Πέμπτη, 12 Μαΐου 2016

Injectable bioactive glass in the restoration of oral bone defect

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of injectable bioactive glass in the restoration of the oral bone defect.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 58 consecutive patients with oral bone defect > 1 mm, these patients were randomly assigned to a control group (n=26, Hydroxyapatite bioceramics) and an observation group (n=32, Injectable bioactive glass). The purpose of this study was to assess the comparison of the healing of oral bone defect.

RESULTS: X-ray examination was performed at 6-month and 12-month following treatment. The bone healing in the observation group was significantly better than the control group (p <0.05), the incidences of local rejection reactions were not significantly different (p >0.05). Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was performed at 6-month and 12-month following treatment. The mean bone thickness in the observation group was significantly lower than the control group, p <0.05. Both the levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group, p <0.05.

CONCLUSIONS: The effect of injectable bioactive glass in the restoration of the oral bone defect was better than hydroxyapatite bioceramics. Thus, injectable bioactive glass has great application value.

L'articolo Injectable bioactive glass in the restoration of oral bone defect sembra essere il primo su European Review.



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Old Scientist: How computers got everywhere

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Buds of the future spotted by New Scientist in Mays past, from computer-controlled vehicles to digital media

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Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision.

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Decreased Cytotoxicity of Peripheral and Peritoneal Natural Killer Cell in Endometriosis

Endometriosis causes significant chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and infertility and affects 10% of all women. In endometriosis, ectopic endometrium surviving after retrograde menstruation exhibits an abnormal immune response characterized by increased levels of activated macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Particularly, dysfunctional natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease by either facilitating or inhibiting the survival, implantation, and proliferation of endometrial cells. NK cells in the peritoneum and peritoneal fluid exhibit reduced levels of cytotoxicity in women with endometriosis. Several cytokines and inhibitory factors in the serum and peritoneal fluid also dysregulate NK cell cytotoxicity. Additionally, increased numbers of immature peripheral NK cells and induction of NK cell apoptosis are evident in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. The high rate of endometriosis recurrence after pharmaceutical or surgical treatment, which is associated with dysfunctional NK cells, indicates that new immunomodulatory management strategies are required. A good understanding of immune dysfunction would enable improvement of current treatments for endometriosis.

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It's Time to Retire Pre-Med

The existing system of pre-medical education is broken, and needs to be fixed

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Cancer registries in Europe—going forward is the only option

Ana-Maria Forsea

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Human Adaptive Natural Killer Cells: Beyond NKG2C

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Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
Source:Trends in Immunology
Author(s): Julia A. Wagner, Todd A. Fehniger
Paradigm-shifting studies have identified NKG2C+ adaptive natural killer (NK) cells in individuals infected with cytomegalovirus. Recently in Cell Reports, Liu et al. demonstrate that NKG2C−/− HCMV+ individuals also generate adaptive NK cells, and reveal CD2 as a major co-stimulatory receptor for these NK cells specialized to respond via FcγRIIIa/CD16.



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High antidepressant use could lead to UK public health disaster

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Use of antidepressants has doubled in the past decade in the UK, and campaigners warn that it could lead to long-term withdrawal and worse mental health

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The impossible barber and other bizarre thought experiments

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How inventing riddles has revealed the flaws in our grasp of reality

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Robust Optimal Attitude Controller for MIMO Uncertain Hexarotor MAVs: Disturbance Observer-Based

This paper proposes a robust optimal attitude control design for multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) uncertain hexarotor micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) in the presence of parametric uncertainties, external time-varying disturbances, nonlinear dynamics, and coupling. The parametric uncertainties, external time-varying disturbances, nonlinear dynamics, and coupling are treated as the total disturbance in the proposed design. The proposed controller is achieved in two simple steps. First, an optimal linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is designed to guarantee that the nominal closed-loop system is asymptotically stable without considering the total disturbance. After that, a disturbance observer is integrated into the closed-loop system to estimate the total disturbance acting on the system. The total disturbance is compensated by a compensation input based on the estimated total disturbance. Robust properties analysis is given to prove that the state is ultimately bounded in specified boundaries. Simulation results illustrate the robustness of the disturbance observer-based optimal attitude control design for hovering and aggressive flight missions in the presence of the total disturbance.

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Bayesian Train Localization with Particle Filter, Loosely Coupled GNSS, IMU, and a Track Map

Train localization is safety-critical and therefore the approach requires a continuous availability and a track-selective accuracy. A probabilistic approach is followed up in order to cope with multiple sensors, measurement errors, imprecise information, and hidden variables as the topological position within the track network. The nonlinear estimation of the train localization posterior is addressed with a novel Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) approach. There, embedded Kalman filters estimate certain linear state variables while the particle distribution can cope with the nonlinear cases of parallel tracks and switch scenarios. The train localization algorithm is further based on a track map and measurements from a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The GNSS integration is loosely coupled and the IMU integration is achieved without the common strapdown approach and suitable for low-cost IMUs. The implementation is evaluated with real measurements from a regional train at regular passenger service over 230 km of tracks with 107 split switches and parallel track scenarios of 58.5 km. The approach is analyzed with labeled data by means of ground truth of the traveled switch way. Track selectivity results reach 99.3% over parallel track scenarios and 97.2% of correctly resolved switch ways.

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Production of Laccase by Cochliobolus sp. Isolated from Plastic Dumped Soils and Their Ability to Degrade Low Molecular Weight PVC

One of the utmost man-made problems faced today has been the ever-increasing plastic waste filling the world. It accounts for an estimated 20–30% (by volume) of municipal solid waste in landfill sites worldwide. Research on plastic biodegradation has been steadily growing over the past four decades. Several fungi have been identified that produce enzymes capable of plastic degradation in various laboratory conditions. This paper presents a study that determined the ability of fungi to degrade low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by the enzyme laccase. We have isolated a fungal species, Cochliobolus sp., from plastic dumped soils and they were cultured on Czapek Dox Agar slants at 30°C. The effectiveness of this fungal species on the degradation of commercial low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was studied under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed from the FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM results in between control and Cochliobolus sp. treated PVC.

