Πέμπτη, 10 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Comparative study of hypoglycaemic activity of morus alba with oral hypoglycaemic drug (metformin) in alloxan induced diabetic rats

Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Naveen Kumar Madalageri, Lavanya Nagaraj.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a spectrum of common metabolic disorders, arising from a variety of pathogenic mechanisms, all resulting in hyperglycemia. The number of individuals with diabetes is rising rapidly throughout the world. Worldwide the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is estimated to be 2.8% and is set to rise to 4.4% by 2030. In India alone, the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase from 30.9 million to 69.9 million by 2025. Despite the availability of many drugs for treatment for diabetes and its complications continue to be major medical problems. Currently available antidiabetic drugs are not completely effective and are associated with adverse effects both in the short and long run. Some studies have reported many different medicinal properties of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) like neuroprotective property, cardioprotective property, antidepressant property. It is used as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and antidiabetic in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study is undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Morus alba in Alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Methods: Total 24 albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200 gms were selected and randomly divided into 4 equal groups containing 6 rats in each group. First group (Non-diabetic control) was given normal saline (0.5 mL). Other 3 groups were induced diabetes by giving Alloxan (150 mg/kg IP). They were subdivided into diabetic control group receiving normal saline (0.5 mL), standard control group receiving Metformin (10 mg/kg body weight) and test group receiving Morus alba extract (600 mg/kg). Fasting blood sugar level was estimated on day 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by using glucometer. Data were statistically analysed by Tukeys Post Hoc test and ANOVA. Results: Morus alba at the above doses significantly reduced blood glucose levels as compared to control group (p0.05). Conclusions: The result suggests that Morus alba leaves have hypoglycaemic activity.



Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
BISWADEEP JENA, Sagar Sahoo, Kiran Pattaniak, Anjali Padhan.
A six and half month old Jersey cross bred calf was presented with history of epiphora, blepharospasm, keratoconjunctivitis in its left eye. Anamnesis, clinical and histopathological examinations revealed presence of solid dermoid choristoma at the edge of membrane nictinans (third eyelid). Obligation of proper surgical techniques and maintenance of adequate postoperative measures rewarded with uneventful recovery.


Comparison of Different Regimens for Balanced Anesthesia in Rabbits

Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Dibyajyoti Talukdar, Janmoni Shyam, Bitupona Deuri, Papori Talukdar.
The study was planned to compare the efficacy of different anesthetic combinations for induce balanced anesthesia in rabbits. Eighteen adult (12-18 months) New Zealand White rabbits of either sex weighting from (980-1800) gm were used in this study. Rabbits were divided into three equal groups (3 males - 3 females) in each group. The rabbits were anesthetized by intramuscular injection of different drug combinations: Detomidine (150µg/kg) + Ketamine (25mg/kg) in group A. Xylazine (2.5mg/kg) + Ketamine (25mg/kg) in group B. Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) + ketamine (25mg/kg) in group C. Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rhythm, degree of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation and eye reflexes (palpebral and corneal reflexes), pupil size, were recorded before the IM injection of the drugs (time zero) as a control data and after 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75 minutes of injection respectively until the rabbit response to external stimuli. Induction time, anesthesia time and recovery time were recorded. The ovariohysterectomy in female and castration in male were carried out to study the efficiency of anesthetics. No significant difference was recorded for induction time, while the anesthesia time in group B was significantly longer than the other groups. Recovery time was significantly longer group A than the other groups. Superior analgesia and muscle relaxation were observed in group B. In conclusion, the mixture of Xylazine and Ketamine seems to be superior as balanced anesthetic drugs in rabbits.


A prospective study of pattern of prescription for acne vulgaris in a tertiary care hospital: an observational study

Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nandini T., Shivaprasad Kalakappa Kumbar, Padmanabha T. S., Purushotham Krishna, Narendra G..
Background: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder of the pilosebaceous unit affecting younger age groups but presenting usually at puberty and is of cosmetic concern. There are various treatment modalities available ranging from topical/oral anti-acne preparations to hormonal therapy depending on the severity of acne. Use of synthetic retinoid is highly regulated due to its potential for severe adverse events, primarily teratogenicity. There is a need for periodic prescription auditing. By providing feedback to the prescribers to formulate the guidelines enhances therapeutic efficacy by rational use, minimizes the adverse effects and cost of treatment. Objectives: to assess the prescription pattern for Acne vulgaris. Methods: A medication details and prescribers information are collected in pre-designed proforma along with the demographic details from 210 study subjects after personal briefing about the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 210 prescriptions of acne patients, majority were in between 21-40 years (48.09%), M:F ratio was1:1.41, female were 58.57% when compared to males 41.43%. Topical agents accounted for 54.13% and 36.36% of oral antibiotics (most common was azithromycin). Fixed dose combinations accounted for 4.39% and concomitantly administered drugs (antihistaminics, proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers, emollients and skin protective agents) accounted for 53.82% of the prescribed drugs. Conclusions: Drug utilization study periodically can be an eye opener for the prescribers to prescribe the drugs in a rational way and it could reduce the prescription error and minimizing the untoward effects will subsequently reduce the cost of treatment.


