity aims to look at the security level of long-term use of the extract. For the acute toxicity test done within approximately 14 days while the subchronic toxicity tests carried out for a period of 121 days. Animals were sacrificed and examined organs and histopathologic index. The results showed LD50 values for acute toxicity seen in the observations at a dose of 20 g/kg which might cause mortality of 50% in mice. A dose of 20 g / kg in mice was comparable to a dose of 14 g/kg in rat. From the subchronic observation test and from the observation group and Satellite Test found any swelling suspected tumor. In the Test group occurred Lymphoma severe, and in the group of satellites could be seen the rest of the connective tissue and inflammation. These tumors could be associated with a given dose of the extract, because the control group, did not happen the same as in the other two groups were given the extract. Data showed that the results SGOT of test group was greater than the control group, but the value was still approaching the reference value. While the results of SGPT levels of test group was smaller than the control group, but the overall value of SGPT much larger than the reference value that indicated liver damage. It was found in the kidney test that creatinine values of all groups were still within the range of the reference value. From these results it can be concluded ethanol extract Dendrophthoe pentandra have LD50 values which have toxicological significance is not toxic but is not recommended to be used for a long periode.


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Phenolic Composition and Inhibitory Ability of Methanolic Extract from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) Seeds on Fe-induced Thiobarbituric acid reactive species in Albino Rat’s Testicular Tissue In-Vitro

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Seun F. Akomolafe, Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I. Oyeleye, Olorunfemi R. Molehin, Opeyemi B. Ogunsuyi.
Pumpkin seed has been associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different part of the world. In this study, phenolic composition and Fe2+ induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) inhibitory ability of methanolic extract from pumpkin seeds in rats testes homogenates were determined. The extract was prepared with 80% methanol (v/v) and the radicals [(1,1-diphenyl2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)] scavenging, Fe2+ chelation and ferric reducing abilities of the extract were also carried out. The phenolics composition was also investigated using gas chromatography couple with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The GC analysis revealed the presence of vallinic, coumaric protocatechuic, caffeic, ferulic and sinapinic acids, and apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol as the dominant phenolic compounds. The results revealed that the extract inhibited Fe2+-induced TBARS, scavenge DPPH radical and chelate Fe2+ in a dose dependent manner. The extract also scavenged ABTS radical and reduced Fe2+ to Fe3+. Although, the standard used had higher effect compared to the extract, nevertheless, the TBARs inhibitory potential of the extracts clearly gives an insight on the protective potentials against oxidative induce testicular damage that might leads to male infertility. These abilities could however be linked to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.


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In vitro and In vivo Anti-Arthritic Activity of Combined Ethanolic Extracts of Pisonia grandis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in Wistar Rats

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Nandhini Padmini, Shobana Devi Sundaramoorthy, Himanshu Tripathi, Rajeswary Hari.
ABSTRACT The combined Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHE) made up of equal quantities of leaves of Pisonia grandis and Cardiospermum halicacabum was evaluated for its synergistic invitro and invivo Anti-arthritic effects and was compared with its individual ethanolic extracts of Pisonia grandis (EPG) and Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The inhibition of protein denaturation, membrane stabilization and proteinase enzyme inhibition were studied as invitro and Freunds adjuvant arthritis model in Wistar rats was used to study the invivo Anti-arthritic activity. The three extracts (BHE, EPG, and ECH) at the dose level of 300mg/kg b.w.in 2%CMC were ingested orally to the CFA treated rats once daily for 40 days and the percentage inhibition of the paw volume increase due to the drug treatment was calculated. All the three plant extracts exhibited dose dependent stabilization of the RBC membranes, inhibition of protein denaturation and protease inhibition. The BHE has got a significant reduction in the paw volume and oedema when comparable to EPG and ECH in these intoxicant treated animals. These observed effects may be due to its inhibition of free radical production due to the immunological and inflammatory reactions or minimizing protein denaturation or proteinase enzyme or stabilizing the membranes.