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Cell Curvature and Far-Field Superconvergence in Numerical Solutions of Electromagnetic Integral Equations

Two curved targets are used to explore far-field superconvergence effects arising in numerical solutions of the electric-field and magnetic-field integral equations. Three different orders of basis and testing functions are used to discretize these equations, and three different types of target models (flat facets, quadratic-curved facets, and cubic-curved facets) are employed. Ideal far-field convergence rates are only observed when the model curvature is one degree higher than the basis order.

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Pleiotropic Effects of IL-2 on Cancer: Its Role in Cervical Cancer

IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signalling is critical for normal lymphocyte proliferation, but its role in cervical cancer is not fully understood. The receptor is composed of three chains: IL-2α, IL-2β, and IL-2γ. Intracellular signalling is initiated by ligand-induced heterodimerization of the IL-2β and IL-2γ chains, resulting in the activation of multiple intracellular kinases. Recently, IL-2R was shown to be expressed on nonhaematopoietic cells, especially on several types of tumour cells. However, the function of this receptor on malignant cells has not been clearly defined. The expression of IL-2R and the production of IL-2 in cervical cancer cells have been documented as well as expression of molecules of the JAK-STAT pathway. In the current review we have highlighted the differences in the responses of molecules downstream from the IL-2R in normal lymphocytes and tumour cells that could explain the presence of tumour cells in an environment in which cytotoxic lymphocytes also exist and compete and also the effect of different concentrations of IL-2 that could activate effector cells of the immune system cells, which favour the elimination of tumour cells, or concentrations that may promote a regulatory microenvironment in which tumour cells can easily grow.

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 495: Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

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IARC 50th Anniversary Conference: Updated programme now available

iarc50-logo.jpgThe International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the updated detailed programme is now available for the conference Global Cancer: Occurrence, Causes, and Avenues to Prevention, to be held on 7-10 June 2016 at Centre de Congres, Lyon.

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Efficacy of auditory-verbal therapy in children with hearing impairment: A systematic review from 1993 to 2015

Publication date: July 2016
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 86
Author(s): Ramesh Kaipa, Michelle L. Danser
ObjectivesAuditory verbal therapy (AVT) is one of the primary treatment approaches for developing spoken language in children with hearing impairment (HI), but its outcomes have not been thoroughly investigated. The current study aimed to systematically review past studies investigating AVT outcomes in children with HI.MethodsA systematic search was conducted in six databases. Fourteen articles that met the final inclusion criteria were grouped under three categories based on the outcome measures: receptive and expressive language development, auditory/speech perception and mainstreaming.ResultsArticles under “receptive and expressive language development” category indicated AVT can even help children with HI beyond three years of age to develop age appropriate language skills and catch up with their hearing peers. Articles under “auditory /speech perception” category suggested that children receiving AVT can learn to recognize words accurately even in the presence of background noise. Articles grouped under “mainstreaming” category indicated that children receiving AVT can be successfully mainstreamed.ConclusionAlthough studies suggest that AVT can have a positive impact on developing speech and language skills in children with HI, it is difficult to generalize these findings due to limited evidence. Future studies should utilize well-controlled group designs to minimize the role of external variables as well as strengthen the evidence-base for AVT.



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Voice onset time of alveolar stop /t/ and realization of unaspirated affricates associated with Mandarin-speaking children with repaired cleft palate

Publication date: July 2016
Source:International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 86
Author(s): Chenghui Jiang, Bradley McPherson, Manwa L. Ng
PurposeTo examine perceptually the realization of unaspirated affricates and voice onset time (VOT) features of /t/ in Mandarin-speaking children with repaired cleft palate, and to explore the difficulties associated with unaspirated affricate production from the perspective of the VOT of /t/.MethodTwenty-three children with repaired cleft palate and 22 age-matched typical native Mandarin speakers were recruited. Speakers with cleft palate were allocated into two groups based on expert perceptual judgment of nasality: one group with perceived normal resonance (PNR) (n = 14, average age = 9.3 years), and another group with perceived hypernasal resonance (PHR) (n = 9, average age = 10.3 years).InterventionStimuli were collected through a series of picture naming tasks, targeting the production of initial consonants /t/ and three unaspirated Mandarin affricates /ts, tʂ, tɕ/. The productions of each affricate were evaluated by two experienced speech therapists. The VOT of /t/ was measured using PRAAT speech analysis software.ResultThe majority of unaspirated affricates were omitted and/or weakly realized by the group of PHR speakers, but not for the PNR group. A significantly smaller mean VOT value associated with /t/ was identified for the PHR group, as compared to the PNR group. A group difference for VOT value was not found between the PNR group and the typical control group.ConclusionThe voicing features of /t/ and omitted/weak realization of unaspirated affricates identified in the PHR group indicated that the deviant production of unaspirated affricates in the cleft palate group could be associated with the voicing characteristics of the alveolar stop /t/, and this merits further investigation.



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Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 124: Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Cellular Stress Responses: Impact on Replication and Physiopathology

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, elderly and immunocompromised adults. Despite decades of research, a complete integrated picture of RSV-host interaction is still missing. Several cellular responses to stress are involved in the host-response to many virus infections. The endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function leads to activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. Formation of cytoplasmic stress granules containing translationally stalled mRNAs is a means to control protein translation. Production of reactive oxygen species is balanced by an antioxidant response to prevent oxidative stress and the resulting damages. In recent years, ongoing research has started to unveil specific regulatory interactions of RSV with these host cellular stress responses. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms evolved by RSV to induce, subvert or manipulate the ER stress, the stress granule and oxidative stress responses. We summarize the evidence linking these stress responses with the regulation of RSV replication and the associated pathogenesis.

