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Πέμπτη, 22 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Gene Variant Databases and Sharing: Creating a Global Genomic Variant Database for Personalized Medicine

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Sero-Prevalence Study of Bovine Brucellosis and Reproductive Problems in Small-scale Dairy Farms of North Shewa, Ethiopia

Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Mahendra Pal, Dereje Lemu, Shawul Worku, Genene Desta.
Brucellosis is one of the highly infectious major bacterial diseases of animals and humans. A cross sectional study was carried out between January and March 2012 in order to investigate the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis, reproductive problems of dairy cows, and the associated risk factors in North Shewa, Ethiopia. The study population comprised of lactating crossbreed cows managed under small scale dairy farms. Sera samples collected aseptically from 384 cows were screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT). The test result indicated that 3 (0.78%) of cows were found to be positive. These sera were further confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT) and all of them were found to be negative. The questionnaire survey was also administered to 96 households in order to determine the associated risk factors among different age groups, and parity. This study revealed that abortion and retained fetal membrane were found to be the major reproductive problems. The result of chi square analysis showed that there was no significant effect between abortion and retained fetal membranes (RFM), between the age groups, and between parity (P >0.05).The prevalence of abortion and retained fetal membranes were found to be 25 (6.6%) and 31 (8.1%), respectively.The questionnaire results indicated that insufficient animal feeding, poor housing, inadequate veterinary infrastructure and improper management practices were the main causes of low productivity. More effective breeding techniques and reproductive health management should be taken into account in order to improve the fertility of the herd in the study area. Awareness creation and training should be provided to the farming community about the reproductive health problems, improved sanitation, and good hygienic practices. It is emphasized that detailed investigation should be undertaken to elucidate the causes of abortion and retained fetal membranes in the study area. Since brucellosis has public health implications, precautions are needed to prevent the transmission of infection to humans.


Contamination level of transvaginal ultrasound probes in standard setting: A meta-analysis

Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Citra Aryanti.
Gynecologist should be aware of cross infection using transvaginal ultrasonography. In fact, the contamination was usually being underestimated. Disinfection and probe cover in transvaginal ultrasound remained controversial. This study was planned with the objective to review the pooled proportion of contamination and types of microbes contaminated after the standard procedure at transvaginal probe and characterize the methods of disinfection and type of cover probe used in transvaginal ultrasound. Comprehensive literature search was done in Medline (1966-2015), SCOPUS (2004-2015), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials along with reference lists of electronically retrieved studies. We considered all published English language articles. The author used search strategy with words such as transvaginal, ultrasound, probe, contamination, and infect. Full-text journals are more preferred, but the abstract only journal is considered based on if the data are provided in the abstract. Data of study design, contamination rate, ultrasound disinfection technique, and probe cover were being reviewed. The pooled proportion of microbes contamination and difference of disinfection and probe cover were determined using Stata 12 and Review Manager 5.4. From 110 studies, 13 studies were potentially eligible for systematic review. Pooled proportion of total microbes contamination was 31% (95% CI: 1-56%, I2: 99.14%, P = 0.00). This rate was found 50% in bacteria contamination and only 4% in virus contamination. The most prevalence bacteria were coagulase-negative Staphylococci. A similar contamination rate was found either using condom or specific cover as probe cover (both 3%, risk difference −0.04). Interestingly, some studies showed advantage of using gloves as probe covers and automated disinfectant machine as disinfection methods. Contamination rate, especially bacteria contamination, is still high even after using the standard disinfection procedure. Further research is needed to find new disinfection procedures to reduce the contamination rate.


Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacovigilance among doctors in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Tripura

Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Lakshman Das, Prithul Bhattacharjee, Ranjib Ghosh, Uttam Kumar Das, Tapasjyoti Ray.
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs is the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance (PV) and is important in maintaining patient safety. Aims and Objective: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of PV among doctors of a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A questionnaire containing 10 questions on knowledge, 11 questions on attitude, and 3 questions on practice of PV was utilized to assess the KAP among the doctors. The questionnaire was analyzed by using Microsoft excel spreadsheet and SPSS version 16 for statistical significance. Results: A total of 120 doctors completed and returned the questionnaire. 98 (81.67%) doctors knew the specific aim of PV. A large number of doctors (88.33%) were aware that doctors including dentists, nurses, and pharmacists can report ADR in India. 66 (55%) doctors considered reporting of ADR as voluntary. A total of 52 (43.33%) doctors strongly agreed that ADR reporting was a professional obligation and 8 (6.66%) doctors strongly disagreed to this. The causes of underreporting were concern that reporting could cause legal challenge (38.33%), report might be wrong (50%), lack of time (53.33%), lack of confidence (33.33%), and absence of fee for reporting (16.67%). This study revealed that 66 (55%) doctors did not report any ADR. Conclusion: The study suggests that there is a great need of educational intervention to improve awareness among health-care professionals regarding PV.


Management of cattle parasitism and use of Anthelmintics in Mixed Farming Systems in the Vina Division, Cameroon.

Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Ebene Njongui Jean, Mingoas Kilekoung Jean Pierre, Onyali Oliva Ikechuku, Mfopit Youssouf Mouliom, Aboubakar Dandjouma Almeck, Manchang Kingsley Tanyi, Toukala Jean paul, Akuro Andison, Chukwunyere Okwuduri Nwosu.
In order to assess cattle parasitism management and use of anthelmintics, a questionnaire was administered to randomly selected farmers and veterinarians. Analysis of faecal samples and haemoparasites, and entomological survey were performed. Worm infestations, ectoparasites, infectious diseases and trypanosomosis were major diseases. Helminths control included mainly de-worming using levamisole, ivermectin and albendazole. Faecal egg counts (FEC) showed strongyle-type eggs (75%), Strongyloides papillosus (5%), Trichuris ovis (2%), Toxocara vitullorum (3%). Oocytes, especially Eimeria spp (10%) were present. 2.8% of 107 cattle investigated were positive for Trypanosoma congolense, with lowest Packed Cells Volume, suggesting that farmers may treat animals against trypanosomes without the help of a veterinarian. Ticks included Amblyomma variegatum (29.6%), Hyalomma spp (37.0%), Boophilus spp (29.6 %) and Rhippicephalus spp (3.7%). They were males (40.7%), females (38.9%) and nymphs (20.4%). Since many factors were important predictors of FEC and others such as education of farmers, nutrition, grazing system and control through anthelmintics accounted, these factors should be included in the drawing up of a control program against parasitic diseases.


Reactive Lesions Of Oral Cavity

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr Binita Gandhi*, Dr Jigar Dhuvad**, Dr Abraham Johnson***, Dr Disha Bhavsar****.
Oral mucosa is subjected constantly to external and internal stimuli that can give rise to reactive lesions. These lesions are non- neoplastic in nature. They manifest a spectrum of diseases that range from developmental, inflammatory, and reactive to neoplastic changes. Reactive lesions are typically gives response to chronic inflammation caused by various forms of low grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as dental plaque and calculus, sharp edges of grossly carious teeth, faulty dental restorations, chronic biting habits, ill-fitting dental/oral appliances and food impactions. These lesions have a very similar appearance to benign neoplastic proliferations. This similarity is troublesome in differential diagnosis among them. Different types of localized reactive lesions of oral cavity are focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH), pyogenic granuloma (PG), irritational fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), fibro-epithelial hyperplasia/polyp, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, and inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. [Dr Binita G NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 154-157]


Comparative Study Of Dynamic Hip Screw And Trochanteric Nail For Management Of Stable Intertrochanteric Fracture

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Mohammad Jesan Khan, Maddipati Veera Venkat Rao, Abdul Qayyum Khan, Mohammad Khalid Anwar Sherwani, Malik Mohammad Azharuddin,Mehtab Ahmad.
Background& objectives : Intertrochanteric fractures of hip are relatively one of the common fractures and it is imposing a huge burden on patients in terms of medical expenses and morbidity .A sliding hip screw (DHS) and trochanteric nail (TN) both are described for fixation of these fractures. The discussion about the selection of ideal implant is controversial in terms of outcomes in various studies. Methods: Ninety patients with intertrochanteric fracture were treated in our hospital from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011. All AO 31-A1 patients who were between 40-80 years old were included to compare Dynamic hip screw and Trochanteric nail in the management of intertrochanteric fractures by analyzing operative time, duration of hospital stay, complications, time taken to union and post operative mobility. 63 patients were enrolled in DHS group and 27 were enrolled in intertrochanteric nail group. Results: Patients treated with DHS had shorter operative time ,less radiological exposure ,easy reduction and fewer intraoperative and postoperative complications .Implant failure and non union was noted in one out of twenty seven patients treated with trochanteric nail group. Interpretation & Conclusions : The analysis of our study supports the use of DHS rather than trochanteric nail for the treatment of stable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients [Jesan M NJIRM 2016; 7(4):61-67]