http://ift.tt/2cDUPQF

Evaluation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of leaf material of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. and investigation of their proliferation inhibition potential against EAC cell line

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Shankar Sangeetha, Swaminathan Meenakshi, Srinivasan Akshaya, Vellingiri Vadivel, Pemaiah Brindha.
In the present study, antioxidant and anticancer activities of different solvent extracts of an Indian medicinal plant, Spathodia campanulata P. Beauv. (leaf) were investigated. Among the different extracts studied, 70% ethanolic extract of S. campanulata leaf registered high antioxidant activity in terms of phosphomolybdate reducing power (955 FAEA), radical scavenging activity against DPPH (84.67%), superoxide (72.69%), hydrogen peroxide (83.20%) and hydroxyl radicals (70%), when compared to ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts. Further, the ethanolic extract illustrated remarkable anticancer activity against EAC cell line (85%) when compared to ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts. Ethanol extract showed higher level of total phenolic concentration (9.21 mg FAE/L), which is correlated with the maximum antioxidant activity exhibited by this extract. Due to remarkable antioxidant and anticancer properties, the ethanolic extract of S. campanulata leaf could be considered as a natural source of plant based drug to prevent / treat oxidative stress induced diseases such as cancer.


http://ift.tt/2dtMo0l

Study of quality of life and characteristic factors in women with breast cancer undergoing different types of therapy

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Redhwan A. Al-Naggar, Muhamed T Osman, Nameer Al-Baghdadi.
ABSTRACT Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and an increasingly important issue is to evaluate quality of life (QoL) among these patients. The objective of this study was to appreciate the QoL and associated factors among breast cancer women undergoing different types of therapy. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 166 breast cancer women from two specialized centres in Baghdad, Iraq, from February 2014 to December 2014. The questionnaire used in this study was The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B). The majority were employee (60.3%), with high school education (63.2%), with no family history of cancer (79.5%). Majority were diagnosed with grade II (56.6%) and tumor size less than 2 cm in diameter (95.8%). The majority of women underwent mastectomy (98.2%), received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and Tamoxifen therapy (89.8%, 29.5%, and 36.1%; respectively). The study found a significant difference between the quality of life among cancer patients and job, stage of cancer, size of tumor, and radiotherapy. Job, stage of cancer, size of tumor, and radiotherapy significantly influenced the women QoL. Therefore, more attention on these variables is highly recommended when dealing with breast cancer patients undergoing different types of therapy


http://ift.tt/2cDUMV3

The in Silico Study of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt) as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Activator Using 3D-QSAR Pharmacophore Modelling

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
M. Muchtaridi, Karen Low, Keri Lestari.
In this study, we created pharmacophore models from a dataset of agonists for PPAR gamma receptor using the Catalyst/Hypogen module. A training set consists of 22 compounds activity range between 0.1 to 3,500 nM, were carefully selected. In previous study, molecular docking of macelignan against PPARγ binding pocket showed a free energy binding of -11.07 kJ/mol, interaction with the hydrophobic pocket (diphenyl pocket) (Celik et al., 2007), and a hydrogen bond network (His323, Tyr473, His449 and Ser289) . The pharmacophore model (Hypo1), consisting of 5 features, i.e. one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), negative ionizable (NI), ring aromatic (RA) and two hydrophobics (HY) features, and one excluded volume. Hypo1 has the lowest total cost value (92.055), the highest cost difference (40,9316), the lowest RMSD (0.591049), and the best correlation coefficient (0.972949). Fourteen natural reported from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans HOUTT.) were then mapped against Hypo1, and macelignan shows a fair fit value of 7.00102 with an estimated value of 1271.990 nM. This concludes, macelignant in nutmeg might have antidiabetic properties via PPARγ receptor activation.


http://ift.tt/2dtO4qH

Hydrophilic Matrix Based Oral Controlled Release Tablets of Melt Sonocrystallized Simvastatin