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No symptoms, but could there be cancer? New chemosensor may be able to detect it

Many cancers could be successfully treated if the patient consulted the doctor sufficiently early. But how can a developing cancer be detected if it doesn't give rise to any symptoms? In the near future, suitably early diagnosis could be provided by...

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Immune Protection of Retroviral Vectors Upon Molecular Painting with the Complement Regulatory Protein CD59

Abstract

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchoring is a type of post-translational modification that allows proteins to be presented on the exterior side of the cell membrane. Purified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein can spontaneously re-insert into lipid bilayer membranes in a process termed Molecular Painting. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of inserting purified, recombinant CD59 into virus particles produced from a murine retroviral producer cell line. CD59 is a regulator of the complement system that helps protect healthy cells from the lytic activity of the complement cascade. In this study, we could show that Molecular Painting confers protection from complement activity upon murine retroviral vector particles. Indeed, increased infectivity of CD59-modified virus particles was observed upon challenge with human serum, indicating that Molecular Painting is suitable for modulating the immune system in gene therapy or vaccination applications.



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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 716: MicroRNA in United Airway Diseases

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The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) has received increasing attention in recent years. Sustained and increased inflammation is a common feature of UAD, which is inevitably accompanied with marked gene modification and tight gene regulation. However, gene regulation in the common inflammatory processes in UAD remains unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA), a novel regulator of gene expression, has been considered to be involved in many inflammatory diseases. Although there are an increasing number of studies of miRNAs in inflammatory upper and lower airway diseases, few miRNAs have been identified that directly link the upper and lower airways. In this article, therefore, we reviewed the relevant studies available in order to improve the understanding of the roles of miRNAs in the interaction and pathogenesis of UAD.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 715: Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 717: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Extra-Hepatic Cancers

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease but the second cause of death among NAFLD patients are attributed to malignancies at both gastrointestinal (liver, colon, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas) and extra-intestinal sites (kidney in men, and breast in women). Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities are associated with increased incidence or mortality for a number of cancers. NAFLD has an intertwined relationship with metabolic syndrome and significantly contributes to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but recent evidence have fuelled concerns that NAFLD may be a new, and added, risk factor for extra-hepatic cancers, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review we critically appraise key studies on NAFLD-associated extra-hepatic cancers and speculate on how NAFLD may influence carcinogenesis at these sites.

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Caenorhabditis elegans AGXT-1 is a mitochondrial and temperature-adapted ortholog of peroxisomal human AGT1: New insights into between-species divergence in glyoxylate metabolism

Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics
Author(s): Noel Mesa-Torres, Ana C. Calvo, Elisa Oppici, Nicholas Titelbaum, Riccardo Montioli, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Barbara Cellini, Eduardo Salido, Angel L. Pey
In humans, glyoxylate is an intermediary product of metabolism, whose concentration is finely balanced. Mutations in peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (hAGT1) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1, which results in glyoxylate accumulation that is converted to toxic oxalate. In contrast, glyoxylate is used by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans through a glyoxylate cycle to by-pass the decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thus contributing to energy production and gluconeogenesis from stored lipids. To investigate the differences in glyoxylate metabolism between humans and C. elegans and to determine whether the nematode might be a suitable model for PH1, we have characterized here the predicted nematode ortholog of hAGT1 (AGXT-1) and compared its molecular properties with those of the human enzyme. Both enzymes form active PLP-dependent dimers with high specificity towards alanine and glyoxylate, and display similar three-dimensional structures. Interestingly, AGXT-1 shows 5-fold higher activity towards the alanine/glyoxylate pair than hAGT1. Thermal and chemical stability of AGXT-1 is lower than that of hAGT1, suggesting temperature-adaptation of the nematode enzyme linked to the lower optimal growth temperature of C. elegans. Remarkably, in vivo experiments demonstrate the mitochondrial localization of AGXT-1 in contrast to the peroxisomal compartmentalization of hAGT1. Our results support the view that the different glyoxylate metabolism in the nematode is associated with the divergent molecular properties and subcellular localization of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity.



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Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cancer drug gefitinib modulates cell growth and differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells via histamine receptors

Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): Manisha Yadav, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Harish Kumar, Geeta Rao, Bandana Chakravarti, Anagha Gurjar, Shalini Dogra, Sapana Kushwaha, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Prem Narayan Yadav, Dipak Datta, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Sabyasachi Sanyal
BackgroundEpidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) is used for treating non-small cell lung cancer. Gefitinib also induces differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and patient samples lacking EGFR by an unknown mechanism. Here we dissected the mechanism of gefitinib action responsible for its EGFR-independent effects.MethodsSignaling events were analyzed by homogenous time-resolved fluorescence and immunoblotting. Cellular proliferation and differentiation were assessed by ATP measurement, trypan blue exclusion, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation and flow-cytometry. Gefitinib and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) interactions were assessed by β-arrestin recruitment, luciferase and radioligand competition assays. Role of histamine receptors (HR) in gefitinib actions were assessed by HR knockdown or pharmacological modulation. EGFR and HR interaction was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation.ResultsGefitinib reduced cyclic AMP content in both AML and EGFR-expressing cells and induced ERK phosphorylation in AML cells. Dibutyryl-cAMP or PD98059 suppressed gefitinib-induced AML cell cytostasis and differentiation. Gefitinib bound to and modulated HRs with subtype selectivity. Pharmacological or genetic modulations of H2 and H4 HRs (H2R and H4R) not only suppressed gefitinib-induced cytostasis and differentiation of AML cells but also blocked EGFR and ERK1/2 inhibition in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, in MDA-MB-231 cells gefitinib enhanced EGFR interaction with H4R that was blocked by H4R agonist 4-methyl histamine (4MH).ConclusionHRs play critical roles in anti-cancer effects of gefitinib in both EGFR-deficient and EGFR-rich environments.General significance.We furnish fresh insights into gefitinib functions which may provide new molecular clues to its efficacy and safety issues.



