Πέμπτη, 18 Φεβρουαρίου 2016

Serial measurement of type-specific human papillomavirus load enables classification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions according to occurring human papillomavirus-induced pathway.

This retrospective study examined whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific viral load changes measured in two or three serial cervical smears are predictive for the natural evolution of HPV infections and correlate with histological grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), allowing triage of HPV-positive women. A cervical histology database was used to select consecutive women with biopsy-proven CIN in 2012 who had at least two liquid-based cytology samples before the diagnosis of CIN. Before performing cytology, 18 different quantitative PCRs allowed HPV type-specific viral load measurement. Changes in HPV-specific load between measurements were assessed by linear regression, with calculation of coefficient of determination (R2) and slope. All infections could be classified into one of five categories: (i) clonal progressing process (R2>=0.85; positive slope), (ii) simultaneously occurring clonal progressive and transient infection, (iii) clonal regressing process (R2>=0.85; negative slope), (iv) serial transient infection with latency [R2=0.85; -0.003 HPV copies/cell/day) in all CIN categories. Type-specific viral load increase/decrease in three consecutive measurements enabled classification of CIN lesions in clonal HPV-driven transformation (progression/regression) and nonclonal virion-productive (serial transient/transient) processes. Copyright (C) 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Erk5 and P38 Kinase are Positive Regulators of Insulin and Tnfα – Stimulated Vcam-1 Expression in Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells

The post Erk5 and P38 Kinase are Positive Regulators of Insulin and Tnfα – Stimulated Vcam-1 Expression in Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells appeared first on Welcome to Avens.



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MicroRNA-124 Suppresses Tumor Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting CD164 Signaling Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

The post MicroRNA-124 Suppresses Tumor Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting CD164 Signaling Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer appeared first on Welcome to Avens.



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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 231: Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population.

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Early weaning is beneficial to prevent atopic dermatitis occurrence in young children

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Abstract

Background

Epidemiological data on infant feeding practices and allergic diseases are controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the association of early weaning with the occurrence of atopic dermatitis (AD).

Methods

We conducted a matched case-control study on incident physician-diagnosed AD in early childhood including 451 cases and 451 controls. Data on several factors, including feeding practices, were collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through logistic regression models, conditioned on study center, age, sex, and period of interview, and adjusted for potential confounders.

Results

Early weaning, defined as the introduction of solid foods at 4 or 5 months of age, was inversely related to the risk of AD, with children weaned at 4 months having lower AD risk (OR=0.41, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87) compared to those exclusively breastfed. Similar results were observed for weaning started at 5 months of age (OR=0.39, 95% CI, 0.18-0.83). This association persisted when children with and without family history of allergy were considered. Prolonged partial breastfeeding (breast-milk plus milk formulas and/or solid food) was not associated to AD. Consistently, the introduction of a high number of different solid foods reduced the risk of AD (p trend= 0.02 at 4 months of age and p trend= 0.04 at 5 months).

Conclusion

Our data provide evidence against the preventing role of prolonged exclusive (but not partial) breastfeeding on AD occurrence, and confirms recent results indicating a beneficial role of early weaning on AD.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Changes in Parent-Child Relationship Quality Across Early Adolescence:: Implications for Engagement in Sexual Behavior

The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent–adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at six time points spanning from first grade to age 15. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate whether changes in mother–adolescent and father–adolescent closeness or conflict predicted adolescents’ sexual behavior at age 15. Results indicate that more rapid increase in mother–adolescent conflict predicted engagement in sexual intercourse but not oral sex by age 15, whereas change in mother–adolescent closeness did not predict sexual behaviors. A more rapid decline in father–adolescent closeness and a more rapid increase in father–adolescent conflict predicted more engagement in sexual behaviors by age 15.



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Orphan drugs = smale legemidler

Legemidler utviklet til bruk ved sjeldne tilstander trenger et godt, norsk uttrykk.

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Chemoradiation Improves OS for Elderly Patients With Head and Neck Cancers - OncLive


OncLive

Chemoradiation Improves OS for Elderly Patients With Head and Neck Cancers
OncLive
All patients examined in the study had stage III and IV tumors of the oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. All tumors were either node positive T1-2 or T3-4, N0-3. The median age in the chemoradiation arm was 75 years (range, 71-90). In the radiation ...
Study links health insurance status and head and neck cancer diagnoses, outcomesEurekAlert (press release)
Uninsured and Medicaid Patients with Head and Neck Cancer More Likely to Present with Advanced Tumors ...Newswise (press release)

all 73 news articles »


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What's on the mind of the RCR president?

2016_02_18_11_52_14_696_2016_02_19_RCR_MAt the helm of the U.K. Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) is Dr Giles Maskell....


