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Δευτέρα, 6 Μαΐου 2019

Yoga

Interdisciplinary science and yoga: The challenges ahead
Govindasamy Agoramoorthy

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):89-90



The psycho-linguistic effects of yoga: A lexical analysis of shifts in positivity, agency, and creativity
Robin Blades, David MacFadyen

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):91-95

Introduction: Yoga is understood in the scientific community as a powerful de-stressor. Reduced stress has been linked to improved mood, increased agency, and enhanced creativity. Objective: This study investigates these potential psychological effects of yoga by comparing two lexical data sets, composed of nearly 3000 words collected before and after yoga classes. Methods: Each word is scored along three dimensions: positivity, agency, and creativity. Positivity is calculated using SentiWords Sentiment Dictionary 1.0; agency is determined by grammatical categorization; and creativity is viewed as a function of the set distribution. Results: Analysis reveals a shift toward more positive and less agentful self-reporting after practice. No significant difference is found in creativity.Conclusion: This study provides insight into how yoga alters thought processes and affects the mental health of practitioners. 


Effectiveness of adjuvant yoga therapy in diabetic lung: A randomized control trial
Rajasekar Balaji, Meena Ramanathan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Pajanivel Ranganadin, Karthik Balachandran

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):96-102

Context: Recent studies provide ample evidence of the benefits of yoga in various chronic disorders. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and Sandler coined the term “Diabetic Lung” for the abnormal pulmonary function detected in diabetic patients due underlying pulmonary dysfunction. Yoga therapy may help in achieving better pulmonary function along with enhanced glycaemic control and overall health benefits. Aim: To study the effect of adjuvant yoga therapy in diabetic lung through spirometry. Settings and Design: Randomized control trial was made as interdisciplinary collaborative work between departments of Yoga Therapy, Pulmonary Medicine and Endocrinology, of MGMC & RI, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth Puducherry. Materials and Methods: 72 patients of diabetic lung as confirmed by spirometry (<70% of expected) were randomized into control group (n=36) who received only standard medical treatment and yoga group (n=36) who received yoga training thrice weekly for 4 months along with standard medical management. Yoga therapy protocol included yogic counseling, preparatory practices, Asanas or static postures, Pranayama or breathing techniques and relaxation techniques. Hathenas of the Gitananda Yoga tradition were the main practices used. Spirometry was done at the end of the study period. Data was analyzed by Student's paired and unpaired 't' test as it passed normality. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight, and BMI along with a significant (P < 0.01) improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC) in yoga group as compared to control group where parameters worsened over study period. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present RCT that yoga has a definite role as an adjuvant therapy as it enhances standard medical care and hence is even more significant in routine clinical management of diabetes, improving physical condition and pulmonary function. 


The daily influences of yoga on relational outcomes off of the mat
Moé; Kishida, Jacqueline Mogle, Steriani Elavsky

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):103-113

Background: Despite the wide array of health benefits that have been evidenced with yoga, a clear gap exists examining how yoga impacts connections with oneself and to others. Aims: The objectives of the present study were twofold: (1) to describe the day-to-day (in)variability in daily yoga practice and relational outcomes and (2) to examine the direct and indirect effects of yoga practice on relational outcomes. Methods: Community-dwelling yoga practitioners (n = 104, age range: 18–76 years) with a yoga practice of at least once a week were recruited for a 21-day daily diary study. Practitioners were asked to complete daily Internet surveys at the end of the day which included questions with respect to one's yoga practice and relational domains (i.e., mindfulness, [self-]compassion, and social connectedness). Results: Multilevel analyses revealed yoga and relational outcomes to be dynamic phenomena, indicated by substantial variation (intraclass correlations = 0.34–0.48) at the within-person level. On days when an individual practiced more yoga than their usual, greater mindfulness (b = 2.93, standard error [SE] = 0.39, P < 0.05) and self-compassion (b = 1.45, SE = 0.46, P < 0.05) were also reported. 1-1-1 multilevel mediation models demonstrated that yoga has an indirect effect on both compassion and social connectedness through increases in mindfulness at the within- and between-person levels. In models testing self-compassion as the mediator, the indirect effect of daily yoga practice on compassion was significant, although limited to the within-person level. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a routine yoga practice could positively impact how a practitioner relates to theirselves and to others, both on a day-to-day basis, and with accumulated practice. 