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Surendra Tripathy, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Dilip Kumar Patel, Narahari Narayan Palei.
The major drawback of Simvastatin to formulate a dosage form is its poor aqueous solubility. In this study a solvent and carrier less technique called Melt sonocrystallization was utilized to form tiny crystals of Simvaststin with enhanced solubility in distilled water and Phosphate buffer pH 7.4, with an insignificant (p > 0.05) change in partition behaviour. The Melt sonocrystallized Simvaststin (MSCSIM) was characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM. The flow property was characterized and compared with pure Simvastatin. The MSCSIM was incorporated in directly compressed matrix tablets formed with varying proportion of HPMC K100 LV and starch. The formed tablets were evaluated for pharmacotechnical parameters along with drug release study. After melt sonocrystallization the chemical integrity of drug was unchanged and showed a sound flow property. The pharmacotechnical features of the tablets were noted to be within pharmacopoeial limit. The formulation F5 displayed a comparatively more controlled release of drug (96.45%) over 12 hours. The major release mechanism was found to be anomalous diffusion, with n value of 0.58 from the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, suggesting the drug release driven by swelling of matrix and diffusion. This technique may prove to be beneficial for poorly water soluble drugs and the melt sonocrystallized drugs can lend themselves for developing controlled release formulations.


http://ift.tt/2cDTN7a

The potential therapeutic role of Fenugreek saponin against Alzheimer's disease: Evaluation of apoptotic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Hanaa M. Roshdy, Salwa M. Kassem.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is known as lacking in the neuro-transmitters within the brain cells due to increase the Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity. So, use of AchE inhibitors (AchEI) is believed to be the best way in treatment of Alzheimer. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the AchEI and apoptotic activities of fenugreek saponin against AD in vivo. Ninety male aged Sprague Dawley rats were allocated in several experimental groups including untreated animals, supplemented animals with 0.05%, 0.1% and 2% of fenugreek saponin (FS), animals treated with AlCl3 to induce AD, AD-induced animals treated with the previous doses of FS or with Rivastigmine. Brain tissues of different groups were used for determine the AchEI and apoptotic activities as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and expression of apoptotic related genes (Bax; Bcl2 and caspase-3). The results showed that FS increased the AChEI and apoptosis activities as well as elevated the gene expression levels of Bax; Bcl2 and caspase-3 genes in AD-induced rats. However, FS decreased the ROS generation and DNA damage in AD-induced rats compared with control rats. The results suggested that the ability of fenugreek saponin to inhibit AD due to increase AChE inhibition activity might be attributed to increase the antioxidants in this herb. Moreover, enhancement the apoptosis by fenugreek saponin could be attributed mainly to the regulation process of Bax, Bcl-2 and casapse-3 in the apoptotic pathway and not by generation of ROS in the brain cells of the AD-induced rats.


http://ift.tt/2dtNDNj

Effects of menthone and piperitone on growth, chlorophyll a and β-carotene production in Dunaliella salina

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Mina Zarei, Mohammad Ali Mobasher, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Pegah Mousavi, Nima Montazeri-Najafabady, Nasim Hajighahramani, Younes Ghasemi.
Recently, studying essential oils and secondary metabolites of plants and microalgae have received much attention. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites is strongly influenced by different environmental factors. Monoterpenes as a main fraction of essential oils of fruits and vegetables have many clinical applications. They could inhibit the carcinogenesis processes and therefore might be effective in treatment of cancers. Dunaliella salina, a photosynthetic green microalga is known as a rich source for β-carotene production. In this study, the effects of some monoterpenes including menthone and piperitone was investigated on yield of production of β-carotene were studied. Menthone and piperitone as parameters of stress can make tensions to the medium of D. salina increasing its β-carotene content but on the other hand these two monoterpenes cause a decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll a.


http://ift.tt/2cDUWvv

Perception of Use of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines in Parts of Abuja: A Pilot Study