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Preliminary results comparing PD-L1 IHC diagnostic assays in lung cancer released

A pre-competitive consortia of pharmaceutical companies, diagnostic companies, and academic associations, including the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), announced phase I results of the "BLUEPRINT PD-L1 IHC ASSAY COMPARISON...

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Interaction between Angiotensin II and Insulin/IGF-1 Exerted a Synergistic Stimulatory Effect on ERK1/2 Activation in Adrenocortical Carcinoma H295R Cells

The cross talk between angiotensin II (Ang II) and insulin has been described mainly in cardiovascular cells, hepatocytes, adipocytes, and so forth, and to date no such cross talk was reported in adrenal. In this study, we examined the interaction between Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 in ERK and AKT signaling pathways and expression of steroidogenic enzymes in H295R cells. Compared to the control, 100 nM Ang II increased phospho-ERK1/2 approximately 3-fold. Insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) alone raised phospho-ERK1/2 1.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively, while, after pretreatment with 100 nM Ang II for 30 min, insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) elevated phospho-ERK1/2 level 8- and 7-fold, respectively. The synergistic effect of Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 on ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by selective AT1 receptor blocker, PKC inhibitor, and MEK1/2 inhibitor. Ang II marginally suppressed AKT activation under the basal condition, while it had no effect on phospho-AKT induced by insulin/IGF-1. Ang II significantly stimulated mRNA expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and such stimulatory effects were enhanced when cells were cotreated with insulin/IGF-1. We are led to conclude that Ang II in combination with insulin/IGF-1 had an evident synergistic stimulatory effect on ERK1/2 activation in H295R cells and the effect may be responsible for the enhanced steroid hormone production induced by Ang II plus insulin/IGF-1.

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Functional Connectivity Modulation by Acupuncture in Patients with Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s palsy (BP), an acute unilateral facial paralysis, is frequently treated with acupuncture in many countries. However, the mechanism of treatment is not clear so far. In order to explore the potential mechanism, 22 healthy volunteers and 17 BP patients with different clinical duration were recruited. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted before and after acupuncture at LI4 (Hegu), respectively. By comparing BP-induced functional connectivity (FC) changes with acupuncture-induced FC changes in the patients, the abnormal increased FC that could be reduced by acupuncture was selected. The FC strength of the selected FC at various stages was analyzed subsequently. Our results show that FC modulation of acupuncture is specific and consistent with the tendency of recovery. Therefore, we propose that FC modulation by acupuncture may be beneficial to recovery from the disease.

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Aspects of Screening and Confinement in a Topologically Massive Chern-Simons-Higgs Theory

By using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism, we consider a recently proposed topologically massive Chern-Simons-Higgs theory in dimensions. In particular, we inspect the impact of a Chern-Simons mixing term between two Abelian gauge fields on physical observables. We pursue our investigation by analyzing the model in two different situations. In the first case, where we integrate the massive excitation and consider an effective model for the massless field, we show that the interaction energy contains a linear term leading to the confinement of static charge probes along with a screening contribution. In the second situation, where the massless field can be exactly integrated with its constraint duly taken into account, the interesting feature is that the resulting effective model describes a purely screening phase, without any trace of a confining regime.

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Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

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Probing Neural Transplant Networks In Vivo with Optogenetics and Optogenetic fMRI

Understanding how stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into the brain upon transplantation has been a long sought-after goal of regenerative medicine. However, methodological limitations have stood as a barrier, preventing key insight into this fundamental problem. A recently developed technology, termed optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), offers a possible solution. By combining targeted activation of transplanted neurons with large-scale, noninvasive measurements of brain activity, ofMRI can directly visualize the effect of engrafted neurons firing on downstream regions. Importantly, this tool can be used to identify not only whether transplanted neurons have functionally integrated into the brain, but also which regions they influence and how. Furthermore, the precise control afforded over activation enables the input-output properties of engrafted neurons to be systematically studied. This review summarizes the efforts in stem cell biology and neuroimaging that made this development possible and outlines its potential applications for improving and optimizing stem cell-based therapies in the future.

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Rupestonic acid derivative YZH-106 suppresses influenza virus replication by activation of heme oxygenase-1-mediated interferon response

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 96
Author(s): Lin-Lin Ma, Hui-Qiang Wang, Ping Wu, Jin Hu, Jin-Qiu Yin, Shuo Wu, Miao Ge, Wen-Fang Sun, Jiang-Yu Zhao, Haji Akber Aisa, Yu-Huan Li, Jian-Dong Jiang
Given the limitation of available antiviral drugs and vaccines, there remains to be a pressing need for novel anti-influenza drugs. Rupestonic acid derivatives were reported to have an anti-influenza virus activity, but their mechanism remains to be elucidated. Herein, we aim to evaluate the antiviral activity of YZH-106, a rupestonic acid derivative, against a broad-spectrum of influenza viruses and to dissect its antiviral mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that YZH-106 exhibited a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against influenza viruses, including drug-resistant strains in vitro. Furthermore, YZH-106 provided partial protection of the mice to Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, as judged by decreased viral load in lungs, improved lung pathology, reduced body weight loss and partial survival benefits. Mechanistically, YZH-106 induced p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which led to the activation of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in addition to other genes. HO-1 inhibited IAV replication by activation of type I IFN expression and subsequent induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), possibly in a HO-1 enzymatic activity-independent manner. These results suggest that YZH-106 inhibits IAV by up-regulating HO-1-mediated IFN response. HO-1 is thus a promising host target for antiviral therapeutics against influenza and other viral infectious diseases.