Quasi prospective comparative study on effect of yoga among prediabetics on progression of cardiovascular risk factors
Sudhanshu Kacker, Neha Saboo, Sonali Sharma, Jitender Sorout

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):114-119

Introduction: Prediabetic patients have higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which further increases the rate of mortality. Reason for the rate of increase may be lack of observation, follow-up programs, and self-awareness about the conditions of disease. Lifestyle interventions such as yoga can prove to be a beneficial nonpharmacologic intervention in preventing progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. This study highlights importance of short-term intervention, i.e., yoga in prediabetic patients and use it as a tool for primary prevention of diabetes. Methods: This was an interventional study among adults aged 30–50 years in RUHS college of Medical Sciences and Associated Rukmani Devi Beni Prasad Jaipuria Hospital in Jaipur city. The design of study was quasi prospective comparative study. A total of 102 prediabetic patients of age group 30–50 years were recruited from Jaipuria Hospital. These were divided into two groups: study group (Group A, n = 51) were engaged in yoga session and control group (B, n = 51) not performed any yoga session. Results: Yoga intervention resulted in a significant decline in blood glucose (P < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.01), lipid profile cholesterol (P < 0.01), triglyceride (P < 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01), but high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein increase (P < 0.03) but not statistically significant relative to the control group. Conclusion: Short-term yoga intervention is helpful in the control of glycemic parameters like blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in prediabetic patients. This preliminary study indicates that a yoga program would be a possible risk reduction option for adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, yoga holds promise as an approach to reducing cardiometabolic risk factors and increasing exercise self-efficacy for prediabetics performing yoga. 


The efficacy of yogic breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama in relieving symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis
K Abishek, Satvinder Singh Bakshi, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):120-123

Introduction: A multitude of modalities are available for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis, however, each has its side effects and compliance issues. Bhramari pranayama, which is a breathing exercise in the practice of yoga, offers an inexpensive and free from side effect modality in this regard. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Bhramari pranayama in relieving the symptoms of chronic sinusitis. Methodology: A total of 60 patients with chronic sinusitis were randomly divided into two groups, one received conventional treatment of chronic sinusitis and the other group was in addition taught to practice yogic breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama. The patients were advised to practice this breathing exercise twice a day and were followed up at 1, 4, and 12 weeks using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22 score). Results: The mean SNOT-22 score in the group following the Bhramari pranayama breathing exercise using the ANOVA test improved from 39.13 ± 9.10 to 24.79 ± 8.31 (P = 0.0002), this improvement was seen by the end of 4 weeks itself and continued until the 12th week of assessment. Conclusion: Integrating regular practice of Bhramari pranayama along with the conventional management of chronic rhinosinusitis is more effective than conventional management alone. 


Kinematics of suryanamaskar using three-dimensional motion capture
Rajani P Mullerpatan, Bela M Agarwal, Triveni Shetty, Girish R Nehete, Omkar Subbaramajois Narasipura

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):124-131

Background: Suryanamaskar, a composite yogasana consisting of a sequence of 12-consecutive poses, producing a balance between flexion and extension is known to have positive health benefits for obesity and physical fitness management, upper limb muscle endurance, and body flexibility. However, limited information is available on biomechanical demands of Suryanamaskar, i.e., kinematic and kinetic. Aims: The present study aimed to explore the kinematics of spine, upper, and lower extremity during Suryanamaskar to enhance greater understanding of Suryanamaskar required for safe and precise prescription in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: Three-dimensional motion capture of Suryanamaskar was performed on 10 healthy trained yoga practitioners with 12-camera Vicon System (Oxford Metrics Group, UK) at a sampling frequency of 100 Hz using 39 retro-reflective markers. Data were processed using plug-in-gait model. Analog data were filtered at 10Hz. Joint angles of the spine, upper, and lower extremities during 12-subsequent poses were computed within Vicon Nexus. Results: Joint motion was largely symmetrical in all poses except pose 4 and 9. The spine moved through a range of 58° flexion to 44° extension. In the lower quadrant, hip moved from 134° flexion to 15° extension, knee flexed to a maximum of 140°, and 3° hyperextension. Ankle moved in a closed kinematic chain through 40° dorsiflexion to 10° plantarflexion. In the upper quadrant, maximum neck extension was76°, shoulder moved through the overhead extension of 183°–56° flexion, elbow through 22°–116° flexion, and wrist from 85° to 3° wrist extension. Conclusions: Alternating wide range of transition between flexion and extension during Suryanamaskar holds potential to increase the mobility of almost all body joints, with stretch on anterior and posterior soft tissues and challenge postural balance mechanisms through a varying base of support. 


