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! # Ola via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

Σάββατο, 23 Μαρτίου 2019







Genetics

Spatiotemporal expression pattern of Sjfz7 and its expression comparison with other frizzled family genes in developmental stages of <em>Schistosoma japonicum</em>
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Gene Expression PatternsAuthor(s): Zhongxue Ye, Jingxiu Xu, Xingang Feng, Yingying Jia, Zhiqiang Fu, Yang Hong, Hao Li, Ke Lu, Jiaojiao Lin, Mingxin Song, Liqun Wang, Chunxiu YuanAbstractWnts are secreted signaling molecules that are implicated in a variety of growth-related processes. Frizzled proteins have been identified as receptors for Wnt ligands in vertebrates and invertebrates, but a functional role for dioecious flatworm Frizzleds has...
Gene Expression Patterns
Thu Mar 07, 2019 13:30
Estimating carrier frequencies of newborn screening disorders using a whole-genome reference panel of 3552 Japanese individuals
Abstract Incidence rates of Mendelian diseases vary among ethnic groups, and frequencies of variant types of causative genes also vary among human populations. In this study, we examined to what extent we can predict population frequencies of recessive disorders from genomic data, and explored better strategies for variant interpretation and classification. We used a whole-genome reference panel from 3552 general Japanese individuals constructed by the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization...
Latest Results for Human Genetics
Mon Mar 18, 2019 02:00
Canine models of human amelogenesis imperfecta: identification of novel recessive ENAM and ACP4 variants
Abstract Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) refers to a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders affecting the structure, composition, and quantity of tooth enamel. Both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of AI have been described and several genes affecting various aspects of the enamel physiology have been reported. Genetically modified murine models of various genes have provided insights into the complex regulation of proper amelogenesis. Non-syndromic...
Latest Results for Human Genetics
Fri Mar 15, 2019 02:00
The metabolic network coherence of human transcriptomes is associated with genetic variation at the cadherin 18 locus
Abstract Metabolic coherence (MC) is a network-based approach to dimensionality reduction that can be used, for example, to interpret the joint expression of genes linked to human metabolism. Computationally, the derivation of 'transcriptomic' MC involves mapping of an individual gene expression profile onto a gene-centric network derived beforehand from a metabolic network (currently Recon2), followed by the determination of the connectivity of a particular, profile-specific subnetwork....
Latest Results for Human Genetics
Sat Mar 09, 2019 02:00
A glycine transporter SLC6A5 frameshift mutation causes startle disease in Spanish greyhounds
Abstract Startle disease, or hyperekplexia, is a glycinergic disorder characterized by hypertonia and apnea that is triggered by noise and/or touch. Mutations in five genes have been associated with startle disease in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice. We identified a novel recessive startle disease in a family of Spanish greyhounds. Whole genome resequencing of an affected dog revealed a homozygous two base pair deletion in the ninth exon of SLC6A5, encoding the presynaptic glycine...
Latest Results for Human Genetics
Thu Mar 07, 2019 02:00
How to increase our belief in discovered statistical interactions via large-scale association studies?
Abstract The understanding that differences in biological epistasis may impact disease risk, diagnosis, or disease management stands in wide contrast to the unavailability of widely accepted large-scale epistasis analysis protocols. Several choices in the analysis workflow will impact false-positive and false-negative rates. One of these choices relates to the exploitation of particular modelling or testing strategies. The strengths and limitations of these need to be well understood,...