Read more on AuntMinnieEurope.com


Related Reading:


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Pioglitazone may reduce cardiovascular events in high risk patients with prediabetes

Pioglitazone, an insulin sensitising agent, may reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke after a recent transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke in patients without diabetes who are...
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Feedback to GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing, study finds

Sending a letter to GPs in England who have above average antibiotic prescribing rates to give feedback on their prescribing habits reduced their antibiotic prescribing by an average of just over 3%...
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Enduring Egalitarianism? Family Transitions and Attitudes Toward Gender Equality in Sweden

Previous research in industrialized countries finds that attitudes toward gender equality are affected by family-related transitions as young adults with egalitarian attitudes based on growing equality between the sexes in the public sphere of education and work encounter a much less equal situation in the private sphere of the family. Sweden, however, is a society known for its emphasis on gender equality in the family. This study examines the effect of family transitions on attitudes toward gender equality, asking whether egalitarian attitudes can withstand changing family transitions in Sweden. Using longitudinal data from the Young Adult Panel Study, we examine six different family transitions and three measures of attitudes toward gender equality for men and women, with only three significant findings across 18 coefficients. We conclude that most Swedish young adults possess "enduring attitudes," likely because there is strong state support for families and gender sharing in the private sphere.



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Association between cytoplasmic CRABP2, altered retinoic acid signaling, and poor prognosis in glioblastoma

ABSTRACT

Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is required for the regulation of growth and development. Aberrant expression of molecules involved in RA signaling has been reported in various cancer types including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) has previously been shown to play a key role in the transport of RA to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to activate their transcription regulatory activity. Here, we demonstrate that CRABP2 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm of GBM tumors. Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, CRABP2 levels in GBM tumors are associated with poor patient survival. Treatment of malignant glioma cell lines with RA results in a dose-dependent increase in accumulation of CRABP2 in the cytoplasm. CRABP2 knockdown reduces proliferation rates of malignant glioma cells, and enhances RA-induced RAR activation. Levels of CRYAB, a small heat shock protein with anti-apoptotic activity, and GFAP, an astrocyte-specific intermediate filament protein, are greatly reduced in CRABP2-depleted cells. Restoration of CRYAB expression partially but significantly reversed the effect of CRABP2 depletion on RAR activation. Our combined in vivo and in vitro data indicate that: (i) CRABP2 is an important determinant of clinical outcome in GBM patients, and (ii) the mechanism of action of CRABP2 in GBM involves sequestration of RA in the cytoplasm and activation of an anti-apoptotic pathway, thereby enhancing proliferation and preventing RA-mediated cell death and differentiation. We propose that reducing CRABP2 levels may enhance the therapeutic index of RA in GBM patients. GLIA 2016.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Main points

  • Cytoplasmic CRABP2 in glioblastoma (GBM) tumors is associated with poor prognosis
  • CRABP2 accumulates in the cytoplasm of retinoic acid-treated GBM cells and attenuates RA signaling


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Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing [Research]

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing’s highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.—Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.



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Specific autoantigens in experimental autoimmunity-associated atherosclerosis [Research]

Higher cardiovascular morbidity in patients with a wide range of autoimmune diseases highlights the importance of autoimmunity in promoting atherosclerosis. Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis and identified vascular autoantigens targeted by autoimmunity. We created a mouse model of autoimmunity-associated atherosclerosis by transplanting bone marrow (BM) from FcRIIB knockout (FcRIIB–/–) mice into LDL receptor knockout (LDLR–/–) mice. We characterized the cellular and molecular mechanisms of atherogenesis and identified specific aortic autoantigens using serologic proteomic studies. En face lesion area analysis showed more aggressive atherosclerosis in autoimmune mice compared with control mice (0.64 ± 0.12 mm2vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 mm2; P < 0.05, respectively). At the cellular level, FcRIIB–/– macrophages showed significant reduction (46–72%) in phagocytic capabilities. Proteomic analysis revealed circulating autoantibodies in autoimmune mice that targeted 25 atherosclerotic lesion proteins, including essential components of adhesion complex, cytoskeleton, and extracellular matrix (ECM), and proteins involved in critical functions and pathways. Microscopic examination of atherosclerotic plaques revealed essential colocalization of autoantibodies with endothelial cells (ECs), their adherence to basement membranes, the internal elastica lamina, and necrotic cores. The new vascular autoimmunosome may be a useful target for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic interventions in autoimmunity-associated diseases that have accelerated atherosclerosis.—Merched, A. J., Daret, D., Li, L., Franzl, N., Sauvage-Merched, M. Specific autoantigens in experimental autoimmunity-associated atherosclerosis.



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Novel movement disorder society–Parkinson's disease criteria: What about SWEDD and genetic forms?



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Nonmotor symptoms in patients without evidence of dopaminergic deficit



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Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and Parkinson's disease risk in patients with essential tremor

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ABSTRACT

Background

Several studies have reported an increased risk for patients with essential tremor to develop Parkinson's disease. In addition, hyperechogenicity in the area of the substantia nigra has been associated with a markedly increased risk for Parkinson's disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity in patients with essential tremor as a risk marker for Parkinson's disease.

Methods

Transcranial sonography was performed in 70 patients suffering from essential tremor. Fifty-four of these patients were available for follow-up after a mean of 6.16 ± 2.05 years and were assessed for the incidence of new-onset Parkinson's disease.

Results

The relative risk for developing Parkinson's disease in patients with essential tremor who had hyperechogenicity at baseline versus those without this hyperechogenicity was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 1.62–30.34; sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 75.6%).

Conclusions

Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is also associated with an increased risk for Parkinson's disease in patients with essential tremor. These findings further support the potential role of this echofeature as a risk marker for Parkinson's disease. © 2016 Movement Disorder Society



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