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Propofol but not sevoflurane prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress by limiting HIF-1α activation in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 96
Author(s): Francesco Bellanti, Lucia Mirabella, Domenica Mitarotonda, Maria Blonda, Rosanna Tamborra, Gilda Cinnella, Alberto Fersini, Antonio Ambrosi, Michele Dambrosio, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Gaetano Serviddio
Mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress during reperfusion are determinant in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury but may be impacted by different anesthetic agents. Thus, we aimed at comparing the effects of inhaled sevoflurane or intravenous propofol anesthesia on liver mitochondria in a rodent model of hepatic I/R injury. To this, male Wistar rats underwent I/R surgery using sevoflurane or propofol. In the I/R model, propofol limited the raise in serum aminotransferase levels as compared to sevoflurane. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake, respiratory activity, membrane potential and proton leak were altered in I/R; however, this impairment was significantly prevented by propofol but not sevoflurane. In addition, differently from sevoflurane, propofol limited hepatic I/R-induced mitochondria H2O2 production rate, free radical leak and hydroxynonenal-protein adducts levels. The I/R group anesthetized with propofol also showed a better recovery of hepatic ATP homeostasis and conserved integrity of mitochondrial PTP. Moreover, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression was limited in such group. By using a cell model of desferoxamine-dependent HIF activation, we demonstrated that propofol was able to inhibit apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization associated to HIF-1α action. In conclusion, hepatic I/R injury induces mitochondrial dysfunction that is not prevented by inhaled sevoflurane. On the contrary, propofol reduces liver damage and mitochondrial dysfunction by preserving respiratory activity, membrane potential and energy homeostasis, and limiting free radicals production as well as PTP opening. These hepatoprotective effects may involve the inhibition of HIF-1α.

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Iron-sulfur cluster damage by the superoxide radical in neural tissues of the SOD1G93A ALS rat model

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 96
Author(s): Ana Popović-Bijelić, Miloš Mojović, Stefan Stamenković, Miloš Jovanović, Vesna Selaković, Pavle Andjus, Goran Bačić
Extensive clinical investigations, in hand with biochemical and biophysical research, have associated brain iron accumulation with the pathogenesis of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. The origin of iron is still not identified, but it is proposed that it forms redox active complexes that can participate in the Fenton reaction generating the toxic hydroxyl radical. In this paper, the state of iron in the neural tissues isolated from SOD1G93A transgenic rats was investigated using low temperature EPR spectroscopy and is compared with that of nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. The results showed that iron in neural tissues is present as high- and low-spin, heme and non-heme iron. It appears that the SOD1G93A rat neural tissues were most likely exposed in vivo to higher amounts of reactive oxygen species when compared to the corresponding NTg tissues, as they showed increased oxidized [3Fe-4S]1+ cluster content relative to [4Fe-4S]1+. Also, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was found to be reduced in these tissues, which may be associated with the observed uncoupling of heme a3 Fe and CuB in the O2-reduction site of the enzyme. Furthermore, the SOD1G93A rat spinal cords and brainstems contained more manganese, presumably from MnSOD, than those of NTg rats. The addition of potassium superoxide to all neural tissues ex vivo, led to the [4Fe-4S]→[3Fe-4S] cluster conversion and concurrent release of Fe. These results suggest that the superoxide anion may be the cause of the observed oxidative damage to SOD1G93A rat neural tissues and that the iron-sulfur clusters may be the source of poorly liganded redox active iron implicated in ALS pathogenesis. Low temperature EPR spectroscopy appears to be a valuable tool in assessing the role of metals in neurodegenerative diseases.

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The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 96
Author(s): Daniel Munro, Sheena Banh, Emianka Sotiri, Nahid Tamanna, Jason R. Treberg
The most common methods of measuring mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are based on the extramitochondrial oxidation of a fluorescent probe such as amplex ultra red (AUR) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These traditional HRP-based assays only detect H2O2 that has escaped the matrix, raising the potential for substantial underestimation of production if H2O2 is consumed by matrix antioxidant pathways. To measure this underestimation, we characterized matrix consumers of H2O2 in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, and developed specific means to inhibit these consumers. Mitochondria removed exogenously added H2O2 (2.5µM) at rates of 4.7 and 5.0nmol min−1 mg protein−1 when respiring on glutamate+malate and succinate+rotenone, respectively. In the absence of respiratory substrate, or after disrupting membranes by cycles of freeze-thaw, rates of H2O2 consumption were negligible. We concluded that matrix consumers are respiration-dependent (requiring respiratory substrates), suggesting the involvement of either the thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymatic pathways. The Trx-reductase inhibitor auranofin (2µM), and a pre-treatment of mitochondria with 35µM of 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB) to deplete GSH specifically compromise these two consumption pathways. These inhibition approaches presented no undesirable “off-target” effects during extensive preliminary tests. These inhibition approaches independently and additively decreased the rate of consumption of H2O2 exogenously added to the medium (2.5µM). During traditional HRP-based H2O2 efflux assays, these inhibition approaches independently and additively increased apparent efflux rates. When used in combination (double inhibition), these inhibition approaches allowed accumulation of (endogenously produced) H2O2 in the medium at a comparable rate whether it was measured with an end point assay where 2.5µM H2O2 is initially added to the medium or with traditional HRP-based efflux assays. This finding confirms that a high degree of inhibition of all matrix consumers is attained with the double inhibition. Importantly, this double inhibition of the matrix consumers allowed revealing that a large part of the H2O2 produced in muscle mitochondria is consumed before escaping the matrix during traditional HRP-based efflux assays. The degree of this underestimation was substrate dependent, reaching >80% with malate, which complicates comparisons of substrates for their capacity to generate H2O2 in normal conditions i.e. when matrix consumers are active. Our results also urge caution in interpreting changes in H2O2 efflux in response to a treatment; when HRP-based assays are used, large changes in apparent H2O2 efflux may come from altered capacity of the matrix consumers.