Latest Results for Human Genetics
Wed Mar 06, 2019 02:00

Genes, Genomes, Genetics

The Role of UV-B light on Small RNA Activity During Grapevine Berry Development
We explored the effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) on the developmental dynamics of microRNAs and phased small-interfering-RNA (phasi-RNAs)-producing loci by sequencing small RNAs in vegetative and reproductive organs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, we tested different UV-B conditions in in vitro-grown plantlets (high-fluence exposition) and in berries from field-grown (radiation filtering) and greenhouse-grown (low- and high-fluence expositions) adult plants throughout fruit...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Extensions of BLUP Models for Genomic Prediction in Heterogeneous Populations: Application in a Diverse Switchgrass Sample
Genomic prediction is a useful tool to accelerate genetic gain in selection using DNA marker information. However, this technology typically relies on standard prediction procedures, such as genomic BLUP, that are not designed to accommodate population heterogeneity resulting from differences in marker effects across populations. In this study, we assayed different prediction procedures to capture marker-by-population interactions in genomic prediction models. Prediction procedures included genomic...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Sex-Specific Co-expression Networks and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis
Networks of co-expressed genes produce complex phenotypes associated with functional novelty. Sex differences in gene expression levels or in the structure of gene co-expression networks can cause sexual dimorphism and may resolve sexually antagonistic selection. Here we used RNA-sequencing in the salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis to characterize sex-specific co-expression networks in the liver of 47 female and 53 male offspring. In both networks, modules were characterized for functional...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Arginine to Glutamine Variant in Olfactomedin Like 3 (OLFML3) Is a Candidate for Severe Goniodysgenesis and Glaucoma in the Border Collie Dog Breed
Goniodysgenesis is a developmental abnormality of the anterior chamber of the eye. It is generally considered to be congenital in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and has been associated with glaucoma and blindness. Goniodysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma initially emerged in Border Collies in Australia in the late 1990s and have subsequently been found in this breed in Europe and the USA. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic basis of goniodysgenesis in Border Collies. Clinical...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Environmental and Evolutionary Drivers of the Modular Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Phenotypic Plasticity for Stress Resistance in the Nematode Caenorhabditis remanei
Organisms can cope with stressful environments via a combination of phenotypic plasticity at the individual level and adaptation at the population level. Changes in gene expression can play an important role in both. Significant advances in our understanding of gene regulatory plasticity and evolution have come from comparative studies in the field and laboratory. Experimental evolution provides another powerful path by which to learn about how differential regulation of genes and pathways contributes...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Genome-Wide Studies of Rho5-Interacting Proteins That Are Involved in Oxidant-Induced Cell Death in Budding Yeast
Rho GTPases play critical roles in cell proliferation and cell death in many species. As in animal cells, cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo regulated cell death under various physiological conditions and upon exposure to external stress. The Rho5 GTPase is necessary for oxidant-induced cell death, and cells expressing a constitutively active GTP-locked Rho5 are hypersensitive to oxidants. Yet how Rho5 regulates yeast cell death has been poorly understood. To identify genes...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Development of a Novel Mule Deer Genomic Assembly and Species-Diagnostic SNP Panel for Assessing Introgression in Mule Deer, White-Tailed Deer, and Their Interspecific Hybrids
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are endemic to a wide variety of habitats in western North America, many of which are shared in sympatry with their closely related sister-species white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), whom they hybridize with in wild populations. Although mule deer meet many ideal conditions for a molecular ecological research species, such as high abundance, ecological importance, and broad dispersal and gene flow, conservation genetic studies have been limited by a relative...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Iso-Seq Allows Genome-Independent Transcriptome Profiling of Grape Berry Development
Transcriptomics has been widely applied to study grape berry development. With few exceptions, transcriptomic studies in grape are performed using the available genome sequence, PN40024, as reference. However, differences in gene content among grape accessions, which contribute to phenotypic differences among cultivars, suggest that a single reference genome does not represent the species' entire gene space. Though whole genome assembly and annotation can reveal the relatively unique or "private"...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Genetic Effects on Dispersion in Urinary Albumin and Creatinine in Three House Mouse (Mus musculus) Cohorts
Conventionally, quantitative genetics concerns the heredity of trait means, but there is growing evidence for the existence of architectures in which certain alleles cause random variance in phenotype, termed 'phenotypic dispersion' (PD) or 'variance QTL' (vQTL), including in physiological traits like disease signs. However, the structure of this phenomenon is still poorly known. PD for urinary albumin (PDUAlb) and creatinine (PDUCrea) was mapped using curated data from two nearly genetically identical...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Conditional Synaptic Vesicle Markers for Drosophila
The release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (SVs) at pre-synaptic release sites is the principle means by which information transfer between neurons occurs. Knowledge of the location of SVs within a neuron can thus provide valuable clues about the location of neurotransmitter release within a neuron and the downstream neurons to which a given neuron is connected, important information for understanding how neural circuits generate behavior. Here the development and characterization of...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
High Level of Conservation of Mitochondrial RNA Editing Sites Among Four Populus Species
RNA editing occurs in the endosymbiont organelles of higher plants as C-to-U conversions of defined nucleotides. The availability of large quantities of RNA sequencing data makes it possible to identify RNA editing sites and to quantify their editing extent. We have investigated RNA editing in 34 protein-coding mitochondrial transcripts of four Populus species, a genus noteworthy for its remarkably small number of RNA editing sites compared to other angiosperms. 27 of these transcripts were subject...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Genetic, Inflammatory, and Epithelial Cell Differentiation Factors Control Expression of Human Calpain-14
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, food-driven allergic disease resulting in eosinophilic esophageal inflammation. We recently found that EoE susceptibility is associated with genetic variants in the promoter of CAPN14, a gene with reported esophagus-specific expression. CAPN14 is dynamically up-regulated as a function of EoE disease activity and after exposure of epithelial cells to interleukin-13 (IL-13). Herein, we aimed to explore molecular modulation of CAPN14 expression. We identified...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Experimental Mutations in Superoxide Dismutase 1 Provide Insight into Potential Mechanisms Involved in Aberrant Aggregation in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Mutations in more than 80 different positions in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). There is substantial evidence that a common consequence of these mutations is to induce the protein to misfold and aggregate. How these mutations perturb native structure to heighten the propensity to misfold and aggregate is unclear. In the present study, we have mutagenized Glu residues at positions 40 and 133 that are involved in stabilizing the β-barrel...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Shep RNA-Binding Capacity Is Required for Antagonism of gypsy Chromatin Insulator Activity
Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that regulate chromatin structure and gene expression in a wide range of organisms. These complexes also harbor enhancer blocking and barrier activities. Increasing evidence suggests that RNA molecules are integral components of insulator complexes. However, how these RNA molecules are involved in insulator function remains unclear. The Drosophila RNA-binding protein Shep associates with the gypsy insulator complex and inhibits insulator activities....