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Kudirat Bola Mustapha, Rukaiyatu Abdullahi Kirim, Jemilat Aliyu Ibrahim, Philip U. Onuche, Moji Taibat Bakare-Odunola.
This study assessed respondents perception on packaging, affordability, availability, efficacy, and safety of use of herbal and orthodox medicine in the treatment of common diseases in Abuja. Structured questionnaires were administered to elicit information from 200 residents selected from five locations through a purposive sampling method and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Orthodox medicines were rated higher than herbal medicine in term of preference, packaging, first-aid and uses. While in terms of affordability, adverse effect, natural and efficacious to the body, the respondents preferred herbal medicine. About Seventy percentage chose orthodox medicine as their first drug of choice and while 28% preferred herbal medicine as their first drug of choice. 72.96% of the respondents have used herbal medicines without any side effect while 10.77% had experienced adverse effects from its use and 16.33% claimed they have never used herbal medicines for treatment before. The diffreneces in the means of attributes of herbal and orthodox medicines were not statistically significant at P>0.05. The information obtained is in agreement with WHO statement that over 80% of the worlds population depends on traditional medicines for its primary health care.


http://ift.tt/2dtN7yu

Optimization of Melt in Mouth Tablets of Palonosetron HCl using 32 Full Factorial Design

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Kinjal P. Modi, Pawan A. Rai, Harsh J. Trivedi, Madhu Sharma, Kunal N. Patel.
Palonosetron HCl is a 5HT3 antagonist licensed for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents (HEC) and the prevention of CINV associated with moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy (MEC). It has a substantially longer half-life (Approximately 40 h). So, it was plan to prepare melt in mouth tablet which could rapidly dissolved and absorbed which may produce rapid onset of action. Melt in mouth tablets were prepared by direct compression method using various superdisintegrants like Kyron T314 and Vivasol, and evaluated for pre compression and post compression parameters. A 32 full factorial design was applied systematically to optimize responses. The concentration of Kyron T314 (X1) and concentration of Vivasol (X2) were selected as independent variables and disintegration time (Y1) and wetting time (Y2) as dependent variables. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, drug content and in vitro drug release. The results indicated that concentration of (X1) and (X2) significantly affected (Y1) and (Y2). Regression analysis and numerical optimization were performed to identify the best formulation. Similarity (f2) and dissimilarity (f1) study for optimization batch was also carried out. Batch P9 was found to be best batch with 10.43 s. disintegration time, 19.53 s. wetting time and 99.02% drug release in 30 min. There was no drastic change in the result of tablets of optimized batch at end of six month accelerated stability study.


http://ift.tt/2cDVf9B

Current trend of utilization of new generation proton pump inhibitors in gastric disorders among people in Jessore city, Bangladesh

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Debendra Nath Roy, Nowrin Ferdiousi, Md.Uzzal Haque, Mosharraf Hossain, Sheikh Shahriar Rajib.
This is an original research article and this study was carried out to investigate the current status of most commonly medicated PPIs in terms of their generation, gender variation, age categorization and their preferred route of administration as well.


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Preliminary phytochemical screening, in-vitro antioxidant activity, total polyphenolic and flavonoid content of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. and Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Partha Sarathi Bairy, Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Aparoop Das, Lalit Mohan Nainwal, Barnali Gogoi.
Garcinia lanceifolia and Citrus maxima are two indigenous fruits of East India, particularly Assam; which has been used in various folkloric medicines to treat disorders ranging from diarrhoea and jaundice to stomach and heart problems. The main aim of this study was to establish and compare the antioxidant potential of these two plants. The methanolic extracts of the bark of G. lanceifolia and C. maxima were tested for their antioxidant potential using various established in-vitro assay procedures. The estimation of the total phenolic and total flavonoid content were also carried out. The phytochemical screening was also done prior to these assays, and it revealed that both the extracts were found to contain tannins and phenolic compounds and flavonoids along with other phytoconstituents. The results reveal that both these plants have a considerable amount of antioxidant activity which can be compared with each other and also the standards.