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The Role of Electrode Placement in Bilateral Simultaneously Cochlear-Implanted Adult Patients.

The Role of Electrode Placement in Bilateral Simultaneously Cochlear-Implanted Adult Patients.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: De Seta D, Nguyen Y, Bonnard D, Ferrary E, Godey B, Bakhos D, Mondain M, Deguine O, Sterkers O, Bernardeschi D, Mosnier I

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the electrode placement on hearing performance in adult patients who were simultaneously and bilaterally cochlear implanted.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with planned data collection.
SETTING: Tertiary referral university centers.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The postoperative computed tomography scan was studied for 19 patients who were simultaneously and bilaterally implanted with a long straight electrode array. The size of the cochlea was measured in consideration of the major cochlear diameter and cochlear height. The electrode-to-modiolus distance for the electrodes positioned at 180 and 360 degrees and the angular depth of insertion of the array were also measured. Speech perception was assessed at 1 and 5 years postimplantation with disyllabic word lists in quiet and in noise, with the speech coming from the front and a background noise (cocktail party) coming from 5 loudspeakers.
RESULTS: At 1 year postimplantation, the electrode-to-modiolus distance at 180 degrees was correlated with the speech perception scores in both quiet and noise. In patients with a full electrode insertion, no correlation was found between the angular depth of insertion and hearing performance. The speech perception scores in noise gradually declined as a function of the number of inserted and active electrodes. No relationship between electrode position and speech perception scores was found at 5 years postimplantation.
CONCLUSION: In adult patients who were simultaneously and bilaterally implanted, the use of a long straight array, the full electrode array insertion, and the proximity to the modiolus might be determining factors to obtain the best speech performance at 1 year, without influence on the speech perception scores after long-term use.

PMID: 27165685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Functional Outcomes after Salvage Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Functional Outcomes after Salvage Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Fink DS, Sibley H, Kunduk M, Schexnaildre M, Sutton C, Kakade-Pawar A, McWhorter AJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been increasingly used in lieu of total laryngectomy to treat malignancy after definitive radiation. There are few data in the literature regarding functional outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed voice and swallowing outcomes in patients who underwent TLM for recurrent laryngeal carcinoma.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: Tertiary care center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients were identified with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx after definitive radiation therapy from 2001 to 2013: 28 patients with glottic recurrence and 14 with supraglottic recurrence. Swallowing outcomes were evaluated by gastrostomy tube dependence, the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, and the Functional Oral Intake Scale. Voice outcomes were evaluated by the Voice Handicap Index and observer-rated perceptual analysis.
RESULTS: No significant difference was noted between mean pre- and postoperative MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory scores: 78.25 and 74.9, respectively (P = .118, t = 1.6955). Mean Functional Oral Intake Scale scores after TLM for supraglottic and glottic recurrences were 6.4 and 6.6, respectively. Of 42 patients, 17 (40.5%) required a gastrostomy tube either during radiation or in conjunction with the salvage procedure. Of 17 patients, 15 resumed sufficient oral diet for tube removal. Patients' mean Voice Handicap Index score did increase from 34.3 to 51.5 (P = .047), and their mean perceptual score did decrease from 60.0 to 45.3 (P = .005). However, at 1-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in perceptual score: 61.1 to 57.1 (P = .722).
CONCLUSIONS: TLM is a successful surgical option for recurrent laryngeal cancer with acceptable functional outcomes.

PMID: 27165684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Effect of Vocal Fold Medialization on Dysphagia in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

Effect of Vocal Fold Medialization on Dysphagia in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Cates DJ, Venkatesan NN, Strong B, Kuhn MA, Belafsky PC

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The effect of vocal fold medialization (VFM) on vocal improvement in persons with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) is well established. The effect of VFM on the symptom of dysphagia is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in patients with UVFI pre- and post-VFM.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: Academic tertiary care medical center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The charts of 44 persons with UVFI who underwent VFM between June 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were abstracted from a prospectively maintained database at the University of California, Davis, Voice and Swallowing Center. Patient demographics, indications, and type of surgical procedure were recorded. Self-reported swallowing impairment was assessed with the validated 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) before and after surgery. A paired samples t test was used to compare pre- and postmedialization EAT-10 scores.
RESULTS: Forty-four patients met criteria and underwent either vocal fold injection (73%) or thyroplasty (27%). Etiologies of vocal fold paralysis were iatrogenic (55%), idiopathic (29%), benign or malignant neoplastic (9%), traumatic (5%), or related to the late effects of radiation (2%). EAT-10 (mean ± SD) scores improved from 12.2 ± 11.1 to 7.7 ± 7.2 after medialization (P < .01) with a follow-up of 119 ± 65 days.
CONCLUSION: Patients with UVFI suffer from dysphagia and report significant improvement in swallowing symptoms following VFM. The symptomatic improvement appears to be durable over time.

PMID: 27165683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Racial Differences of Pigmentation in the Human Vestibular Organs.

