Σάββατο, 23 Μαρτίου 2019

Cancer, Anatomy, Pathology

Cancer Cytopathology
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Case Reports in Pathology
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Clinical Anatomy
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CTO : Last 20 articles
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Der Pathologe
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Diagnostic Cytopathology
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Human Pathology
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Journal of Anatomy
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Latest Results for Anatomical Science International
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Latest Results for Endocrine Pat...
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Pathology & Oncology Research
Sat Mar 09, 2019 02:00
  TRIM72 Immunohistochemical Expression Can Predict Relapse in Colorectal Carcinoma
via Pathology & Oncology Research
Abstract
Large bowel adenocarcinoma is one of the most frequent human neoplasms and despite recent insights into the pathophysiology and molecular basis of this disease, mortality remains high in advanced and metastatic cases. Most guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for tumours involving lymph nodes, but not for patients with localized stage I or II disease. However, it is well known that approximately 20% of stage II colorectal carcinoma patients eventually recur, mainly with distant or peritoneal involvement and show bad prognosis. It would be important to predict which patients are at increased risk of recurrence to guide potential adjuvant therapy use in this controversial setting. In this sense, only microsatellite stability has been proposed as a predictive tool in some guidelines. The tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) is a ubiquitin ligase, involved in the cell membrane repair machinery and known to be associated to insulin resistance. Its potential role in colon cancer has recently been proposed. The aim of this study is to determine the potential predictive value of TRIM72 immunohistochemical expression in stage II colon carcinoma. We have retrospectively reviewed a series of 95 patients with stage II colon microsatellite stable carcinomas operated with a curative intent at a single large tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain) between 2006 and 2012. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the histopathological slides and constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of three representative areas to perform immunohistochemical staining for TRIM72. In our series 30 patients (31.7%) recurred after a median follow-up of 17.5 months. Lack of immunohistochemical expression of TRIM72 in the tumor was significantly and independently associated to recurrence. A recent report by Chen et al. has shown that TRIM72 can be measured in plasma for colon carcinoma detection as an alternative to CEA or CA19.9, with lower levels in patients with carcinoma. Our report is the first one to show that lower immunohistochemical expression of TRIM72 predicts recurrence in colon stage II carcinoma. We feel this predictive influence can be related to its crucial role as a central regulator in many signaling pathways (PI3K-AKT, ERK). As an ubiquitin ligase, the lack of TRIM72 could increase the levels of several potential oncogenic molecules and therefore lead to a more aggressive phenotype. It remains to be shown whether chemotherapy could change the clinical behaviour of this bad prognosis group. We propose TRIM72 immunohistochemical analysis as a potential tool to predict recurrence risk in stage II colon carcinoma patients. Our results should be confirmed in larger series, but could open the way to management strategies refinement in this early stage group of patients.

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Sat Mar 09, 2019 02:00
  Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNAs in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
via Pathology & Oncology Research
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Sat Mar 09, 2019 02:00
  Overexpression of Pyruvate Kinase M2 in Tumor Tissues Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
via Pathology & Oncology Research
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, with a high degree of malignancy and a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and prognosis in patients with HCC. The expression levels of PKM2 and PKM1 in 86 cases of HCC were detected by immunohistochemistry. An H score was used to evaluate the expression of PKM, and all patients were further divided into PKM high-expression and PKM low-expression groups. The relationship between PKM2 expression and the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients were subsequently analyzed. Our data suggested that the expression level of PKM2 was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent tissues and the negatively expression of PKM1 in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that PKM2 expression was strongly associated with survival in HCC patients (P = 0.001). The patients in the PKM2 high-expression group had significantly shorter survival times than the patients in the PKM2 low-expression group (hazard ratio for death, 2.358; 95% confidence interval [1.156, 4.812]; P = 0.018). In conclusion, these data indicate that PKM2 expression in HCC tissue samples can be used as a prognostic factor for patients with HCC and that high PKM2 expression is correlated with a poor prognosis in HCC patients.

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Thu Mar 07, 2019 02:00
  Real-World Data of the Correlation between EGFR Determination by Liquid Biopsy in Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and the EGFR Profile in Tumor Biopsy
via Pathology & Oncology Research
Abstract
EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has significant improved outcomes when treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Thus, EGFR-mutational status should be assessed at diagnosis and in the course of treatment with TKI. However, tissue samples are not always evaluable, and molecular profiling has been increasingly performed in cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) from blood samples. Our objective is to evaluate the reliability of ctDNA profiling in plasma samples in a real-world setting. We retrospectively analyzed the patients diagnosed with non-squamous NSCLC from May 2016 to December 2017 at Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset who had been tested for EGFR mutations in tissue and plasma samples. Both samples were sent to an external laboratory to perform the analysis by the cobas® EGFR assay. Percentage of agreement and concordance were calculated by kappa statistic. Of 102 patients reviewed, 89 were eligible. The overall EGFR mutation frequency was 18.6% for the evaluable tissue samples and 19.6% for evaluable plasma samples. Mutation status concordance between matched samples was 87.4%. Cohen's kappa index (κ) = 0.6 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 91.7%, positive predictive value 66.7%, negative predictive value 93%). When concordance was stablished only in stage IV tumors κ = 0.7, suggesting a higher agreement in advanced disease. This real-world data suggest that plasma is a feasible sample for ctDNA EGFR mutation assessment. Results of ctDNA molecular profiling are reliable when using a validated technique such as the cobas® EGFR assay, especially in patients that cannot undergo a tissue biopsy.

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Wed Mar 06, 2019 02:00
  Relative and Absolute Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs Associated with Luminal A Breast Cancer– A Comparison
via Pathology & Oncology Research
Abstract
MicroRNAs, as small non-coding regulatory RNAs, play crucial roles in various aspects of breast cancer biology. They have prognostic and diagnostic value, which makes them very interesting molecules to investigate. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard method to analyse miRNA expression in breast cancer patients. This study investigated two RT-qPCR methods (absolute and relative) to determine the expression of ten miRNAs in whole blood samples obtained from luminal A breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Whole blood samples were collected from 38 luminal A breast cancer patients and 20 healthy controls in Paxgene blood RNA tubes. Total RNA was extracted and analysed by relative and absolute RT-qPCR. For relative RT-qPCR, miR-16 was used as an endogenous control. For absolute RT-qPCR, standard curves were generated using synthetic miRNA oligonucleotides to determine the absolute copy number of each miRNA. Of the ten miRNAs that were analysed, the absolute RT-qPCR method identified six miRNAs (miR-16, miR-145, miR-155, miR-451a, miR-21 and miR-486) that were upregulated and one miRNA (miR-195) that was downregulated. ROC curve and AUC analysis of the data found that the combination of three miRNAs (miR-145, miR-195 and miR-486) had the best diagnostic value for luminal A breast cancer with an AUC of 0.875, with 76% sensitivity and 81% specificity. On the other hand, the relative RT-qPCR method identified two miRNAs (miR-155 and miR-486) that were upregulated and miR-195, which was downregulated. Using this approach, the combination of three miRNAs (miR-155, miR-195 and miR-486) was showed to have an AUC of 0.657 with 65% sensitivity and 69% specificity. We conclude that miR-16 is not a suitable normalizer for the relative expression profiling of miRNAs in luminal A breast cancer patients. Compared to relative quantification, absolute quantification assay is a better method to determine the expression level of circulating miRNAs in Luminal A breast cancer.

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