Lymph node evaluatıon and survıval after resectıon of colorectal cancer

Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Lutfi Soylu, Oguz Ugur Aydin, Dedim Cekmen, Fuat Atalay.
Recent studies have demonstrated that lymph nodes ratio (LNR) might provide a significant prognostic role for colorectal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the data of the patients with colorectal cancer and assessed a possible correlation between lymph node parameters and survival. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent a radical colon surgery involving removal of mesocolic lymph nodes due to colorectal cancer. Prognostic significance of the removed lymph node number (LNs), metastatic LNs, lymph node ratio (LNR) and other factors were compared. This retrospective study included 190 patients (117 males and 73 females). The estimated survival period was found to be 87.70 months [confidence interval (CI) of 95% (80.64-94.76)]. LNR, LNs and N stage were found to have significant correlation with survival. Among these factors, LNR had the biggest correlation (r = 0 .138, P =0.028). Multivariate regression analysis of survival with lymph node parameters showed that LNR and N stage were significantly correlated with survival. However, LNR was found to be the most significant prognostic factor [P >0.0001, 95% CI; 3.12 (1.55-5.75)]. LNR is a better prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer compared to lymph node stage and number.


Evaluation of the effects of Aegle marmelos and Punica granatum in an experimental model of gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction

Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Harshveer Singh M. Malhi, Sandhya K. Kamat, Akash R. Deogharkar, Nirmala N. Rege.
Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Aegle marmelos and Punica granatum in an experimental model of gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction induced by common bile duct ligation. Methods: Institutional animal ethics committee approval was obtained. Forty two Wistar rats (either sex, 150-250 gms) divided into seven groups (n=six/group), were subjected to sham operation (group 1) or bile duct ligation (groups 2-7) and treated with distilled water (groups 1 and 2); 0.75mg/kg glutamine (group 3); 0.27 g/kg and 0.54 g/kg of A. marmelos (groups 4 and 5); 3.6 g/kg and 7.2 g/kg P. granatum (groups 6 and 7) orally once daily for 10 days. On Day 11, animals were sacrificed and samples of the jejunum, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes were obtained to study jejunal and ileal villous morphology, villous heights, jejunal mucosal sucrase enzyme activity and bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Glutamine prevented blunting of the intestinal villi, bacterial translocation and a fall in the sucrase enzyme activity. Both the plant drugs prevented blunting of the villi (except low dose A. marmelos for ileal villi) and a fall in the villous heights (except low dose P. granatum for jejunal villi), decreased the bacterial translocation (except low dose A. marmelos), and prevented a fall in the sucrase enzyme activity when compared to the disease control. The high doses of both A. marmelos and P. granatum were comparable to glutamine for all the variables tested. Conclusions: Both A. marmelos and P. granatum maintained the gastrointestinal barrier function in this model.



Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Muritala Daniel Shittu, Adebayo Olanrewaju Abiola, Olusegun Ojeniyi Ojebiyi, David Olusoji Adejumo.
This experiment was conducted using one hundred and forty-four unsexed day-old Arbor acre strains of broiler chicks for 56 days. The experiment was designed to evaluate the gut morphology and blood profiles of finisher broilers fed diet containing varied inclusion of dried biscuit dough meal. The birds were divided into four dietary groups with three replications of 12 birds each. Diet one (control) containing 0% biscuit dough while diet 2, 3, and 4 consist 5, 10 and 15% inclusion of biscuit dough in replacement of maize respectively. The data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomized design experiment. No significant (p