Racial Differences of Pigmentation in the Human Vestibular Organs.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Erbele ID, Lin FR, Agrawal Y, Francis HW, Carey JP, Chien WW

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Melanin pigmentation is present in the human inner ear. In this study, we quantify the melanin pigmentation in the vestibular system and examine racial differences of vestibular melanin pigmentation using human cadaveric temporal bone specimens.
STUDY DESIGN: Basic research.
SETTING: Laboratory.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Light microscopy was used to examine specimens from 40 left temporal bones from the Johns Hopkins Human Temporal Bone Collection. Color images of (1) ampulla of the horizontal canal, (2) utricular wall, (3) endolymphatic duct, and (4) posterior ampullary nerve as it enters the posterior canal were acquired with a digital camera attached to the microscope and image acquisition software. Acquired images of each anatomic area of interest were processed offline through ImageJ. Melanin content was then compared according to ethnicity, age, sex, and location.
RESULTS: Fifteen African American and 25 Caucasian specimens were analyzed. Mean age was 68.8 years. African American specimens had a significantly greater amount of pigment at all 4 sampled locations as compared with Caucasian specimens (P < .01). Between sexes, there was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) at the posterior ampullary nerve, with males having more than females. Melanin content was not associated with age.
CONCLUSIONS: There is greater melanin pigmentation within the vestibular system of African Americans than in Caucasians, similar to what has been described in the cochlea. Racial differences in vestibular physiologic function have been observed in the literature and may be explained by differences in melanin pigmentation.

PMID: 27165682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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MERS versus Standard Surgical Approaches for Porcine Vocal Fold Scarring with Adipose Stem Cell Constructs.

MERS versus Standard Surgical Approaches for Porcine Vocal Fold Scarring with Adipose Stem Cell Constructs.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Woo JH, King SN, Hoffman H, Dailey S, Wang S, Christensen MB, Thibeault SL

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Cells, scaffold, and surgical approaches are important for regeneration of the lamina propria of the scarred vocal fold (VF). Microendoscopy of Reinke's space (MERS) is a surgical approach used to access the lamina propria. The present study evaluated MERS in the treatment of VF scarring as compared with standardized approaches for the treatment of VF scarring with adipose stem cell constructs.
STUDY DESIGN: Animal study.
SETTING: Academic center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: VF injury was performed bilaterally to induce scarring in 20 pigs. Eight weeks after injury, pigs were classified into no treatment, minithyrotomy, VF injection, VF incision/dissection, and MERS. All groups (except control) were implanted with adipose stem cell and hyaluronan. Four weeks after treatment, histology for collagen, hyaluronan, and fibronectin; mRNA expression for α-smooth muscle actin, tumor growth factor β1, collagen 1α1, collagen 3α1, matrix metalloproteinase 2, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor; and tissue rheology were evaluated.
RESULTS: Differences were measured among surgical approaches for protein levels of collagen, hyaluronan, and fibronectin (P = .0133, P < .0001, and P = .0025, respectively). Fibroblast growth factor, collagen 1α1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 transcript levels were different among treatment groups (P = .003, P = .0086, and P = .014, respectively), while no differences were measured for α-smooth muscle actin, tumor growth factor β1, hepatocyte growth factor, and collagen 3α1. Rheologically, significant differences were not measured between groups.
CONCLUSION: MERS is a promising surgical approach for the treatment of VF scarring, optimizing the placement of implanted biomaterials.

PMID: 27165681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Surgical Timing of the Orbital "Blowout" Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Surgical Timing of the Orbital "Blowout" Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Damgaard OE, Larsen CG, Felding UA, Toft PB, von Buchwald C

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The orbital blowout fracture is a common facial injury, carrying with it a risk of visual impairment and undesirable cosmetic results unless treated properly. Optimal timing of the surgical treatment is still a matter of debate. We set out to determine whether a meta-analysis would bring us closer to an answer to this question.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to August 2014. We applied the following inclusion criteria: isolated blowout fractures, presenting early and late surgery groups (<14 and >14 days). Patients were evaluated for diplopia and enophthalmos.
REVIEW METHODS: We followed the statements of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses). Pooled odds ratios were estimated with the fixed effects method of Mantel-Haenszel.
RESULTS: We identified 5 studies with available outcome data (N = 442). Patients in the late group showed an odds ratio of 3.3 (P = .027) for persistent postoperative diplopia as compared with the early group. We found no significant difference between the groups when assessing postoperative enophthalmos as an isolated symptom.
CONCLUSION: We found a significantly increased risk of persistent diplopia in patients who were operated >14 days after the trauma.

PMID: 27165680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Hemodynamic Parameters during Laryngoscopic Procedures in the Office and in the Operating Room.

Hemodynamic Parameters during Laryngoscopic Procedures in the Office and in the Operating Room.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Tierney WS, Chota RL, Benninger MS, Nowacki AS, Bryson PC

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that office-based laryngoscopic procedures can induce hemodynamic changes, including tachycardia and severe hypertension, calling into question the safety of these procedures. However, comparison between office and operating room (OR) procedures has not been carried out. Therefore, we prospectively measured hemodynamic variables in both settings to compare hemodynamic changes between office and OR procedures.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Single academic center.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects undergoing office and OR laryngoscopic procedures were prospectively identified, and 92 OR and 70 office subjects were included. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at established time points before, during, and after the procedures. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were conducted.
RESULTS: Severe hemodynamic events, either tachycardia or severe hypertension (blood pressure >180 mm Hg systolic or >110 mm Hg diastolic), occurred significantly more frequently in OR than office procedures (41% vs 20%; P = .006). OR severe hemodynamic events occurred more commonly than previously reported rates in the office (41% vs 28%; P = .012). Regression analyses showed that the odds of having a severe hemodynamic event were 3.66 times higher in OR versus office procedures.
CONCLUSION: Severe hemodynamic events are more likely to occur in the OR than in the office during laryngologic procedures. While larger studies will be required to establish rates of dangerous cardiovascular events in laryngoscopic procedures, hemodynamic parameters indicate that office-based procedures have a safety benefit for procedures that can be conducted in either setting.