Effect of yoga on immune parameters, cognitive functions, and quality of life among HIV-positive children/adolescents: A pilot study
BP Hari Chandra, Mavathur N Ramesh, Hogasandra R Nagendra

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):132-138

Context: HIV/AIDS individuals have problems relating to immune system, quality of life (QOL), and cognitive functions (CFs). Yoga is found to be useful in similar conditions. Hardly, any work is reported on yoga for HIV-positive adults/adolescents. Hence, this study is important. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of yoga on immune parameters, CFs, and QOL of HIV-positive children/adolescents. Settings and Design: Single-group, pre–post study with 4-month yoga intervention. Methods: The study had 18 children from an HIV/AIDS rehabilitation center for children/adolescents. CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, and viral loads were studied. CF tests included six letter cancellation test, symbol digit modalities test, digit-span forward backward test, and Stroop tests. QOL was assessed using PedsQL-QOL and fatigue questionnaire. Depression was assessed using CDI2-SR. Statistical Analysis Used:t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, as applicable. Results: The study included 18 children/adolescents. There was improvement in general health of the participants. There was statistically significant increase in CD4 cells counts (p = 0.039) and significant decrease in viral load (p = 0.041). CD4/CD8 ratio moved to normal range. QOL significantly improved. CFs had mixed results with improved psychomotor performance (PP) and reduced executive functions. Conclusions: There was improvement in general health and immune parameters. While depression increased, QOL improved. CFs showed mixed results with improved PP and reduced executive functions. 


Effect of residential yoga camp on psychosocial fitness of adolescents
Astha Choukse, Amritanshu Ram, HR Nagendra

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):139-145

Background: Adolescence is a key phase of socialization, where improved psychosocial fitness helps to promote socioeconomic productivity in societies. Psychosocial fitness also has an impact on the academic performance, overall health, and quality of life, throughout life. The present study evaluates the effect of yoga intervention on psychosocial fitness among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A single group, pre and post yoga interventional study was carried out in three independent cohorts (batches 1, 2, and 3), having sample size of 148, 167, and 195 respectively. A 7-day integrated yoga intervention was given in a residential setting. Psychosocial assessments included social competence, empathy, altruism, parent relationship, and peer friendship. Data were collected from the participants and their parents using respective versions of the scales. While pre- and post-data were collected from all the adolescent participants, pre- and post-data from parents were collected for 340 and 43 parents only. The objective of the analyses was to evaluate the effect of the yoga program and check the consistency of these effects. Results: Significant changes (P < 0.05) were seen in social competence, empathy, and altruism in batches 2 and 3, whereas changes in batch 1 showed nonsignificant improvements. Analyses of the parental data indicated a significant improvement in parent relationship (P = 0.035) and also nonsignificant improvement in all other outcomes. Conclusion: Results suggested that yoga intervention might help in improving psychosocial fitness in adolescents. It also helped to demonstrate that administering yoga was acceptable and feasible in a residential setting. 


Lifestyle - A common denominator for the onset and management of migraine headache: Complementing traditional approaches with scientific evidence
MS Vasudha, NK Manjunath, HR Nagendra

International Journal of Yoga 2019 12(2):146-152

Background: Ayurveda and Yoga have gained popularity in the management of various chronic health problems associated with pain including migraine headache. It is evident from both scientific as well as traditional literature that stress, diet, sleep, and exposure to extreme climatic conditions act as triggering factors for the onset of migraine. Hence, it is essential to focus on lifestyle including diet as important factors for prevention and as adjuvant factors in the management of migraine headache. Aim: The aim was to propose a new perspective to the understanding of migraine headache keeping in view the role of lifestyle including diet. Methods: Classical Ayurveda texts and traditional Yoga scriptures were used to compile information on the role of lifestyle including diet in the onset and management of migraine headache. This was complemented by PubMed-based review of scientific literature. Outcome: Ayurveda texts provide an extensive information about the basic understanding, causes, precipitating factors, and management of migraine headache, while Yoga texts refer to the concept of mental stress (adhi) leading to physical health problems (vyadhi). It is evident from the literature that diet, sleep, exposure to extreme climatic conditions, and mental stress play an important role in the onset and management of migraine headache. Conclusion: Lifestyle appears to be the common factor for both onset and management of migraine headache.