http://ift.tt/2cDUsWj

Efficacy and In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Paclitaxel Delivery

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Shady Ali Swidan, Hassan Mahmoud Ghonaim, Ahmed Mahmoud Samy, Mamdouh Mostafa Ghorab.
Paclitaxel (PTX) is an anticancer drug having poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability. Formulation of PTX into Nanostructure lipid carriers (NLC) could be a potential way to enhance PTX aqueous solubility and bioavailability hence increases efficacy and decreases side effects. Eight PTX-NLC formulae were prepared using homogenization-ultrasonication technique. Characterization of the nanoparticles was done by transmission electron microscopy and by measurement of particle size, poly dispersibility index and zeta potential. Encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and in vitro release were measured. Particle size ranged between 172.8 ± 0.8 to 378.2 ± 1.8 nm and zeta potential between -18.6 ± 0.4 to -28.1 ± 1.2 mV. High EE and DL were obtained due to incorporation of liquid lipid and the in vitro release showed prolonged time dependent release compared to Taxol®. NLC-3 had the best results among the eight prepared formulae. In vitro cytotoxicity of NLC-3 was evaluated on MCF-7 cell line and compared to pure PTX powder and Taxol®. These findings show that NLC is a potential carrier to improve efficacy and enhance PTX delivery.


http://ift.tt/2dtNbyu

Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used as Memory Enhancer in Three States of Southwestern Nigeria

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Olatunji Peter Babawale, Fasola Remi Taiye, Onasanwo Samuel Adetunji.
This study sought at documenting plants locally used for memory enhancement by the people of three States of Southwestern Nigeria, predominantly inhabited by the Yoruba tribe. A combination of social survey, direct field observations and semi structured questionnaires were administered among the local herb vendors, traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) and knowledgeable people in plant usage. A total number of 260 respondents were interviewed across the States. The total populations of the respondents were made up of the herbalists (32%), herb sellers (40%) and other occupation comprising students and artisans (28%). The total population consisted of 55.4% males and 44.6% females with ages ranging from 10 to 75 years. Thirty seven medicinal plant species belonging to twenty eight families were gathered. Of all the plant species, Bacopa floribunda (R.Br)Wettst and Scoparia dulcis L belonging to the same family Scrophulariaceae had the high ranked of 40 and 27 respectively. A link between plant local names and their usage for memory enhancement was established.


http://ift.tt/2cDULQK

Preclinical safety assessment of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seeds extract: Acute, subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Pallavi Deshpande, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai.
Objective: To evaluate acute oral toxicity (AOT), subchronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of glycosides based standardized fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) seeds extract (SFSE-G). Materials and Methods: The AOT, subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity and mutagenicity (reverse mutation test) of oral administration of SFSE-G were evaluated using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as per OECD guideline no. 423, No. 408 and 471 respectively. Results: The SFSE-G did not show mortality or treatment-related adverse signs during acute (limit dose of 2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (90-days repeated dose of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg with 28 days of recovery period) administration. The SFSE-G showed oral median lethal dose (LD50) more than 2000 mg/kg during AOT study. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of SFSE-G was 1000 mg/kg in male rats and 500 mg/kg in female rats during subchronic toxicity study. Furthermore, SFSE-G did not show mutagenic potential in vitro. Conclusions: SFSE-G was found safe for acute and subchronic (90 days repeated dose) administration in rats with no mutagenic potential.