PMID: 27165679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Predictors of Failed and Delayed Decannulation after Head and Neck Surgery.

Predictors of Failed and Delayed Decannulation after Head and Neck Surgery.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May 10;

Authors: Isaac A, Zhang H, Varshney S, Hamilton S, Harris JR, O'Connell DA, Biron VL, Seikaly H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the variables that are predictive of failed decannulation (FD), delayed decannulation (DD), and days to decannulation in patients who underwent head and neck cancer resection with free tissue transfer reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: Tertiary care otolaryngology-head and neck surgery referral center.
SUBJECT AND METHODS: Patients (N = 108) were included who underwent head and neck cancer resection with free tissue transfer reconstruction and tracheostomy between 2011 and June 2014. Patients with laryngectomy, previous tracheostomy, and other airway pathology necessitating tracheotomy were excluded. Preoperative patient variables and cancer site/staging variables were analyzed, as well as extent of structures resected and type of reconstruction. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to determine predictors of FD and DD. Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of days to decannulation.
RESULTS: Of the 108 included patients, 16 had FD, and 26 had DD. Univariate analysis demonstrated that advanced stage (r = 0.233, P = .021), total glossectomy (r = 0.924, P < .001), anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction (r = 0.906, P < .001), smoking at time of surgery (r = 0.319, P = .002), and pack years (r = 0.322, P = .001) were associated with FD. Cox regression analysis showed that total glossectomy, exp(B) = 15.837 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.949-128.679); anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction, exp(B) = 8.439 (95% CI: 2.435-29.620); and smoking status, exp(B) = 2.970 (95% CI: 1.617-5.456) were independent predictors of days to decannulation and FD.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with total glossectomy defects and those who continue to smoke are at increased risk for FD and DD. Aggressive smoking cessation programs may decrease the risk of FD and DD. Patients should be counseled about their risk profiles.

PMID: 27165678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The application of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of deep dermal burns: A randomized, double blind, intra-patient controlled study

Abstract

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of blood with a platelet concentration above baseline. When platelets get activated, growth factors involved in wound healing are released. The application of PRP has shown good results in wound care, however up to date no substantial research has been performed on the effect of PRP in burn treatment. This randomized double blind intra-patient controlled study investigates the effect of autologous PRP on wound healing in burns that require surgery with a meshed split skin graft (SSG). 52 patients with various areas of deep dermal to full thickness burns, receiving surgery with a SSG were included after informed consent. Comparable study areas A and B (intra patient) were appointed, randomized and either treated with a SSG and PRP or with a SSG alone. At day 5 to 7 post- operative, the epithelialization and graft take rate were assessed. 3, 6 and 12 months post-operative, follow-up measurements were performed in the form of POSAS-questionnaires, DermoSpectroMeter and Cutometer measurements. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean take rate nor the mean epithelialization rate at day 5-7 between the PRP-treated and control areas. However, PRP-treated wound areas showed more often better or equal epithelialization and take rates at day 5-7 than the standard treated areas. Minor effects were also seen in the re-operated and early operated subgroups. At 3, 6 and 12 months post operative, POSAS scores from the patients and the observers, Dermaspectro- and Cutometer measurements did not depict a significant difference between the PRP and standard treated areas. Concluding, the addition of PRP in the treatment of burn wounds did not result in improved graft take and epithelialization, nor could we demonstrate better scar quality. There was, however, a considerable variation in our clinical population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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“Comparison of guidelines for venous leg ulcer diagnosis and management”



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Systemic Depletion of Macrophages in the Subacute Phase of Wound Healing Reduces Hypertrophic Scar Formation

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scars are caused by trauma or burn injuries to the deep dermis and can cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychological issues. Studies suggest that M2-like macrophages are pro-fibrotic and contribute to hypertrophic scar formation. A previous study from our lab showed that M2 macrophages were present in developing hypertrophic scar tissues in vivo at 3 to 4 weeks after wounding. In this study, the effect of systemic macrophage depletion on scar formation was explored at subacute phase of wound healing. Thirty-six athymic nude mice that received human skin transplants were randomly divided into macrophage depletion group and control group. The former received intraperitoneal injections of clodronate liposomes while the controls received sterile saline injections on day 7, 10, 13 post grafting. Wound area, scar thickness, collagen abundance and collagen bundle structure, mast cell infiltration, myofibroblast formation, M1 and M2 macrophages together with gene expression of M1 and M2 related factors in the grafted skin were investigated at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post grafting. The transplanted human skin from the control group developed contracted, elevated and thickened scars while the grafted skin from the depletion group healed with significant less contraction and elevation. Significant reductions in myofibroblast number, collagen synthesis and hypertrophic fiber morphology as well as mast cell infiltration were observed in the depletion group compared to the control group. Macrophage depletion significantly reduced M1 and M2 macrophage number in the depletion group 2 weeks post grafting as compared to the control group. These findings suggest that systemic macrophage depletion in subacute phase of wound healing reduces scar formation, which provides evidence for the pro-fibrotic role of macrophages in fibrosis of human skin as well as insight into the potential benefits of specifically depleting M2 macrophages in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Venous Ulcers: So Many Guidelines, Too Many Guidelines?



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Infeksjoner oppstått utenfor sykehus

Det engelske uttrykket community-acquired infection bør oversettes med infeksjon oppstått utenfor sykehus.

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Our audience with the Pope revealed how glitz funds medicine

A distinguished crowd of philanthropists at the Vatican heard a well-crafted appeal for funds to boost regenerative medicine. Sumit Paul-Choudhury was there

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