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Transcriptional Basis of Copper-Induced Olfactory Impairment in the Sea Lamprey, a Primitive Invasive Fish
Olfaction mediates behaviors necessary for survival and reproduction in fishes. Anthropogenic inputs of contaminants into aquatic environments, specifically copper, are known to disrupt a broad range of olfactory-mediated behaviors and can cause long-lasting damage even at low concentrations that have profound impacts on the biology of aquatic organisms. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a primitive fish species invasive to the North American Great Lakes that relies on olfaction to navigate...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Aegilops tauschii Genome Sequence: A Framework for Meta-analysis of Wheat QTLs
Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat and wheat relatives, mostly with simple sequence repeat (SSR) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. To conduct meta-analysis of QTL requires projecting them onto a common genomic framework, either a consensus genetic map or genomic sequence. The latter strategy is pursued here. Of 774 QTL mapped in wheat and wheat relatives found in the literature, 585 (75.6%) were successfully projected onto the...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Identification of Suppressor of Clathrin Deficiency-1 (SCD1) and Its Connection to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Clathrin is a major coat protein involved in vesicle formation during endocytosis and transport in the endosomal/trans Golgi system. Clathrin is required for normal growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in some genetic backgrounds deletion of the clathrin heavy chain gene (CHC1) is lethal. Our lab defined a locus referred to as "suppressor of clathrin deficiency" (SCD1). In the presence of the scd1-v allele ("v" – viable), yeast cells lacking clathrin heavy chain survive but grow slowly,...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
The mir-35 Family Links Maternal Germline Sex to Embryonic Viability in Caenorhabditis elegans
The germline sex determination pathway in C. elegans determines whether germ cells develop as oocytes or sperm, with no previously known effect on viability. The mir-35 family of microRNAs are expressed in the C. elegans germline and embryo and are essential for both viability and normal hermaphroditic sex determination, preventing aberrant male gene expression in XX hermaphrodite embryos. Here we show that combining feminizing mutations with partial loss of function of the mir-35 family results...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes for Terpenoid and Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Medicinal Plant Ferula assafoetida
Ferula assafoetida is a medicinal plant of the Apiaceae family that has traditionally been used for its therapeutic value. Particularly, terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolites, major components of the root-derived oleo-gum-resin, exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities, thus offering a resource for potential therapeutic lead compounds. However, genes and enzymes for terpenoid and coumarin-type phenylpropanoid metabolism have thus far remained uncharacterized in F. assafoetida. Comparative...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Turning Observed Founder Alleles into Expected Relationships in an Intercross Population
Pedigree-derived relationships for individuals from an intercross of several lines cannot easily account for the segregation variance that is mainly caused by loci with alternative alleles fixed in different lines. However, when all founders are genotyped for a large number of markers, such relationships can be derived for descendants as expected genomic relationships conditional on the observed founder allele frequencies. A tabular method was derived in detail for autosomes and the X-chromosome....