Maternal factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding of babies at six weeks of age

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Purnima Samayam, Pradeep Krishna.
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of life has several advantages for babies as well as mothers. However exclusive breastfeeding may not be followed by mothers due to various reasons. The objective of this study was to study the rates of exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding in infants at Six weeks of age. Methods: Prospective observational study. 200 mothers and their healthy full term newborns were included. Exclusive and early breastfeeding was initiated with guidance and support for the mothers during their hospital stay. All mothers were given verbal advice about the need and benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for first six months. Primary outcome: number of mothers giving exclusive breastfeeding or mixed feeding at six weeks postnatal age during the first immunisation visit. Results: 92.78% mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their babies at 6 weeks of age. 7.22% had started mixed feeding. 96.23% of multipara and 87.84% of primipara were respectively giving exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks. The difference was statistically significant (P value 0.0328). Mothers aged 20-35 years (95.65%) were more likely to continue exclusive breastfeeding than those aged


A prospective, randomized, double blind, comparative study of intramuscular nalbuphine hydrochloride, butorphanol tartrate and pentazocine lactate for post-operative pain relief following abdominal hysterectomy

Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Praveen P. V. V. S. B., Vijaya Chandra Reddy Konda, Lohit K..
Background: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intramuscularly administered nalbuphine, butorphanol and pentazocine for post-operative pain relief after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Seventy-five adult female patients, aged between 20-50 years, belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 and 2, posted for abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia were included in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=25 each) and given Group A: pentazocine lactate (30 mg, 1mL), Group B: butorphanol tartarate (2 mg, 1 ml) and Group C: nalbuphine hydrochloride (10 mg, 1 mL) when post-operative pain intensity reached ≥4 mm on the Visual analogue scale (VAS). The onset, duration, time to peak effect and adverse events were recorded at regular intervals for 24 hours, postoperatively. Results: The mean time to onset of anesthesia was significantly faster (P


A comparative study of the learning styles among 1st, 2nd and final year MBBS students

Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Nagesh Raju G., Manjunath S. M., Dharmaraj B., Shrish Patil.
Background: Learning style is the way students begin to focus, internalize and remember new and difficult information. Identifying the learning styles of medical students will enable the faculty to use appropriate T/L method to increase the grasping ability of their subject/ learning. Purpose of the study was to assess and compare the learning styles of 1st, 2nd and final MBBS students by using VARK questionnaire. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study based on the questionnaire, conducted by the department of Pharmacology at Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital, Chitradurga. The VARK learning styles assessment questionnaire was administered to 1st (96 students), 2nd (60 students) and Final year (49 students). The students were categorized as auditory, kinaesthetic, visual learner or read/write depending on the predominant option they chose. Independent sample 't' test was used to compare the mean scores between the two groups using the software SPSS v22. Results: 40% of students had unimodal and 60% had multimodal learning style. Final year MBBS students had higher percentage of multimodal learning style (73%). The most preferred style of learning among all the medical students was kinesthetic (6.6), followed by aural (5.5), visual (4.0) and read/write (3.5). There was significant difference between the learning styles of 1st and Final year MBBS students in Visual (p=0.01) and Read /Write (p= 0.008). Conclusions: Knowing that students have different learning styles and kinesthetic being the most preferred mode of learning will help medical faculty to develop teaching/learning strategies for better outcomes.


Caregiver burden in caregivers of elderly registered in Armed Forces Hospital and King Fahad Military Medical Complex Home Care Services in Dhahran

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Rana Alshehri, Fadwa Alohali, Bader Almutairi.
Background: Worldwide, there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of population toward older ages. Family caregivers are playing a major role in keeping ongoing care for this age group. Moreover, they are saving tremendous costs on healthcare systems. Unfortunately, caregivers throughout their experience are facing difficulties, suffering and are subjected to caregiver burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of caregiver burden and to identify its predictive factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in two conveniently selected home care registered elderly in two military hospitals in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. In a structured interview setting, a constructed questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview were used to collect data from primary caregivers. Results: A total of 117 caregivers for functionally impaired elderly people were included in the study. The overall estimated prevalence was 65%. Furthermore, severe, moderate, and mild burden were 15%, 18%, and 30%, respectively. Longer duration of caregiving, unavailability of secondary caregiver, and female care recipient were positively associated with the burden. Conclusions: Results of the present study show a respectable prevalence of burden among Saudi caregivers. Effective counseling, education, and multidisciplinary support are needed for caregivers of an elderly population. Further studies are needed to explore the burnout among Saudi caregivers.


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