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Fabrication and Evaluation of Ketorolac Loaded Cubosome for Ocular Drug Delivery

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Zubair Ali, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Musarrat Husain Warsi.
Introduction: Ophthalmic formulations in terms of eye drops are more frequently used formulation for ocular disorders. But unfortunately this mode of drug instillation into the cul-de-sac of eye shows very poor ocular bioavailability (less than 5%). A large number of carrier systems have been investigated to overcome this problem. In the present study a novel nano-carrier system (Ketorolac loaded cubosomes) is developed and evaluated for the safe and enhance ocular bioavailability. Methods: Cubosomes were developed and optimized by utilizing glyceryl mono-oleate, poloxamer 407 and initial drug concentration. Finally developed formulation was evaluated for various in vitro characteristics i.e. particles size, size distribution, shape and morphology, in-vitro release profile, corneal permeation, corneal retention, and ocular tolerance study. Results: The optimized drug loaded cubosomal formulation showed mean particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency 127.3±12.23 nm, 0.205±0.011, and 53.27±5.23 %, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed a cubic shape of developed formulation. Further, developed formulation exhibited biphasic release profile. Significant high transcorneal permeation (2.07 folds) and corneal retention (2.24 folds) of ketorolac was observed with cubosomal formulation correspond to Ketorolac solution (p


http://ift.tt/2cDURIa

In-vitro bioequivalence, physicochemical and economic benefits study for marketed innovator and generic ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets in Saudi Arabia

2016-09-29T05-30-58Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ahmed F. Hanafy.
The objective of the present study was to compare and evaluate the economic benefits and in-vitro bioequivalence of different marketed generic ciprofloxacin tablets against the innovator tablet formulation that are present in the local market of Saudi Arabia. The comparative bioequivalence and physicochemical study of five ciprofloxacin marketed tablets were performed through the assessment of the uniformity of weight, hardness, disintegration, dissolution, and content assay of the products. In order to compare the dissolution profiles of all generic tablet formulations and the innovator, a model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) and difference factor (f2) was employed in the in vitro dissolution studies. Deviations in were noted in two generic products, these deviations caused significant differences in disintegration time and in dissolution profile in only one of the generic products. All tested generic products passed USP monograph dissolution testing except one product which failed to pass both similarity factor (f2) and difference factor (f1) tests required by FDA bioequivalence testing. The majority of generic products in Saudi Arabia which had lower prices showed comparable quality to innovator.


http://ift.tt/2dtM3e4

Development of a palmyrah (Borassus flabelifer) fruit pulp flavoured pasteurized milk toned with soy (Glycine max) milk

2016-09-29T02-22-11Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Guberan Gunarathnam, sarmini Maheshwaran, Silva saliya frankserendib.
A study was conducted to develop a palmyrah fruit pulp (PFP) (Borassus flabelifer) flavoured pasteurized milk toned with soy milk (Glycine max) using different percentages of PFP and soy milk sweetened with 7.5% (w/v) sugar based on the recommendations of Sri Lanka Standard Institute (SLSI). Flavoured milk samples were prepared by adding 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% of PFP (v/v) to cow milk and subjected to sensory evaluation. Subsequently, after the 6% of PFP added flavoured milk was preferred; 10, 20, 30, and 40% of soy milk were used in the preparation of flavoured milk. Flavoured milk prepared using vanilla was used as a control. Based on the results obtained from sensory evaluation, selected samples and control were analysed for nutritional and microbial quality. Milk prepared by adding 6% of PFP and 10% of soy milk resulted in superior sensory and nutritional qualities compared to control sample.


http://ift.tt/2cDABGw

Prevalence of bovine hydatidosis and its economic importance in cattle slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir, Northern Ethiopia

2016-09-29T02-22-11Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Marege Tadesse Tadesse, Solomon Tesfaye, Petros Admasu.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 with the aim of determining the current prevalence and economic impact of bovine hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir. Out of the total 384 cattle examined visually and manually, 72 (18.75%) were found harboring the parasitic cyst. Out of the total 345 cyst identified, 58.84% were found in lungs, 40.29% in liver and 0.87% in kidneys. Observation during the study period also revealed that the infection rate among different age groups of examined animals were found to be statistically significant (p


http://ift.tt/2dtnCNL

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