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Identification of Gene Variants Associated with Melanocyte Stem Cell Differentiation in Mice Predisposed for Hair Graying
Age-related hair graying is caused by malfunction in the regenerative potential of the adult pigmentation system. The retention of hair color over the life of an organism is dependent on the ability of the melanocyte stem cells and their progeny to produce pigment each time a new hair grows. Age-related hair graying is variable in association with genetic background suggesting that quantitative trait loci influencing this trait can be identified. Identification of these quantitative trait loci may...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Dynamic Interactions Between the Genome and an Endogenous Retrovirus: Tirant in Drosophila simulans Wild-Type Strains
All genomes contain repeated sequences that are known as transposable elements (TEs). Among these are endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are sequences similar to retroviruses and are transmitted across generations from parent to progeny. These sequences are controlled in genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. At the center of the epigenetic control of TEs are small interfering RNAs of the piRNA class, which trigger heterochromatinization of TE sequences. The tirant ERV of Drosophila simulans displays...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Auxin-Inducible Depletion of the Essentialome Suggests Inhibition of TORC1 by Auxins and Inhibition of Vrg4 by SDZ 90-215, a Natural Antifungal Cyclopeptide
Gene knockout and knockdown strategies have been immensely successful probes of gene function, but small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of gene products allow much greater time resolution and are particularly useful when the targets are essential for cell replication or survival. SMIs also serve as lead compounds for drug discovery. However, discovery of selective SMIs is costly and inefficient. The action of SMIs can be modeled simply by tagging gene products with an auxin-inducible degron (AID) that...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Coverage-Versus-Length Plots, a Simple Quality Control Step for de Novo Yeast Genome Sequence Assemblies
Illumina sequencing has revolutionized yeast genomics, with prices for commercial draft genome sequencing now below $200. The popular SPAdes assembler makes it simple to generate a de novo genome assembly for any yeast species. However, whereas making genome assemblies has become routine, understanding what they contain is still challenging. Here, we show how graphing the information that SPAdes provides about the length and coverage of each scaffold can be used to investigate the nature of an assembly,...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Prediction of Subgenome Additive and Interaction Effects in Allohexaploid Wheat
Whole genome duplications have played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. These events often occur through hybridization between closely related species, resulting in an allopolyploid with multiple subgenomes. With the availability of affordable genotyping and a reference genome to locate markers, breeders of allopolyploids now have the opportunity to manipulate subgenomes independently. This also presents a unique opportunity to investigate epistatic interactions between homeologous...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
A Low Resolution Epistasis Mapping Approach To Identify Chromosome Arm Interactions in Allohexaploid Wheat
Epistasis is an important contributor to genetic variance. In inbred populations, pairwise epistasis is present as additive by additive interactions. Testing for epistasis presents a multiple testing problem as the pairwise search space for modest numbers of markers is large. Single markers do not necessarily track functional units of interacting chromatin as well as haplotype based methods do. To harness the power of multiple markers while minimizing the number of tests conducted, we present a low...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Comparative Genomic Screen in Two Yeasts Reveals Conserved Pathways in the Response Network to Phenol Stress
Living organisms encounter various perturbations, and response mechanisms to such perturbations are vital for species survival. Defective stress responses are implicated in many human diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Phenol derivatives, naturally occurring and synthetic, display beneficial as well as detrimental effects. The phenol derivatives in this study, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and bisphenol A (BPA), are widely used as food preservatives...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
polyRAD: Genotype Calling with Uncertainty from Sequencing Data in Polyploids and Diploids
Low or uneven read depth is a common limitation of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), resulting in high missing data rates, heterozygotes miscalled as homozygotes, and uncertainty of allele copy number in heterozygous polyploids. Bayesian genotype calling can mitigate these issues, but previously has only been implemented in software that requires a reference genome or uses priors that may be inappropriate for the population. Here we present several...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Evaluation of INSeq To Identify Genes Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 Corn Root Colonization
The reciprocal interaction between rhizosphere bacteria and their plant hosts results in a complex battery of genetic and physiological responses. In this study, we used insertion sequencing (INSeq) to reveal the genetic determinants responsible for the fitness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 during root colonization. We generated a random transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 comprising 39,500 unique insertions and identified genes required for growth in culture and on corn roots....
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Improved Genome Sequence of Wild Emmer Wheat Zavitan with the Aid of Optical Maps
Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is the progenitor of all modern cultivated tetraploid wheat. Its genome is large (> 10 Gb) and contains over 80% repeated sequences. The successful whole-genome-shotgun assembly of the wild emmer (accession Zavitan) genome sequence (WEW_v1.0) was an important milestone for wheat genomics. In an effort to improve this assembly, an optical map of accession Zavitan was constructed using Bionano Direct Label and Stain (DLS) technology. The map spanned...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Meeting Report: Experimental and Evolutionary Approaches to Yeast and Other Organisms 2018
The 2018 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Experimental and Evolutionary Approaches to Yeast and Other Organisms conference brought together researchers addressing fundamental questions in microbial evolutionary systems biology. Topics spanning evolution in the wild and the lab to molecular mechanisms of adaptation and ecological interactions between species were covered.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56
Draft Genome Assembly and Population Genetics of an Agricultural Pollinator, the Solitary Alkali Bee (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi)
Alkali bees (Nomia melanderi) are solitary relatives of the halictine bees, which have become an important model for the evolution of social behavior, but for which few solitary comparisons exist. These ground-nesting bees defend their developing offspring against pathogens and predators, and thus exhibit some of the key traits that preceded insect sociality. Alkali bees are also efficient native pollinators of alfalfa seed, which is a crop of major economic value in the United States. We sequenced,...
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics current issue
Thu Mar 07, 2019 15:56